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Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107 e 1112 <a href=www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Report of educational initiatives Education for sustainable development and the Young Masters Program Kes McCormick * , Elisabeth Mu¨hlha¨user, Birgitta Norde´ n, Lars Hansson, Carl Foung, Peter Arnfalk, Ma˚ rten Karlsson, Dolores Pigretti International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, P.O. Box 196, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden Accepted 20 December 2004 Abstract Education is the foundation for achieving sustainable development. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development declared from January 2005 to December 2014 demands a concerted effort to expand environmental education around the world. The Young Masters Program (YMP) is an international education course, which utilises the Internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. The YMP is designed for 15 e 18 year old students and for their teachers. It was developed by and continues to be coordinated by the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University. The focus of the Young Masters Program is preventive environmental strategies in the context of sustainable development. More than 2300 students and teachers in 109 countries have participated in the Young Masters Program since 1998. 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. PACS: Education 01.40; Environmental studies 89.60 Keywords: Education; Sustainable development; Environmental education; Eco-schools; Green schools; Education for sustainable development 1. Introduction The world is facing immense environmental and sustainability challenges in terms of climate change, water and air pollution, mountains of waste, and diminishing biodiversity. High schools are places where students and teachers share knowledge, learn skills, and shape values. Developments in information technology and the internet open up possibilities for communi- cation and interaction around the world to develop global networks on the environment and sustainable development. The International Masters Program in Environmental Management and Policy at the International Institute for * Corresponding author. Tel.: C 46 46 222 02 00; fax: C 46 46 222 02 10. E-mail address: kes.mccormick@iiiee.lu.se (K. McCormick). 0959-6526/$ - see front matter 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.12.007 Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University in Sweden has provided the foundation for the development and implementation of the Young Masters Program (YMP), which is designed for the students between the ages of 15 and 18 years. The YMP is an international education course on preventive environmental strategies, which utilises the internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. This paper begins with a discussion about the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; briefly introduces the IIIEE and high- lights activities in research, education, and outreach; describes the content and structure of the YMP; evaluates the positive outcomes of the YMP and further challenges; and concludes with some reflections on both the YMP and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">
Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107 e 1112 <a href=www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Report of educational initiatives Education for sustainable development and the Young Masters Program Kes McCormick * , Elisabeth Mu¨hlha¨user, Birgitta Norde´ n, Lars Hansson, Carl Foung, Peter Arnfalk, Ma˚ rten Karlsson, Dolores Pigretti International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, P.O. Box 196, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden Accepted 20 December 2004 Abstract Education is the foundation for achieving sustainable development. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development declared from January 2005 to December 2014 demands a concerted effort to expand environmental education around the world. The Young Masters Program (YMP) is an international education course, which utilises the Internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. The YMP is designed for 15 e 18 year old students and for their teachers. It was developed by and continues to be coordinated by the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University. The focus of the Young Masters Program is preventive environmental strategies in the context of sustainable development. More than 2300 students and teachers in 109 countries have participated in the Young Masters Program since 1998. 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. PACS: Education 01.40; Environmental studies 89.60 Keywords: Education; Sustainable development; Environmental education; Eco-schools; Green schools; Education for sustainable development 1. Introduction The world is facing immense environmental and sustainability challenges in terms of climate change, water and air pollution, mountains of waste, and diminishing biodiversity. High schools are places where students and teachers share knowledge, learn skills, and shape values. Developments in information technology and the internet open up possibilities for communi- cation and interaction around the world to develop global networks on the environment and sustainable development. The International Masters Program in Environmental Management and Policy at the International Institute for * Corresponding author. Tel.: C 46 46 222 02 00; fax: C 46 46 222 02 10. E-mail address: kes.mccormick@iiiee.lu.se (K. McCormick). 0959-6526/$ - see front matter 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.12.007 Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University in Sweden has provided the foundation for the development and implementation of the Young Masters Program (YMP), which is designed for the students between the ages of 15 and 18 years. The YMP is an international education course on preventive environmental strategies, which utilises the internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. This paper begins with a discussion about the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; briefly introduces the IIIEE and high- lights activities in research, education, and outreach; describes the content and structure of the YMP; evaluates the positive outcomes of the YMP and further challenges; and concludes with some reflections on both the YMP and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107e1112

Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107 e 1112 <a href=www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Report of educational initiatives Education for sustainable development and the Young Masters Program Kes McCormick * , Elisabeth Mu¨hlha¨user, Birgitta Norde´ n, Lars Hansson, Carl Foung, Peter Arnfalk, Ma˚ rten Karlsson, Dolores Pigretti International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, P.O. Box 196, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden Accepted 20 December 2004 Abstract Education is the foundation for achieving sustainable development. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development declared from January 2005 to December 2014 demands a concerted effort to expand environmental education around the world. The Young Masters Program (YMP) is an international education course, which utilises the Internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. The YMP is designed for 15 e 18 year old students and for their teachers. It was developed by and continues to be coordinated by the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University. The focus of the Young Masters Program is preventive environmental strategies in the context of sustainable development. More than 2300 students and teachers in 109 countries have participated in the Young Masters Program since 1998. 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. PACS: Education 01.40; Environmental studies 89.60 Keywords: Education; Sustainable development; Environmental education; Eco-schools; Green schools; Education for sustainable development 1. Introduction The world is facing immense environmental and sustainability challenges in terms of climate change, water and air pollution, mountains of waste, and diminishing biodiversity. High schools are places where students and teachers share knowledge, learn skills, and shape values. Developments in information technology and the internet open up possibilities for communi- cation and interaction around the world to develop global networks on the environment and sustainable development. The International Masters Program in Environmental Management and Policy at the International Institute for * Corresponding author. Tel.: C 46 46 222 02 00; fax: C 46 46 222 02 10. E-mail address: kes.mccormick@iiiee.lu.se (K. McCormick). 0959-6526/$ - see front matter 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.12.007 Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University in Sweden has provided the foundation for the development and implementation of the Young Masters Program (YMP), which is designed for the students between the ages of 15 and 18 years. The YMP is an international education course on preventive environmental strategies, which utilises the internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. This paper begins with a discussion about the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; briefly introduces the IIIEE and high- lights activities in research, education, and outreach; describes the content and structure of the YMP; evaluates the positive outcomes of the YMP and further challenges; and concludes with some reflections on both the YMP and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). " id="pdf-obj-0-10" src="pdf-obj-0-10.jpg">

Report of educational initiatives

Education for sustainable development and the Young Masters Program

Kes McCormick * , Elisabeth Mu¨hlha¨user, Birgitta Norde´ n, Lars Hansson, Carl Foung, Peter Arnfalk, Ma˚ rten Karlsson, Dolores Pigretti

International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, P.O. Box 196, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden

Accepted 20 December 2004

Abstract

Education is the foundation for achieving sustainable development. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development declared from January 2005 to December 2014 demands a concerted effort to expand environmental education around the world. The Young Masters Program (YMP) is an international education course, which utilises the Internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. The YMP is designed for 15e18 year old students and for their teachers. It was developed by and continues to be coordinated by the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University. The focus of the Young Masters Program is preventive environmental strategies in the context of sustainable development. More than 2300 students and teachers in 109 countries have participated in the Young Masters Program since 1998. 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PACS: Education 01.40; Environmental studies 89.60

Keywords: Education; Sustainable development; Environmental education; Eco-schools; Green schools; Education for sustainable development

1. Introduction

The world is facing immense environmental and sustainability challenges in terms of climate change, water and air pollution, mountains of waste, and diminishing biodiversity. High schools are places where students and teachers share knowledge, learn skills, and shape values. Developments in information technology and the internet open up possibilities for communi- cation and interaction around the world to develop global networks on the environment and sustainable development. The International Masters Program in Environmental Management and Policy at the International Institute for

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C46 46 222 02 00; fax: C46 46 222 02 10. E-mail address: kes.mccormick@iiiee.lu.se (K. McCormick).

