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Fishing

A Guide

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Contents
Articles
Fishing Basics
Fishing 1 1 9 9 16 22 24 26 28 31 31 43 55 55 66 72 77 79 85 89 91 91 95 95 104 105 108

Casual Fishing
Fishing rod Fish hook Fishing line Fishing sinker Fishing bait Fishing lure

Fly-Fishing
Fly fishing Artificial fly

Other Fishing Techniques


Fishing techniques Spearfishing Fishing net Fish trap Angling Trawling Commercial fishing Handline fishing Glass float

Other Marine Animals


Crab fisheries Bite indicator Turtle excluder device Ghost net

References
Article Sources and Contributors 110

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

112

Article Licenses
License 116

Fishing Basics
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of catching fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. The term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching aquatic mammals, such as whales, where the term whaling is more appropriate, or to farmed fish. According to FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people.[1] In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.[2] In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational pastime.

Stilts fishermen, Sri Lanka

Lake Ptzcuaro butterfly fishermen, Michoacn, Mexico

Fishing

History
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back at least to the Paleolithic period which began about 40,000 years ago.[3] Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000 year old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[4] [5] Archaeology features such as shell middens,[6] discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
Fishing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)

Stone Age fish hook made from bone.

The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population.[7] The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. In India, the Pandyas, a classical Egyptians bringing in fish, and splitting for salting. Dravidian Tamil kingdom, were known for the pearl fishery as early as the 1st century BC. Their seaport Tuticorin was known for deep sea pearl fishing. The paravas, a Tamil caste centred in Tuticorin, developed a rich community because of their pearl trade, navigation knowledge and fisheries. Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics.[8] The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted fisherman in their ceramics.[9]

Fishing One of the worlds longest trading histories is the trade of dry cod from the Lofoten area of Norway to the southern parts of Europe, Italy, Spain and Portugal. The trade in cod started during the Viking period or before, has been going on for more than 1,000 years and is still important.

Techniques
There are many fishing techniques or methods for catching fish. The term can also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine invertebrates. Fishing techniques include hand gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure or sport, while commercial Fishermen with traditional fish traps, H Ty, fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech Vietnam methods, for survival in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use netting methods. There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.[10]

Tackle
Fishing tackle is a general term that refers to the equipment used by fishermen when fishing. Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels, baits, lures, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes. Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle. This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders, swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures.

An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, with his tackle.

Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is used when fishing.

Fishing

Traditional fishing
Traditional fishing is a term used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices, using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc.

Recreational fishing
Recreational and sport fishing describe fishing primarily for pleasure or competition. Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught; typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits or lures such as artificial flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is generally known as angling. In Angling. angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish be returned to the water (catch and release). Recreational or sport fishermen may log their catches or participate in fishing competitions. Big-game fishing describes fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin. Sport fishing (sometimes game fishing) describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial value of the fish's flesh. Fish sought after include marlin, tuna, tarpon, sailfish, shark and mackerel although the list is endless.

The fishing industry


The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.[11] The commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or for use as raw material in other industrial processes. There are three principal industry sectors:[12]
Modern Spanish tuna purse seiner in the Seychelles Islands

The commercial sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations of those resources into products for sale. It is also referred to as the "seafood industry", although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products. The traditional sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions. The recreational sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for sale.

Fishing Commercial fishing Commercial fishing is the capture of fish for commercial purposes. Those who practice it must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and sea-going processing factories. Individual fishing quotas and international treaties seek to control the species and quantities caught. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day. Commercial fishing gear includes weights, nets (e.g. purse seine), seine nets (e.g. beach seine), trawls (e.g. bottom trawl), dredges, hooks and line (e.g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, total world capture fisheries production in 2000 was 86 million tons (FAO 2002). The top producing countries were, in order, the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's production; China alone accounted for a third of the world's production. Of that production, over 90% was marine and less than 10% was inland. A small number of species support the majority of the worlds fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species as well are fished in smaller numbers. Fish farms Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Fish species raised by fish farms include Atlantic salmon, carp, tilapia, catfish, trout and others. Increased demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing has caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.

Intensive koi aquaculture facility in Israel

Fish products Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. With other seafoods, it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 1416 percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide. Over one billion people rely on fish as their primary source of animal protein.[13] [14] Fish and other aquatic organisms are also processed into various food and non-food products, such as sharkskin leather, pigments made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish, isinglass used for the clarification of wine and beer, fish emulsion used as a fertilizer, fish glue, fish oil and fish meal. Fish are also collected live for research or the aquarium trade.

Gyula Derkovits, still-life with fish (1928)

Fishing

Fishing vessels
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing. According to the FAO, there are currently (2004) four million commercial fishing vessels.[15] About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked vessels are mechanised, and 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other extreme, two-thirds (1.8 million) of the undecked boats are traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail and oars.[15] These boats are used by artisan fishers.

Crab boat from the North Frisian Islands working in the North Sea

It is difficult to estimate how many recreational fishing boats there are, although the number is high. The term is fluid, since most recreational boats are also used for fishing from time to time. Unlike most commercial fishing vessels, recreational fishing boats are often not dedicated just to fishing. Just about anything that will stay afloat can be called a recreational fishing boat, so long as a fisher periodically climbs aboard with the intent to catch a fish. Fish are caught for recreational purposes from boats which range from dugout canoes, kayaks, rafts, pontoon boats and small dingies to runabouts, cabin cruisers and cruising yachts to large, hi-tech and luxurious big game rigs.[16] Larger boats, purpose-built with recreational fishing in mind, usually have large, open cockpits at the stern, designed for convenient fishing.

Fisheries management
Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of (hopefully appropriate) management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance. Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which draws Fisheries scientists sorting a catch of small fish on the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine and langoustine. conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries. In some cases new disciplines have emerged, such as bioeconomics.

Fishing

Sustainability
Issues involved in the long term sustainability of fishing include overfishing, by-catch, marine pollution, environmental effects of fishing, climate change and fish farming. Conservation issues are part of marine conservation, and are addressed in fisheries science programs. There is a growing gap between how many fish are available to be caught and humanitys desire to catch them, a problem that gets worse as the world population grows. Similar to other environmental issues, there can be conflict between the Fishing down the food web fishermen who depend on fishing for their livelihoods and fishery scientists who realise that if future fish populations are to be sustainable then some fisheries must limit fishing or cease operations.

Cultural impact
Community impact: For communities like fishing villages, fisheries provide not only a source of food and work but also a community and cultural identity.[17] Semantic impact: The expression "fishing expedition" describes a situation where a questioner implies he knows more than he actually does in order to trick his target into divulging more information than he wishes to reveal. Other examples of fishing terms that carry a negative connotation are: "fishing for compliments", "to be fooled Ona, a traditional fishing village in Norway hook, line and sinker" (to be fooled beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of Phishing in which a third party will duplicate a website where the user would put sensitive information (such as bank codes). Religious impact: Fishing has had an effect on all major religions, including Islam,[18] Christianity,[19] [20] Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and the various new age[21] religions. According to the Roman Catholic faith the first Pope was a fisherman, the Apostle Peter,[22] and a number of the miracles reported in the Bible involve it. Additionally, the Pope's traditional vestments include a fish-shaped hat which some say is a representation of the Philistine god Dagon.

Further reading
Schultz, Ken (1999). Fishing Encyclopedia: Worldwide Angling Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0028620577. Gabriel, Otto; Andres von Brandt (2005). Fish Catching Methods of the World [23]. Blackwell. ISBN0852382804. Sahrhage, Dietrich; Johannes Lundbeck (1992). A History of Fishing. Springer-Verlag. ISBN0387553320.

External links
Pauly, Daniel (2009) The sea without fish, a reality ! [24] Interview with the project leader of the Sea Around Us Project, University of British Columbia. Recreational fishing [25] at the Open Directory Project Commercial fishing [26] at the Open Directory Project PVA fishing tips [27]

Fishing

References
[1] Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate (ftp:/ / ftp. fao. org/ FI/ brochure/ climate_change/ policy_brief. pdf) Policy brief of the FAO for the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen, December 2009. [2] FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ ) [3] African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human Evolution (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2001/ 11/ 1108_bonetool_2. html) National Geographic News article. [4] Yaowu Hu Y, Hong Shang H, Haowen Tong H, Olaf Nehlich O, Wu Liu W, Zhao C, Yu J, Wang C, Trinkaus E and Richards M (2009) "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human" (http:/ / www. pnas. org/ content/ 106/ 27/ 10971. short) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (27) 10971-10974. [5] First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news166120605. html) PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009. [6] Coastal Shell Middens and Agricultural Origins in Atlantic Europe (http:/ / www. york. ac. uk/ depts/ arch/ middens/ index. htm). [7] Fisheries history: Gift of the Nile (http:/ / www. icsf. net/ jsp/ publication/ samudra/ pdf/ english/ issue_28/ art01. pdf)PDF. [8] Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman mosaic (http:/ / museum. agropolis. fr/ english/ pages/ expos/ aliments/ poissons/ images/ mosaique. htm). [9] Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueolgico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. [10] Keegan, William F (1986) New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1., pp. 92-107. (http:/ / www. arqueologiamendoza. com/ wikisrc/ images/ b/ b5/ The_Optimal_Foraging_Analysis_of_Horticultural_Production. pdf. ) [11] FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fi/ glossary/ default. asp) Retrieved 28 May 2008. [12] The wording of the following definitions of the fishing industry are based on those used by the Australian government (http:/ / www. frdc. com. au/ industry/ ) [13] World Health Organization. [14] Tidwell, James H. and Allan, Geoff L. [15] FAO 2007 [16] NOAA: Sport fishing boat (http:/ / www. nmfs. noaa. gov/ speciesid/ fish_page/ fish51a. html) [17] International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) (http:/ / www. icsf. net) [18] African fishermen find way of conservation in the Koran (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ 2007/ 1031/ p01s04-woaf. html) The Christian Science Monitor [19] A Misunderstood Analogy for Evangelism (http:/ / www. bible. org/ page. php?page_id=1246) Bible Analysis Article [20] American Bible Society Article (http:/ / www. americanbible. org/ brcpages/ FishandFishing) American Bible Society [21] About Pices the Fish (http:/ / www. cafeastrology. com/ zodiacpisces. html) The Astrology Cafe Monitor [22] Peter: From Fisherman to Fisher of Men (http:/ / www. ucgstp. org/ lit/ gn/ gn030/ peter. html) Profiles of Faith [23] http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=ziAI8AZsmUoC& printsec=frontcover& dq=%22Fish+ catching+ methods+ of+ the+ world%22& ei=Ar_WSZi1GIq8kwSam5CCCA [24] http:/ / www. canal. ird. fr/ canal. php?url=/ programmes/ recherches/ pauly/ index_en. htm [25] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Recreation/ Outdoors/ Fishing/ [26] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ / Business/ Food_and_Related_Products/ Meat_and_Seafood/ Seafood/ Commercial_Harvesting/ [27] http:/ / www. pvaproducts. co. uk/ tips. htm

Casual Fishing
Fishing rod
A fishing rod or a fishing pole is a tool used to catch fish, usually in conjunction with the pastime of angling, can also be used in competition casting. (Sustenance and commercial fishing usually involves nets). A length of fishing line is attached to a long, flexible rod or pole: one end terminates in a hook for catching the fish. A 'fishing pole' is a simple pole or stick for suspending a line (normally fastened to the tip), with a hooked lure or bait. They are most commonly made of fibreglass, carbon fibre, graphite or, classically, bamboo, and are the only fishing levers properly referred Fishing with a fishing rod to as "poles". In contrast, 'fishing rod' refers to a more sophisticated casting tool fitted with line guides and a reel for line stowage. Fishing rods vary in action as well as length, and can be found in sizes between 24inches and 20 feet. The longer the rod, the greater the mechanical advantage in casting.

Fishing rod

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Types
Carbon fibre rods
These high-tech rods are commonly used for coarse fishing in Europe, they are made using a variety of different qualities of carbon fibre which is reflected in the price, the prices range from about 100 to 5,000. Varying in length from 3 feet through to the longest at about 18.5 feet, they allow very precise positioning of the bait, which in turn enables good catches of fish with accurate feeding, catches of carp on fisheries in the UK frequently reach 90kg (200 pounds) in a 5 hour match, mostly made up of carp ranging in size from 250grams (0.5lb) to 1.3kg (3lb) in weight.[1] ...

Fly rods
Fly rods, thin, flexible fishing rods designed to cast an artificial fly, usually consisting of a hook tied with fur, feathers, foam, or other lightweight material. More modern flies are also tied with synthetic materials. Originally made of yew, green hart, and later split bamboo (Tonkin cane), most modern fly rods are constructed from man-made composite materials, including fibreglass, carbon/graphite, or graphite/boron composites. Split bamboo rods are generally considered the most beautiful, the most "classic", and are also generally the most fragile of the styles, and they require a great deal of care to last well. Instead of a weighted lure, a fly rod uses the weight of the fly line for casting, and lightweight rods are capable of casting the very smallest and lightest fly. Typically, a monofilament segment called a "leader" is tied to the fly line on one end and the fly on the other. Each rod is sized to the fish being sought, the wind and water conditions and also to a particular weight of line: larger and heavier line sizes will cast heavier, larger flies. Fly rods come in a wide A fibreglass variety of line sizes, from size #000 to #0 rods for the smallest freshwater trout and pan fish up to spinning rod and including #16 rods[2] for large saltwater game fish. Fly rods tend to have a single, large-diameter and reel line guide (called a stripping guide), with a number of smaller looped guides (aka snake guides) circa 1997. spaced along the rod to help control the movement of the relatively thick fly line. To prevent interference with casting movements, most fly rods usually have little or no butt section (handle) extending below the fishing reel. However, the Spey rod, a fly rod with an elongated rear handle, is often used for fishing either large rivers for salmon and Steelhead or saltwater surf casting, using a two-handed casting technique. Fly rods are, in modern manufacture, almost always built out of carbon graphite. The graphite fibres are laid down in increasingly sophisticated patterns to keep the rod from flattening when stressed (usually referred to as hoop strength) See St Croix ART [3]. The rod tapers from one end to the other and the degree of taper determines how much of the rod flexes when stressed. The larger amount of the rod that flexes the 'slower' the rod. Slower rods are easier to cast, create lighter presentations but create a wider loop on the forward cast that reduces casting distance and is subject to the effects of wind. Fly Rods : Guide to Fly Rod Flex & Action [4]. Furthermore, the process of wrapping graphite fibre sheets to build a rod creates imperfections that result in rod twist during casting. Rod twist is minimized by orienting the rod guides along the side of the rod with the most 'give'. This is done by flexing the rod and feeling for the point of most give or by using computerized rod testing (see Fly Rod Balancing [5] ). See also Fly fishing. Custom rod building is an active hobby among fly fishermen. See Fly rod building.

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Tenkara rods
Tenkara rods are a type of fly rod used for tenkara fishing in Japan. A mixture of the rods in the other categories, they are carbon rods, fly rods and telescopic rods all in one. These are ultra-light and very portable telescopic rods (read more about telescopic below). Their extended length normally ranges from 1113 feet, and they have a very soft action. The action of tenkara rods has been standardized as a ratio of "how many parts are stiffer : how many tip parts bend more easily". The standard actions are 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, and 8:2, with 5:5 being a softer/slower rod, and 8:2 being a stiffer rod.[6] Similar to western fly-rods tenkara rods also have cork, and sometimes even wooden handles, with wooden handles (such as red-pine, and phoenix-tree wood) being the more prized rods due to their increased sensitivity to fish bites and the heavier feel that helps balance the rods. Tenkara rods have no guides. Tenkara is a fixed-line fishing method, where no reel is used, but rather the line is tied directly to the tip of the rod. Like the carbon rods mentioned above this allows for "very precise positioning of the fly, which in turn enables huge catches of fish with accurate feeding". Tenkara fishing is very popular in Japan, where these rods can be found in every major tackle shop. In the US, tenkara is beginning to grow in popularity.

IM/Modulus
IM6, IM7, etc. are trade names for particular graphite produced by the Hexcel Corporation. These numbers are not industry standards nor an indication of quality, especially since other companies use the designations to refer to graphite not made by Hexcel. At best, they allow you to compare the quality of the material used to build different rods by the same manufacturer: an IM7 rod would use better graphite than an IM6 rod if both are made by the same manufacturer. It's more difficult to say the same about rods from two different companies, since they could be made from material from completely different manufacturers. Modulus refers to the stiffness of the graphite, not the amount of material used or the number of graphite fibers incorporated into the sheets. Buying a rod based solely on the modulus rating is a mistake because other factors must be considered, for example, if the fisherman does not want the stiffest rod for light line techniques or cranking. In addition, other qualities must be incorporated in the graphite itself and the rod must be designed correctly to ensure the best performance and durability of the rod. The other components that go into a quality rod can also add significantly to the cost. As of both IM and modulus, the higher rating, the lighter and more sensitive the rod is, however such rods also become more brittle due to time and usage. The most effective use in bass fishing are IM and Modulus rods when one is using lures like worms and jigs. When using faster lures, such as spinnerbaits, and crankbaits, the fisherman does not need to have the sensitivity needed when using the slow lures. The theoretical reason for a more sensitive rod when using a slower lure is that many of the strikes (or more gentle "pickups") will be harder to feel with a rod of a lower modulus rating.

Spin and bait casting rods


Spin casting rods are rods designed to hold a spin casting reel, which are normally mounted above the handle (See Fishing reel). Spin casting rods also have small eyes and, not infrequently, a forefinger grip trigger. They are very similar to bait casting rods, to the point where either type of reel may be used on a particular rod. While rods were at one time offered as specific "spin casting" or "bait casting" rods, this has become uncommon, as the rod design is suited to either fishing style, and today they are generally called simply "casting rods", and are usually offered with no distinction as to which style they are best suited for in use. Casting rods are typically viewed as somewhat more powerful than their spinning rod counterparts - they can use heavier line and can handle heavier cover.

Fishing rod

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Spinning rods
Spinning rods are made from graphite or fibreglass with a cork or PVC foam handle, and tend to be between 5 and 8.5 feet (1.5 - 2.6 m) in length. Typically, spinning rods have anywhere from 5-8 large-diameter guides arranged along the underside of the rod to help control the line. The eyes decrease in size from the handle to the tip, with the one nearest the handle usually much larger than the rest to allow less friction as the coiled line comes off the reel, and to gather the very large loops of line that come off the spinning reel's spool. Unlike bait casting and spin casting reels, the spinning reel hangs beneath the rod rather than sitting on top, and is held in place with a sliding or locking reel seat. The fisherman's second and third fingers straddle the "leg" of the reel where it is attached to the reel seat on the rod, and the weight of the reel hangs beneath the rod, which makes for a more comfortable way to fish for extended periods. This also allows the rod to be held in the fisherman's dominant hand (the handle on most modern spinning reels is reversible) which greatly increases control and nuance applied to the rod itself. Spinning rods and reels are widely used in fishing for popular North American sport fish including bass, trout, pike and walleye. Popular targets for spinning in the UK and European continent are pike, perch, eel and zander (walleye). Longer spinning rods with elongated grip handles for two-handing casting are frequently employed for saltwater or steelhead and salmon fishing. Spinning rods are also widely used for trolling and still fishing with live bait.

Ultra-light rods
These rods are used to fish for smaller species, they provide more sport with larger fish, or to enable fishing with lighter line and smaller lures. Though the term is commonly used to refer to spinning or spin-cast rods and tackle, fly rods in smaller line weights (size #0 - #3) have also long been utilized for ultra-light fishing, as well as to protect the thin-diameter, lightweight end section of leader, or tippet, used in this type of angling. Ultra-light spinning and casting rods are generally shorter (4 - 5.5 feet is common) lighter, and more limber than normal rods. Tip actions vary from slow to fast, depending upon intended use. These rods usually carry 1 to 6 pound (4.5 to 27 N) test fishing line. Some ultra-light rods are capable of casting lures as light as 1/64th of an ounce typically small spinners, wet flies, crappie jigs, tubes, or bait such as trout worms. Originally produced to bring more excitement to the sport, ultra-light spin fishing is now widely used for crappie, trout, bass, bluegill and other types of panfish.

Ice rods
Modern ice rods are typically very short spinning rods, varying between 24 and 36inches in length. Classic ice rods - still widely used - are simply stiff rod-like pieces of wood, usually with a carved wooden handle, a couple of line guides, and two opposing hooks mounted ahead of the handle to hand-wind the line around. Ice rods are used to fish through holes in the cover ice of frozen lakes and ponds.

Sea rods
Sea rods are designed for use with huge fish from the ocean. They are long (around 4 metres on average), extremely thick, and feature huge and heavy tips, eyes, and handles. The largest of sea rods are for use with sport fishing boats. Some of these are specialized rods, including shark rods, and marlin rods, and are for use with very heavy equipment.

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Surf rods
The most common type of sea rods are for surf casting. Surf casting rods resemble oversized spinning or bait casting rods with long grip handles intended for two-handed casting techniques. Generally between 10 to 14 feet (3 4 m) in length, surf casting rods need to be longer in order for the user cast the lure or bait beyond the breaking surf where fish tend to congregate, and sturdy enough to cast heavy weighted lures or bait needed to hold the bottom in rough water. They are almost always used in shore fishing (sea fishing from the shoreline) from the beach, rocks or other shore feature. Some surfcasters use powerful rods to cast up to six ounces or more of lead weight, artificial lures, and/or bait over one hundred yards.

Trolling rods
Trolling is a fishing method of casting the lure or bait to the side of, or behind, a moving boat, and letting the motion of the boat pull the bait through the water. In theory, for light and medium freshwater gamefishing, any casting or spinning rod (with the possible exception of ultralight rods) can be used for trolling. In the last 30 years, most manufacturers have developed a complete line of generally long, heavily built rods sold as "Trolling Rods", and aimed generally at ocean anglers and Great Lakes salmon and steelhead fishermen. A rod effective for trolling should have relatively fast action, as a very "whippy" slow action rod is extremely frustrating to troll with, and a fast action (fairly stiff) rod is generally much easier to work with when fishing by this method. Perhaps the extreme in this philosophy was reached during the 1940s and early 1950s, when the now-defunct True Temper corporation - a maker of garden tools - marketed a line of trolling rods of 4.5 to 5ft length made of tempered steel which were square in cross section. They acted as excellent trolling rods, though the action was much too stiff for sportsmanlike playing of fish once hooked. As Great Lakes sportfishing in particular becomes more popular with each passing year, all rod manufacturers continue to expand their lines of dedicated "trolling" rods, though as noted, for most inland lake and stream fishing, a good casting or spinning rod is perfectly adequate for trolling.

Telescopic rods
Telescopic fishing rods are designed to collapse down to a short length and open to a long rod. 20 or even 30ft rods can close to as little as a foot and a half. This makes the rods very easy to transport to remote areas or travel on buses, compact cars, or public buses and subways. Telescopic fishing rods are made from the same materials as conventional one or two piece rods. Graphite and fiberglass or composites of these materials are designed to slip into each other so that they open and close. The eyes are generally but not always a special design to aid in making the end of each section stronger. Various grade eyes available in conventional rods are also available in telescopic fishing rods. Care for telescopic fishing rods is much the same as other rods. The only difference being that one should not open the telescopic rod in manner that whips a closed rod into the open position rapidly. Whipping or flinging a telescopic fishing rod open may and likely will cause it to be difficult to close. When closing the rods make a slight twisting motion while pushing the sections together. Often the rods come with tip covers to protect the tip and guides. Telescopic rods are popular among surf fishermen. Carrying around a 12 or 14ft surf fishing rod, even in 2 pieces, is cumbersome. The shorter the sections the shorter they close, the more eyes they have, and the better the power curve is in them. More eyes means better weight and stress distribution throughout the parabolic arc. This translates to further casting, stronger fish fighting abilities, and less breaking of the rod.

