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According to Carothers et al. (2000) regardless of the dynamics in business environment, some of these managers remain stymied in the same occupational title and pay level for decades. They become "too valuable in their positions to replace' and "not valuable enough" as asset for the administration develop to move up the ladder and secure increased company results. Such development may be viewed as a risky gamble by the company leadership and training costs and replacement costs to move up that manager may be formidable. Crosby (2004) we have seen the portrayal in film, television, and art of the frustrated, hardworking manager toiling around the clock in rolled-up shirtsleeves. Such a hands-on manager, in fact, can be inspiring to subordinates, but he can also work himself into illness. He/she likely could accomplish more for the company by delegating duties and leading subordinates into a network that is structured for optimal results.

Conway (2008) opined that Leadership qualities are the characteristics that propel the manager
upward in the company and a long-term career. They produce increased business results for the company and the customers or clients that it serves.

Drucker (2001) observed that Leadership is defined as the act of arousing,

engaging, and satisfying the motives of followers-in an environment of conflict, competition, or change-that results in the followers taking a course of action toward a mutually shared vision. You cannot effectively lead if you do not know your values. Understanding your values gives you insight about others. Valuesbased activity is the basis for commitmentyours and others. Too many organizations, because of the lack of leadership, require the followers mind and muscle, but not their hearts. This requires the followers focused activity, but does not engage the followers purpose. Organizational life, because of a lack of leadership, does not integrate the followers deeper core beliefs with the work they are asked to do. Remember, leadership style is the pattern of influence you use with others, over time, as perceived by them. Also recall that directive behaviors in a one-to-one context are as follows (Higgins 2005): Setting goals Planning work in advance Defining timelines ?? Specifying priorities Determining methods of evaluation

Defining roles and decision-making prerogatives Showing and telling how outcomes will be accomplished Supportive behaviors in a one-to-one context have been described as follows: Listening Praising and encouraging Asking for input Sharing information about the total organizations operation Sharing information about self Facilitating the problem-solving of others Providing rationale
MANAGER DEVELOPMENT According to Juran (2000) Leader. Leadership. One of these might be the first word that comes to mind when someone asks themselves, "What qualities make a good manager?" That word might or might not be part of any individual person that is a manager. Some may think that a Manager and a Leader are the same, but they are not necessarily identical. An effective manager will have leadership qualities and "manager" will be only one facet of a "LEADER." Kotter (2000) opined that a Leader possesses a natural set of talents that inspire people to follow, to be loyal, and to produce. Some managers have these qualities, but others do not possess them, or have them to some degree that can be enhanced through training and coaching. Ongoing Professional Development would target that need and a good alternative would be Self-Improvement training through books, a career coach, a counselor, a job club, a professional organization, or other entities and resources. Those managers that do not have specific leadership qualities and talents or that do not receive guidance to draw them out sometimes work much harder than their subordinates to produce results for the company. In extreme cases, they may even become workaholics and possibly feel that their subordinates are not capable of adequate work production and quality. He/she may become resentful of them and they of him/her. Functions of a Manager

Sometimes, a manager is a babysitter with a glorified title. This might be someone that accepts the title "Manager" and by doing so, helps to lower an organizational framework over a group of people - There are now a Manager and Subordinates, where before, everyone was more or less equal and a kind of pecking order likely existed - This pecking order, actually, is an informal Vertical Team in a self-placed hierarchy. There is a clearer hierarchy after the installation of a Manager and the natural pecking order may assert itself more strongly within it. In fact, some people might quit if they do not think the Manager deserves to be a Manager, even if there is no increase in pay or duties with the title. Whatever the manifestation, if the Manager does not use leadership qualities to advantage, the dynamics of the work group may change for the worse.

Rampey et al. (1992) Sometimes a manager is actually a frontline worker (as opposed
to a supervisor) that is paid just a bit more than subordinates in order to set a faster, more productive work pace. I have known managers that earned only 5 cents per hour more than their subordinates, yet produced 50+% more work output, performing the same job and having very few additional responsibilities. One such manager's only additional role was to be the first of the group to arrive and the last to leave, just before the Department Supervisor. Richard (2001) observed that a Manager and a Leader, then, are not necessarily the same. In addition, effective management is a skill needed by leaders when they hope and plan to rise in the workplace to higher, more responsible, and better-paying job titles during a long-term or lifelong career. MANAGERS AND LEADERS HAVE DIFFERENT JOB PERSONALITIES According to Crosby (2004) Leadership is one characteristics of an Effective Manager. The goal a manager is to maximize work output for the company. To do so, effective managers must: Organize Plan and schedule Hire, staff, develop, and fire as needed Direct assigned operations Control production and costs Act as a role model - e.g. work in production him(her)self as needed At times, leadership is not even required in management - very self-motivated teams do not always need a central leader (this is more like a democratic Horizontal Team). Other 4

times, a natural leader may arise in a work group, and is not the Manager. This may result in conflict. (Robinson, 2001) You may think of the words manager and leader as two concepts representing opposite ends of a continuum. The term manager typifies the more structured, controlled, analytical, orderly, and rule-oriented end of the continuum. The leader end of the continuum connotes a more experimental, visionary, unstructured, flexible, and impassioned side. Managers and leaders are not the same. POLARITIES IN ORGANISATIONAL LIFE (DO WE NEED TWO HEADS)