0959-6526/$ - see front matter 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.12.007

Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University in Sweden has provided the foundation for the development and implementation of the Young Masters Program (YMP), which is designed for the students between the ages of 15 and 18 years. The YMP is an international education course on preventive environmental strategies, which utilises the internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. This paper begins with a discussion about the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development; briefly introduces the IIIEE and high- lights activities in research, education, and outreach; describes the content and structure of the YMP; evaluates the positive outcomes of the YMP and further challenges; and concludes with some reflections on both the YMP and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD).

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    • 2. Expanding Education for Sustainable

Development (ESD)

Education is crucial to expand understanding, skills, and motivation to shift society towards sustainable development [1,2]. The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development declared from January 2005 to December 2014 is an opportunity to continue building the foundations for sustainable development. 1 Commitments to sustainable development agreed to by countries around the world rely on education to mobilise people, organisations, and governments to alter both policies and practices [1,2]. ESD is more than education about sustainable development. It is increasingly recognised that rather than focus on the transfer of knowledge, ESD needs to enhance the capacity of individuals and organisations to change [1,2]. Learning about how to influence systems and participate in decisions are the underlying goals of ESD. The audience is both adults and youth from all parts of the world and across all sectors of the society. To put it simply, all people need to critically examine the ways of thinking, living, and working.

  • 3. Developing the Young Masters Program (YMP)

The IIIEE was established based on research, educa- tion, and outreach. 2 In terms of education, the IIIEE has a respected International Masters Program in Environ- mental Management and Policy with an alumni network of 298 people spanning 72 countries. Research concen- trates on the identification of viable strategies to bring about sustainable development and the challenges facing economic, technological, and social systems. Outreach shifts attention to interactions and collaborations with industry, government, and society. Outreach is a defining mission of the IIIEE based on the assumption that sustainable development requires action. Since 1998, the IIIEE has worked with environmental education of students between the ages of 15 and 18 years through the YMP. Adapted from the International Masters Program in Environmental Management and Policy, the YMP focuses on preventive strategies to environmental problems in the context of sustainable development. More than 2300 students and teachers in 109 countries have participated in the YMP. The underlying objectives of the YMP are: (1) to provide students with knowledge, skills, and insights on envi- ronmental and sustainability challenges, and (2) to bring teachers into the learning process so that schools

develop and implement environmental education pro- grams for all of their students.

3.1. Design of the Young Masters Program (YMP)

There are three parts in the YMP spread over approximately 20 weeks (see Box 1). Students and teachers devote between 2 and 4 h each week on the YMP. Part 1 is dedicated to the study on environmental problems, nature, ecology and biodiversity, and sustain- able development. Part 2 is focused on the concepts and approaches of preventive environmental strategies. Part 3 involves project work to apply the learned concepts to real situations.

Box 1. Content of the Young Masters Program Part 1 e Introduction to environmental issues (topics)

  • - What is nature?

  • - What roles and impacts do humans have upon nature?

  • - What are ‘Ecology and Biodiversity?’

  • - What is meant by ‘Sustainable Develop- ment?’

Part 2 e Preventive environmental strategies (topics)

  • - Who are the main actors in the society?

  • - What can consumers do about environ- mental problems?

  • - What is ‘Design for the Environment?’

  • - What is our role in societal ‘Production and Consumption?’

Part 3 e Project work (examples)

  • - Discuss the impacts of different energy sources (coal, natural gas, bioenergy, so- lar, wind, etc.) and how you can save energy at your school.

  • - Select a product that you buy and analyse the impacts during production, use, and waste. Suggest changes in the life cycle to make the product more environmentally friendly.