Fishing rod

14

History
Judging by stone inscriptions, fishing rods go back to ancient Egypt, China, Greece, Trinidad and Tobago, Rome and medieval England, where they were called "angles" (hence the term "angling" as a synonym for fishing). Prior to widespread availability of synthetic materials, such as fiberglass and graphite composites, fishing rods were typically made from split Tonkin bamboo, Calcutta reed, or ash wood, as it was necessary that they be made light, tough, and pliable. The butts were frequently made of maple, with bored bottom; this butt outlasted several tops. Handles and grips were generally of cork, wood, or wrapped cane. Guides were made of simple wire loops or, later, loops with ring-shaped agate inserts for better wear. Even today, Tonkin split-bamboo rods are still popular in fly fishing. Rods for travelers were made with nickel-silver metal joints, or ferrules, that could be inserted into one another forming the rod. Some of them were made to be used as a walking cane until needed for sport. Since the 1980s, with the advent of flexible, yet stiff graphite ferrules, travel rod technology has greatly advanced, and multi-piece travel rods that can be transported in a suitcase or backpack constitute a large share of the market.

Modern design
In theory, an ideal rod should gradually taper from butt to tip, be tight in all its joints (if any), and have a smooth, progressive taper, without 'dead spots'. Modern design and fabrication techniques, along with advanced materials such as graphite, boron and fiberglass composites have allowed rod makers to tailor both the shape and action of fishing rods for greater casting distance, accuracy, and fish-fighting qualities. Today, fishing rods are identified by their weight (meaning the weight of line or lure required to flex a fully-loaded rod) and action (describing the location of the maximum flex along the length of the rod). Modern fishing rods retain cork as a common material for grips. Cork is light, durable, keeps warm and tends to transmit rod vibrations better than synthetic materials, although EVA foam is also used. Reel seats are often of graphite-reinforced plastic, aluminum, or wood. Guides are available in steel and titanium with a wide variety of high-tech metal alloy inserts replacing the classic agate inserts of earlier rods. Back- or butt-rests can also be used with modern fishing rods to make it easier to pull big fish off the water. These are fork-like supports that help keep the rod in position, providing leverage and counteracting tensions caused by a caught fish.

Specifications
There are several specifications manufacturers use to delineate rod uses. These include power, action, line weight, lure weight, and number of pieces.

Power
Also known as "power value" or "rod weight." Rods may be classified as Ultra-Light, Light, Medium-Light, Medium, Medium-Heavy, Heavy, Ultra-Heavy, or other similar combinations. Power is often an indicator of what types of fishing, species of fish, or size of fish a particular pole may be best used for. Ultra-light rods are suitable for catching small bait fish and also panfish, or situations where rod responsiveness is critical. Ultra-Heavy rods are used in deep sea fishing, surf fishing, or for heavy fish by weight. While manufacturers use various designations for a rod's power, there is no fixed standard, hence application of a particular power tag by a manufacturer is somewhat subjective. Any fish can theoretically be caught with any rod, of course, but catching panfish on a heavy rod offers no sport whatsoever, and successfully landing a large fish on an ultralight rod requires supreme rod handling skills at best, and more frequently ends in broken tackle and a lost fish. Rods are best suited to the type of fishing they are intended for.

Fishing rod

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Action
"Action" refers to the responsiveness of the rod to bending force (bending curve), and the speed with which the rod returns to its neutral position. An action may be slow, medium, fast, or a combination (e.g. medium-fast.) Fast Action rods flex most in the tip section. Slow rods flex more towards the butt of the rod. The construction material and construction method of a rod affects its action. Action, however, is also often a subjective description of a manufacturer; some manufacturers list the power value of the rod as its action. A "medium" action bamboo rod may have a faster action than a "fast" fiberglass rod. Action is also subjectively used by anglers, as an angler might compare a given rod as "faster" or "slower" than a different rod. A rod's action and power may change when line weight is greater or lesser than the rod's specified range. When the line weight used greatly exceeds a rod's specifications a rod may break before the line parts. When the line weight is significantly less than the rod's recommended range the line may part prematurely, as the rod cannot fully flex to accommodate the pull of a given weight fish. In fly rods, exceeding weight ratings may warp the blank or have casting difficulties when rods are improperly loaded. The action refers to how much a rod bends when a fisherman is casting or have a fish at the end of the line. An extra fast action rod bends just at the tip. A fast action bends in the last quarter of the rod. A moderate-fast action rod bends over the last third. A moderate action rod bends over the last half. A slow action rod bends all the way into the handle. Fast action rods put more force into the throw and give the fisherman longer casts. Softer action rods are more forgiving and have less tendency to throw live bait from the hook

Line weight
A rod is usually also classified by the optimal weight of fishing line or in the case of fly rods, fly line the rod should handle. Fishing line weight is described in pounds of tensile force before the line parts. Line weight for a rod is expressed as a range that the rod is designed to support. Fly rod weights are typically expressed as a number from 1 to 12, written as "N"wt (e.g. 6wt.) and each weight represents a standard weight in grains for the first 30 feet of the fly line established by the American Fishing Tackle Manufacturing Association. For example, the first 30' of a 6wt fly line should weigh between 152-168 grains, with the optimal weight being 160 grains. In casting and spinning rods, designations such as "8-15 lb. line" are typical.

Lure weight
A rod may also be described by the weight of lure or hook that the rod is designed to support. Lure weight is usually expressed in ounces or grams.

Number of pieces
Rods that are one piece from butt to tip are considered to have the most natural "feel", and are preferred by many, though the difficulty in transporting them safely becomes an increasing problem with increasing rod length. Two-piece rods, joined by a ferrule, are very common, and if well engineered (especially with tubular glass or carbon fiber rods), sacrifice very little in the way of natural feel. Some fishermen do feel a difference in sensitivity with two-piece rods, but most do not.

Fishing rod

16

See also
Composite materials Fishing reel

External links
Fly Fishing Rod [7]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Fishing Tackle (http:/ / www. fishingtackletips. com) Johnson, Paul, Sage Manufacturing News Release of 16-weight 1680-4 Xi2 Saltwater Fly Rod, 24 August 2005 http:/ / www. stcroixrods. com/ content. asp?id=31& section=resources http:/ / www. flyfishinggear. info/ buyers_guide/ fly_rods_action. shtm http:/ / www. flycatcherinc. com/ level1/ zero_balance_detail. php Tenkara USA, About Tenkara (http:/ / www. tenkarausa. com/ about. php) http:/ / www. myflyfishingrod. com

Fish hook
A fish hook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish. Fish hooks have been employed for centuries by fisherman to catch fresh and saltwater fish. In 2005, the fish hook was chosen by Forbes as one of the top twenty tools in the history of man.[1] Fish hooks are normally attached to some form of line or lure device which connects the caught fish to the fisherman. There is an enormous variety of fish hooks in the world of fishing. Sizes, designs, shapes, and materials are all variable depending on the intended purpose of the fish hook. Fish hooks are manufactured for a range of purposes from general fishing to extremely limited and specialized applications. Fish hooks are designed to hold various types of artificial, Anatomy of a fish hook processed, dead or live baits (Bait fishing); to act as the foundation for artificial representations of fish prey (Fly fishing); or to be attached to or integrated into other devices that represent fish prey (Lure fishing).

Fish hook

17

History
The fish hook or similar device has probably been around man for many thousands of years. Examples of some of the earliest recorded fish hooks were from Palestine about 7000 BC. Man has crafted fish hooks from all sorts of materials to include wood, animal[2] and human bone, horn, shells, stone, bronze, iron up to present day materials. In many cases, hooks were created from multiple materials to leverage the strength and positive characteristics of each material. Norwegians as late as the 1950s still used juniper wood to craft Burbot hooks. Quality steel hooks began to make their appearance in Europe in the 1600s and hook making became a task for professionals.[3]

Anatomy and construction


Commonly referred to parts of a fish hook are: its point - the sharp end that penetrates the Stone Age fish hook fish's mouth or flesh; the barb - the projection extending backwards from the point, that made from bone. secures the fish from unhooking; the eye - the end of the hook that is connected to the fishing line or lure; the bend and shank - that portion of the hook that connects the point and the eye; and the gap - the distance between the shank and the point. In many cases, hooks are described by using these various parts of the hook. Example: Wide gap, 2X Long Shank, Hollow Point, Turned Down Ring Eye Bait hook. Contemporary hooks are manufactured from either high-carbon steel, steel alloyed with Vanadium, or stainless steel, depending on application. Most quality fish hooks are covered with some form of corrosion-resistant surface coating. Corrosion resistance is required not only when hooks are used, especially in saltwater, but while they are stored. Additionally, coatings are applied to color and/or provide aesthetic value to the hook. At a minimum, hooks designed for freshwater use are coated with a clear lacquer, but hooks are also coated with gold, nickel, Teflon, tin and different colors. Mustad, for example, produces hooks in six colors, including black.[4]

Fish hook

18

Hook types
There are a large amount of different types of fish hooks. At the macro level, there are bait hooks, fly hooks and lure hooks. Within these broad categories there are wide varieties of hook types designed for different applications. Hook types differ in shape, materials, points and barbs, and eye type and ultimately in their intended application. When individual hook types are designed the specific characteristics of each of these hook components are optimized relative to the hook's intended purpose. For example, a delicate dry fly hook is made of thin wire with a tapered eye because weight is the overriding factor. Whereas Carlise or Aberdeen light wire bait hooks make use of thin wire to reduce injury to live bait but the eyes are not tapered because weight is not an issue. Many factors contribute to hook design, including corrosion resistance, weight, strength, hooking efficiency, and A Variety of fish hooks whether the hook is being used for specific types of bait, on different types of lures or for different styles of flies. For each hook type, there are ranges of acceptable sizes. For all types of hooks, sizes range from 32 (the smallest) to 20/0 (the largest).

Shapes and names


Hook shapes and names are as varied as fish themselves. In some cases hooks are identified by a traditional or historic name, e.g. Aberdeen, Limerick or O'Shaughnessy. In other cases, hooks are merely identified by their general purpose or have included in their name, one or more of their physical characteristics. Some manufacturers just give their hooks model numbers and describe their general purpose and characteristics. For example: Eagle Claw: 139 is a Snelled Baitholder, Offset, Down Eye, Two Slices, Medium Wire Lazer Sharp: L2004EL is a Circle Sea, Wide Gap, Non-Offset, Ringed Eye, Light Wire Mustad Model: 92155 is a Beak Baitholder hook Mustad Model: 91715D is a O'Shaughnessy Jig Hook, 90 degree angle TMC Model 300: Streamer D/E, 6XL, Heavy wire, Forged, Bronze TMC Model 200R: Nymph & Dry Fly Straight eye, 3XL, Standard wire, Semidropped point, Forged, Bronze

The shape of the hook shank can vary widely from merely straight to all sorts of curves, kinks, bends and offsets. These different shapes contribute in some cases to better hook penetration, better fly imitations or better bait holding ability. Many hooks intended to hold dead or artificial baits have sliced shanks which create barbs for better baiting holding ability. Jig hooks are designed to have lead weight molded onto the hook shank. Hook descriptions may also include shank length as standard, extra long, 2XL, short, etc. and wire size such as fine wire, extra heavy, 2X heavy, etc.

Fish hook Single, double and treble hooks Hooks are designed as either single hooksa single eye, shank and point; double hooksa single eye merged with two shanks and points; or treble--a single eye merged with three shanks and three evenly spaced points. Double hooks are formed from a single piece of wire and may or may not have their shanks brazed together for strength. Treble hooks are formed by adding a single eyeless hook to a double hook and brazing all three shanks together. Double hooks are used on some artificial lures and are a traditional fly hook for Atlantic Salmon flies, but are otherwise fairly uncommon. Treble hooks are used on all sorts of artificial lures as well as for a wide variety of bait applications. Bait hook shapes and names Bait hook shapes and names include the Salmon Egg, Beak, O'Shaughnessy, Baitholder, Shark Hook, Aberdeen, Carlisle, Carp Hook, Tuna Circle, Offset Worm, Circle Hook, suicide hook, Long Shank, Short Shank, J Hook, Octopus Hook and Big Game Jobu hooks. Fly hook shapes and names Fly hook shapes include Sproat, Sneck, Limerick, Kendal, Viking, Captain Hamilton, Barleet, Swimming Nymph, Bend Back, Model Perfect, Keel, and Kink-shank.
Fish hooks attached to artificial lures

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Points and barbs

The hook point is probably the most important part of the hook. It is the point that must penetrate fish flesh and secure the fish. The profile of the hook point and its length influence how well the point penetrates. The barb influences how far the point penetrates, how much pressure is required to penetrate and ultimately the holding power of the hook. Hook points are mechanically (ground) or chemically sharpened. Some hooks are barbless. Historically, many ancient fish hooks were barbless, but today a barbless hook is used to make hook removal and fish release less stressful on the fish. Hook points are also described relative to their offset from the hook shank. A kirbed hook point is offset to the left, a straight point has no offset and a reversed point is offset to the right. Care needs to be taken when handling hooks as they can 'hook' the user. If a hook goes in deep enough below the barb, pulling the hook out will tear the flesh. There are two methods to remove a hook. The first is by cutting the flesh to remove it. The second is to cut the eye of the hook off and then push the remainder of the hook through the flesh. Hook point types Hook points are commonly referred to by these names: needle point, rolled-in, hollow, spear, beak, mini-barb, semi-dropped and knife edge. Some other hook point names are used for branding by manufacturers.

A Salmon Fly hook as the foundation for a Green Highlander, a classic salmon fly

A hook in a finger. Either surgery or pushing the hook through the finger are the least destructive methods to remove a barbed fishing hook.

Fish hook

20

Eyes
The eye of a hook, although some hooks are technically eyeless, is the point where the hook is connected to the line. Hook eye design is usually optimized for either strength, weight and/or presentation. There are different types of eyes to the hooks. Typical eye types include the ring or ball eye, a brazed eye-the eye is fully closed, a tapered eye to reduce weight, a looped eyetraditional on Atlantic Salmon flies, needle eyes, and spade endno eye at all, but a flattened area to allow secure snelling of the leader to the hook. Hook eyes can also be positioned one of three ways on the shankup turned, down turned or straight.
Up-turned, Down-turned and Straight Hook Eyes

Size

There is no internationally recognized standards body for hooks and thus size is somewhat inconsistent between manufacturers. However, within a manufacturer's range of hooks, hook sizes are consistent. Hook sizes are generally referred to by a numbering system which places the size 1 hook in the middle of the size range. Smaller hooks are referenced by larger whole numbers (e.g. 1, 2, 3...). Larger hooks are referenced by increasing whole numbers followed by a slash and a zero (e.g. 1/0 (one aught), 2/0, 3/0...) as their size increases. The numbers represent a relative size, normally associated with the gap (the distance from the point to the shank). Currently Mustad manufacturers the smallest (size 32) and largest (size 19/0) hooks.

Gallery

Floating Worm Hook (Artificial Bait Hook)

Offset Worm Hook (Artificial Bait Hook)

Large 4/0 Freshwater Treble Hook

Saltwater Jig Hook (Artificial Lure)

Red Bait Hook

Keel Fly Hook (Fly Tying)

Saltwater Bend Back Hook (Fly Tying)

Fish hook

21

Hook manufacturers
Table of Fish Hook Manufacturers
Manufacturer O. Mustad and Son, A.O Norway Location Brand Names Mustad Types All types of freshwater, saltwater, sport and commercial hooks Fly hooks All types of freshwater, saltwater, sport and commercial hooks Freshwater, Saltwater sport and commercial hooks Fly hooks, Sport fishing hooks

Tiemco, Inc. Gamakatsu

Japan Japan

TMC Gamakatsu

Wright and McGill Co. Anglers Sport Group

United States United States

Eagle Claw, Lazer Daiichi, Tru-Turn, Xpoint Owner,

Owner American Corporation Rapala VMC Partridge of Redditch

United States

Freshwater, Saltwater sport and commercial hooks

Finland England (Owned by O. Mustad and Son) United States

VMC Partridge

Lure and Live bait hooks, treble hooks Freshwater, Saltwater sport and commercial hooks

Basstar Baits Co.

Spintech Hooks

All types of freshwater, saltwater, sport and commercial hook

References
[1] Forbes Ranks Fish Hook 19th In History of Civilization (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ personaltech/ 2005/ 08/ 05/ technology-food-fishhook_cx_de_0805fishhook. html) [2] C.Michael Hogan (2008) Morro Creek, The Megalithic Portal, ed. by A. Burnham (http:/ / www. megalithic. co. uk/ article. php?sid=18502) [3] Mustad Hook History (http:/ / www. mustad. no/ abouthooks/ h_history. php) [4] Mustad About Hooks - Wire (http:/ / www. mustad. no/ abouthooks/ anatomy/ wire. php)

Wakeford, Jacqueline (1992). Fly Tying Tools and Materials. New York: Lyons & Burford, Publishers. ISBN1558211837). Dunaway, Vic (1973). Vic Dunaway's Complete Book of Baits, Rigs & Tackle. Miami, FL: Wickstrom Press. ISBN0936240121. Dalrymple, Byron W. (1976). How to Rig and Fish Fish and Natural Baits. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Larson, Dr. Todd E.A. (2007). The History of the Fish Hook in America, Volume 1: From Forge to Machine. Cincinnati: The Whitefish Press. ISBN978-0981510231).

Fishing line

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Fishing line
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight (thicker, sturdier lines are more visible to fish). Factors that may determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, castability, limpness, stretch, abrasion resistance, and visibility.

Terminology
Fish are caught with a fishing line by encouraging a fish to bite on a fish hook. A fish hook will pierce the mouthparts of a fish and may be barbed to make escape less likely. Another method is to use a gorge, which is buried in the bait such that it would be swallowed end first. The tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured.

Fishing line with hooks attached

Fishing with a hook and line is called angling. In addition to the use of the hook and line used to catch a fish, a heavy fish may be landed by using a landing net or a hooked pole called a gaff. Trolling is a technique in which a fishing lure on a line is drawn through the water. Trolling from a moving boat is a technique of big-game fishing and is used when fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Trolling is also a freshwater angling technique most often used to catch trout. Trolling is also an effective way to catch northern pike in the great lakes. It's also good for muskellunge in deeper lake using large baits also known as crankbaits or other big baits using strong line. This technique allows anglers to cover a large body of water in a short time. Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. Snagging is a technique where the object is to hook the fish in the body. Generally, a large treble hook with a heavy sinker is cast into a river containing a large amount of fish, such as a Salmon, and is quickly jerked and reeled in. Due to the often illegal nature of this method some practitioners have added methods to disguise the practice, such as adding bait or reducing the jerking motion.

Early developments
The earliest fishing lines were made from leaves or plant stalk (Parker 2002). Later lines were often constructed from horse hair or silk thread, with catgut leaders. From the 1850s, modern industrial machinery was employed to fashion fishing lines in quantity. Most of these lines were made from linen, silk, and more rarely cotton or flax, sometimes with a waterproofing compound added during line manufacture.[1]

Modern lines
Modern fishing lines intended for spinning, spin cast, or bait casting reels are almost entirely made from artificial substances, including nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, and called fluorocarbon), polyethylene, Dacron and Dyneema (UHMWPE). The most common type is monofilament, made of a single strand. Fishermen often use monofilament because of its buoyant characteristics and its ability to stretch under load. Its ability to stretch has a huge advantage over the early developments as it prevents the rod from being ripped out of the user's hands when

Fishing line given a sudden pull. Recently, other alternatives to standard nylon monofilament lines have been introduced made of copolymers or fluorocarbon, or a combination of the two materials. Fluorocarbon fishing line is made of the fluoropolymer PVDF and it is valued for its refractive index, which is similar to that of water, making it less visible to fish. Fluorocarbon is also a more dense material, and therefore, is not nearly as buoyant as monofilament. Anglers often utilize fluorocarbon when they need their baits to stay closer to the bottom without the use of heavy sinkers. There are also braided fishing lines, cofilament and thermally fused lines, also known as 'superlines' for their small diameter, lack of stretch, and great strength relative to standard nylon monofilament lines. Both braided and thermally fused 'superlines' are now readily available.

23

Specialty lines
Fly lines consist of a tough braided or monofilament core, wrapped in a thick waterproof plastic sheath, often of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the case of floating fly lines, the PVC sheath is usually embedded with many 'microballoons' or air bubbles, and may also be impregnated with silicone or other lubricants to give buoyancy and reduce wear. In order to fill up the reel spool and ensure an adequate reserve in case of a run by a powerful fish, fly lines are usually attached to a secondary line at the butt section, called backing. Fly line backing is usually composed of braided dacron or gelspun monofilaments. All fly lines are equipped with a leader of monofilament or fluorocarbon fishing line, usually (but not always) tapered in diameter, and referred to by the 'X-size' (0X, 2X, 4X, etc.) of its final tip section, or tippet. Tenkara lines are special lines used for the fixed-line fishing method of tenkara. Traditionally these are furled lines the same length as the tenkara rod. Although original to Japan, these lines are similar to the British tradition of furled leader. They consist of several strands being twisted together in decreasing numbers toward the tip of the line, thus creating a taper that allows the line to cast the fly. It serves the same purpose as the fly-line, to propel a fly forward. They may be tied of various materials, but most commonly are made of monofilament. Wire lines are frequently used as leaders to prevent the fishing line from being severed by toothy fish. Usually braided from several metal strands, wire lines may be made of stainless steel, titanium, or a combination of metal alloys.

See also
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene Braided fishing line Fishing Fish hook Fluorocarbon Fly fishing Monofilament line Multifilament fishing line

Fishing line

24

References
Fishing line guide [2] Difference between monofilament, fluorocarbon and braided lines Henshall, James (Dr.), Book of the Black Bass (1881)

References
[1] Henshall, James (Dr.), Book of the Black Bass (1881) [2] http:/ / www. bassfishin. com/ articles/ fishing-line-guide/

Fishing sinker
A fishing sinker or plummet is a weight used to force a lure or bait to increase its rate of sink, anchoring ability, and/or casting distance. Fishing sinkers may be as small as 1/32 of an ounce for applications in shallow water, even smaller for fly fishing applications, or as large as several pounds or considerably more for deep sea fishing. They are formed into nearly innumerable shapes for diverse fishing applications. Environmental concerns surround the usage of most fishing sinker materials.
Three types of small lead sinkers

Types
In ancient times as well as sometimes today, fishing sinkers consisted of materials found ordinarily in the natural environment, such as stones, rocks, or bone. In the ordinary case today, however, sinkers are made of lead, since the material is inexpensive to produce and mold into a large variety of shapes for specific fishing applications. For example, pyramid sinkers, shaped as the name implies, are used when it is desirable to anchor on the bottom of water bodies. They are attached to the terminal end of fishing line by loops of brass. Another common type, barrel sinkers, feature a narrow hole through their length. Fishing line is threaded through the hole. Yet another common example of sinkers is split-shotssmall round sinkers split half-way through and crimped at some point along the linewhich are used for nearly innumerable applications. Sill another, bullet sinkersbullet-shaped sinkers, as the name indicatesare used widely in Largemouth Bass fishing for rigging plastic worms "Texas-style".

Fishing sinker

25

Materials and environment


Human-originated lead is responsible for increases in lead found in water, which has resulted in the deaths of many waterbirds and other aquatic organisms.[1] Due to concerns about such lead poisoning, most lead-based fishing sinkers have been outlawed in the U.K., Canada, some U.S. states, and all of U.S. and Canada National Parkss are now 100% lead-free zones.[1] . Steel and brass sinkers have been marketed as substitutes for lead sinkers, although fishermen have not widely adopted them due to their additional bulk and cost over lead. A material introduced more recently, tungsten, is now in considerable use, especially among Largemouth Bass fishermen. Although several times costlier than lead, fishermen tend to view tungsten as desirable since it is denser than lead and thus provides equivalent weight at around half of the bulk of lead. The environmental effects of tungsten within water bodies, however, are essentially unknown, a concern that has naturally arisen due to the inevitability of losing sinkers, irrespective of the material, during routine fishing.[2] Sandsinkers are lead free fishing sinkers which can be made at home.