Robinson (2001) claimed that traditional management concerned itself with

supervision; checking, delegating, controlling, inputs and ensuring staff did what they are told. Managers where seen as fitting along a style line between laissez-faire and autocratic, with the ideal supposedly near the middle as a democrat.

Conway (2008) observed that today the issue is more complex and with an empowered
workforce our style is less relevant and as managers need to become more things to a more demanding workforce. The concept of managers needing to fulfill a leader role is prevalent. Some even argue managers are no longer required and its only leaders that will drive the companies of the future. This is fine in theory however corporate culture can take a long time to change and most managers are expected to fulfill the duel role. This creates inner conflict as the ideals of the two disciplines are at opposite ends of the spectrum. Higgins (2005) observed that Management Is About: Controllingdont leave the department, check what theyre up to, define competence requirements and title and position give authority V.s Leadership, which is about: Freedomfinding ways to encourage new ideas, creativity and initiative by letting followers participate in a flexible situation where authority is shared.

Conway (2008) opined that Management Is About: SurvivingDealing With Short-Term

Operational Needs And Processes whilst Strictly Controlling Costs And Watching The Budget V.S Leadership, Which Is About: Growth to be achieved through identifying new (and possibly risky) ventures that could be the basis for future income (and perhaps losses) Crosby (2004) observed that Management Is About: Managing Instructing, Allocating, Delegating, Following Up, Organizing and Directing V.S Leadership, Which Is About: Leading Inspiring, Helping, Encouraging Teamwork, coaching, supporting and aligning. 5

Management is about: administrating overseeing activities, processes & individual tasks, control & Supervision V.S Leadership, Which Is About: PlanningSeeking Process Improvement, implementing change, agreeing goals and empowering followers. Do You Need Leaders, Managers Or Both, Two Heads One Body?

In truth, leaders and managers tend to see different aspects of work and organizational life as important, and therefore, worthy of their time (Higgins 2005) . They tend to treat people differently, and they spontaneously react to others differently. They tend to allow their people to have different focuses, and to limit their people in different ways. You can understand why these differences result in varied organizational cultures and, finally, why different reactions result from those who are being led (depending on the followers disposition and point of view).

CONCLUSION: Managers often think in terms of production and Leaders think in terms of the future. Managers may follow manuals and quotas while Leaders follow their own vision and innovation. Managers work, while Leaders think and create. Managers are often a cog in the company wheel of production, while Leaders are outside production as stand out in their un-cog-like differences. Aside from the foregoing discussion, effective Managers need these skills. We can remember them by recalling: I CEEE CAT (I see cat.) Integrity Effective, Appropriate, and Timely Communication Enthusiasm/Energy Empathy Competence Calm During Crises - Confidence and skillful problem-solving Ability to Delegate Team-Building Skills

Additional characteristics, skills, and personal qualities will enhance the work of and the results achieved by both Leaders and Managers, and the above list is a very good foundation upon which to build an effective Job Personality.

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Ishikawa, Kaoru. (2000). Introduction to Quality Control. 3A Corporation (Pp. 9) Tokyo, Japan, Englewood Cliffs. Juran, J. M., (2000) Juran on Quality by Design: The New Steps for Planning Quality into Goods and Services.Pp. 3-4. New York: The Free Press. Kotter, John P. (2000) The Leadership Factor. Pp. 9-12. New York: The Free Press. Rampey, J., and H. Robert. (1992). Core Body of Knowledge Working Council: Perspectives on Total Quality in Reports of Total Quality Leadership steering Committee and Working Councils, Pp.12-15. Cincinnati, OH: Proctor and Gamble Press released, London. Richard, Tanner Pascale. (2001). Presentation to the Strategic Management Society.(London) translated by Higgins, James M. (1994) Management Challenge: An Introduction to Management. 23:10-12. New York: Macmillan. Robinson, Alan. (1991). Continuous Improvement Systematic Approach to Waste Reduction,Pp. Massachusetts: Productivity Press. in Operations: a 15. Cambridge,