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Biology Revision:

Topic 11.1 How do humans bodies respond to changes inside them and to their environment?
Explain what a stimulus is by highlighting examples and what organs they stimulate. Describe how a nervous response is brought about by stimuli, including the roles of receptors, sensory neurones, the coordinator and motor neurones. Stimulus (Light bulb) -> Receptor (Eye) -> impulse travels along the sensory neurone to -> Coordinator (Brain) -> impulse travels along the motor neurone to -> Effector (Eye muscle) -> Response Neurone = A single nerve Describe a reflex action and the role of the relay neurone in this action. Receptor (Finger) -> impulse travels along sensory neurone -> comes to synapse -> goes onto the relay neurone -> to synapse -> along the motor neurone -> Effector (Arm muscle) Synapse = gaps between the end of a neurone and the start of another or an effector. Axon = the end of a neurone.

Explain that four internal conditions controlled by the body include; water content, ion content, body temperature and blood sugar. Describe, in very broad outline, how they are controlled. Ion content leaves body 1) in sweat 2) excess lost via kidneys in urine. -

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The water content of body leaves body 1) in breath 2) as sweat 3) excess is lost via kidneys in urine. Temperature -> maintain temperature at which enzymes work best. Blood sugar levels -> to provide the cells with a constant supply of energy. Describe hormones as chemicals which coordinate reactions in the body and that are secreted by glands and reach their target organs via the blood stream. Pituitary glands -> FSH and LH. Ovaries -> oestrogen and progesterone. FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) egg mature + oestrogen to be released. Oestrogen thickens uterus lining + inhibits FSH LH (Luteinizing hormone) egg is released from ovary + stimulates progesterone. Describe how hormones control both the monthly release of an egg and the varying thickness of the lining. Recall the location of the pituitary gland and the ovaries and that they are the main hormone glands for the release of the menstrual cycle hormones. Describe the dual role of FSH, secreted by the pituitary, of causing eggs to mature in ovaries and to stimulate the production of oestrogen from the ovaries. Describe the dual role of oestrogen of inhibiting further FSH production and of stimulating the pituitary to produce LH. Explain how oral contraceptives work by containing hormones that inhibit FSH production. Explain how FSH can be used as a fertility drug.

Topic 11.2 What can we do to keep our bodies healthy:


o o o o o o o o Healthy diet: Vitamin C prevents scurvy citrus fruits Vitamins Vitamin D prevents rickets meat It helps keep our cell cytoplasm functioning Water

Fibre To keep digestion working well


Calcium for bones and teeth Minerals Iron red blood cell Simple sugars (glucose) Carbohydrates Immediate energy Complex carks (starch in pasta/bread) 2 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

o o o -

Release energy slowly Energy storage / Fats Insulation

Lipids

Growth and repair (nuts and meats) Proteins

Describe a balanced diet as talking the right balance of different foods you need and the right amount of energy. Explain how an unbalanced diet leads to malnourishment and deficiency diseases. Recall that the rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out (the metabolic rate). Explain how the following factors can affect an individuals metabolic rate; Inherited factors, proportion of muscle to fat in the body and amount of daily activity. Explain that in the developed world the abundance of food leads to weight gain which causes the following diseases; arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease. Discuss the problems associated with the lack of food in the developing world that include; reduced resistance to infections and irregular periods in women. Recall that cholesterol is a substance made by the liver and found in the blood. Explain that cholesterol levels in the blood are dependent on both inherited factors and diet. High levels of cholesterol increase the chance of arteriosclerosis and heart disease. Recall that lipoproteins carry cholesterol round the blood. One type, low-densitylipoprotein LDL, can cause heart disease. The other type, high-density-lipoprotein HDL, is considered a good lipoprotein. The balance of HDL and LDL is very important to good heart health. Explain that saturated fats increase blood cholesterol levels whilst monounsaturated and polyunsaturated gats may help to both reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the balance between LDL and HDL. Recall that too much slat in the diet can lead to increased blood pressure for about 30% of the population. Understand that processed food often contains a high proportion of fat and/or salt.

CHD Coronary Heart Disease CVD Cardiovascular Disease

CHD is just the diseases to the heart and CVD is veins/arteries problems, which causes other diseases.
Metabolic Rate: 3 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

This is the rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out. Our Metabolic rate is affected by certain factors: The amount of food eaten. Genes. Levels of physical activity. The ratio of fat to muscle in the body.