External links
Do lead fishing sinkers threaten the environment? [3] (from The Straight Dope) Toxic Tackle [4] (article by Aquarium Monsters Australia) Let's get the lead out [5] Stone plummets discovered in Canada [6]

References
[1] MPCA Home > Sustainability > Reduce Reuse Recycle > Nontoxic Tackle: Let's get the lead out! (http:/ / www. pca. state. mn. us/ oea/ reduce/ sinkers. cfm) [2] Strigul, Nikolay, Agamemnon Koutsospyros, Per Arienti, Christos Christodoulatos, Dimitris Dermatas, and Washington Braida. 2005. Effects of tungsten on environmental systems. Chemosphere 61, no. 2 (October): 248-258. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.083. [3] http:/ / www. straightdope. com/ mailbag/ mfishsinkers. html [4] http:/ / www. aquariummonsters. com. au/ catalog/ article_info. php/ articles_id/ 26 [5] http:/ / www. moea. state. mn. us/ reduce/ sinkers. cfm [6] http:/ / heritage. tantramar. com/ WFNewsletter_22. html

Fishing bait

26

Fishing bait
Fishing bait is any substance used to attract and catch fish, e.g. on the end of a fishing hook, or inside a fish trap. Traditionally, nightcrawlers, insects, and smaller bait fish have been used for this purpose. Fishermen have also begun using plastic bait and, more recently, electronic lures, to attract fish.
A common bait fish (fathead minnow) Studies show that natural baits like croaker and shrimp are more recognized by the fish and are more readily accepted.[1] Which of the various techniques a fisher may choose is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat. Bait can be separated into two main categories: artificial baits and natural baits.

Artificial baits
Many people prefer to fish solely with lures, which are artificial baits designed to entice fish to strike. The artificial bait angler uses a man-made lure that may or may not represent prey. The lure may require a specialised presentation to impart an enticing action as, for example, in fly fishing. A common way to fish a soft plastic worm is the Texas Rig.

Natural baits

The natural bait angler, with few exceptions, will use a common prey species of the fish as an attractant. The natural bait used may be alive or dead. Common natural baits include worms, leeches, minnows, frogs, salamanders, and insects. Natural baits are effective due to the lifelike texture, odour and colour of the bait presented. Cheese has been known to be a very successful bait due to its strong smell and light colours. The common earthworm is a universal bait for fresh water angling. Grubs and maggots are also excellent bait when trout fishing. Grasshoppers, bees and even ants are also used as bait for trout in their season, although many anglers believe that trout or salmon roe is superior to any other bait. In lakes in southern climates such as Florida, USA, fish such as bream will take bread bait. Bread bait is a small amount of bread, often moistened by saliva, balled up to a small size that is bite size to small fish. Roe is an excellent bait for trout, salmon and many other fresh water fish.

Green Highlander, an artificial fly used for salmon fishing.

Fishing bait

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Worms
Most common earthworm species, such as Lumbricus terrestris, which can often be dug up in the garden, are eminently suitable for freshwater fishing. However, on a commercial scale they are not really candidates for worm farming for providing fishing bait. The greyish brown common earthworms are deep burrowing (anecic) and do not readily breed in the shallow worm farm bins. The red compost worms, such as the well known red wiggler or the exotic European nightcrawler, are better candidates, as they are epigeic or surface dwellers. This is the reason that red worms are more usually available commercially for bait worms. Their natural home is just below the surface in rotting leafs, dung heaps and other plant litter. They are called detritivourous because they eat detritus (waste material).

The larger species, the European nightcrawler is much sought after for fishing bait as it tolerates near freezing water and is one of the few earthworms suitable for salt water fishing. These worms can grow up to 7 inches in length, but usually are between 3 to 4 inches long. Worm farmers also offer other worm species for bait, depending on availability, which usually depends on the prevalent climatic conditions.[2] .

The rat-tailed maggot is a popular fish bait

Spreading disease
The capture, transportation and culture of bait fish can spread damaging organisms between ecosystems, endangering them. In 2007, several American states, including Michigan, enacted regulations designed to slow the spread of fish diseases, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia, by bait fish.[3] Because of the risk of transmitting Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease), trout and salmon should not be used as bait. Anglers may increase the possibility of contamination by emptying bait buckets into fishing venues and collecting or using bait improperly. The transportation of fish from one location to another can break the law and cause the introduction of fish alien to the ecosystem.

See also
Chumming Groundbait

References
[1] Gunnar Miesen, Steve Hague, Steve Hauge (2004). Live Bait Fishing: Including Doughbait & Scent. Creative Publishing. ISBN 1589231465. [2] Working-Worms: About the Worms (http:/ / working-worms. com/ content/ view/ 38/ 60/ / #latin) [3] DNR Fishing Regulation Changes Reflect Disease Management Concerns with VHS (http:/ / michigan. gov/ dnr/ 0,1607,7-153-10371_10402-170245--,00. html)

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Fishing lure
A fishing lure is an object attached to the end of a fishing line which is designed to resemble and move like the prey of a fish. The purpose of the lure is to use movement, vibration, and colour to catch the fish's attention so it bites the hook. Lures are equipped with one or more single, double, or treble hooks that are used to hook fish when they attack the lure. Lures are usually used with a fishing rod and fishing reel. When a lure is used for casting, it is continually cast out and retrieved, the retrieve making the lure swim or produce a popping action. A skilled angler can explore many possible hiding places for fish through lure casting such as under logs and on flats.

History
In early times, fishing lures were made from bone or bronze. The Chinese and Egyptians used fishing rods, hooks, and lines as early as 2,000 B.C. though most of the first fishermen used handlines. The first hooks were made out of bronze which was strong but still very thin and less visible to the fish. The Chinese were the first to make fishing line, spun from fine silk. The modern fishing lure was made commercially in the United States in the early 1900s by the firm of Heddon and Pflueger in Michigan. Before this time most fishing lures were made by individual craftsman. Commercial-made lures were based on the same ideas that the individual craftsmen were making but on a larger scale.[1]

In-line spinner lure with ring, dish, body/weight and hook

Methods

Fishing lures are made in various creative designs like this top-water lure

The fishing lure is either tied with a knot, such as the improved clinch knot, or connected with a tiny safety pin-like device called a "swivel" onto the fishing line which is in turn connected to the reel via the arbor. The reel is attached to a rod. The motion of the lure is made by winding line back on to the reel, by sweeping the fishing rod, jigging movements with the fishing rod, or by being pulled behind a moving boat (trolling). exceptions include are artificial flies, commonly called flies by fly fishers, which either float on the water surface, slowly sink or float underwater, and represent some form of insect fish food.

Fishing lure

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Types
There are many types of fishing lures. They are all manufactured in different ways to resemble prey for the fish in most cases, but are sometimes engineered to appeal to a fishes sense of territory, curiosity or aggression. Most lures are made to look like dying, injured, or fast moving fish. They include the following types: A jig is a weighted hook with a lead head opposite the sharp tip. They are often covered with a minnow or crawfish or even a plastic worm to get the fish's attention. The operator moves the rod to make the jig move. Surface lures are also known as top water lures. They float and resemble prey that is on top of the water. They can make a popping sound from a concave-cut head, a burbling sound from "side fins" or scoops or a buzzing commotion from one or several propellers. A few have only whatever motion the fisherman applies through the rod itself, though if skillfully used, they can be very effective. Spoon lures are made to resemble the inside of a table spoon. They flash in the light while wobbling or darting due to their shape, and attract fish. Plugs are also known as crankbaits. These lures have a fishlike body shape and they are run through the water where they can make a variety of different movements caused by instability due to the scoop under the head. Artificial flies are designed to resemble all manner of fish prey and are used with a fly rod and reel in fly fishing. Soft plastic baits are made of plastic or rubber, and are designed to resemble worms, lizards, frogs, leeches and other creatures. Spinnerbait are pieces of wire bent at about a 60 degree angle with a hook on the lower end and a flashy spinner mechanism on the upper end. Swimbait is a minnow- like soft plastic bait that is reeled like a plug. Some of these have a swimming tail. These fishing lures can be made of wood, plastic, rubber, metal, cork, and materials like feathers, animal hair, string, tinsel and others. They can have many moving parts or no moving parts. They can be retrieved fast or slow. Some of the lures can be used by alone, or with another lure. One advantage of use of artificial lures is a reduction in use of bait. This contributes to resolving one of the marine environment's more pressing problems; the undermining of marine food webs by overharvesting "bait" species which tend to occur lower in the food chain.[2] Another advantage of lures is that their use promotes improved survival of fish during catch and release fishing. This is because lures reduce the incidence of deep hooking which has been correlated to fish mortality in many studies.[3] Mortality by swallowing hooks is mostly caused by the handling stress and damage resulting from removing the hook from the gut or throat. The best course of action when a fish is gut-hooked is to leave the hook and cut the line as soon as possible. Hooks will then be encapsulated or evacuated from the body. Use of non corroding steel is not recommended because a corroding hook will be easier to for the fish to expel.

Daisy chain
A daisy chain is a "chain" of plastic lures, however they do not have hooks - their main purpose is to merely attract a school of fish closer to the lures with hooks.[4] Typically, the main line of the daisy chain is clear monofilament line with crimped on droppers that connect the lure to the main line. The last lure can be rigged with a hook or unrigged. The unrigged versions are used as teasers while the hooked versions are connected to a rod and reel. The lures used on a daisy chain are made from cedar plugs, plastic squids, jets, and other soft and/or hard plastic lures. In some countries (e.g. New Zealand, Australia) daisy chains can sometimes refer to a rig which is used to catch baitfish in a similar arrangement to a 'flasher rig' or a 'sabiki rig'; a series of hooks with a small piece of colourful material/feather/plastic attached to each hook.

Fishing lure

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See also
Worm charming

External links
Old and Antique Fishing Lures [5] - History of Fishing Lures Kalasaalis.com [6] - List of 250 most popular lure marks RELEASED FISH SURVIVAL FACT SHEET - ISSUE AFFECTING FISH SURVIVAL - Hooking [7] - lures reduce fish mortality

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] History of the fishing lure (http:/ / www. madehow. com/ Volume-5/ Fishing-Lure. html) http:/ / www. seafriends. org. nz/ issues/ fishing/ pauly1. htm http:/ / www. info-fish. net/ releasefish/ files/ 26/ Hooking. pdf http:/ / www. alltackle. com/ MCSquidDaisyChain. jpg http:/ / www. oldfishinglure. com http:/ / www. kalasaalis. com/ selaus/ vieheet/ http:/ / www. info-fish. net/ releasefish/ files/ 26/ Hooking. pdf

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Fly-Fishing
Fly fishing
Fly fishing is a distinct and ancient angling method which uses artificial flies that are cast with a special fishing rod and line. Fly fishing can be done in fresh or salt water. Freshwater fishing is often divided into coldwater (trout, salmon, steelhead), coolwater (pike, perch, walleye), warmwater (bass, chub, catfish) fishing. The techniques for freshwater fly fishing also differ in lakes, streams and rivers.

Fly fishing in a river

Main overview
In fly fishing, fish are caught by using artificial flies that are cast with a fly rod and a fly line. The fly line (today, almost always coated with plastic) is heavy enough in order to send the fly to the target. This is one of the main differences between fly fishing and spin or bait fishing; in fly fishing it is the weight of the line that propels the bait through the air, whereas in spin and bait fishing it is the weight of the lure that gives you casting distance. Artificial flies can vary dramatically in all morphological characteristics (size, weight, color, etc.).

Fly rod and reel with a brown trout from a chalk stream in England

Artificial flies are created by tying hair, fur, feathers, or other materials, both natural and synthetic, onto a hook with thread. The first flies were tied with natural materials, but synthetic materials are now very popular and prevalent. The flies are tied in sizes, colors and patterns to match local terrestrial and aquatic insects, baitfish, or other prey attractive to the target fish species.

Fish species
Fly fishing is most renowned as a method for catching trout and salmon, but today it is also used for a wide variety of species including pike, bass, panfish, grayling and carp, as well as marine species, such as redfish, snook, tarpon, bonefish and striped bass. There are many reports of fly anglers taking unintended species such as chub, bream and rudd while fishing for 'main target' species such as trout. There is a growing population of anglers whose aim is to catch as many different species as possible with the fly. Even catfish can be occasionally caught while fly fishing.

Fly fishing

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Fly angler circa 1970s

Fly fishing

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History
Many credit the first recorded use of an artificial fly to the Roman Claudius Aelianus near the end of the 2nd century. He described the practice of Macedonian anglers on the Astraeus River: ...they have planned a snare for the fish, and get the better of them by their fisherman's craft. . . . They fasten red . . . wool round a hook, and fit on to the wool two feathers which grow under a cock's wattles, and which in color are like wax. Their rod is six feet long, and their line is the same length. Then they throw their snare, and the fish, attracted and maddened by the color, comes straight at it, thinking from the pretty sight to gain a dainty mouthful; when, however, it opens its jaws, it is caught by the hook, and enjoys a bitter repast, a captive. In his book Fishing from the Earliest Times, however, William Radcliff (1921) gave the credit to Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis), born some two hundred years before Aelian, who wrote: ...Who has not seen the scarus rise, decoyed and killed by fraudful flies... The last word, somewhat indistinct in the original, is either "mosco" (moss) or "musca" (fly) but catching fish with fraudulent moss seems unlikely.[1]
Frontispiece from The Art of Angling by Richard Brookes, 1790

Great Britain
Modern fly fishing is normally said to have originated on the fast, rocky rivers of Scotland and northern England. Other than a few fragmented references, however, little was written on fly fishing until The Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle was published (1496) within The Boke of St. Albans attributed to Dame Juliana Berners. The book contains, along with instructions on rod, line and hook making, dressings for different flies to use at different times of the year. The earliest English poetical treatise on Angling by John Dennys, said to have been a fishing companion of Shakespeare, was published in 1613, The Secrets of Angling, of which 6 verses were quoted in the better known book Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler (1653), of which the latter two chapters were actually written by his friend Charles Cotton, and described the fishing in the Derbyshire Wye. British fly-fishing continued to develop in the 19th Century, with the emergence of fly fishing clubs, along with the appearance of several books on the subject of fly tying and fly fishing techniques. In southern England, dry-fly fishing acquired an elitist reputation as the only acceptable method of fishing the slower, clearer rivers of the south such as the River Test and the other chalk streams concentrated in Hampshire, Surrey, Dorset and Berkshire (see Southern England Chalk Formation for the geological specifics). The weeds found in these rivers tend to grow very close to the surface, and it was felt necessary to develop new techniques that would keep the fly and the line on the surface of the stream. These became the foundation of all later dry-fly developments. However, there was nothing to prevent the successful employment of wet flies on these chalk streams, as George Edward MacKenzie Skues proved with his nymph and wet fly techniques. To the horror of dry-fly purists, Skues later wrote two books, Minor Tactics of the Chalk Stream, and The Way of a Trout with a Fly, which greatly influenced the development of wet fly fishing. In northern England and Scotland, many anglers also favored wet-fly fishing, where the technique was more popular and widely practiced than in southern England. One of Scotlands leading proponents of the wet fly in the early-to-mid 19th century was W.C. Stewart, who published "The Practical Angler" in 1857.

Fly fishing In Scandinavia and the United States, attitudes toward methods of fly fishing were not nearly as rigidly defined, and both dry- and wet-fly fishing were soon adapted to the conditions of those countries.

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Japan
The traditional Japanese method of fly-fishing is known as "Tenkara" (Japanese: , literally: "from heaven"). The first reference to tenkara fly-fishing was in 1878 in a book called "Diary of climbing Mt. Tateyama".[2] . Tenkara is the only fly-fishing method in Japan that is defined by using a fly and casting technique where the line is what is actually being cast. Tenkara originated in the mountains of Japan as a way for professional fishermen and inn-keepers to harvest the local fish, Ayu, trout, char for selling and providing a meal to their guests. Primarily a small-stream fishing method that was preferred for being highly efficient, where the long rod allowed the fisherman to place the fly where the fish would be. Another style of fishing in Japan is Ayu fishing. As written by historian Andrew Herd, in the book "The Fly", "Fly fishing became popular with Japanese peasants from the twelfth century onward...fishing was promoted to a pastime worthy of Bushi (warriors), as part of an official policy to train the Bushi's mind during peacetime."[3] This refers primarily to Ayu fishing, which commonly uses a fly as lure, uses longer rods, but there is no casting technique required, it's more similar to dapping. Ayu was practiced in the lowlands (foothills), where the Bushi resided, tenkara practiced in the mountains. Fishing flies are thought to have first originated in Japan for Ayu fishing over 430 years ago[4] . These flies were made with needles that were bent into shape and used as fishing hooks, then dressed as a fly. The rods along with fishing flies, are considered to be a traditional local craft of the Kaga region.[5] In the West, fly-fishing rods were primarily made of wood, which is heavy, so having long rods to reach spots where fish may be was tricky. Anglers started devising running line systems, where they could use shorter rods and longer lines. Eventually this led to the development of reels and the widespread use of shorter rods and reels. In Japan, bamboo, a very light material, was readily available, so anglers could make very long rods without much concern for weight. Fly-fishing remained more pure, as it was in its origins, anglers in Japan could continue using the long rods and did not feel the need to invent running line systems and reels.[2]

North America
In the United States, fly anglers are thought to be the first anglers to have used artificial lures for bass fishing. After pressing into service the fly patterns and tackle designed for trout and salmon to catch largemouth and smallmouth bass, they began to adapt these patterns into specific bass flies. Fly anglers seeking bass developed the spinner/fly lure and bass popper fly, which are still used today.[6] In the late 19th century, American anglers, such as Theodore Gordon, in the Catskill Mountains of New York began using fly tackle to fish the regions many brook trout-rich streams such as the Beaverkill and Willowemoc Creek. Many of these early American fly anglers also developed new fly patterns and wrote extensively about their sport, increasing the popularity of fly fishing in the region and in the United States as a whole.[6] One such man was Charles F. Orvis, who through his actions helped to popularize fly fishing by designing and distributing novel reel and fly designs. His 1874 fly reel was described by reel historian Jim Brown as the "benchmark of American reel

From The Speckled Brook Trout by Louis Rhead (1902)

Fly fishing design," the first fully modern fly reel.[7] [8] . The founding of The Orvis Company helped institutionalize fly fishing within America and supplied angling equipment and accessories to the homes of millions of Americans. His elegantly printed tackle catalogs, distributed to a small but devoted customer list in the late 1800s, are now highly collectible as early forerunners of today's enormous direct-mail outdoor products industry. The Junction Pool in Roscoe, where the Willowemoc flows into the Beaver Kill, is the center of an almost ritual pilgrimage every April 1, when the season begins. Albert Bigelow Paine, a New England author, wrote about fly fishing in The Tent Dwellers, a book about a three week trip he and a friend took to central Nova Scotia in 1908. Participation in fly fishing peaked in the early 1920s in the eastern states of Maine and Vermont and in the Midwest in the spring creeks of Wisconsin. Along with deep sea fishing, Ernest Hemingway did much to popularize fly fishing through his works of fiction, including The Sun Also Rises. It was the development of inexpensive fiberglass rods, synthetic fly lines, and monofilament leaders, however, in the early 1950s, that revived the popularity of fly fishing, especially in the United States. In recent years, interest in fly fishing has surged as baby boomers have discovered the sport. Movies such as Robert Redford's film A River Runs Through It, starring Craig Sheffer and Brad Pitt, cable fishing shows, and the emergence of a competitive fly casting circuit have also added to the sport's visibility.

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Australia
Brown trout were first introduced to Australia by the efforts of Edward Wilson's Acclimatisation Society of Victoria with the aim to "provide for manly sport which will lead Australian youth to seek recreation on the river's bank and mountainside rather than in the Cafe and Casino.[9] " The first successful transfer of Brown Trout ova (from the Itchen and Wye) was aboard the Norfolk in 1864. Rainbow Trout were not introduced until 1894.

Gear improvements
Lines made of silk replaced those of horse hair and were heavy enough to be cast in the modern style. Cotton and his predecessors fished their flies with long rods, and light lines allowing the wind to do most of the work of getting the fly to the fish. The introduction of new woods to the manufacture of fly rods, first greenheart and then bamboo, made it possible to cast flies into the wind on silk lines. These early fly lines proved troublesome as they had to be coated with various dressings to make them float and needed to be taken off the reel and dried every four hours or so to prevent them from becoming waterlogged. American rod builders such as Hiram Leonard developed superior techniques for making bamboo rods: thin strips were cut from the cane, milled into shape, and then glued together to form light, strong, hexagonal rods with a solid core that were superior to anything that preceded them. Fly reels were soon improved, as well. At first they were rather mechanically simple; more or less a storage place for the fly line and backing. In order to tire the fish, anglers simply applied hand pressure to the rim of the revolving spool, known as 'palming' the rim. (See Fishing reel). In fact, many superb modern reels still use this simple design, often with a "click-check" mechanism which makes both an audible noise and provides light spool braking to prevent overruns.

Fly fishing

36

Methods
Casting
Unlike other casting methods, fly fishing can be thought of as a method of casting line rather than lure. Non-flyfishing methods rely on a lure's weight to pull line from the reel during the forward motion of a cast. By design, a fly is too light to be cast, and thus simply follows the unfurling of a properly cast fly line, which is heavier and tapered and therefore more castable than lines used in other types of fishing.

A hatchery at Maramec Spring in Missouri raises trout sought after by anglers

The physics of flycasting can be described by the transfer of impulse, the product of mass and speed through the rod from base to top and from the transfer of impulse through the fly line all the way to the tip of the leader. Because both the rod and the fly line are tapered the smaller amount of mass will reach high speeds as the waves in rod and line unfurl.[10] The waves that travel through the fly line are called loops. Determining factors in reaching the highest speeds are the basal frequency of a rod and the transfer of the speed from the tip of the rod to the fly line. At the moment the rod tip reaches its highest velocity the direction of the cast is determined. The type of cast used when fishing varies according to the conditions. The most common cast is the forward cast, where the angler whisks the fly into the air, back over the shoulder until the line is nearly straight, then forward, using primarily the forearm. The objective of this motion is to "load" (bend) the rod tip with stored energy, then transmit that energy to the line, resulting in the fly line (and the attached fly) being cast for an appreciable distance. Casting without landing the fly on the water is known as 'false casting', and may be used to pay out line, to dry a soaked fly, or to reposition a cast. Other casts are the roll cast, the single- or double-haul, the tuck cast, and the sideor curve-cast. Dropping the fly onto the water and its subsequent movement on or beneath the surface is one of fly fishing's most difficult aspects; the angler is attempting to cast in such a way that the line lands smoothly on the water and the fly appears as natural as possible. At a certain point, if a fish does not strike, depending upon the action of the fly in the wind or current, the angler picks up the line to make another presentation. On the other hand, if a fish strikes, the angler pulls in line while raising the rod tip. This "sets" the hook in the fish's mouth. The fish is played either by hand, where the angler continues to hold the fly line in one hand to control the tension applied to the fish, or by reeling up any slack in the line and then using the hand to act as a drag on the reel. Most modern fly reels have an adjustable, mechanical drag system to control line tension during a fish's run. Beginners tend to point with the rod to where they want to throw, but the movement of the hand has to be a controlled speed-up and then come to an abrupt stop. The rod will then start to unfurl and the tip of the rod will reach a high speed in the required direction. The high speed of the rod tip toward the target gives the impulse to make the cast, the abrupt stop and retreat of the rod tip is essential for the formation of a loop. Experienced fishermen also improve the speed of the line leaving the rod tip by a technique called hauling, applying a quick fast pull with the hand holding the line. At the end of the cast when the line is stretched the line as a whole will still have speed and the fisherman can let some extra line through his fingers making a false throw, either forward or backward or to finish the cast and start fishing. There are a great number of special casts meant to evade problems like trees behind the angler (roll cast), the pulling of the line on the fly by the action of the stream, or to make the fly land more softly.