  • - Visit a national park and analyse the impact of tourism. Take pictures of dustbins, rubbish, buildings, etc. Give suggestions about how to improve the environmental management of the park or of your school and community.

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K. McCormick et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107 e 1112 1109 Fig.http://en.beijing-2008.org/ for more information on the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing, China. Visit http://www.chinaeol.net/greenschools/ for more information on the Chinese Green Schools Program and visit http://www.eco- schools.org/ for more information on the International Eco-Schools Program. " id="pdf-obj-2-8" src="pdf-obj-2-8.jpg">

Fig. 1. Structure of the Young Masters Program.

The YMP utilises the internet to connect students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world. The pedagogy behind the YMP promotes multi-disciplinary teaching and thinking on environmental and sustain- ability challenges. The YMP also involves a combination of activities, including interactive presentations on a CD-ROM, studies in the classroom, excursions in the field where students become involved with pre- ventive environmental strategies, and discussion via the internet (see Fig. 1). The activities described are repeated through each year’s YMP. The YMP encompasses the Global Environmental Youth Convention (GEYC) and the Young Masters Program in China (YMPiC). The GEYC is organised every 2 years culminating in conventions where students and teachers from different parts of the world are able to meet and share experiences. The YMPiC recruits half of the participants from the Chinese Green Schools Program and the remaining half from a variety of countries. The IIIEE plans to expand the YMPiC each year, so that by 2008 over 10,000 students will participate [3,4]. Finally, there are plans to organise the GEYC at the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing in 2008 (see Fig. 2).

K. McCormick et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107 e 1112 1109 Fig.http://en.beijing-2008.org/ for more information on the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing, China. Visit http://www.chinaeol.net/greenschools/ for more information on the Chinese Green Schools Program and visit http://www.eco- schools.org/ for more information on the International Eco-Schools Program. " id="pdf-obj-2-20" src="pdf-obj-2-20.jpg">

Fig. 2. Timeline of the Young Masters Program.

  • 3.1.1. Global Environmental Youth Convention

(GEYC) The GEYC is an opportunity for students and teachers concerned about the environment and sustain- able development to gather and share results of the project work from the YMP. The GEYC is organised every 2 years with meetings so far in Lund, Sweden in 2000, Turin, Italy in 2002, and Alexandria, Egypt in 2004 (see Box 2). Next time, in 2006, GEYC will be held in Dubai, UAE on holding the GEYC for 2006 in Dubai, UAE. There are ambitions to expand coopera- tive efforts on environmental education in North Africa and the Middle East. The organisation for 2008 is moving ahead with the commitment to hold the GEYC at the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing, China. 3

  • 3.1.2. The Young Masters Program in China

(YMPiC) The Centre for Environmental Education and Com- munications (CEEC) of the State Environmental Pro- tection Administration (SEPA) of China has agreed to recruit participants for the YMPiC from the Chinese Green Schools Program (see Box 3). There are 16,000 certified schools working towards the objectives of the Chinese Green Schools Program, which involves stimu- lating environmental education and awareness in schools, helping to establish effective and environmen- tally friendly management practices, improving the environment on campuses, and cultivating a culture that encourages environmental protection among teach- ers, students, and parents. 4

3.2. Outcomes of the Young Masters Program (YMP)

The evaluations of the YMP have involved surveys of teachers and students (especially in China and Egypt) as well as discussions with staff from participating organ- isations, including the CEEC of SEPA, the Foundation for Environmental Education, and Caretakers of the Environment International, among others. The evalua- tions show that there are positive outcomes for students, teachers, and schools, which include expanded environ- mental knowledge, improved communication skills, engagement in extra-curricula environmental activities, extensive international friendships, and enhanced com- puter skills.

3 Visit http://en.beijing-2008.org/ for more information on the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing, China. 4 Visit http://www.chinaeol.net/greenschools/ for more information on the Chinese Green Schools Program and visit http://www.eco- schools.org/ for more information on the International Eco-Schools Program.