The Basal Metabolic rate is the amount of energy used up by chemical reactions in the cells in the body, when at rest. Healthy Diets: A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced, and this can lead to a person being too fat or thin / deficiency diseases such as scurvy (lack of vitamin C). Arthritis (worn joints), Diabetes (high blood sugar), High blood pressure (too much salt) and Heart disease have all been linked to obesity. Reduced resistance to infection and irregular periods in women are problems that have been linked to the lack of food. Benefits of cutting down salt: Reduces blood pressure. Less risk of heart disease and stroke. Notice a wider range of taste in food as taste buds adjust to having less salt. Cholesterol: Cholesterol is a substance made in the liver. It is found in the blood stream. The amount of cholesterol produced by the liver depends on a combination of diet and genes. High levels of cholesterol in the blood increases the risk of disease of the heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol is carried around the body by two types of lipoproteins. Low-DensityLipoprotein (LDL) are bad cholesterol and can cause heart disease. High-DensityLipoprotein (HDL) are good cholesterol. The balance of the two is very important to health.

Topic 11.3 How do we use/abuse medical and recreational drugs


Explain how drugs can be both beneficial and harmful and from where they are derived. Describe the stages in drug testing and why they need to be performed. 4 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

1000s of chemicals are tested to see if they work in vitro (in a test tube) [2 years] o 100 compounds tested further for toxicity in vitro [2 years] o 5 compounds tested further in vivo. Animals then human volunteers. (side effects) [5 years] o Extensive Clinical trials in various stages (side effects). [5 years] o Drug licensed for sale, if safe and effective. Tolerance this is where the body gets used to the drug and more has to be taken to get the same effect. Addiction this is where the person becomes very dependent on the drug and they cant go without it. Withdrawal Symptoms this is when a person sops taking the drug because they have become addicted to it. Rehabilitation withdrawal symptoms can fade if the drug isnt taken for 2-3 weeks of rehabilitation. (i.e. restoring to health) o Withdrawal symptoms: abdominal pains, muscular tremors and sweating. Illegal drugs: LSD, heroin, cocaine, ecstasy, cannabis and barbiturates.

Alcohol affects the nervous system by slowing down reactions and help people relax, but too much may lead to loss of self-control, unconsciousness or even coma, eventually damaging the liver and the brain.

Cirrhosis this is irreversible damage to the liver caused by excessive drinking of alcohol. It can lead to liver cancer. Tobacco at least 43 carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals) and at least 3960 other chemicals. Tar a 20 per day smoker might as well drink one cup of tar a year. Chemicals in tobacco Ammonia, ethanol, phenols, nicotine, hexamine, carbon monoxide, vinyl chloride, nitrobenzene, butane and more

How did people realise smoking tobacco causes cancer? During the 1940s and 1950s the number of deaths from lung cancer prompted scientists to investigate the cause. Possible causes? - Pollution? - Wet tar? - Smoking? Sir Richard Doll was commissioned by the Medical Research Council to investigate a possible link between smoking tobacco and lung cancer. He visited 2000 people suspected of having lung cancer and found that those who had the disease were heavy smokers. 5 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

Timeline: Date 1954 What happened? The Government accepted that there was a strong link between tobacco and lung cancer. 1970s The link began to be taken more seriously and the media began to discuss it openly. 1990s Until as late as 1997 some people in tobacco companies disputed the link. At this point they were forced to accept evidence as they were sued by 40 US states to pay for treatment costs. 2000s It is now an accepted fact that smoking increases risk of lung cancer. The number of smokers in England has now fallen (80% of men smoked in 1950 compared to 30% now)

Topic 11.3 continued


Analyse and discuss Thalidomide as an example of lapses in the drug testing process, demonstrating your understanding of what should have been done instead. Interpret figures to explain that legal drugs have a wider impact on the population, as a whole, than illegal drugs. Describe the nature of addiction because of way drugs change the chemical processes in peoples bodies. Relate this to problems of withdrawal. Explain why tobacco causes harm to adults and unborn children. Recall that alcohol depresses the nervous system, which can help people relax but can also lead to lack of self-control, unconsciousness and coma whilst also having long term affects on the liver and brain.