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Spey Casting
Spey casting is a casting technique used in fly fishing. Spey casting requires a longer, heavier two-handed fly rod, referred to as a Spey rod.[11] . Spey casting is essentially a large roll cast Spey casting is used for fishing large rivers for salmon and large trout such as steelhead and sea trout. Spey technique is also used in saltwater surf casting. All of these situations require the angler to cast larger flies long distances. The two-handed Spey technique allows more powerful casts and avoids obstacles on the shore by keeping most of the line in front of the angler.

Fly fishing for trout


Fly fishing for trout is a very popular sport, which can be done using any of the various methods and any of the general types of flies. Many of the techniques and presentations of fly fishing were first developed in fishing for trout. There is a misconception that all fly fishing for trout is done on the surface of the water with "dry flies." In most places, especially heavily fished trout areas, success usually comes from fly fishing using flies that were designed to drift on the bottom of the water. A trout feeds below the water's surface nearly 90 percent of the time. Trout usually only come to the surface when there is a large bug hatch (when aquatic insects grow wings and leave the water to mate and lay eggs). There are exceptions to this rule, however, particularly during the summer months and on smaller mountain streams

Fly angler on the Firehole River, USA

Techniques
Fishing in cold water Cold water anglers often use chest high boots, known as waders, to wade into the water. In some areas, wading can be done in wading shoes and rubber booties. "Stocking foot" waders have neoprene "feet" and are designed to be worn inside felt-soled boots or other types of soled boots. (Many new wading boots now come with special rubberized soles that help prevent the spread of parasites - like Whirling Disease - from one water source to another that can be commonplace with felt-soled boots.) These so-called "wading boots" or "wading shoes" provide excellent grip on slippery, rocky riverbeds. Neoprene waders provide insulation against the cold, provide padding in case of a fall, and resist puncture and abrasion when walking through streamside brush. Breathable Gore-Tex waders provide ventilation when hiking along the water, but do not provide flotation in the event of slipping or falling into deep water. In deep water streams, an inflatable personal flotation device (PFD), or a Type III Kayak fishing vest, adds a degree of safety. Some "catch and release" anglers flatten the barb of their hook. Such "barbless hooks" are much easier to remove from the fish (and from the angler, in the event of mishap). Many rivers with special regulations mandate that fishermen use barbless hooks in an effort to conserve a healthy fish population.[12] Dry fly trout fishing Dry fly fishing is done with line and flies that float. A tapered leader, usually made of fine polyamide monofilament line, is placed between the line and fly. Unlike sinking fly (nymph) fishing, the "take" on dry flies is visible, explosive and exciting. While trout typically consume about 90% of their diet from below-water sources, the 10% of surface-level consumption by trout is more than enough to keep most anglers busy. Additionally, beginning fly anglers generally prefer dry fly fishing because of the relative ease of detecting a strike and the instant gratification of seeing a trout strike their fly. Nymph fishing may be more productive, but dry fly anglers soon become addicted to

Fly fishing the surface strike. Dry flies may be "attractors", such as the Royal Wulff, or "natural imitators", such as the elk hair caddis, a caddisfly imitation[13] A beginner may wish to begin with a fly that is easy to see such as a Royal Wulff attractor or a mayfly imitation such as a Parachute Adams. The "parachute" on the Parachute Adams makes the fly land as softly as a natural on the water and has the added benefit of making the fly very visible from the surface. Being able to see the fly is especially helpful to the beginner. The fly should land softly, as if dropped onto the water, with the leader fully extended from the fly line. Due to rivers having faster and slower currents often running side by side, the fly can over take or be overtaken by the line, thus disturbing the flys drift. An Adams dry fly Mending is a technique where by one lifts and moves the part of the line that requires re-aligning with the fly's drift, thus extending the drag free drift. The mend can be upstream or down stream depending on the currents carrying the line or fly. To be effective, any mending of the fly line should not disturb the natural drift of the fly. Learning to mend is often much easier if the angler can see the fly.[14] Once a fish has been caught and landed, the fly may no longer float well. A fly can sometimes be dried and made to float again by "false" casting, casting the fly back and forth in the air. In some cases, the fly can be dried with a small piece of reusable absorbent towel, an Amadou patch or chamois, or placed and shaken in a container full of fly "dressing"; a hydrophobic solution. A popular solution to a dry fly which refuses to float is simply to replace it with another, similar or identical fly until the original can fully dry, rotating through a set of flies. Dry fly fishing on small, clear-water streams can be especially productive if the angler stays as low to the ground and as far from the bank as possible, moving upstream with stealth. Trout tend to face upstream and most of their food is carried to them on the current. For this reason, the fish's attention is normally focused into the current; most anglers move and fish "into the current", fishing from a position downstream of the fish's suspected lie. Trout tend to strike their food at current "edges", where faster- and slower-moving waters mix. Obstructions to the stream flow, such as large rocks or nearby pools, Fly fishing on the Gardner River in Yellowstone provide a "low energy" environment where fish sit and wait for food National Park, USA without expending much energy. Casting upstream to the "edge" of the slower water, the angler can see the fly land and drift slowly back downstream. The challenge in stream fishing is placing the fly with deadly accuracy, within inches of a protective rock for instance, not long range casting. Done properly, the fly seems to be just floating along in the current with a "perfect drift" as if not connected to the fly line. The angler must remain vigilant for the "take" in order to be ready to raise the rod tip and set the hook. Nymphing for trout Trout tend mostly to feed underwater. Especially when fishing deeper waters such as rivers or lakes, putting a fly down to the trout may be more successful than fishing on the surface, especially in the absence of any surface insect activity or hatch. The nymph itself can be weighted, as is the popular bead headed hare's ear nymph or bead headed pheasant tail nymph. Alternatively, the angler can use an attractor pattern such as a Prince Nymph. Weights can be added to the leader. Probably the best weight to use is twist on lead or other metal strips because it has a much less detrimental effect on the casting ability. A sinking tip fly line can also serve to sink the fly. The most common

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Fly fishing nymphing and general overall fly fishing technique that even beginners can master is a "dead drift" or tight line fishing technique, casting directly across the river, letting the fly line drift downriver while keeping any slack out of the line. If the Nymph is drifting too fast then you should perform an upstream mend. If the nymph is drifting too slowly you should mend downstream. A beginner need simply to point the rod at the fly, lifting the rod in the event of a strike. This is a "downstream technique", where the angler moves in a downstream direction. More advanced techniques make use of a highly visible strike indicator attached to the leader above the sinking fly. It is also possible to use standard sinking fly lines. Especially if the current is strong and if it is difficult to get down to the correct level to catch the trout. Still water trout fishing Fishing for trout in lakes requires different tactics. A canoe, pontoon boat or a float tube allows an angler to cover a lot more water than waders. Trout may congregate in cooler water near an inflowing stream or an underwater spring and may be lured to bite on a streamer fly. An often successful tactic is to pull a streamer such as a woolly bugger using clear sinking line, behind the watercraft. The somewhat erratic motion of the oars or fins tends to give the streamer an enticing action. Trout also tend to "cruise" transitional areas (e.g. dropoffs, weed bed edges, subsurface river flow at inlets, etc.) Watching for cruising trout and casting well ahead of any visible fish is often successful. Playing trout Once hooked, a small trout can be easily retrieved "on the reel" or by simply pulling in the fly line with the reel hand while pinching the line between the rod handle and the index finger of the rod hand. It is important to keep the rod tip high, allowing the bend of the rod to absorb the force of the fish's struggles against the line. Larger trout will often take line in powerful runs before they can be landed. Unlike spin fishing where the line is already on the reel, playing a large fish with fly line and a fly reel can present a special challenge. Usually, when a fish is hooked, there will be extra fly line coiled between the reel and the index finger of the rod hand. The challenge is to reel up the loose fly line onto the reel without breaking off a large fish (or getting the line wrapped up around the rod handle, one's foot, a stick or anything else in the way). With experience, really large trout can be put on the reel simply by applying light pressure on the outgoing line using the fisher's fingers. Once the extra line is on the reel, an angler can use the reel's drag system to tire the fish. It is important to use heavier tippet material if it won't spook the fish. The reason why this is important is an exhausted fish can easily die if released too soon. Heavier tippet material enables the angler to land the fish while not over exhausting it. Releasing trout Releasing wild trout helps preserve the quality of a fishery. Trout are more delicate than most fish and require careful handling. When a trout has been caught but the hook is still embedded, wet your hands before handling the fish. Dry hands stick to the adhesive slime coating the fish and can pull off its scales. It is preferred for the fish to remain in the water when removing the hook, but holding the trout out of the water will not be lethal, provided the hook is removed quickly and the trout is returned immediately. Small trout caught on a barb-less hook can be released simply by: grasping the eyelet of the fly, and rotating the eyelet toward the bend (the U-bend). This pulls the point backwards, back through the way it entered. Push the eyelet directly toward the bend until the point is removed from the fish. Large trout can be grasped gently and forceps can be used to grip the bend and push backwards, away from the direction the hook currently points. If necessary, squirming trout can be held on their backs. This often subdues the fish and provides enough time to remove the

39

A rainbow trout taken on an articulated leech pattern, Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

Fly fishing hook. Once the hook has been removed, return the trout into the water.Support the trout until it stabilizes. This includes holding the fish in water deep enough to submerge its gills. After long fights, it may be necessary to manually move water past its gills. This can be done either by holding the trout in moving water with its head facing upstream, or, in calm water, moving the trout backwards and forwards repeatedly. Once stabilized, the trout will swim off on its own. If released prematurely, the trout, not having enough energy to move, will sink to the bottom of the river and suffocate. Take however long is necessary to revive a trout.

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Saltwater flyfishing
Saltwater flyfishing is typically done with heavier tackle than that which is used for freshwater trout fishing, both to handle the larger, more powerful fish, and to accommodate the casting of larger and heavier flies. Salt water fly fishing typically employs the use of wet flies resembling baitfish, crabs, shrimp and other forage. However, saltwater fish can also be caught with "poppers," and other surface lure similar to those used for freshwater bass fishing, though much larger. A red drum caught on a fly rod, Louisiana, USA Saltwater species sought and caught with fly tackle include: bonefish, redfish or red drum, permit, snook, spotted sea trout, tuna, dorado (mahi-mahi), sailfish, tarpon, striped bass, salmon and marlin. Offshore saltwater species are usually attracted to the fly by "chumming" with small baitfish, or "teasing" the fish to the boat by trolling a large hookless lure (Billfish are most often caught using this latter method). Many saltwater species, particularly large, fast and powerful fish, are not easily slowed down by "palming" the hand on the reel. Instead, a purpose-made saltwater reel for these species must have a powerful drag system. Furthermore, saltwater reels purpose-made for larger fish must be larger, heavier, and corrosion-resistant - a typical high-quality saltwater reel costs 500.00 USD or more. Corrosion-resistant equipment is key to durability in all types of saltwater fishing, regardless of the size and power of the target species. Saltwater fly fishing is most often done from a boat, either a shallow draft flats boat used to pursue species such as bonefish, redfish, permit and tarpon in shallow waters, from larger offshore boats for pursuing sailfish, tuna, dorado, marlin and other pelagics and may be done from shore, such as wading flats for bonefish or redfish or surf fishing for striped bass and other assorted fish. Typically, most trout fly fisherman need to practice new skills to catch saltwater fish on a fly rod. Ocean fish are usually harder to catch. They can be extremely spooky, and much larger. Trout fisherman need to practice with at least an 8 weight fly rod and accurately cast the line 3090 feet if they are going to have successparticularly in the flat areas fishing for bonefish, redfish, permit, tarpon, jacks and more. Hooks for saltwater flies must also be extremely durable and corrosion resistant. Most saltwater hooks are made of stainless steel, but the strongest (though less corrosion resistant) hooks are of high-carbon steel. Typically, these hooks vary from size #8 to #2 for bonefish and smaller nearshore species, to size #3/0 to #5/0 for the larger offshore species.

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Fly fishing tackle


Fly fishing tackle comprises the fishing tackle or equipment typically used by fly anglers. Fly fishing tackle includes: A wide variety of Fly rods of different weights, lengths and material are used to present artificial flies to target species of fish as well as fight and land fish being caught. A wide variety of Fly reels are used to store fly line and provide a braking mechanism (drag) for fighting heavy or fast moving fish. A wide variety of general use and specialized fly lines are used to cast artificial flies under a wide variety of fresh and saltwater conditions. Terminal tackle is used to connect the artificial fly to the fly line and allow the appropriate presentation of the fly to the fish. There are a wide variety of accessoriestools, gadgets, clothing and apparel used by the fly angler for maintenance and preparation of tackle, dealing the fish being caught as well as personal comfort and safety while fly fishing. Includes fly boxes used to store and carry artificial flies. Fly rods are typically between 1.8m (6ft) long in freshwater fishing and up to 4.5m (15ft) long for two-handed fishing for salmon or steelhead, or in tenkara fishing in small streams. The average rod for fresh and salt water is around 9feet (2.7m) in length and weighs from 3 5ounces, though a recent trend has been to lighter, shorter rods for fishing smaller streams. Another trend is to longer rods for small streams. The choice of rod lengths and line weights used varies according to local conditions, types of flies being cast, and/or personal preference. When actively fishing, the angler may want to keep the fly line lightly pressed against the rod handle with the index finger of the casting arm. The free arm is used to pull line from the reel or to retrieve line from the water. If a fish strikes, the angler can pinch the line with the index finger against the rod handle and lift the rod tip, setting the hook.

Artificial flies
In broadest terms, flies are categorized as either imitative or attractive. Imitative flies resemble natural food items. Attractive flies trigger instinctive strikes by employing a range of characteristics that do not necessarily mimic prey items. Flies can be fished floating on the surface (dry flies), partially submerged (emergers), or below the surface (nymphs, streamers, and wet flies). A dry fly is typically thought to represent an insect landing on, falling on (terrestrials), or emerging from, the water's surface as might a grasshopper, dragonfly, Green Highlander, a classic salmon fly mayfly, ant, beetle, stonefly or caddisfly. Other surface flies include poppers and hair bugs that might resemble mice, frogs, etc. Sub-surface flies are designed to resemble a wide variety of prey including aquatic insect larvae, nymphs and pupae, baitfish, crayfish, leeches, worms, etc. Wet flies, known as streamers, are generally thought to imitate minnows, leeches or scuds. Artificial flies, constructed of furs, feathers, and threads bound on a hook were created by anglers to imitate fish prey. The first known mention of an artificial fly was in 200AD in Macedonia. Most early examples of artificial flies imitated common aquatic insects and baitfish. Today, artificial flies are tied with a wide variety of natural and synthetic materials (like mylar and rubber) to represent all manner of potential freshwater and saltwater fish prey to include aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, worms, baitfish, vegetation, flesh, spawn, small reptiles, amphibians, mammals and birds, etc.

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Fly fishing knots


A few knots have become more or less standard for attaching the various parts of the fly lines and backing, etc., together. A detailed discussion of most of these knots is available in any good book on fly fishing. Some of the knots that are in most every fly angler's arsenal are: the improved clinch knot which is commonly used to attach the fly to the leader, the overhand slip knot or arbor knot which is used to attach the backing to the spool, the albright knot which can be used to attach the fly line to the backing. A loop can also be put in fly line backing using a bimini twist.[15] Often, a loop is added to the business end of the fly line to facilitate the connection to the leader. This loop may take one of several forms. It may be formed by creating a loop in the end of the fly line itself or by adding a braided loop or a loop of monofilament nylon (as in Gray's Loop). Alternatively, a single length of monofilament nylon, or fluorocarbon, may be tied to the end of the fly line using a nail or tube knot or a needle knot. A loop can then be tied at the end of this monofilament butt length using a double surgeon's knot or a perfection loop, to which the tapered or untapered leader, also looped using a double surgeon's knot or a perfection loop, may in turn be connected via a loop to loop connection.[16] The use of loop to loop connections between the fly line and the leader provides a quick and convenient way to change or replace a tapered leader. Many commercially-produced tapered leaders come with a pre-tied loop connection. Some traditionalists create their own tapered leaders using progressively smaller-diameter lengths of monofilament line tied together with the blood or barrel knot.

See also
American Museum of Fly Fishing Bibliography of fly fishing American Angler Catskill Fly Fishing Center and Museum Float tube List of fly fishing waters in North America List of fly fishing waters in Europe Spey casting Trout memo - a 1939 British Intelligence document comparing deception of an enemy in wartime with fly fishing Category:Angling writers Category:Fly fishing target species

Further reading
Berenbaum, May R. (1995). Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs. Perseus Publishing. pp.264268. Hartley, J.R. (1983). Fly Fishing. Big Yellow Books. Hughes, Dave (1995). Wet Flies: Tying and Fishing Soft-Hackles, Winged and Wingless Wets, and Fuzzy Nymphs. Stackpole Books. Radcliffe, William (1974). Fishing from the Earliest Times. Ares Publishers, Inc.. Ulnitz, Steve et al., (1998). The Complete Book of Flyfishing. Stoeger Publishing. Schullery, Paul (1999). Royal Coachman-The Lore and Legends of Fly-Fishing. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN0684842467. Schullery, Paul (1996). American Fly Fishing-A History. Norwalk, CT: The Easton Press. Rosenbauer, Tom (2007). The Orvis Fly Fishing Guide. Connecticut: The Lyons Press. ISBN978-1-59228-818-2. Dietsch, John; Garyy Hubbell (1999). Shadow Casting An Introduction To The Art Of FlyFishing. Clinetop Press.

Fly fishing Hodgson, W. Earl (1906). Salmon Fishing. A. & C. Black, Ltd..

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] William Radcliff Fishing from Earliest Times London 1921 Dr. Hisao Ishigaki, presentation to Catskills Fly Fishing Center and Museum, May 2009 Herd, Andrew. "The Fly", 2003 Jewelry with a Samurai Spirit (http:/ / make. pingmag. jp/ 2008/ 05/ 06/ hachirobe/ ) http:/ / shofu. pref. ishikawa. jp/ Waterman, Charles F., Black Bass and the Fly Rod, Stackpole Books (1993) Brown, Jim. A Treasury of Reels: The Fishing Reel Collection of The American Museum of Fly Fishing. Manchester, Vermont: The American Museum of Fly Fishing, 1990. [8] Schullery, Paul. The Orvis Story: 150 Years of an American Sporting Tradition. Manchester, Vermont, The Orvis Company, Inc., 2006 [9] The Argus newspaper 14 April 1864 [10] https:/ / seesar. lbl. gov/ anag/ staff/ bono/ html/ ASME_Bioengineering. pdf [11] Cook, Jack. "Spey Fly Fishing - Demystifying the Two Handed Rod" (http:/ / www. washingtonflyfishing. com/ faq/ idx/ 10/ 039/ article/ Spey_Fly_Fishing__Demystifying_the_Two_Handed_Rod_by_Jack_Cook. html). . Retrieved 2009-05-19. [12] http:/ / www. fishingrecreation. com/ blog/ view/ 147/ why-you-should-pinch-down-the-barbs-on-your-/ [13] Jardine, Charles, Flies, Ties, and Techniques, Ivy Press, East Sussex, p. 6,p. 56,p.60, 2008 [14] http:/ / www. midcurrent. com/ articles/ techniques/ monahan_mending. aspx [15] Flycatcher, www.flycatcherinc.com/flywiki/index.php?title=Rigging [16] Rosenbauer, Tom, The Orvis Fly Fishing Guide, The Lyons Press, Connecticut, pp.41-43, 2007

Artificial fly
An artificial fly or fly lure is a type of fishing lure, usually used in the sport of fly fishing (although they may also be used in other forms of angling). In general, artificial flies are the bait which fly fishers present to their target species of fish while fly fishing. Artificial flies are constructed by fly tying, in which furs, feathers, thread or any of very many other materials are tied onto a fish hook.[1] Artificial flies may be constructed to represent all manner of potential freshwater and saltwater fish prey to include aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, worms, baitfish, vegetation, flesh, spawn, Classic 19th Century Artificial fly-The Triumph small reptiles, amphibians, mammals and birds, etc. Effective artificial fly patterns are said to be killing flies because of their ability to put fish in the creel for the fly fisher. There are thousands of artificial fly patterns, many of them with descriptive and often idiosyncratic names.

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Construction
Fly tying is a common practice in fly fishing, considered by many anglers an important part of the fly fishing experience. Many fly fishers tie their own flies, either following patterns in books, natural insect examples, or using their own imagination. The technique involves attaching small pieces of feathers, animal fur, and other materials on a hook in order to make it attractive to fish. This is made by wrapping thread tightly around the hook and tying on the desired materials. A fly is sized according to the width of the hook gap; large or longer flies are tied on larger, thicker, and longer hooks.

Types
Generally, fly patterns are considered either "imitations" or "attractors". Imitations seek to deceive fish through the life-like imitation of insects on which the fish may feed. Imitators do not always have to be precisely realistic in appearance; they may derive their lifelike qualities when their fur or feathers are immersed in water and allowed to move in the current. Attractors, which are often brightly colored, seek to draw a strike by arousing an aggression response in the fish. Famous attractors are the Stimulator, Royal Wulff, and Green Weenie flies.