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Box 2. Background on the Global Environmen- tal Youth Convention

Lund, Sweden in 2000 Participation: The inaugural YMP attracted the participation of approximately 750 students from schools in over 100 countries around the world. From the 15 to 19 June 2000 more than 550 students, along with 200 teachers, gath- ered for the GEYC in Lund, Sweden. Theme: The theme was Global Environmental Issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective and discussed in terms of preventive environ- mental strategies. Partners: The main partner for the GEYC was Caretakers of the Environment International.

Turin, Italy in 2002 Participation: From the 29 June to 3 July 2002 the GEYC was organised in Turin, Italy attract- ing 350 students and teachers. Theme: The theme was Sustainable Mobility and Information Communication Technology in the framework of preventive environmental strategies. With society moving from the ‘In- dustrial Age’ to the ‘Information Society’ the theme encouraged considerable discussion among the students. Partners: The main partners for the GEYC were Caretakers of the Environment International and the Italian Consortium for Research and Education, which is composed of research institutions, entrepreneurial organisations, and industrial companies.

Alexandria, Egypt in 2004 Participation: On the 11e15 September 2004 the GEYC was in Alexandria, Egypt. The GEYC was the culmination of the YMP for approxi- mately 750 students from around the world. Theme: The theme of the GEYC was Environ- ment, Culture, and Peace, both nationally and globally. Partners: The main partners for the GEYC were the Bibliotheca Alexandria, the Arab Academy for Science and Technology, and the Swedish Institute in Alexandria. There are discussions to expand cooperative efforts on environmental education in North Africa and the Middle East.

3.2.1. Environmental knowledge

The International Masters Program in Environmen- tal Management and Policy at the IIIEE provides the foundations for the YMP. Participants in the YMP,

Box 3. Background on the Young Masters Program in China

1st YMPiC in 2003 Participation: In 2003 over 100 students in the Chinese Green Schools Program and 100 students from countries around the world participated in the YMPiC. Training: Before the start of the YMPiC in February 2003 a group of 30 teachers from the participating schools in China were trained in Beijing by the authors of this paper. Seminar: In December 2003 staff from the CEEC of SEPA along with teachers and head- masters from the Chinese Green Schools Pro- gram visited Lund, Sweden to take part in a seminar. Teachers and headmasters from schools in Sweden as well as representatives from the Foundation for Environmental Educa- tion and staff from the IIIEE also gathered at the seminar to exchange views, opinions, and experiences regarding environmental educa- tion and the prospects for cooperation between the Chinese Green Schools Program, the In- ternational Eco-Schools Program, the Founda- tion for Environmental Education, and the IIIEE.

2nd YMPiC in 2004 Participation: In 2004 over 300 students in the Chinese Green Schools Program and 400 students from 26 countries around the world participated in the YMPiC. Training: Prior to the start of the YMPiC in February 2004 a group of 30 teachers from the participating schools in China were trained in Beijing by the authors of this paper. Seminar: In July 2004 the CEEC of SEPA organised the International Seminar on Green Schools in China. Arranged in Taizhou, China, the seminar attracted teachers, students, and a variety of organisations working with envi- ronmental education from several countries around the world, including Sweden, Australia, Germany, Spain, South Africa, India, Korea, and Ireland, among others. Presentations and discussions on the YMPiC were prominent.

including both students and teachers, improve aware- ness and understanding of sustainable development, and most importantly, how to develop and implement preventive strategies to respond to environmental problems in the context of sustainable development in their own communities and regions.

K. McCormick et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 13 (2005) 1107e1112

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  • 3.2.2. Communication skills

The working language in the YMP is English, and for most students using English is both a challenge and an opportunity to improve. However, the YMP is much more than expanding the participant’s language skills, it involves communication and discussion of environmen- tal and sustainability ideas, concepts and tools. Students expand their capacity for critical thinking and learn how to clearly express opinions and arguments about why and how to make the transition from unsustainable to sustainable societies.

