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Convergent and Divergent Thinking Styles

1. Definition
Convergent thinking generally means the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiplechoice tests for intelligence.

Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a "correct" solution. Divergent thinking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.

Techniques to Stimulate Divergent Thinking

a. Brainstorming. Brainstorming is a technique which involves generating a list of ideas in a creative, unstructured manner.The goal of brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible in a short period of time. The key tool in brainstorming is "piggybacking," or using one idea to stimulate other ideas. During the brainstorming process, ALL ideas are recorded, and no idea is disregarded or criticized. After a long list of ideas is generated, one can go back and review the ideas to critique their value or merit. b. Keeping a Journal. Journals are an effective way to record ideas that one thinks of spontaneously. By carrying a journal, one can create a collection of thoughts on various subjects that later become a source book of ideas. People often have insights at unusual times and places. By keeping a journal, one can capture these ideas and use them later when developing and organizing materials in the prewriting stage.


Freewriting. When free-writing, a person will focus on one particular topic and write non-stop about it for

a short period of time. The idea is to write down whatever comes to mind about the topic, without stopping to proofread or revise the writing. This can help generate a variety of thoughts about a topic in a short period of time, which can later be restructured or organized following some pattern of arrangement. d. Mind or Subject Mapping. Mind or subject mapping involves putting brainstormed ideas in the form of a visual map or picture that that shows the relationships among these ideas. One starts with a central idea or topic, then draws branches off the main topic which represent different parts or aspects of the main topic. This creates a visual image or "map" of the topic which the writer can use to develop the topic further. For example, a topic may have four different branches (sub-topics), and each of those four branches may have two branches of its own (sub-topics of the sub-topic)

2. The different of convergent thinking and divergent thinking

According to Hudson (1967) there were two different forms of thinking or ability. a. Convergent thinking The characteristics are:
Convergent thinking, in which the person is good at bringing material from a variety of

sources to bear on a problem, in such a way as to produce the "correct" answer. This kind of thinking is particularly appropriate in science, maths and technology.
Because of the need for consistency and reliability, the test to get this thinking are

standardised intelligence tests, and even national exams


Divergent thinking The characteristics are:

The student's skill is in broadly creative elaboration of ideas prompted by a stimulus, and is more suited to artistic pursuits and study in the humanities.

To get at this kind of thinking, the test is open-ended tests, such as the "Uses of Objects" test

3. Example of convergent thinking and divergent thinking

a. Example of convergent thinking An example of convergent thinking would be solving a math problem such as 2 + 2 = ___. We know that in math there is only one answer to that problem that is 4.

b. Example of divergent thinking Tweens are ask to use divergent thinking in school, at home and in social situations. For example, she may want to smooth over a misunderstanding with a friend. She can use divergent thinking to come up with multiple ways to accomplish this goal, such as by bringing the friend her favorite snack at lunchtime, writing a lighthearted apology note, or making a heartfelt phone call. There is no one "right" answer to this problem, nor to any problem that requires divergent thought.

B. Definition of approaches, Strategies, Methods, Techniques, Tactics, and Model of Learning


Approaches of learning
Learning approach is the point of view of the learning process that refers to the view about the occurrence of a process that is still very general; in it accommodates, inspires, reinforces and underlies the learning method with certain theoretical coverage. Judging from its approach, there are two types of learning approaches,that are:
a. Student centered approach b. Teacher centered approach

From learning approach which have stated then it is derived to strategy of learning.Newman dan Logan (Abin Syamsuddin Makmun, 2003) suggest 4 unsure of strategy in learning that are:

a. Establish specifications and qualification the goals of learning that is change attitude profile

and personal of learners

b. Consider and choose system of approach of learning which is viewed the most effective learning c. Consider and define steps , methods and techniques of learning. d. Establish norms and minimum size limits or criteria of success and the standard size of success.

2. Strategy of learning
According to Kemp (Senjaya Vienna, 2008) strategy of learning is a learning activity which must be done by the teacher and student, so that goals of learning can be achieved effectively and efficiently.