Topic 11.4 What causes infectious diseases and how can our bodies defend themselves against them?
Recall the three types of micro-organism as virus, bacteria and fungi and that disease causing strains of each are called pathogens. Explain how our bodies are perfect hosts for microbes and as such they invade us and reproduce rapidly. This may cause harm by the production of toxins and the death of cells in which viruses reproduce. We are warm (37 Degrees C). We are moist. We have sugars on the surface of our cells (providing food). Describe the three ways in which the white blood cells in the body can defend against microbial attack; ingestion of pathogens and by production of antibodies and antitoxins. 6 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

Antibodies These are things which white blood cells release so that it clips onto the antigens of the pathogen and destroys it. Antitoxins These are things which white blood cells release so that it neutralises the toxins that the pathogens are releasing. Understand the different ways of treating infection: painkillers, antibiotics and vaccines. Explain why viruses are hard to treat without causing damage to body tissue and how antibiotics will not kill them. Explain that MRSA is a strain of bacteria which has developed resistance, via natural selection, to antibiotics and argue why the population must, therefore, not indulge in the overuse of antibiotics. Describe how injection of dead or inactive forms of a virus can make somebody immune, with the MMR jab as an example of this.

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Infectious diseases: How can spread of disease be prevented? - Good hygiene (washing hands) - Sterilization (radiation/heat) - Antiseptic (for living tissue) - Disinfectant (for non-living tissue) - Vaccination - Good diet - Quarantine Ignaz Semmelweis He noticed that in a normal hospital, where doctors delivered babies, the mortality rate was higher (10%) compared to in a maternity hospital where maternity nurses delivered babies (1%). Possible explanations to this, included: Doctors were bad at delivering babies Maternity nurses were amazing at delivering babies There is something different in the way each group do it He observed that after performing an operation in one area of the hospital they walked straight into the maternity ward to deliver babies. He concluded that there was something on the hands of the doctors from the previous operation that was infecting the mothers. So he made the doctors wash their hands with cobalt chloride solution. This killed the microbes and halted infection. Antibiotics Definition: These are chemicals that destroy bacteria but dont kill human cells. For example: Penicillin -> prevents bacteria making their cell walls MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) MRSA is a bacteria. It is found in human skin. It causes: o Skin infections o Boils o Abscesses o Septicaemia o Meningitis o Pneumonia (lung infection) 8 Biology Revision (Year 9/10) 2008

Why is it worse in hospitals? o People have open wounds o People have weakened immune systems o Doctors/nurses carry it from one person to another Prevention: o Use antiseptics to kill MRSA o Wear gloves if you are a doctor What are the different types of immunity?

Natural Passive o Mother to child through placenta or milk Natural Active o Occurs during infection. It is active because your body fights an invading pathogen with antibodies Artificial Passive o Used during potentially fatal diseases. Injection of readymade antibodies provides an instant temporary response. Eg tetanus and rabies Artificial Active o Injecting or taking dead pathogens by mouth. Takes time for white blood cells to be activated but gives long lasting immunity MMR Vaccine

Mumps o Pathogen = virus o Symptoms = swollen face, fever, difficulty swallowing o Severity = can cause deafness and meningitis in few cases Measles o Pathogen = virus o Symptoms = distinctive red-brown spots, fever, coughing o Severity = can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis in a few cases. This can be lethal Rubella (German measles) o Pathogen = virus o Symptoms = distinctive pink rash and fever o Severity = rubella during pregnancy can cause defects to develop in the unborn baby *In 1988 all three vaccines were combined and named, the triple MMR*

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Autism and the triple MMR jab In 1998, a publication in a well respected journal claimed that there was a link between autism and the triple MMR jab.

Autism A condition in which individuals have impaired social interaction and communication skills The consequences of the report: Parents refused to have their children vaccinated Parents with autistic children blamed the MMR jab Incidence of MMR jab
Problems with Dr. Wakefields findings? They only made connection with 12 people 11 out of 12 were boys Nothing had been proven Japanese study with 30,000 children found no link More cases of MMR due to less people vaccinated Increase of autism due to more cases being correctly diagnosed The Lancet has publically stated that had it known all the facts, it wouldnt have published the article. Pandemics and Epidemics Diseases can spread very rapidly through a population that is not immune to the pathogen that causes the disease. Pandemic Disease that has spread across the globe Epidemic Disease that is localised Why do they occur?

VIRUS

MUTATES

VIRUS

Infects new host

Rapidly lots of people get ill in a very short period of time

VIRUS Virus is infectious so passes onto more hosts VIRUS Virus has time to multiply White blood cells have no memory of it

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How can we prevent them? Isolation o This is so that the disease cant spread International groups o Who can coordinate activities to prevent spread Researchers o With the task of making a vaccine as quickly as possible Stock piles of Vaccines for smallpox o Smallpox is used as a terrorist threat Education o About transmission of disease Kill infected animals o This is so that the disease cant spread

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