History
The first literary reference to flies and fishing with flies was in lians Natural History probably written about 200 A.D. That work discussed a Macedonian fly. The Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle was published (1496) within The Boke of St. Albans attributed to Dame Juliana Berners. The book contains, along with instructions on rod, line and hook making, dressings for different flies to use at different times of the year. Probably the first use of the term Artificial fly came in Izaac Walton's The Compleat Angler (1653), [4]

First known illustration of a fishing fly from 4th. edition (1652) of John Dennys's The Secrets of Angling, first published in 1613, probably the [2] earliest poetical English treatise on Angling. , [3]

Oh my good Master, this morning walk has been spent to my great pleasure and wonder: but I pray, when shall I have your direction how to make Artificial flyes, like to those that the Trout loves best?[5]

Artificial fly

45

The 1652 4th. edition of John Dennys's The Secrets of Angling , first published in 1613, contains the first known illustration of an artificial fly. By the early 19th century, the term artificial fly was being routinely used in angling literature much like this representative quote from Thomas Best's A Concise Treatise on the Art of Angling (1807) to refer to all types of flies used by fly fishers. The art of artificial fly-fishing, certainly has the pre-eminence over the other various methods that are used to take fishes in the art of angling[7] Although the term fly was an obvious reference to an imitation of some flying insect, by the mid-19th century the term fly was being applied to a far greater range of imitation. The term fly is applied by sea fishermen to a certain arrangement of feathers, wax, etc., which I am about to describe the manufacture of, and which may be used with considerable success in mackerel, basse, and pollack fishing. I am not disposed to think, however, that such baits are ever mistaken by the fish Frontpiece from Bowlker's Art of Angling (1854) [6] which they are intended to capture for flies; but the showing a variety of artificial flies number used, the way in which they are mounted, viz., several on one trace, and the method of their progress through the water, rather leads me to the belief that they are mistaken for a number of small fry, and treated accordingly.[8]

Imitation
A major concept in the sport of fly fishing is that the fly imitates some form of fish prey when presented to the fish by the angler. As aquatic insects such as Mayflies, Caddisflies and Stoneflies were the primary prey being imitated during the early developmental years of fly fishing, there were always differing schools of thought on how closely a fly needed to imitate the fish's prey. In the mid to late 19th century, those schools of thought, at least for trout fishing were: the formalists (imitation matters) and the [10] colourists (color matters most). Today, some flies are called attractor patterns because in theory, they do not resemble any specific prey, but instead attract strikes from fish. For instance, Charles Jardine, in his 2008 book "Flies, Ties and Techniques," speaks of imitators and attractors, categorizing the Royal Wulff as an attractor and the Elk Hair Caddis as an imitator, whereas "... in sea trout and steelhead fishing there is a combination of imitation and attraction involved in fly construction".[11] Paul Schullery in American Fly Fishing - A History (1996) explains however that although much has been written about the imitation theories of fly design, all successful fly patterns must imitate something to the fish, and even a perfect imitation attracts strikes from fish. The huge range of fly patterns documented today for all sorts of target species-trout, salmon, bass and panfish, pike, saltwater, tropical exotics, etc. are not easily categorized as merely imitative, attractors or something else.[12]
Illustration of a large Pike fly (1865) [9]

Artificial fly

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Contemporary examples
The categorization of artificial flies has evolved considerably in the last 200 years as writers, fly tiers and fishing equipment retailers expound and promote new ideas and techniques. Additionally, as the popularity of fly fishing expanded globally to new and exotic target species, new flies and genera of flies came into being. There are many subtypes in some of these categories especially as they apply to trout flies. As well, any given pattern of artificial fly might well fit into multiple categories depending on its intended use. The following categorization with illustrative examples is derived from the following major artificial fly merchants offerings. Orvis - An American Fly Fishing Retailer in business since 1856 [13] Farlows of London - A British Fly Fishing Retailer in business since 1840[14] Umpqua Feather Merchants - An American artificial fly manufacturer and wholesaler in business since 1972[15]
Category Dry fly Designed to be buoyant, or to float on the surface of the water. Dry flies typically represent the adult form of an aquatic or terrestrial insect. Dry flies are generally considered freshwater flies. Emergers are flies which float in the surface film. Wet fly Designed to sink below the surface of the water. Wet flies have been tied in a wide variety of patterns to represent larva, nymphs, pupa, drowned insects, baitfish and other underwater prey. Wet flies are generally considered freshwater [16] flies. Illustrative Examples

The Adams - A typical dry fly

Orange Stimulator - A caddisfly or grasshopper imitation

Royal Wulff - A classic attractor pattern

Green Drake Dry Fly

Grizzly King - A classic wet fly

A Woolly Worm wet fly

Professor wet fly

Partridge and Orange soft-hackle

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Nymph Designed to resemble the immature form of aquatic insects and small crustaceans. Nymph flies are generally considered freshwater [17] flies.

Brook's Montana Stonefly nymph

EmergerDesigned to resemble the not quite mature hatching aquatic insect as it leaving the water to become an adult insect. Emerger flies are generally considered freshwater trout flies.

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Streamer Designed to resemble some form of baitfish or other large aquatic prey. Streamer flies may be patterned after both freshwater and saltwater prey species. Streamer flies are a very large and diverse category of flies as streamers are effective for almost any type of [18] gamefish.

Woolly Bugger - A universal streamer pattern

Mickey Finn - A classic streamer pattern

Clouser Deep Minnow - A popular streamer pattern used for both fresh and saltwater fishing

Black Conehead Egg Sucking Leech

Muddler Minnow - a sculpin imitation

Schenk's White Minnow - A popular eastern chub imitation

Royal Coachman Bucktail

Terrestrials Designed to resemble non-aquatic insects, crustaceans and worms that could fall prey to feeding fish after being blown or falling onto the water.

Dave's Hopper a terrestrial dry fly imitating a common grasshopper

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Bass and panfish flies, bugs and poppers Generally designed to resemble both surface and sub-surface insect, crustacean, baitfish prey consumed by warm-water species such as Largemouth bass or bluegill. This genus of flies generally includes patterns that resemble small mammals, birds, amphibians or reptiles that may fall prey to fish. Pike and musky Flies - Generally designed to resemble both surface and sub-surface crustacean, baitfish prey consumed by species of the genus Esox such as Northern Pike or Muskellunge. This genus of flies are larger than bass flies and generally includes patterns that resemble baitfish and small mammals, birds, amphibians or reptiles that may fall prey to [19] fish.

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Carp flies Designed to resemble various vegetative sources of food that carp feed on such as berries, seeds and flowers that may fall into the [20] water. Salmon flies - A special genus of flies tied specifically to fly fish for Atlantic Salmon. Some salmon flies may be classified as lures while others may be classified as dry flies, such as the bomber. Salmon flies are also tied in classic and contemporary [21] patterns. Steelhead and Pacific salmon flies - Designed for catching andronomous steelhead trout and pacific salmon in western North American and Great Lakes rivers. Egg flies Designed to resemble the spawn of other fish that maybe encountered in a river and consumed by the target species. These are considered unsporting in Europe where thay are frowned upon!

Durham Ranger - a Classic Salmon fly

Green Highlander - a Classic Salmon fly

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Flesh flies Designed to resemble the rotting flesh of pacific salmon encountered in a river and consumed by the target species. Saltwater flies A genus of flies designed to represent a wide variety of inshore, offshore and estuarial saltwater baitfish, crustacean and other saltwater prey. Saltwater flies generally are found in both sub-surface and surface [22] patterns. Bonefish flies - A special genus of saltwater flies used to catch Bonefish in shallow water. Bonefish flies generally resemble small crabs, shrimp or other [23] crustaceans.

White Lefty's Deceiver - An all purpose saltwater baitfish imitation

Gold bendback shrimp fly

Cockroach Deceiver (Lefty Kreh)

Crazy Charlie - A popular bonefish fly

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Tarpon flies - A special genus of saltwater flies used to catch Tarpon in both inshore and offshore waters. Tarpon flies generally represent small baitfish commonly preyed upon by [23] tarpon.

Stu Apte Classic Tarpon Fly

Striped bass flies - A special genus of freshwater-saltwater fly used to catch Striped Bass in freshwater, inshore and offshore waters. Striped flies generally represent small baitfish commonly preyed upon by striped bass.

See also
Bibliography of fly fishing

Further reading
Bowlker (1854). Art of Angling-Containing Directions for Fly-Fishing, Trolling, Making Artificial Flies, etc.. London. Halford, Frederic M. (1886). Floating Flies and How to Dress Them. A Treatise on the Most Modern Methods of Dressing Artificial Flies for Trout and Grayling with Full Illustrated Directions and Containing Ninety Hand-Coloured Engravings of the Most Killing Patterns Together with a Few Hints to Dry-Fly Fishermen.. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. Ogden, James (1887). Ogden on Fly Tying, Etc. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington. Shipley, M.A. (1888). Artificial Flies and How To Tie Them. Philadelphia, PA: Press of Spangler and Davis.

Artificial fly Marbury, Mary Orvis (1892). Favorite Flies and Their Histories. Boston and New York: Houghton and Mifflin Company. Hale, Captain John Henry (1892). How to Tie Salmon Flies. London: Samson, Low and Marston Company Ltd. La Branche, George M. L. (1914). The Dry Fly and Fast Water. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons. Rhead, Louis (1916). American Trout Stream Insects-A Guide To Angling Flies and other Aquatic Insects Alluring to Trout. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company Publishers. McClelland, H. G. (1919). The Trout Fly Dresser's Cabinet of Devices or How To Tie Flies for Trout and Grayling Fishing. London: The Fishing Gazette. Hills, John Waller (1921). A History of Fly Fishing for Trout. London: Phillp Allan & Co. Skues, G.E.M. (1921). The Way of a Trout with the Fly: And some further studies in minor tactics. London: Adams and Charles Black. Jennings, Preston J. (1935). A Book of Trout Flies. New York: Crown Publishers, Derrydale Press. Brooks, Joe (1947). Bass Bug Fishing. South Brunswick, NJ: A. S. Barnes. Leonard, J. Edson (1950). Flies-Their origin, natural history, tying, hooks, patterns and selections of dry and wet flies, nymphs, streamers, salmon flies for fresh and salt water in North America and the British Isles, including a Dictionary of 2200 Patterns. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company. Schwiebert, Ernest G. Jr. (1955). Matching The Hatch-A Practical Guide to Imitation of Insects Found On Eastern and Western Trout Waters. Toronto, Canada: The MacMillan Company. Bates, Joseph D. (1966). Streamer Fly Tying & Fishing. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Bates, Joseph D. (1970). Atlantic Salmon Flies and Fishing. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN0811701808. Richards, Carl; Swisher, Doug (1971). Selective Trout-A Dramatically New and Scientific Approach to Trout Fishing on Eastern and Western Rivers. New York: Crown Publishers. Schwiebert, Ernest (1973). Nymphs-A Complete Guide to Naturals and Imitations. New York: Winchester Press. ISBN0876910746. Kreh, Lefty (1974). Fly Fishing in Saltwater. New York: Crown Publishers Inc. Combs, Trey (1976). Steelhead Fly Fishing and Flies. Portland, Oregon: Frank Amato. ISBN093660803X. Kreh, Lefty (1992). Fly Fishing for Bonefish, Permit & Tarpon. Birmingham, Alabama: Odysseus Editions. Reynolds, Barry; Berryman, John (1993). Pike on the Fly-The Fly Fishing Guide To Northerns, Tigers, and Muskies. Boulder, CO: Johnson Printing Company. ISBN1555661130. Kreh, Lefty (1993). Professionals' Favorite Flies-Volume 1-Dry Flies, Emergers, Nymphs & Terrestials. Birmingham, Alabama: Odysseus Editions. Kreh, Lefty (1994). Professionals' Favorite Flies-Volume 2-Streamers, Poppers, Crustaceans and Saltwater Patterns. Birmingham, Alabama: Odysseus Editions. Law, Glenn (1995). A Concise History of Fly Fishing. Birmingham, Alabama: Odysseus Editions. Hughes, Dave (1995). Wet Flies: Tying and Fishing Soft-Hackles, Winged and Wingless Wets, and Fuzzy Nymphs. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN0811718689. Richards, Carl (1995). Prey: Designing and Tying New Imitations of Fresh and Saltwater Forage Foods. New York: Lyons and Burford Publishers. ISBN1558213325. Schullery, Paul (1996). American Fly Fishing-A History. Norwalk, CT: The Easton Press. Reynolds, Barry; Befus, Brad; Berryman, John (1997). Carp on the Fly: A Flyfishing Guide. Spring Creek Press. ISBN1555662072. Schullery, Paul (1999). Royal Coachman-The Lore and Legends of Fly-Fishing. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN0684842467. Schullery, Paul (2006). The Rise-Streamside Observations on Trout, Flies and Fly Fishing. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN9780811701822.

53

Artificial fly Schullery, Paul (2006). Cowboy Trout-Western Fly Fishing As if it Matters. Montana Historical Society. ISBN097215227X.

54

References
[1] Wakeford, Jacqueline (1992). Fly Tying Tools and Materials. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers. pp.Preface. ISBN1558211837. [2] Dennys, John. The Secrets of Angling (4th. Ed., 1652). London: Robert Triphook. pp.20. [3] Leonard, J. Edson (1950). Flies-Their origin, natural history, tying, hooks, patterns and selections of dry and wet flies, nymphs, streamers, salmon flies for fresh and salt water in North America and the British Isles, including a Dictionary of 2200 Patterns. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company. pp.33. [4] Hills, John Waller (1921). A History of Fly Fishing for Trout. London: Phillp Allan & Co. [5] The Compleat Angler (1653) [6] Bowlker (1854). Art of Angling-Containing Directions for Fly-Fishing, Trolling, Making Artificial Flies, etc.. London. pp.frontpiece. [7] Best, Thomas (1807). A Concise Treatise on the Art of Angling. London: B. Crosby and Co.. pp.93. [8] Lord, W. B. (1863). Sea Fish and How To Catch Them. London: Bradbury and Evans. [9] Pennell, H. Cholmondeley (1865). The Book of Pike. London: Frederick Warne and Co. p.232. [10] Pennell, H. Cholomondeley (1884). The Modern Practical Angler. London: George Routledge and Sons. pp.6578. [11] Jardine, Charles, Flies, Ties, and Techniques, Ivy Press, East Sussex, p. 6,p. 56,p.60, 2008 [12] Schullery, Paul (1996). American Fly Fishing-A History. Norwalk, CT: The Easton Press. pp.8599, 228234.. [13] Orvis Online Fly Catalog (http:/ / www. orvis. com/ store/ shop. aspx?dir_id=1236& shop_id=1447) [14] Farlows of Pall Mall Website (http:/ / www. farlows. co. uk/ fly_fishing. html) [15] Umpqua Feather Merchants Fly Gallery (http:/ / www. umpqua. com/ c-38-fly-gallery. aspx) [16] Hughes, Dave (1995). Wet Flies: Tying and Fishing Soft-Hackles, Winged and Wingless Wets, and Fuzzy Nymphs. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN0811718689. [17] Schwiebert, Ernest (1973). Nymphs-A Complete Guide to Naturals and Imitations. New York: Winchester Press. ISBN0876910746. [18] Bates, Joseph D. (1966). Streamer Fly Tying & Fishing. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. [19] Reynolds, Barry; Berryman, John (1993). Pike on the Fly-The Fly Fishing Guide To Northerns, Tigers, and Muskies. Boulder, CO: Johnson Printing Company. ISBN1555661130. [20] Reynolds, Barry; Befus, Brad; Berryman, John (1997). Carp on the Fly: A Flyfishing Guide. Spring Creek Press. ISBN1555662072. [21] Bates, Joseph D. (1970). Atlantic Salmon Flies and Fishing. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN0811701808. [22] Richards, Carl (1995). Prey: Designing and Tying New Imitations of Fresh and Saltwater Forage Foods. New York: Lyons and Burford Publishers. ISBN1558213325. [23] Kreh, Lefty (1992). Fly Fishing for Bonefish, Permit & Tarpon. Birmingham, Alabama: Odysseus Editions.

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Other Fishing Techniques


Fishing techniques
Fishing techniques are methods for catching fish. The term may also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine invertebrates. Fishing techniques include hand gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure or sport, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use netting methods. There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.[1] Which techniques are appropriate is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat.

Hand fishing
It is possible to fish and gather many sea foods with minimal equipment by using the hands. Gathering seafood by hand can be as easily as picking shellfish or kelp up off the beach, or doing some digging for clams or crabs. The earliest evidence for shellfish gathering dates back to a 300,000 year old site in France called Terra Amata. This is a hominid site as modern Homo sapiens did not appear until around 50,000 years ago.[2] [3] Flounder tramping - Every August, the small Scottish village of Palnackie hosts the world flounder tramping championships where flounder are captured by stepping on them. Noodling: is practiced in the United States. The noodler places his hand inside a catfish hole. If all goes as planned, the catfish swims forward and latches onto the noodler's hand, and can then be dragged out of the hole.[4] Pearl divers - traditionally harvested oysters by free-diving to depths of thirty metres.[5] Today, free-diving recreational fishers catch lobster and abalone by hand.
Ama diver in Japan

Trout binning - is another method of taking trout. Rocks in a rocky stream are struck with a sledgehammer. The force of the blow stuns the fish.[6] Trout tickling - In the British Isles, the practice of catching trout by hand is known as trout tickling; it is an art mentioned several times in the plays of Shakespeare.[7]

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Spearfishing
Spearfishing is an ancient method of fishing conducted with an ordinary spear or a specialised variant such as a harpoon, trident, arrow or eel spear.[8] [9] Some fishing spears use slings (or rubber loops) to propel the spear. Bowfishing - uses a bow and arrow to kill fish in shallow water from above. Gigging - uses small trident type spears with long handles for gigging bullfrogs with a bright light at night, or for gigging suckers and other rough fish in shallow water. Gigging is popular in the American South and Midwest. Hawaiian slings - have a sling separate from the spear, in the manner of an underwater bow and arrow. Harpoons - Spearfishing with barbed poles was widespread in palaeolithic times.[10] Cosquer cave in Southern France contains cave art over 16,000 years old, including drawings of seals which appear to have been harpooned. Polespears - have a sling attached to the spear. Modern spearguns - traditional spearfishing is restricted to shallow A Hupa man with his spear waters, but the development of the speargun has made the method much more efficient. With practice, divers are able to hold their breath for up to four minutes and sometimes longer. Of course, a diver with underwater breathing equipment can dive for much longer periods. Tridents - are three-pronged spears. They are also called leisters or gigs. They are used for spear fishing and were formerly also a military weapon. They feature widely in early mythology and history.

Netting
Fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. About 180 AD the Greek author Oppian wrote the Halieutica, a didactic poem about fishing. He described various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". Netting is the principal method of commercial fishing, though longlining, trolling, dredging and traps are also used. Artisanal techniques Chinese fishing nets - are shore operated lift nets.[11] Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets with diameters of twenty metres or more. The nets are dipped into the water and raised again, but otherwise cannot be moved. Lampuki nets - are an example of a traditional artisanal use of nets. Since Roman times, Maltese fishers have cut the larger, lower fronds from palm trees which they then weave into large A fisherman casting a net in Kerala, India flat rafts. The rafts are pulled out to sea by a luzzu, a small traditional fishing boat. In the middle of the day, lampuki fish (the Maltese name for mahi-mahi) school underneath the rafts, seeking the shade, and are caught by the fishers using large mesh nets.

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Cast nets - are round nets with small weights distributed around the edge. They are also called throw nets. The net is caste or thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in.[12] This simple device has been in use, with various modifications, for thousands of years. Drift net - are nets which are not anchored. They are usually gillnets, and are commonly used in the coastal waters of many countries. Their use on the high seas is prohibited, but still occurs. Ghost nets - are nets that have been lost at sea. They can be a menace to marine life for many years. Gillnets - catch fish which try to pass through by snagging on the gill covers. Trapped, the fish can neither advance through the net nor retreat. Hand nets - are small nets held open by a hoop. They have been used since antiquity. They are also called scoop nets, and are used for scooping up fish near the surface of the water. They may or may not have a handleif they have a long handle they are called dip nets. When used by anglers to help land fish they are called landing nets.[13] Because hand netting is not destructive to fish, hand nets are used for tag and release, or capturing aquarium fish.

Oil painting of gillnetting, The salmon fisher by Eilif Peterssen.

Fishing with nets in C Mau, Vietnam.

Seine nets - are large fishing nets that can be arranged in different ways. In purse seining fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. Danish seining is a method which has some similarities with trawling. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is beach seining, where the seine net is operated from the shore. Surrounding net Trawl nets - are large nets, conical in shape, designed to be towed in the sea or along the sea bottom. The trawl is pulled through the water by one or more boats, called trawlers. The activity of pulling the trawl through the water is called trawling.

Angling
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (hook). The hook is usually attached to a line, and is sometimes weighed down by a sinker so it sinks in the water. This is the classic "hook, line and sinker" arrangement, used in angling since prehistoric times. The hook is usually baited with lures or bait fish. Additional arrangements include the use of a fishing rod, which can be fitted with a reel, and functions as a delivery mechanism for casting the line. Other delivery methods for projecting the line include fishing "Trolling for blue fish" lithograph by Currier & kites and cannons, kontiki rafts and remote controlled devices. Floats Ives, 1866 can can also be used to help set the line or function as bite indicators. The hook can be dressed with lures or bait. Angling is the principal method of sport fishing, but commercial fisheries also use angling methods involving multiple hooks, such as longlining or commercial trolling.

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Line fishing
Line fishing is fishing with a fishing line. A fishing line is any cord made for fishing. Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight (thicker, sturdier lines are more visible to fish). Factors that may determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, castability, limpness, stretch, abrasion resistance, and visibility.

Fishermen using jiggerpoles for jigging from the Queenscliff pier

Modern fishing lines are usually made from artificial substances. The most common type is monofilament, made of a single strand. There are also braided fishing lines and thermally fused superlines. Droplining - a dropline consists of a long fishing line set vertically down into the water, with a series of baited hooks Droplines have a weight at the bottom and a float at the top. They are not usually as long as longlines and have fewer hooks. Handlining - is fishing with a single fishing line, baited with lures or bait fish, which is held in the hands. Handlining can be done from boats or from the shore. It is used mainly to catch groundfish and squid, but smaller pelagic fish can also be caught. Jiggerpole Jigging Longlining - is a commercial technique that uses a long heavy fishing line with a series of hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from the main line by means of branch lines called "snoods". Longlines are usually operated from specialised boats called longliners. They use a special winch to haul in the line, and can operate in deeper waters targeting pelagic species such as swordfish, tuna, halibut and sablefish. Slabbing - involves repetitively lifting and dropping a flat lure, usually made of 1 to 2.5 oz of lead painted to look like a baitfish, through a school of actively feeding fish that the angler has located on a fish finder. Used on white and striped bass in the reservoirs of the southern USA.

Slab

Trolling - is fishing with one or more baited lines which are drawn through the water. This may be done by pulling the line behind a slow moving boat, or by slowly winding the line in when fishing from the land. Trolling is used to catch pelagic fish such as mackerel and kingfish.

External images
Pelagic longline Dropline
[16] [15] [14]

Trotline for catfish

Trotlining - a trotline is like a dropline, except that a dropline has a series of hooks suspended vertically in the water, while a trotline has a series of hooks suspended horizontally in the water. Trotlines can be physically set in many ways, such as tying each end to something fixed, and adjusting the set of the rest of the line with weights and floats. They are used for catching crabs or fish, such as catfish, particularly across rivers.

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Angling with a rod


Fishing rods give more control of the fishing line. The rod is usually fitted with a fishing reel which functions as a mechanism for storing, retrieving and paying out the line. Floats may also be used, and can function as bite indicators. The hook can be dressed with lures or bait. Bank fishing - fishing from river banks and similar shorelines. Bank fishing is usually performed with a rod and reel, although nets, traps, and spears can also be used. People who fish from a boat can sometimes access more areas in prime locations with greater ease than bank fishermen. However many people dont own boats and find fishing from the bank has its own advantages. Bank fishing has its own requirements, and many things come into play for success, such as local knowledge, water depth, bank structure, location, time of day, and the type of bait and lures. Casting - the act of throwing the fishing line out over the water using a flexible fishing rod. The usual technique is for the angler to quickly flick the rod from behind toward the water.[17] Casting is also a sport adjunct to fishing, much as shooting is to hunting. The sport is supervised by the International Casting Sport Federation [18] , which sponsors tournaments and recognizes world records for accuracy and distance. Float tubes - small doughnut-shaped boats with an underwater seat in the "hole". Float tubes are used for fly fishing and enable the angler to reach deeper water without splashing and disturbing stillwater fish. Fly fishing - the use of artificial flies as lures. These are cast with specially constructed fly rods and fly lines. The fly line (today, almost always coated with plastic) is heavy enough cast in order to send the fly to the target. Artificial flies vary dramatically in size, weight and colour. Fly fishing is a distinct and ancient angling method, most renowned as a method for catching trout and salmon, but employed today for a wide variety of species including pike, bass, panfish, and carp, as well as marine species, such as redfish, snook, tarpon, bonefish and striped bass. There is a growing population of anglers whose aim is to catch as many different species as possible with the fly.

Angling with a rod.

Extreme rock fishing off Muriwai Beach, New Zealand

An angler in his float tube plays a hooked pike.