  • 3.2.3. Extra-curricula environmental activities

The YMP actively encourages teachers to take students on excursions in the field. Interactions with individuals and organisations are intended to help students to learn and understand about environmental problems. Within the school, students often speak with the headmaster and the janitor to gather information about how the school is managed and operated. Students also meet people in the local community and staff at the local municipality to learn about local campaigns designed to address local environmental challenges.

  • 3.2.4. International friendships

Participants from all over the world take part in the YMP. The students in the YMP are able to communi- cate via the internet with people from different countries and may have built lasting, long-distance friendships. The opportunity for them to discuss environmental issues and sustainable development in the context of different cultures and countries encourages students and teachers to participate in the YMP.

language difficulties, time scarcity, integration issues, and technical complications.

  • 3.3.1. Language difficulties

The use of English as the working language is challenging for some teachers and students. The pre- sentations on the CD-ROM in the YMP are continually improved through editing text, adding images to illustrate the text, possibilities to click on the text and listen to spoken English, and expanding the glossary. For the YMPiC, the plan is to provide translations in Chinese to facilitate learning in China. There are also discussions

about the development of the YMP in Spanish and Arabic.

  • 3.3.2. Time scarcity

It is important to appreciate the pressures on students and teachers. There are often considerable workloads for students completing regular studies. The IIIEE attempts to make learning fun in the YMP by putting the emphasis on discussion and excursions in the field, rather than upon creating more teaching and assign- ments. The YMP challenges students in innovative ways to enhance critical thinking.

  • 3.3.3. Integration issues

Students, parents, teachers, and headmasters need to see clearly how the YMP activities can be integrated with their other school activities and thereby offers a unique, international environmental learning experi- ence. The YMP acts as a catalyst for environmental education in schools giving teachers the freedom to shape it to their specific needs and circumstances.

  • 3.2.5. Computer skills

The YMP utilises the power of information technol- ogy and the internet. Both teachers and students have the opportunity to improve their computer skills from participating in the YMP. Furthermore, the emphasis in the YMP on moving from the ‘Industrial Age’ to the ‘Information Society’ is intended to encourage students to think critically about information technology and environmental issues.

3.3. Challenges for the Young Masters Program (YMP)

The IIIEE is facing challenges to develop global networks on the environment and sustainable develop- ment. The ambition is to deliver the YMPiC to over 10,000 students in China and around the world in conjunction with the GEYC at the ‘Green’ Olympics in Beijing in 2008. The IIIEE needs funding and support during the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development to expand and to promote the YMP, globally. The barriers to overcome for the YMP include

  • 3.3.4. Technical complications

The YMP relies on the internet for students, teachers, and tutors in different parts of the world to communi- cate. Unfortunately, there are occasionally technical problems that hinder the YMP. There is also the ‘Digital Divide’ where schools have insufficient funds for information technology or access to the internet.

4. Conclusions

This paper describes the development of the YMP and highlights positive results from past programs and looks to future challenges. The experiences from the YMP, especially in China and Egypt, suggest that many students, teachers, and headmasters of schools are enthusiastic: (1) to participate in environmental educa- tion that is international and interactive, and (2) to learn more about preventive environmental strategies in the context of sustainable development. The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is a window of opportunity to expand environmental education around

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the world. However, a concerted effort is needed to leap through the window and grasp the opportunity!

References

[1] Global Development Research Centre. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Available from: http:// www.gdrc.org/sustdev/un-desd/.

[2] United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation. Education for Sustainable Development. Available from: http:// www.unesco.org/education/esd/. [3] Emery R. Studying and teaching environmental awareness. Sweden Today 2002;3:25. [4] Emery R. Environmental courses for present lenders and future leaders. Sweden Today 2003;2:13.