Furthermore, J. R David, Vienna Senjaya (2008) states that strategy of learning contained within the meaning of planning. This means that the strategy is basically still conceptual about the decisions taken in an exercise of learning. According to Slameto strategy of learning is a plan of utilization of existing facilities and to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching. According to Nana Sudjana, strategy of learning is the actions of teachers implementing teaching variables (objectives, materials, methods, and tools and evaluation) in order to affect students achieve the goals set.

For the conclusion, the strategy of learning is a plan implemented educator (teacher) to optimize the potential for learners to actively engage students in learning activities and achieve the expected results. If we see from its strategy, learning can be grouped in to two parts that are:
a. b.

Exposition-discovery learning Group-individual learning Judging from the way of presenting and processing, strategy of learning can be distinguished


Inductive learning strategies.

b. Deductive learning strategies.

3. Methods of learning Method of learning is the ways used to implement the plan which have already arranged in the form of the concrete and practical activity to achieve the goals of learning. There are some methods which can be used to implement strategy of learning, that are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Lecture Demonstration Discussion Simulation

5. Do activity in laboratory

6. 7. 8. 9.

Field experiences Brainstorming Debates Symposia

10. Etc

Based on strategy used, we can choose the suitable methods. Those are:

Direct learning strategy Direct learning strategy is directed by the teacher. Suitable methods include: lecture, question and answer, demonstrations, exercises, and drills.


Indirect learning strategies Often called the inquiry, inductive, problem solving, decision making and discovery. This strategy is centered on the learner. The suitable methods are : inquiry, case studies, problem solving, concept maps.


Interactive learning strategies This strategy is on discussion and sharing among learners. The suitable method include: class discussion, small group discussions or projects, working in pairs.


Self-learning strategy Self learning strategy is a learning that aims to build individual initiative, independence, and self improvement. It can be done with friends or as part of a small group. Giving learners the opportunity to be responsible in planning and spur their own learning. It can be implemented as a series of other methods or as a single learning strategy for the whole unit. Suitable methods include: homework, papers, research projects, learn computers, elearning.


Learning by experience Inductive activity-oriented, learner-centered and activity based. Personal reflections on the experience and the formulation of planning towards the implementation in other contexts are critical factors in empirical learning effective. Suitable methods include: role playing, observation / survey, simulation.

Methods of learning are elaborated into the techniques and styles of learning.

4. Technique of learning
Technique of learning is the way done by someone in implement a specific method. For example using lecture method in a class with a relatively large numbers of students who needs the distinctive technique, which would technically be different from using lecture method in a class which the number of its student is limited. Similarly, by using discussion method, it is necessary to used different techniques in class which its students classified as active student with a class which its students classified as passive student. Examples of learning techniques that can be used by teacher are project engineering, revenue, games, etc..

5.Tactics of learning
Tactics of learning is style of someone in doing certain method or technique of learning which are individualized. Suppose, there are two peoples who both do lecture method, but maybe they use very different tactics. In its presentation, which one tends to interspersed with humor because he has a sense of humor, while the other one lacks a sense of humor, but more use of electronic aids because she was so mastered it.

6. Models of learning
Learning model is basically a form of learning which is reflected from start to finish typically presented by the teacher. In other words, the learning model is a wrap or frame of the application of an approach, methods, and techniques of learning According to Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil (Dedi Supriawan and A. Benyamin Surasega, 1990) there are 4 models of learning, which are: a. b. c. d. Social interaction model Processing information model Personal- humanistic model Attitude modification model

Examples of models of learning are: a.


Achievement Model Concept Learning Models Advance Organizer Model Class Meeting



Simulation model General model of learning Model of organizing meetings

e. 1)

General Session Presentation of conflicts Plenary Presentation skills Group work Special interest group Forum Presentation of the situation


Model of group discussion

Model Brainstorming Model role playModels Buzz group Model Case Stud Model Crosser over group Model Free Group discussion Model Syndicate group Model Problem Centered group Model Tutorial PPT File Model Model Pembelajaran BY Hiryanto, M.Si Dosen Jurusan PLS FIP UNY



pembelajaran PPT File Model Model Pembelajaran BY Hiryanto, M.Si Dosen Jurusan PLS




The Members : 1. Anggi Anggara(15977/2010) 2. Erita Yuniana(2010) 3. Fitri Istislaam Zahmi(2010) 4. Resti Maria(2010)

Lecturer: Dra.Sri Elniati