Rock fishing - fishing from rocky outcrops into the sea. It is a popular pastime in Australia and New Zealand. It can be a dangerous pastime and claims many lives each year. Surfcasting - fishing from a shoreline using a rod to cast into the surf. With few exceptions, surf fishing is done in saltwater, often from a beach. The basic idea of most surfcasting is to cast a bait or lure as far out into the water as is necessary to reach the target fish from the shore. This may or may not require long casting distances and muscular techniques. Basic surf fishing can be done with a surfcasting rod between seven and twelve feet long, with an extended butt section, equipped with an appropriate spinning or conventional casting reel. Dedicated surfcasters usually possess an array of terminal and other tackle, with rods and reels of different lengths and actions, and lures and baits of different weights and capabilities. Depending on fishing conditions and the fish

Fishing techniques they are targeting, such surfcasters tailor bait and terminal tackle to rod and reel and the size and species of the fish. Reels and other equipment need to be constructed so they resist the corrosive and abrasive effects of salt and sand.

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Other angling
Bottom fishing - is fishing the bottom of a body of water. In the United Kingdom it is called "legering". A common rig for fishing on the bottom is a weight tied to the end of the line, with a hook about an inch up line from the weight. The method can be used both with hand lines and rods. There are fishing rods specialized for bottom fishing, called "donkas". The weight is used to cast or throw the line an appropriate distance. Bottom fishing can be done both from boats and from the land. It targets groundfish such as sucker fish, bream, catfish, and crappie. Fishing cannon Ice fishing - is the practice of catching fish with lines and hooks through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. It is practised by hunter-gatherers such as the Inuit and by anglers in other cold or continental climates. Kayak fishing - has a long history, and has gained popularity in recent times. Many of the techniques used are the same as those used on other fishing boats, apart from difference is in the set-up, how each piece of equipment is fitted to the kayak, and how each activity is carried out on such a small craft. Kite fishing is said to have been invented in China. It was, and still is, used by the people of New Guinea and other Pacific Islands - either by cultural diffusion from China or independent invention. Kites can provide the boatless fishermen access to waters that would otherwise be available only to boats. Similarly, for boat owners, kites provide a way to fish in areas where it is not safe to navigate such as shallows or coral reefs where fish may be plentiful. Kites can also be used for trolling a lure through the water. Suitable kites may be of very simple construction. Those of Tobi Island are a large leaf stiffened by the ribs of the fronds of the coconut palm. The fishing line may be made from coconut fibre and the lure made from spiders webs.[19] Modern kitefishing is popular in New Zealand, where large delta kites of synthetic materials are used to fish from beaches[20] , taking a line and hooks far out past the breakers. Kite fishing is also emerging in Melbourne where sled kites are becoming popular, both off beaches and off boats and in freshwater areas. The disabled community are increasingly using the kites for fishing as they allow mobility impaired people to cast the bait further out than they would otherwise be able to. Kon Tiki Boat anglers - Fishing is usually done either from a boat or from a shoreline or river bank. When fishing from a boat, pretty much any fishing technique can be used, from nets to fish traps, but some form of angling is by far the most common. Compared to fishing from the land, fishing from a boat allows more access to different fishing grounds and different species of fish. Some tackle is specialised for boat anglers, such as sea rods. Remote control fishing - Fishing can also be done using a remote controlled boat. This type of fishing is commonly referred to as RC fishing. The boat is usually one to three feet long and runs on a small DC battery. A radio transmitter controls the boat. The fisherman connects the fishing line/bait to the boat; drives it; navigating the water by manipulating the remote controller. The technique is growing in popularity. People have used home-made adaptations to remote control boats for this purpose, and recently commercial versions have appeared. There are also patented devices to adapt a regular RC boat into an RC fishing boat.[21] There is debate about whether RC fishing should be legal. Most states will allow it if the line disconnects when a fish is hooked to the boat, and the fisherman reels in the fish with a fishing pole. When the RC boat is used to pull in the fish, it may be illegal unless on private property.[22]

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Trapping
Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been independently invented many times. There are essentially two types of trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or tidal area and pot-traps that are baited to attract prey and periodically lifted. Artisanal techniques Dam fishing - An artisanal technique called dam fishing is used by the Baka pygmies. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in a drop in the water levels downstream -- allowing fish to be easily collected.[23] Basket weir fish traps - were widely used in ancient times. They are shown in medieval illustrations and surviving examples have been found. Basket weirs are about 2 m long and comprise two wicker cones, one inside the othereasy to get into and hard to get out.[24] Fishing weir - In medieval Europe, large fishing weir structures were constructed from wood posts and wattle fences. 'V' shaped structures in rivers could be as long as 60 metres and worked by directing fish towards fish traps or nets. Such fish traps were evidently controversial in medieval England. The Magna Carta includes a clause requiring that they be removed: "All fish-weirs shall be removed from the Thames, the Medway, and throughout the whole of England, except on the sea coast".[25] Fish wheels - operate alongside streams, much as a water-powered mill wheel. A wheel complete with baskets and paddles is attached to a floating dock. The wheel rotates due to the current of the stream. The baskets on the wheel capture fish travelling upstream and transfer them into a holding tank. When the holding tank is full, the fish are removed. Lobster traps - also called lobster pots, are traps used to catch lobsters. They resemble fish traps, yet are usually smaller and consist of several sections. Lobster traps are also used to catch other Lobster pots on the beach at Beer, Devon. crustaceans, such as crabs and crayfish. They can be constructed in various shapes, but the design strategy is to make the entry into the trap much easier than exit. The pots are baited and lowered into the water and checked frequently. Historically lobster pots were constructed with wood or metal. Today most traps are made from checkered wire and mesh. It is common for the trap to be weighted down with bricks. A bait bag is hung in the middle of the trap. In theory the lobster walks up the mesh and then falls into the wire trap. Bait varies from captain to captain but it is common to use herring. In commercial lobstering five to ten of these traps will be connected with line. A buoy marks each end of the string of pots. Two buoys are important to make retrieval easier and so captains don't set their traps over each other. Each buoy is painted differently so the various captains can identify their traps.

Fishermen with traditional fish traps, H Ty, Vietnam

A typical wooden fish wheel

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Animals
Cooperative human-dolphin fisheries date back to the ancient Roman author and natural philosopher Pliny the Elder.[26] A modern human-dolphin fishery still takes place in Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Here, dolphins drive fish towards fishermen waiting along the shore and give them a signal when they can cast their nets. The dolphins then feed off the fish that manage to escape the nets.[27]
[28]

Cormorant fishing - In China and Japan, the practice of cormorant fishing is thought to date back some 1300 years. Fishermen use the natural fish-hunting instincts of the cormorants to catch fish, but a metal ring placed round the bird's neck prevents large, valuable fish from being swallowed. The fish are instead collected by the fisherman.[29] Frigatebirds fishing - The people of Nauru used trained frigatebirds to fish on reefs.

Chinese man with fishing cormorant.

Portuguese Water Dogs - Dating from the 1500s in Portugal, Portuguese Water Dogs were used by fishermen to send messages between boats, to retrieve fish and articles from the water, and to guard the fishing boats. Labrador Retrievers have been used by fishermen to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. Remora fishing - The practice of tethering a remora, a sucking fish, to a fishing line and using the remora to capture sea turtles probably originated in the Indian Ocean. The earliest surviving records of the practice are Peter Martyr d'Anghera's 1511 accounts of the second voyage of Columbus to the New World (1494).[30] However, these accounts are probably apocryphal, and based on earlier, no longer extant accounts from the Indian Ocean region.

Other techniques
Artisanal techniques Basnig Electrofishing - is another recently developed technique, primarily used in freshwater by fisheries scientists. Electrofishing uses electricity to stun fish so they can be caught. It is commonly used in scientific surveys, sampling fish populations for abundance, density, and species composition. When performed correctly, electrofishing results in no permanent harm to fish, which return to their natural state a few minutes minutes after being stunned. Fish aggregating devices - are man-made objects used to attract pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). They usually consist of buoys or floats tethered to the ocean floor with concrete blocks.

Scientists carrying out a population and species survey using electrofishing equipment

Dredging - There are types of dredges used for collecting scallops, oysters or sea cucumbers from the seabed. They have the form of a scoop made of chain mesh and they are towed by a fishing boat. Dredging can be

Fishing techniques destructive to the seabed, because the marine life is unable to survive the weight of the dredge. It is extremely detrimental to coral beds since they take centuries to rebuild themselves. Unmonitored dredging can be compared to unmonitored forest clearing, where it can wipe out ecosystems. Nowadays, this method of fishing is often replaced by mariculture or by scuba diving. Fish finders - are electronic sonar devices which indicate the presence of fish and fish schools. They are widely used by recreational fishermen. Commercially, they are used with other electronic locating and positioning devices. Fishing light attractors - use lights attached (above or underwater) to some structure to attract fish and bait fish. Fishing light attractor are operated every night. After a while, fish discover the increased concentration of bait surrounding the light. Once located, the fish return regularly, and can be harvested. Flossing Harvesting machines - have recently been developed for commercial fishing. Harvesting machines use pumps to pump fish out of the sea. Dredges have also been mechanized so that they directly transfer mollusks to the surface as are dredged. Payaos - a type of fish aggregating device used in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Philippines. Payaos were traditionally bamboo rafts for handline fishing before World War II, but modern steel payaos use fish lights and fish location sonar to increase yields. While payaos fishing is sustainable on a small scale, the large scale, modern applications have been linked to adverse impacts on fish stocks. Shrimp baiting - is a method used by recreational fisherman for of catching shrimp. It uses a cast net, bait and long poles. The poles are used to mark a specific location and then bait is thrown in the water near the pole. After several minutes the cast net is thrown as close to the bait as possible and shrimp are caught in the net. In the 1980s the sport became popular in the south eastern coastal states of the USA.

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Destructive techniques
Destructive fishing practices are practices that easily result in irreversible damage to aquatic habitats and ecosystems. Many fishing techniques can be destructive if used inappropriately, but some practices are particularly likely to result in irreversible damage. These practices are mostly, though not always, illegal. Where they are illegal, they are often inadequately enforced. Some examples are: Explosives - Dynamite or blast fishing, is done easily and cheaply with dynamite or homemade bombs made from locally available materials. Fish are killed by the shock from the blast and are then skimmed from the surface or collected from the bottom. The explosions indiscriminately kill large numbers of fish and other marine organisms in the vicinity and can damage or destroy the physical environment. Explosions are particularly harmful to coral reefs.[31] Blast fishing is also illegal in many waterways around the world. Bottom trawling Cyanide fishing - Cyanides are used to capture live fish near coral reefs for the aquarium and seafood market. This illegal fishing occurs mainly in or near the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Caribbean to supply the 2 million marine aquarium owners in the world. Many fish caught in this fashion die either immediately or in shipping. Those that survive often die from shock or from massive digestive damage. The high concentrations of cyanide on reefs harvested in this fashion damages the coral polyps and has also resulted in cases of cyanide poisoning among local fishermen and their families. Fish toxins Muroami - is a destructive artisan fishing method employed on coral reefs in Southeast Asia. An encircling net is used with pounding devices, such as large stones fitted on ropes that are pounded onto the coral reefs. They can also consist of large heavy blocks of cement suspended above the sea by a crane fitted to the vessel. The pounding devices are repeatedly lowered into the area encircled by the net, smashing the coral into small fragments in order

Fishing techniques to scare the fish out of their coral refuges. The "crushing" effect on the coral heads has been described as having longlasting and practically totally destructive effects.[32]

64

History
Ancient remains of spears, hooks and fishnet have been found in ruins of the Stone Age. The people of the early civilization drew pictures of nets and fishing lines in their arts (Parker 2002). Early hooks were made from the upper bills of eagles and from bones, shells, horns and plant thorns. Spears were tipped with the same materials, or sometimes with flints. Lines and nets were made from leaves, plant stalk and cocoon silk. Ancient fishing nets were rough in design and material but they were amazingly, as if some now use (Parker 2002). Literature on the indigenous fishing practices is very scanty. Baines (1992) documented traditional fisheries in the Solomon Island. Use of the herbal fish poisons in catching fishes from fresh water and sea documented from New Caledonia (Dahl 1985). John (1998) documented fishing techniques and overall life style of the Mukkuvar fishing Community of Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu, India. Tribal people using various plants for medicinal and various purposes (Rai et al. 2000; Singh et al. 1997; Lin 2005) extends the use notion for herbal fish stupefying plants. Use of the fish poisons is very old practice in the history of human kind. In 1212 AD King Frederick II prohibited the use of certain plant piscicides, and by the fifteenth century similar laws had been decreed in other European countries as well (Wilhelm 1974). All over the globe, indigenous people use various fish poisons to kill the fishes, documented in America (Jeremy 2002) and among Tarahumara Indian (Gajdusek 1954).

References
FAO: Fishing gears and methods [33] FAO: Fact Sheets: Fishing Technique [33] FAO: Fact Sheets: Fishing Gear type [34] FAO: (1964) Modern Fishing Gear Of The World 2 [35] Fishing News Books. Resulting from the first FAO Fishing Gear Congress held in Hamburg in 1957. Download PDF (69MB) [36] FAO: (1971) Modern Fishing Gear Of The World 3: Fish finding, purse seining and aimed trawling [35] Fishing News Books. Editor Hilmar Kristjohsson. Download PDF (56MB) [37]

Further reading
Schultz, Ken (1999). Fishing Encyclopedia: Worldwide Angling Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0028620577. Gabriel O, von Brandt A, Lange K, Dahm E and Wendt T (2005) Fish catching methods of the world [38] Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780852382806. Galbraith R D and A Rice after E S Strange (2004) An Introduction to Commercial Fishing Gear and Methods Used in Scotland [39] Scottish Fisheries Information Pamphlet No. 25. Waldman, John (2005) 100 Weird Ways to Catch Fish [40] Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811731799

Fishing techniques

65

External links
UN Atlas of the Oceans: Fish capture technology [41] New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries: Fishing methods [42] Fishing Techniques [43]

References
[1] Keegan, William F (1986) The Optimal Foraging Analysis of Horticultural Production (http:/ / www. arqueologiamendoza. com/ wikisrc/ images/ b/ b5/ The_Optimal_Foraging_Analysis_of_Horticultural_Production. pdf. ) American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1., pp. 92-107. [2] Szabo [3] Szabo, Katherine Prehistoric Shellfish gathering. (http:/ / www. manandmollusc. net/ history_food. html) [4] Snopes Urban Legend Website on Noodling (http:/ / www. snopes. com/ photos/ noodling. asp) [5] Catelle, W. R. (1457). "Methods of Fishing" (http:/ / www. farlang. com/ gemstones/ catelle-the-pearl/ page_171). The Pearl: Its Story, Its Charm, and Its Value. Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott Company. pp.171. . [6] Trout binning in The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Vol. 12, Issue 328, August 23, 1828 (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 11267), Project Gutenberg. [7] Bennett, Oliver (2004-10-24). "HOW TO... Tickle a trout" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4159/ is_20041024/ ai_n12762769). The Independent. . Retrieved 2007-09-06. [8] Image of an eel spear (http:/ / www. clarelibrary. ie/ eolas/ claremuseum/ riches_of_clare/ water/ eel_spear2. htm). [9] Spear fishing for eels (http:/ / www. journalofantiques. com/ June03/ hearthJun03. htm). [10] Guthrie, Dale Guthrie (2005) The Nature of Paleolithic Art. (http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=3u6JNwMyMCEC& pg=PA298& lpg=PA298& dq=Cosquer+ spear+ fish& source=web& ots=JMnNQj1gPu& sig=2SgDhCZyGrWWNpMXz9y0DLSWmuE& hl=en#PPA298,M1) Page 298. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226311260 [11] Shore operated stationary lift nets (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ geartype?fid=255) [12] Dunbar, Jeffery A (2001) Casting net (http:/ / www. nccoastalfishing. com/ index. htm?casting. htm~main) NC Coastal fishing. Retrieved 25 August 2008. [13] Fishing Tools - Landing Nets (http:/ / www. abc-of-fishing. net/ fishing-tools/ landing-net. asp) [14] http:/ / www. afma. gov. au/ information/ students/ methods/ pelagic. htm [15] http:/ / www. afma. gov. au/ information/ students/ methods/ droplines. htm [16] http:/ / www. whiskerkitty. com/ images/ TrotlineDraw. jpg [17] C. Boyd Pfeiffer (1999). Fly Fishing Saltwater Basics: Saltwater Basics. Stackpole Books. ISBN0811727637. [18] http:/ / www. castingsport-icsf. com/ [19] KiteLines Fall 1977 (Vol. 1 No. 3) Articles on Kite Fishing (http:/ / www. kitelife. com/ kitelines/ welcome. htm). [20] Big Dropper Rigs (http:/ / www. fishingkites. co. nz/ popup/ kitedropper. htm) [21] http:/ / www. theoaklandpress. com/ articles/ 2010/ 01/ 07/ sports/ doc4b45c19b28b5f523466569. txt [22] (http:/ / rcfishingworld. com/ it/ is_legal. html) [23] Dam Fishing (http:/ / www. pygmies. info/ fishing. html) Fishing techniques of the Baka. [24] Shooting and Fishing the Trent (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ ulas/ annualreports/ ar99-00/ hemington/ hemington. html), ancient fish traps. [25] The Text of Magna Carta (http:/ / www. fordham. edu/ halsall/ source/ magnacarta. html), see paragraph 33. [26] M.B. Santos, R. Fernndez, A. Lpez, J.A. Martnez and G.J. Pierce (2007), Variability in the diet of bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in Galician waters, north-western Spain, 1990 2005 (http:/ / journals. cambridge. org/ production/ action/ cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=703604) (.pdf), article retrieved April 3, 2007. [27] The Telegraph (2006), Brazil's sexiest secret (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ travel/ main. jhtml?xml=/ travel/ 2006/ 03/ 09/ etbrazil09. xml& page=1), article retrieved March 11, 2007. [28] Dr. Moti Nissani (2007) Bottlenose Dolphins in Laguna Requesting a Throw Net (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=ECk0yMifmzw) (video). Supporting material for Dr. Nissani's presentation at the 2007 International Ethological Conference. Video retrieved February 13, 2008. [29] Cormorant fishing: history and technique (http:/ / www. city. gifu. gifu. jp/ kankou/ 08_eng_01. html). [30] De Orbe Novo, Volume 1, The Eight Decades of Peter Martyr D'Anghera (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 12425/ 12425-h/ 12425-h. htm), Project Gutenberg. [31] Explosions In The Cretan Sea: The scourge of illegal fishing (http:/ / stigmes. gr/ br/ brpages/ articles/ dinambr. htm) -- fishing with explosives. [32] FAO: Destructive fishing practices (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ topic/ 12353/ en) [33] http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ topic/ 1617/ en [34] http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ geartype/ search/ en [35] http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ modernfishinggea034788mbp

Fishing techniques
[36] http:/ / www. archive. org/ download/ modernfishinggea034788mbp/ modernfishinggea034788mbp. pdf [37] http:/ / www. archive. org/ download/ modernfishinggea034697mbp/ modernfishinggea034697mbp. pdf [38] http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=ziAI8AZsmUoC& pg=PA444& lpg=PA444& dq=%22seine+ net%22& source=bl& ots=F9OhZnVZ3p& sig=x5a38Q6KSnaF-B6xpikOf_MGrcE& hl=en& ei=qyPHSZ78NJmQsQP-xdT5Bg& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA433,M1 [39] http:/ / www. marlab. ac. uk/ FRS. Web/ Uploads/ Documents/ Fishing%20Gear. pdf [40] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=_bAWeHAHih8C& pg=PA49& dq=Electrofishing+ date:2000-2008& lr=& num=100& as_brr=0& ei=aQXkSPjIFZPqMv_lrfYP& sig=ACfU3U3Thu9hRchw7VEAl9gK2ZB_qkLGMw [41] http:/ / www. oceansatlas. org/ servlet/ CDSServlet?status=ND1maWdpczMzODQmNj1lbiYzMz0qJjM3PWtvcw~~ [42] http:/ / www. fish. govt. nz/ en-nz/ Commercial/ About+ the+ Fishing+ Industry/ Fishing+ Methods. htm?WBCMODE=PresentationUnpublished%2b%2b [43] http:/ / www7. taosnet. com/ platinum/ data/ whatis/ fishing. html

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Spearfishing
"Spearfisherman" redirects here. For the former diving gear company see Spearfisherman (company). Spearfishing is an ancient method of fishing that has been used throughout the world for millennia. Early civilizations were familiar with the custom of spearing fish from rivers and streams using sharpened sticks. Today, modern spearfishing makes use of elastic powered spearguns and slings, or compressed gas pneumatic powered spearguns, to strike the hunted fish. Specialized techniques and equipment have been developed for various types of aquatic environments and target fish. Spearfishing may be done using free-diving, Night spear fishing, Amazon basin, Peru. snorkeling, or scuba diving techniques. Because of a view that there is a lack of sportsmanship in some modern spearfishing techniques, the use of mechanically powered spearguns is outlawed in some jurisdictions. Spearfishing is highly selective, with a low amount of by-catch. With education and proper regulations, spearfishing can be an ecologically sustainable form of fishing. The best free-diving spear fishers can hold their breath for 2 to 4 minutes, and dive to depths of 40 or even 60 meters (130 to 200 feet). However, dives of about one minute and 15 or 20 meters (50 to 70 feet) are more typical for the average spear fisher.

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History
Spearfishing with barbed poles (harpoons) was widespread in palaeolithic times.[1] Cosquer cave in Southern France contains cave art over 16,000 years old, including drawings of seals which appear to have been harpooned. There are references to fishing with spears in ancient literature; though, in most cases, the descriptions do not go into detail. An early example from the Bible is in Job 41:7: Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?. The Greek historian Polybius (ca 203 BC120 BC), in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head.[2]
Fisherman with a spear in a wall painting from the tomb of Usheret in Thebes, 18 Dynasty, around 1430 BC

Greek author Oppian of Corycus wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived intact. Oppian describes various means of fishing including the use of spears and tridents. In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius carried a trident and a casting-net. He fought the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. Copper harpoons were known to the seafaring Harappans[3] well into antiquity.[4] Early hunters in India include the Mincopie people, aboriginal inhabitants of India's Andaman and Nicobar islands, who have used harpoons with long cords for fishing since early times.[5]

Poseidon/Neptune sculpture in Copenhagen Port

Mosaic, 4th century BC, showing a retiarius or "net fighter", with a trident and cast net, fighting a secutor.

Dutch fishermen using tridents in the 17th century

Traditional spear fishing


Spear fishing is an ancient method of fishing and may be conducted with an ordinary spear or a specialized variant such as an eel spear[6] [7] or the trident. A small trident type spear with a long handle is used in the American South and Midwest for gigging bullfrogs with a bright light at night, or for gigging carp and other fish in the shallows.

Head of an arrow used for fishing, from Guyana.

Traditional spear fishing is restricted to shallow waters, but the development of the speargun allows fishing in deeper waters. With practice, divers are able to hold their breath for up to four minutes and sometimes longer; of course, a diver with underwater breathing equipment can dive for much longer periods.

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Modern spear fishing


In the 1920s, sport spearfishing using only watertight swimming goggles became popular on the Mediterranean coast of France and Italy. This led to development of the modern diving mask, swimfin and snorkel. Modern scuba diving had its genesis in the systematic use of rebreathers by Italian sport spearfishers during the 1930s. This practice came to the attention of the Italian Navy, which developed its frogman unit, which affected World War II.[8] During the 1960s, attempts to have spearfishing recognized as an Olympic sport were unsuccessful. Instead, two organisations, the International Underwater Spearfishing Association [9] (IUSA) and the International Bluewater Spearfishing Records Committee [10] (IBSRC), list world record catches by species according to rules to ensure fair competition. Spearfishing is illegal in many bodies of water, and some locations only allow spearfishing during certain seasons. In 2007, the Australian Bluewater Freediving Classic became the first spearfishing tournament to be accredited and was awarded 4 out of 5 stars based on environmental, social, safety and economic indicators.[11]

Purposes of spearfishing
People spearfish for sport, for commerce or simply to eat. In tropical seas, some natives spearfish for a living, often using home-made kit.

Spearfishing and conservation


Spearfishing has been implicated in local extinction of many species, including the Goliath grouper on the Caribbean island of Bonaire, the Nassau grouper in the barrier reef off the coast of Belize, the giant black sea bass in California, and others.[12]

Types of spearfishing
The methods and locations freedive spearfishers use vary greatly around the world. This variation extends to the species of fish sought and the gear used.

Shore diving
Shore diving is perhaps the most common form of spearfishing and simply involves entering and exiting the sea from beaches or headlands and hunting around ocean structures, usually reef, but also rocks, kelp or sand. Usually shore divers hunt at depths of 525 metres (1682 ft), Spearfisherman hunting dog-tooth tuna in the Ryu-Kyu Islands depending on location. In some locations in the South Pacific, divers can experience drop-offs from 5 to 40 metres (16 to 130 ft) close to the shore line. Sharks and reef fish can be abundant in these locations. In subtropical areas, sharks may be less common, but other challenges face the shore diver, such as managing entry and exit in the presence of big waves. Headlands are favored for entry because of their proximity to deeper water, but timing is important so the diver does not get pushed onto rocks by waves. Beach entry can be safer, but more difficult due the need to consistently dive through the waves until the surf line is crossed.

Spearfishing

69 Shore dives produce mainly reef fish, but ocean going pelagic fish fish are caught from shore dives too, and can be specifically targeted. Shore diving can be done with trigger-less spears such as pole spears or Hawaiian slings, but more commonly triggered devices such as spearguns. Speargun setups to catch and store fish include speed rigs and fish stringers.

Catch bags worn close to the body can dangerously inhibit movement, especially during descent or ascent on deeper freedives and in shark-inhabited waters. The better option is to tow a float, with a attached float line Spear fisherman in Hawaii onto which catch can be threaded. Tying the float line to the speargun can help in the event of a large catch, or to recover a dropped speargun.

Boat diving
Boats, ships or even kayaks can be used to access offshore reefs or ocean structures such as pinnacles. Man-made structures such as oil rigs and Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) are also fished. Sometimes a boat is necessary to access a location that is close to shore, but inaccessible by land. Methods and gear used for boat diving are similar to shore diving or blue water hunting, depending on the target prey. Care must be taken with spearguns in the cramped confines of a small boat, including leaving them unloaded until entering the water. Boat diving is practiced worldwide. Hot spots include the northern islands of New Zealand (yellow tail kingfish), Gulf of Florida oil rigs (cobia, grouper) and the Great Barrier Reef (wahoo, dog-tooth tuna). FADS are targeted worldwide, often specifically for mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). The deepwater fishing grounds off Cape Point, (Cape Town, South Africa) have become popular with trophy hunting, freediving spearfishers in search of Yellowfin Tuna.

Blue water hunting


Blue water hunting is the area of most interest to elite spearfishers, but has increased in popularity generally in recent years. It involves accessing usually very deep and clear water and trolling, chumming for large pelagic fish species such as marlin, tuna, or giant trevally. Blue water hunting is often conducted in drifts; the boat driver drops divers and allow them to drift in the current for up to several kilometers before collecting them. Blue water hunters can go for hours without seeing any fish, and without any ocean structure or a visible bottom the divers can experience sensory deprivation and have difficulty determining the size of a solitary fish. One technique to overcome this is to note the size of the fish's eye in relation to its bodylarge specimens have a proportionally smaller eye. Notably, blue water hunters make use of breakaway rigs and large multi-band wooden guns to catch and subdue their prey. If the prey is large and still has fight left after being subdued, a second gun can provide a kill shot at a safe distance. This is acceptable to IBSRC and IUSA regulations as long as the spearfisher loads it himself in the water. Blue water hunting is conducted worldwide, but notable hot spots include South Africa (yellowfin tuna) and the South Pacific (dogtooth tuna). Jack Prodanavich and Hal Lewis of San Diego were among the first to target large fastmoving fish like Tuna.

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Without diving
Spearfishing with a hand held spear from land, shallow water or boat has been practised for thousands of years. The fisher must account for optical refraction at the water's surface, which makes fish appear further away than they are. By experience, the fisher learns to aim lower. Calm and shallow waters are favored for spearing fish from above the surface, as water clarity is of utmost importance.[13] Spearfishing in this manner has some similarities to bowfishing. Also, see gigging.
Menominees spearfishing salmon at night by torchlight and canoe on Fox River

Equipment
This is a list of equipment commonly used in spearfishing. Not all of it is necessary and spearfishing is often practised with minimal gear. Speargun see speargun. Polespear Pole spears, or hand spears, consist of a long shaft with point at one end and an elastic loop at the other for propulsion. They also come in a wide variety, from aluminum or titanium metal, to fiberglass or carbon fiber. Often they are screwed together from smaller pieces or able to be folded down for ease of transport. Hawaiian slings Hawaiian slings consist of an elastic band attached to a tube, through which a spear is launched. Wet Suit Wetsuits designed specifically for spearfishing are often two-piece (jacket and high waisted pants, or 'long-john' style pants with shoulder straps) and have camouflage patterns, blue for open ocean, green or brown for reef hunting. Commonly they have a pad on the chest to aid in loading spearguns. Weight belt or weight vest These are used to compensate for wetsuit buoyancy and help the diver descend to depth. Fins Fins for freedive spearfishing are much longer than those used in SCUBA to aid in fast ascent. Knife A knife should always be carried as a safety precaution in case of the diver becoming tangled in his spear or float line. It can also be used as an iki jime or kill spike. Iki jime or kill spike In lieu of a knife, a sharpened metal spike can be used to kill the fish quickly and humanely upon capture. This action reduces interest from sharks by stopping the fish from thrashing. Iki jime is a Japanese term and is a
Inuit hunter with harpoon in kayak, Hudson Bay, circa 1908-1914 A Hupa man with his spear

Spearfishing method traditionally used by Japanese fishermen. Killing the fish quickly is believed to improve the flavor of the flesh by limiting the build up of adrenaline in the fish's muscles. Snorkel and diving mask Spearfishing snorkels and diving masks are similar to those used for scuba diving. Spearfishing masks sometimes have mirrored lenses that prevent fish from seeing the spearfisher's eyes tracking them. Mirrored lenses appear to fish as one big eyeball, so head movements can still spook the fish. Buoy or float A buoy is usually tethered to the spearfisher's speargun or directly to the spear. A buoy helps to subdue large fish. It can also assist in storing fish, but is more importantly used as a safety device to warn boat drivers there is diver in the area. Floatline A floatline connects the buoy to the speargun. Often made from woven plastic, they are also frequently made from mono-filament encased in an airtight plastic tube, or made from stretchable bungee cord. Gloves Gloves are valuable to spearfishermen who desire to maintain a sense of safety or access more dangerous areas, such as those between coral, that could otherwise not be reached without use of the hands. They also aid in loading the bands on rubber powered speargun and protect the spearfishers hands from the teeth and spines of struggling fish.

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Management of Spearfishing
Spearfishing is intensively managed throughout the world. Australia allows only recreational spearfishing and generally only breath-hold free diving. The Government imposes numerous restrictions, demarcating Marine Protected Areas, Closed Areas, Protected Species, size/bag limits and equipment. Australia's peak recreational body is the Australian Underwater Federation. The vision of this group is "Safe, Sustainable, Selective, Spearfishing" and the AUF provides membership, advocacy and organises competitions.[14] Norway has a relatively large ratio of coastline to population, and has one of the most liberal spearfishing rules in the northern hemisphere. Spearfishing with scuba gear is widespread among recreational divers. Restrictions in Norway are limited to anadrome species, like atlantic salmon, sea trout, and lobster.[15] In Mexico a regular fishing permit allows spearfishing, but not electro-mechanical spearguns.[16] Spearfishing in Florida, United States, is restricted to several hundred yards offshore in many areas and the usage of a powerhead is prohibited within state waters. Many types of fish are currently under heavy bag restrictions.

References
Len Jones. Len Jones' Guide to Freedive Spearfishing. Underwater fishing in Australia and New Zealand by Adam Smith Spearfishing is it ecologically sustainable? [17] A paper given at the World Recreational Fishing Conference, Darwin, Australia by Adam Smith and Seji Nakaya Terry Maas (1998). Bluewater Hunting & Freediving. Ventura, CA: BlueWater Freedivers. ISBN0-9644966-3-1.

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References
[1] Guthrie, Dale Guthrie (2005) The Nature of Paleolithic Art. (http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=3u6JNwMyMCEC& pg=PA298& lpg=PA298& dq=Cosquer+ spear+ fish& source=web& ots=JMnNQj1gPu& sig=2SgDhCZyGrWWNpMXz9y0DLSWmuE& hl=en#PPA298,M1) Page 298. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226311260 [2] Polybius, "Fishing for Swordfish" (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Plb. + 34. 3), Histories Book 34.3 (Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, translator). London, New York: Macmillan, 1889. Reprint Bloomington, 1962. [3] Ray 2003, page 93 [4] Allchin 1975, page 106 [5] Edgerton 2003, page 74 [6] Image of an eel spear (http:/ / www. clarelibrary. ie/ eolas/ claremuseum/ riches_of_clare/ water/ eel_spear2. htm). [7] Spear fishing for eels (http:/ / www. journalofantiques. com/ June03/ hearthJun03. htm). [8] Quick, D. (1970). "A History Of Closed Circuit Oxygen Underwater Breathing Apparatus" (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 4960). Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine. RANSUM-1-70. . Retrieved 2008-04-25. [9] http:/ / www. iusarecords. com [10] http:/ / www. freedive. net/ ibsrc/ index. html [11] Recfish Australia (http:/ / www. recfish. com. au/ hot_topics/ media. html) [12] Roberts, Callum. The Unnatural History of the Sea, Island Press, 2007, p. 238 [13] Otto Gabriel; Andres von Brandt (2005). Fish Catching Methods of the World (http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=ziAI8AZsmUoC& printsec=frontcover& dq="Fish+ catching+ methods+ of+ the+ world"& ei=Ar_WSZi1GIq8kwSam5CCCA). Blackwell Publishing. pp.5354. ISBN0852382804. [14] Australian Underwater Federation (http:/ / www. auf-spearfishing. com. au) [15] Spearfishing in Norway (http:/ / www. frivannsliv. no/ spearfishing. no/ Spearfishing. html) [16] CONAPESCA SAN DIEGO - Sportfishing regulations, Conapesca Mexico San Diego Office (http:/ / www. conapescasandiego. org/ contenido. cfm?cont=REGULATIONS) [17] http:/ / www. auf-spearfishing. com. au/ administration/ documents/ documents/ 23. pdf

Fishing net
A fishing net or fishnet is a net that is used for fishing. Fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used.

Fishing for salmon with a hand net on the Fraser River, Canada

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Types of fishing nets


Hand net Hand nets are held open by a hoop and are possibly on the end of a long stiff handle. They have been known since antiquity and may be used for sweeping up fish near the water surface like muskellunge and northern pike. When such a net is used by an angler to help land a fish it is known as a landing net.[1] In England, hand netting is the only legal way of catching eels and has been practised for thousands of years on the River Parrett and River Severn. Lave net A special form of large hand net is the Lave net [2] now used in very few locations on the River Severn in England. The Lave net is set in the water and the fisherman waits till he feels a fish hit against the mesh and the net is then lifted. Fish as large as Sturgeon have been caught in Lave nets. Cast net Cast nets are small round nets with weights on the edges which is thrown by the fisher. Sizes vary up to about four metres in diameter. The net is thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in.[3]
Casting a net in the Mahanadi River, India

A landing net

Coracle fishing Coracle fishing is performed by two men, each seated in a coracle, plying his paddle with one hand and holding a shared net with the other. When a fish is caught, each hauls up his end of the net until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is secured. Chinese nets The Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) are used at Kochi in India. They are an example of shore operated lift nets[4] because they are held horizontally by a large fixed structure and periodically lowered into the water. Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets with diameters of twenty metres or more. The nets are dipped into the water and raised again, but otherwise cannot be moved. Gillnet The gillnet catches fish which try to pass through it by snagging on the gill covers. Thus trapped, the fish can neither advance through the net nor retreat

Coracles net fishing on the River Teifi, Wales 1972.

Fishing net

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Drift net The drift net is a net that is not anchored. It is usually a gillnet, and is commonly used in the coastal waters of many countries.[5] . Its use on the high seas is prohibited, but still occurs. Ghost net Ghost nets are nets that have been lost at sea. They may continue to be a menace to marine life for many years. Stake net A stake net is a form of net for catching salmon. It consists of a sheet of network stretched on stakes fixed into the ground, generally in rivers or where the sea ebbs and flows, for entangling and catching the fish. Drive-in net A drive-in net is another fixed net, used by small-scale fishermen in some fisheries in Japan and South Asia, particularly in the Philippines. Three fykes at the Zuiderzeemuseum It is used to catch schooling forage fish such as fusiliers and other reef fish. It is a dustpan-shaped net, resembling a trawl net with long wings. The front part of the net is laid along the seabed. The fishermen either wait until a school swims into the net, or they drive fish into it by creating some sort of commotion. Then the net is closed by lifting the front end so the fish cannot escape.[6] Fyke net Fyke nets are bag-shaped nets which are held open by hoops. These can be linked together in long chains, and are used to catch eels in rivers. If fyke nets are equipped with wings and leaders, they can also be used in sheltered places in lakes where there is plenty plant life. Hundreds of these nets can be connected into systems where it is not practical to build large traps.[7] Trammel A trammel is a fishing net set vertically in the water with three layers. The layers are made of finer meshes as they progress from the outer layer to the inner layer, in order to trap and pre-sort different fish. Seine A seine is a large fishing net that may be arranged in a number of different ways. In purse seine fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is beach seining, where the seine net is operated from the shore. Danish seine is a method which has some similarities with trawling. In the UK seine netting for Salmon and Sea-trout in coastal waters is only permitted in a very few locations and where it is permitted one end of the seine must remain fixed and the other end is then waded out and returns to the fixed point. This variant is called Wade netting and is strictly controlled by law.[8]

Chinese fishing nets in Kerala, India

Fishing net Trawl A trawl is a large net, conical in shape, designed to be towed in the sea or along the sea bottom. The trawl is pulled through the water by one or more boats, called trawlers. The activity of pulling the trawl through the water is called trawling.

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Fishermen in Bangladesh

A Moroccan fisherman mending his nets.

Fishing nets on a shrimp boat, Ostend, Belgium

Fishing with a cast net.

History
See also: History of fishing Between 177 and 180 the Greek author Oppian wrote the Halieutica, a didactic poem about fishing. He described various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". Here is Oppian's description of fishing with a "motionless" net: The fishers set up very light nets of buoyant flax and wheel in a circle round about while they violently strike the surface of the sea with their oars and make a din with sweeping blow of poles. At the flashing of the swift oars and the noise the fish bound in terror and rush into the bosom of the net which stands at rest, thinking it to be a shelter: foolish fishes which, frightened by a noise, enter the gates of doom. Then the fishers on either side hasten with the ropes to draw the net ashore.

Boat-shaped pot from the Ancient China Yangshao neolithic period (ca. 5000-3000 BC). The black fishnet design on this vessel, which was used to draw water, suggests that the Neolithic Chinese were already using nets to catch fish.

Fishing with a net, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)

Albrecht Drer c. 1490-1493

Medieval Scandinavian ice fishing technique (published 1555).

Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show nets.[9] In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a casting-net. He would fight against the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. In Norse mythology the sea giantess Rn uses a fishing net to trap lost sailors.

Fishing net

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See also
Fishing Fishnet (material)

References
Klust, Gerhard (1982) Netting materials for fishing gear [10] FAO Fishing Manuals, Fishing News Books. ISBN 978-0852381182. Download PHP (9MB) [11]

External links
Fishing Gear in Focus [12]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Fishing Tools - Landing Nets (http:/ / www. abc-of-fishing. net/ fishing-tools/ landing-net. asp) Lave Net Fishing (http:/ / www. severnsideforum. co. uk/ lave fishing. htm) Casting net (http:/ / www. nccoastalfishing. com/ index. htm?casting. htm~main). Shore operated stationary lift nets (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ geartype?fid=255)

[5] Drift net [6] Gabriel, Otto; Andres von Brandt (2005). Fish Catching Methods of the World (http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=ziAI8AZsmUoC& pg=PA308& lpg=PA308& dq="drive-in+ net"+ + fish& source=bl& ots=F9PhSgTY5r& sig=eCHC4DVKuS5uTnGW7jnRJ5HECak& hl=en& ei=PvJTSpHlD6b66gOIq4HTBw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5). Blackwell. ISBN0852382804. [7] fyke net (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 222985/ fyke-net) (2008) In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved December 24, 2008, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online. [8] Fish weirs on the Tf, Towy and Gwendraeth estuaries, Carmarthenshire. The Carmarthenshire Antiquary, Vol.xxxix 2003 (http:/ / web. onetel. net. uk/ ~rapanui/ Fish_weirs/ fish_weirs. htm) [9] Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman mosaic (http:/ / museum. agropolis. fr/ english/ pages/ expos/ aliments/ poissons/ images/ mosaique. htm). [10] http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ nettingmaterials034862mbp [11] http:/ / www. archive. org/ download/ nettingmaterials034862mbp/ nettingmaterials034862mbp. pdf [12] http:/ / www. amcs. org. au/ default2. asp?active_page_id=156

Fish trap

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Fish trap
A fish trap is a trap used for fishing. Fish traps may have the form of a fishing weir or a lobster trap. A typical trap might consist of a frame of thick steel wire in the shape of a heart, with chicken wire stretched around it. The mesh wraps around the frame and then tapers into the inside of the trap. When a fish swims inside through this opening, it cannot get out, as the chicken wire opening bends back into its original narrowness. In earlier times, traps were constructed of wood and fibre.
Traditional fish traps, H Ty, Vietnam.

History
Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been independently invented many times. There are essentially two types of trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or tidal area and pot-traps that are baited to attract prey and periodically lifted. The prehistoric Yaghan people who inhabited the Tierra Del Fuego area constructed stonework in shallow inlets that would effectively confine fish at low tide levels. Some of this extant stonework survives at Bahia Wulaia at the Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens archaeological site.[1] In southern Italy, during the 17th century, a new fishing tecnique began An Italian trabucco on the Adriatic coast near to be used. The trabucco is an old fishing machine typical of the coast Rodi Garganico of Gargano protected as historical monuments by the homonym National Park. This giant trap, built in structural wood, is spread along the coast of southern Adriatic especially in the province of Foggia and also in some parts of the coast of southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Indigenous Australians were, prior to European colonisation, most populous in Australia's better-watered areas such as the Murray-Darling river system of the south-east. Here, where water levels fluctuate seasonally, indigenous people constructed ingenious stone fish traps.[2] Most have been completely or partially destroyed. The largest and best-known are those on the Barwon River at Brewarrina, New South Wales, which are at least partly preserved.[3] The Brewarrina fish traps caught huge numbers of migratory native fish as the Barwon River rose in flood and then fell. In southern Victoria, indigenous people created an elaborate system of canals, some more than 2 km long. The purpose of these canals was to attract and catch eels, a fish of short coastal rivers (as opposed to rivers of the Murray-Darling system). The eels were caught by a variety of traps including stone walls constructed across canals with a net placed across an opening in the wall. Traps at different levels in the marsh came into operation as the water level rose and fell. Somewhat similar stone-wall traps were constructed by native American Pit River people in north-eastern California.[4]

Fish trap A technique called dam fishing is used by the Baka pygmies. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in a drop in the water levels downstream allowing fish to be easily collected.[5]

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Use
The manner in which fish traps are used depends on local conditions and the behaviour of the local fish. For example, a fish trap might be placed in shallow water near rocks where pikes like to lie. If placed correctly, traps can be very effective. It is usually not necessary to check the trap daily, since the fish remain alive inside the trap, relatively unhurt. Because of this, the trap also allows for the release of undersized fish as per fishing regulations. The Wagenya people, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, build a huge system of wooden tripods across the river. These tripods are Fishing traps used by the Wagenya people in the anchored on the holes naturally carved in the rock by the water current. Congo. To these tripods are anchored large baskets, which are lowered in the rapids to "sieve" the waters for fish. The baskets are designed and sized to trap only large fish. The Wagenya lift the baskets twice daily to check for fish, which are retrieved by swimmers. In the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America, fishermen submerse a long, visible mesh wall running perpendicular to the shoreline that guides fish (who instinctively swim towards deeper water when coming upon a large obstacle) into a maze that ends in a large mesh "pot", that can be raised up to the boat to haul the fish in. This method of fishing results in fish staying alive until the time they are hauled into the boat, as against being entangled and killed in a gill net. This method also allows for sportfish and other protected species to be released without harm. In Finland, the portable fish trap called katiska is made from chicken wire. It is lightweight and enables easy portability of the traps. The trap can be be either collapsible or rigid, and is easily placed at any depth, as it needs no anchoring.

Vietnamese traditional fish trap.

Fish traps at the Zuiderzee Museum, located in the Netherlands

Traditional trap in East Timor.

Trap used in Tamil Nadu.

Notes
External images
Fish trap
[6]

[1] C. Michael Hogan (2008) Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens, Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham (http:/ / www. megalithic. co. uk/ article. php?sid=18795) [2] Jared Diamond: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. page 310. W.W. Norton & Company, March 1997. ISBN 0-393-03891-2.

Fish trap
[3] [4] [5] [6] Brewarrina Aboriginal Fish Traps (http:/ / www. deh. gov. au/ heritage/ national/ sites/ brewarrina. html). Ajumawi Fish Traps (http:/ / www. primitiveways. com/ ajumawi_fish_traps. html). Dam Fishing (http:/ / www. pygmies. info/ fishing. html) Fishing techniques of the Baka. http:/ / www. afma. gov. au/ information/ students/ methods/ traps. htm

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See also
Fishing weir Snares Trabucco

External links
Fish traps (http://www.coconutstudio.com/Fishing Methods 4 - Fish Traps.htm)

Angling
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook). The hook is usually attached to a fishing line and the line is often attached to a fishing rod. Fishing rods are usually fitted with a fishing reel that functions as a mechanism for storing, retrieving and paying out the line. The hook itself can be dressed with lures or bait. A bite indicator such as a float is sometimes used. Angling is a principal method of sport fishing, but commercial fisheries also use Angling with a rod angling methods such as longlining or trolling. Catch and release fishing is increasingly practiced by recreational fishermen. In many parts of the world, size limits apply to certain species, meaning fish below and/or above a certain size must, by law, be released.

Introduction
The species of fish pursued by anglers vary with geography. Among the many species of salt water fish that are caught for sport are swordfish, marlin, tuna, salmon and halibut. In North America, the most popular fresh water sport species include bass, pike, walleye, muskellunge, yellow perch, trout, salmon, catfish, crappie, bluegill and sunfish. In Europe, a large number of anglers fish for species such as carp, pike, tench, rudd, roach, European perch and barbel (especially in stillwaters). Although some fish are sought for their value as food, others are pursued for their fighting abilities or for the difficulty of pursuit.

Angling

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Hooks
The use of the hook in angling is descended, historically, from what would today be called a "gorge." The word "gorge", in this context, comes from the french word meaning "throat." Gorges were used by ancient peoples to capture fish. A gorge was a long, thin piece of bone or stone attached by its midpoint to a thin line. The gorge would be fixed with a bait so that it would rest parallel to the lay of the line. When a fish would swallow the bait, a tug on the line would cause the gorge to orient itself at right angles to the line, thereby sticking in the fish's gullet.

A fish hook.

Baits
Which of the various techniques an angler may choose is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat. Angling can be separated into two main categories: using either artificial or natural baits.

Artificial baits
Many people prefer to fish solely with lures, which are artificial baits designed to entice fish to strike. The artificial bait angler uses a man-made lure that may or may not represent prey. The lure may require a specialised presentation to impart an enticing action as, for example, in fly fishing. A common way to fish a soft plastic worm is the Texas Rig.
Green Highlander, an artificial fly used for salmon fishing.

Natural baits
The natural bait angler, with few exceptions, will use a common prey species of the fish as an attractant. The natural bait used may be alive or dead. Common natural baits include worms, leeches, minnows, frogs, salamanders, and insects. Natural baits are effective due to the lifelike texture, odour and colour of the bait presented. The common earthworm is a universal bait for fresh water angling. Grubs and maggots are also excellent bait when trout fishing. Grasshoppers, bees and even ants are also used as bait for trout in their season, although many anglers believe that trout or salmon roe is superior to any other bait. In lakes in southern climates such as Florida, USA, fish such as bream will take bread bait. Bread bait is a small amount of bread, often moistened by saliva, balled up to a small size that is bite size to small fish.

The rat-tailed maggot is a popular fish bait

Roe is an excellent bait for trout, salmon and many other fresh water fish.

Angling

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Spreading disease
The capture, transportation and culture of bait fish can spread damaging organisms between ecosystems, endangering them. In 2007, several American states, including Michigan, enacted regulations designed to slow the spread of fish diseases, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia, by bait fish.[1] Because of the risk of transmitting Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease), trout and salmon should not be used as bait.

Fathead minnow a common bait fish

Anglers may increase the possibility of contamination by emptying bait buckets into fishing venues and collecting or using bait improperly. The transportation of fish from one location to another can break the law and cause the introduction of fish alien to the ecosystem.

Laws and regulations


Laws and regulations managing angling vary greatly, often regionally, within countries. These commonly include permits (licences), closed periods (seasons) where specific species are unavailable for harvest, restrictions on gear types, and quotas. Laws generally prohibit catching fish with hooks other than in the mouth (foul hooking, "snagging" or "jagging"[2] ) or the use of nets other than as an aid in landing a captured fish. Some species, such as bait fish, may be taken with nets, and a few for food. Sometimes, (non-sport) fish are considered of lesser value and it may be permissible to take them by methods like snagging, bow and arrow, or spear. None of these techniques fall under the definition of angling since they do not rely upon the use of a hook and line.

An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, displays his catch.

Fishing seasons
Fishing seasons are set by countries or localities to indicate what kinds of fish may be caught during sport fishing (also known as angling) for a certain period of time. Fishing seasons are enforced to maintain ecological balance and to protect species of fish during their spawning period during which they are easier to catch.

Catch and release


Although most anglers keep their catch for consumption, catch and release fishing is increasingly practiced, especially by fly anglers. The general principle is that releasing fish allows them to survive, thus avoiding unintended depletion of the population. For species such as marlin and muskellunge but, also, among few bass anglers, there is a cultural taboo against killing fish for food. In many parts of the world, size limits apply to certain species, meaning fish below a certain size must, by law, be released. It is generally believed that larger fish have a greater breeding potential. Some fisheries have a slot limit that allows the taking of smaller and larger fish, but requiring that intermediate sized fish be released. It is generally accepted that this management approach will help the fishery create a number of large, trophy-sized fish. In smaller fisheries that are heavily fished, catch and release is the only way to ensure that catchable fish will be available from year to year.

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The practice of catch and release is criticised by some who consider it unethical to inflict pain upon a fish for purposes of sport. Some of those who object to releasing fish do not object to killing fish for food. Adherents of catch and release dispute this charge, pointing out that fish commonly feed on hard and spiky prey items, and as such can be expected to have tough mouths, and also that some fish will re-take a lure they have just been hooked on, a behaviour that is unlikely if hooking were painful. Opponents of catch and release fishing would find it preferable to ban or to severely restrict angling. On the other hand, proponents state that catch-and-release is necessary for many fisheries to remain sustainable, is a practice that that generally has high survival rates, and consider the banning of angling as not reasonable or necessary.[3] In some jurisdictions, in the Canadian province of Manitoba, for example, catch and release is mandatory for some species such as brook trout. Many of the Removing the hook from a Bonito jurisdictions which mandate the live release of sport fish also require the use of artificial lures and barbless hooks to minimise the chance of injury to fish. Mandatory catch and release also exists in the Republic of Ireland where it was introduced as a conservation measure to prevent the decline of Atlantic salmon stocks on some rivers.[4] In Switzerland, catch and release fishing is considered inhumane and was banned in September 2008.[5] Barbless hooks, which can be created from a standard hook by removing the barb with pliers or can be bought, are sometimes resisted by anglers because they believe that increased escapement results. Barbless hooks reduce handling time, thereby increasing survival. Concentrating on keeping the line taut while fighting fish, using recurved point or "triple grip" style hooks on lures, and equipping lures that do not have them with split rings can significantly reduce escapement.

Capacity for pain


Animal protection advocates have raised concerns about the possible suffering of fish caused by angling. In light of recent research, some countries, like Germany, have banned specific types of fishing and the British RSPCA now formally prosecutes individuals who are cruel to fish.[6] Experiments done by William Tavolga provide evidence that fish have pain and fear responses. For instance, in Tavolgas experiments, toadfish grunted when electrically shocked and over time they came to Rainbow trout grunt at the mere sight of an electrode.[7] Additional tests conducted at both the University of Edinburgh and the Roslin Institute, in which bee venom and acetic acid was injected into the lips of rainbow trout, resulted in fish rubbing their lips along the sides and floors of their tanks, which the researchers believe was an effort to relieve themselves of pain.[8] One researcher argues about the definition of pain used in the studies.[9] In 2003, Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh performing research on rainbow trout concluded that fish exhibit behaviors often associated with pain, and the brains of fish fire neurons in the same way human brains do when experiencing pain.[10] [11] James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming critiqued the study, claiming it was flawed, mainly since it did not provide proof that fish possess "conscious awareness, particularly a kind of awareness that is meaningfully like ours".[12] Rose argues that since the fish brain is rather different from ours, fish are probably not conscious (in the manner humans are), whence reactions similar to human reactions to pain instead have other causes. Rose had published his own opinion a year earlier arguing that fish cannot feel pain as they lack the

Angling appropriate neocortex in the brain.[13] However, animal behaviorist Temple Grandin argues that fish could still have consciousness without a neocortex because "different species can use different brain structures and systems to handle the same functions."[11]

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Tournaments and derbies


Sometimes considered within the broad category of angling is where contestants compete for prizes based on the total length or weight of a fish, usually of a pre-determined species, caught within a specified time (fishing tournaments). Such contests have evolved from local fishing contests into large competitive circuits, where professional anglers are supported by commercial endorsements. Professional anglers are not engaged in commercial fishing, even though they gain an economic reward. Similar competitive fishing exists at the amateur level with fishing derbies. In general, derbies are distinguished from tournaments; derbies normally require fish to be killed. Tournaments normally deduct points if fish can not be released alive.

Motivation
A ten-year-long survey of US fishing club members, completed in 1997, indicated that motivations for recreational angling have shifted from relaxation, an outdoor experience and the experience of the catch, to the importance of family recreation. Anglers with higher family incomes fished more frequently and were less concerned about obtaining fish as food.[14] A German study indicated that satisfaction derived from angling was not dependent on the actual catch, but depended more on the anglers expectations of the experience.[15] A 2006 study by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries tracked the motivations of anglers on the Red River. Included among the most often stated responses were the fun of catching fish, the experience, to catch a lot of fish or a very large fish, for challenge, adventure and more. Use as food was not cited as a motivation for angling,[16]
Angling at Shihtiping in Taiwan

See also
Fly fishing Bibliography of fly fishing Fishing rod Bamboo fly rods Fishing reel Fishing line Fish hook Fishing lure Trout worms Gaff Piscatorial Society

Sinker Troll (angling)

Angling

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External links
Project Gutenberg: The Compleat Angler [17] Angling Pictures from Surrey, England [18] How to fish [19] taken from the Boy's Own Book of Outdoor Sports (early 1900s)

References
[1] DNR Fishing Regulation Changes Reflect Disease Management Concerns with VHS (http:/ / michigan. gov/ dnr/ 0,1607,7-153-10371_10402-170245--,00. html) [2] Illegal fishing methods (http:/ / www. dpi. nsw. gov. au/ fisheries/ recreational/ regulations/ fw/ illegal) NSW Government Industry and Investment. Retrieved 8 January 2010. [3] Understanding the Complexity of Catch and Release in Recreational Fishing: An Integrative Synthesis of Global Knowledge from Historical, Ethical, Social, and Biological Perspectives (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ content~content=a777774355~db=all~order=page) Published in Reviews in Fisheries Science, Volume 15, Issue 1 & 2 January 2007 , pages 75 - 167 Authors: Robert Arlinghaus; Steven J. Cooke; Jon Lyman; David Policansky; Alexander Schwab; Cory Suski; Stephen G. Sutton; Eva B. Thorstad [4] Fishing in Ireland (http:/ / www. cfb. ie/ fishing_in_ireland/ CatchandRelease. htm) Catch and Release for Atlantic Salmon [5] Animal Rights Law Passed in Switzerland - Catch and Release Fishing Banned (http:/ / www. ussportsmen. org/ NETCOMMUNITY/ Page. aspx?pid=929& srcid=55& srctid=1& e) [6] Leake, J. Anglers to Face RSPCA Check, The Sunday Times Britain, 14 March 2004 (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ newspaper/ 0,,176-1037515,00. html) [7] Dunayer, Joan, "Fish: Sensitivity Beyond the Captor's Grasp," The Animals' Agenda, July/August 1991, pp. 12-18 [8] Vantressa Brown, Fish Feel Pain, British Researchers Say, Agence France-Presse, 1 May 2003 (http:/ / www. buzzle. com/ editorials/ 4-30-2003-39769. asp) [9] Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system, 2003 by Sneddon, Braithwaite and Gentle. A critique of the paper by James D. Rose, Ph.D. Department of Zoology and Physiology University of Wyoming (http:/ / uwadmnweb. uwyo. edu/ Zoology/ faculty/ rose/ Critique of Sneddon article2. doc) [10] "Fish do feel pain, scientists say" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ sci/ tech/ 2983045. stm). BBC News. 2003-04-30. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [11] Grandin, Temple; Johnson, Catherine (2005). Animals in Translation. New York, New York: Scribner. pp.183184. ISBN0743247698. [12] Rose, J.D. 2003. A Critique of the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system" (http:/ / uwadmnweb. uwyo. edu/ Zoology/ faculty/ Rose/ Critique of Sneddon article. pdf)</ [13] James D. Rose, Do Fish Feel Pain? (http:/ / cotrout. org/ do_fish_feel_pain. htm), 2002. Retrieved September 27, 2007. [14] Fisheries Management and Ecology, Volume 11 Issue 5, Pages 313 321. "Temporal changes in fishing motivation among fishing club anglers in the United States Abstract" (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ journal/ 118796512/ abstract?CRETRY=1& SRETRY=0). . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [15] North American journal of fisheries management 2006, vol. 26, no3, pp. 592-605. "On the apparently striking disconnect between motivation and satisfaction in recreational fishing : the case of catch orientation of german anglers" (http:/ / cat. inist. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=18131231). . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [16] Yeong Nain Chi Socioeconomic Research and Development Section Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. "Segmenting Fishing Markets Using Motivations" (http:/ / www. wlf. louisiana. gov/ pdfs/ education/ segmentingfishingmarkets. pdf). e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), Vol. 4, No.3, 2006. . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [17] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 683 [18] http:/ / www. henfoldlakesleisure. co. uk/ hengal/ albums. php [19] http:/ / www. publicbookshelf. com/ public_html/ Boys_Own_Book_of_Outdoor_Sports/

Trawling

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Trawling
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a large fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. The net that is used for trawling is called a trawl. The boats that are used for trawling are called trawlers. Trawlers vary in size; from small open boats with only 30 hp engines to large factory trawlers with over 10,000hp. Trawling can be carried out by one trawler or by two trawlers fishing cooperatively (pair trawling). Trawling can be contrasted with trolling, where baited fishing lines instead of trawls are drawn through the water. Trolling is used both for recreational and commercial fishing whereas trawling is used mainly for commercial fishing.

Trawl net with fish

Bottom versus midwater trawling


Trawling can be divided into bottom trawling and midwater trawling, depending on how high the trawl (net) is in the water column. Bottom trawling is towing the trawl along or close to the sea floor. Midwater trawling is towing the trawl through free water away from the bottom of the ocean. The scientific community divides bottom trawling into benthic trawling and demersal trawling. Benthic trawling is dragging the trawl along the very bottom of the ocean and demersal trawling is towing the trawl just above the benthic zone. Midwater trawling is also known as pelagic trawling. Midwater trawling catches pelagic fish such as anchovies, shrimp, tuna and mackerel, whereas bottom trawling targets both bottom living fish (groundfish) and semi-pelagic fish such as cod, squid, halibut and rockfish.

Trawl catch of myctophids and glass shrimp from the bottom at greater than 200 meters depth

Bottom trawling can leave serious incidental damage to the sea bottom and deep water coral reefs, in its trail; by contrast midwater trawling is relatively benign.

Trawling

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Net structure
When two boats are used (pair trawling), the horizontal spread of the net is provided by the boats, with one or in the case of Pelagic trawling two warps attached to each boat. However, single-boat trawling is more common. Here, the horizontal spread of the net is provided by trawl doors (also known as "otter boards"). Trawl doors are available in various sizes and shapes and may be specialized to keep in contact with the sea bottom (bottom trawling) or to remain elevated in the water. In all cases, doors essentially act as wings, using a hydrodynamic shape to provide horizontal spread. As with all wings, the towing vessel must go at a certain speed for the doors to remain standing and functional. This speed varies, but is generally in the range of 2.5-4.0 knots.

Trawling

The vertical opening of a trawl net is created using flotation on the upper edge ("floatline") and weight on the lower edge ("footrope") of the net mouth. The configuration of the footrope varies based on the expected bottom shape. The more uneven the bottom, the more robust the footrope configuration must be to prevent net damage. This is used to catch shrimp, shell fish, cod, scallops and many others. Trawls are tunnel shaped nets that have a closed off tail where the fish are collected and is open on the top end as the mouth. Trawl nets can also be modified, such as changing mesh size, to help with marine research of ocean bottoms.[1]

Environmental effects
Although trawling today is heavily regulated in some nations, it remains the target of many protests by environmentalists. Environmental concerns related to trawling refer to two areas: a perceived lack of selectivity and the physical damage which the trawl does to the seabed.

Selectivity
Since the practice of trawling started (around the 15th century), there have been concerns over trawling's lack of selectivity. Trawls may be non-selective, sweeping up both marketable and undesirable fish and fish of both legal and illegal size. Any part of the catch which cannot be used is considered by-catch, some of which is killed accidentally by the trawling process. By-catch commonly includes valued species such as dolphins, sea turtles, and sharks. Many studies have documented the often large volumes of by-catch that are discarded. For example, researchers conducting a three-year study in the Clarence River found that an estimated 177 tons of by-catch (including 77 different species) were discarded each year.[2]
Nets for trawling in surface waters and for trawling in deep water and over the bottom. Note the "tangles" with ensnared marine life

Size selectivity is controlled by the mesh size of the "cod-end"the part of the trawl where fish are retained. Fishermen complain that mesh sizes which allow undersized fish to escape also allows some legallycatchable fish to escape as well. There are a number of "fixes", such as tying a rope around the "cod-end" to prevent the mesh from opening fully, which have been developed to work around technical regulation of size selectivity. One problem is when the mesh gets pulled into narrow diamond shapes (rhombuses) instead of squares. The capture of undesirable species is a recognized problem with all fishing methods and unites environmentalists, who do not want to see fish killed needlessly, and fishermen, who do not want to waste their time sorting marketable

Trawling fish from their catch. A number of methods to minimize this have been developed for use in trawling. Bycatch reduction grids or square mesh panels of net can be fitted to parts of the trawl, allowing certain species to escape while retaining others. Studies have suggested that shrimp trawling is responsible for the highest rate of by-catch.[3]

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Environmental damage
Trawling is controversial because of its environmental impacts. Because bottom trawling involves towing heavy fishing gear over the seabed it can cause large scale destruction on the ocean bottom, including coral shattering, damage to habitats and removal of seaweed. The primary sources of impact are the doors, which can weigh several tonnes and create furrows if dragged along the bottom, and the footrope configuration, which usually remains in contact with the bottom across the entire lower edge of the net. Depending on the configuration, the footrope may turn over large rocks or boulders, possibly dragging them along with the net, disturb or damage sessile organisms or rework and re-suspend bottom sediments. These impacts result in decreases in species diversity and ecological changes towards more opportunistic organisms. The destruction has been likened to clear-cutting in forests.
Setting a trawl

The primary dispute over trawling concerns the magnitude and duration of these impacts. Opponents argue that they are widespread, intense and long-lasting. Defenders maintain that impact is mostly limited and of low intensity compared to natural events. However, most areas with significant natural sea bottom disturbance events are in relatively shallow water. In mid to deep waters, bottoms trawlers are the only significant area-wide events. Bottom trawling on soft bottoms also stirs up bottom sediments and loading suspended solids into the water column. One bottom trawler can put more than 10 times the amount of suspended solids pollution per hour into the water column than all the suspended solids pollution from all the sewerage, industrial, river and dredge disposal operations in Southern California combined.[4] These turbidity plumes can be seen on Google Earth in areas where they have high resolution offshore photos (see Bottom trawling). When the turbidity plumes from bottom trawlers are below a thermocline, the surface may not be impacted, but less visible impacts can still occur, such as persistent organic pollutant transfer into the pelagic food chain. As a result of these processes, a vast array of species are threatened around the world. In particular, trawling can directly kill coral reefs by breaking them up and burying them in sediments. In addition, trawling can kill corals indirectly by wounding coral tissue, leaving the reefs vulnerable to infection. The net effect of fishing practices on global coral reef populations is suggested by many scientists to be alarmingly high[5] . Published research has shown that benthic trawling destroys the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, an important habitat for many deep-sea organisms[6] . Midwater (pelagic) trawling is a much "cleaner" method of fishing, in that the catch usually consists of just one species and does not physically damage the sea bottom. However, environmental groups have raised concerns that this fishing practice may be responsible for significant volumes of by-catch, particularly cetaceans (dolphins, porpoises, and whales)[7] .

Trawling

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Regulation
In light of the environmental concerns surrounding trawling, many governments have debated policies that would regulate the practice.

Other uses of the word "trawl"


The noun "trawl" has many possibly confusing meanings in commercial fisheries. For example, two or more lobster pots that are fished together may be referred to as a trawl. In some older usages "trawling" meant "long-line fishing"; that usage occurs in Rudyard Kipling's book Captains Courageous. (This use is perhaps confused with trolling, where a baited line is trailed behind a boat. Troll also has several meanings.) The word "trawling" has come to be used in a number of non-fishing contexts, usually meaning indiscriminate collection with the intent of picking out the useful bits. The word "Trolling" can also be used in this context. For instance, in law enforcement it may refer to collecting large volumes of telephone call records hoping to find calls made by suspects. It also occurs frequently in reference to research methods, where it means searching through written sources for relevant information.

References
Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7 March, E. J. (1953). Sailing Trawlers: The Story of Deep-Sea Fishing with Long Line and Trawl. Percival Marshal and Company. Reprinted by Charles & David, 1970, Newton Abbot, UK. ISBN 071534711X FAO (2007) Workshop on standardization of selectivity methods applied to trawling [8] Fisheries Report No. 820. ISBN 978-92-5-005669-2

External links
Anthoni, J Floor (2003) FAQs about marine reserves and marine conservation [9] Known Trawling Grounds of the World [10] (2000) World Resources Institute. Information on the destructive side effects of trawling [11] Natural Resources Defense Council: Protecting Ocean Habitat from Bottom Trawling [12]

References
[1] http:/ / www. whoi. edu/ oceanus/ viewArticle. do?id=14448 [2] Liggins, G.W., Kennelly, S.J., 1996. By-catch from prawn trawling in the Clarence River estuary, New South Wales, Australia. Fish. Res. 25, 347-367. [3] Alverson D L, Freeberg M K, Murawski S A and Pope J G. (1994) A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No 339 Rome, FAO 1994. [4] Weaver, Dallas E (2007). "'Remote Impacts of Bottom Trawling" (http:/ / web. mac. com/ deweaver/ bottom_trawling/ Links_to_Docs. html). . [5] Roberts S, Hirshfield M. (2004) Deep Sea Corals: Out of Sight, But No Longer Out of Mind (http:/ / www. oceana. org/ fileadmin/ oceana/ uploads/ destructive_trawling/ savecorals/ News/ oceana_coral_report_old. pdf). Oceania. In Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, April 2004. [6] Fossa J H, Mortensen P B and Furevik D M. (2002) The deep water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts (http:/ / www. imr. no/ Dokumenter/ fossa. pdf). Hydrobiologia 471: 1-12, 2002. [7] Ross A, Isaac S. (2004) The net effect? A review of cetacean bycatch in pelagic trawls and other fisheries in the north-east Atlantic. London, UK: Greenpeace Environmental Trust. [8] http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 009/ a0972b/ a0972b00. htm [9] http:/ / www. seafriends. org. nz/ issues/ cons/ faq. htm [10] http:/ / earthtrends. wri. org/ maps_spatial/ maps_detail_static. php?map_select=197& theme=1 [11] http:/ / www. oceana. org/ north-america/ what-we-do/ stop-destructive-trawling/

Trawling
[12] http:/ / www. nrdc. org/ water/ oceans/ ftrawling. asp

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Commercial fishing
Commercial fishing is the activity of capturing fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries. It provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the world, but those who practice it as an industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Large scale commercial fishing is also known as industrial fishing. Commercial fishermen harvest a wide variety of animals, ranging from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species.

Commercial crab fishing

Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and factory ships. Many new restrictions are often integrated with varieties of fishing allocation schemes (such as individual fishing quotas), and international treaties that have sought to limit the fishing effort and, sometimes, capture efficiency. Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being fished for, and the technology available to the fishermen. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day. Commercial fishing gears today are surrounding nets (e.g. purse seine), seine nets (e.g. beach seine), trawls (e.g. bottom trawl), dredges, hooks and lines (e.g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps. There are large and important fisheries worldwide for various species of fish, mollusks and crustaceans. However, a very small number of species support the majority of the worlds fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species as well are fished in smaller numbers. A 2009 paper in Science estimates, for the first time, the total world fish biomass as somewhere between 0.8 and 2.0 billion tonnes.[1] [2]

Occupational risk
During 2000-2006, commercial fishing was one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, with an average annual fatality rate of 115 deaths per 100,000 fishermen.[3] [4] The U.S. Coast Guard has primary jurisdiction over the safety of the U.S. commercial fishing fleet, enforcing regulations of the U.S. Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 (CFIVSA). CFIVSA regulations focus primarily on saving lives after the loss of a vessel and not on preventing vessels from capsizing or sinking, falls overboard, or injuries on deck. CFIVSA regulations require that commercial fishing vessels carry various equipment (e.g., life rafts, radio beacons, and immersion suits) depending on the size of the vessel and the area in which it operates.[3]

Commercial fishing

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External links
Commercial fishing [26] at the Open Directory Project WorldFishingToday.com Internet site for and about the commercial fishing [5] Trawler Photos is a forum and online gallery of photographs and images covering everything to do with commercial fishing [6] FiskerForum.dk Internet site about commercial fishing, in Scandinavian language [7] Medieval Origins of Commercial Sea Fishing Project [8] Blue Planet Society [9] National Fisherman magazine [10] Trawler Pictures - A Forum and Gallery Dedicated to Commercial Trawlers [11] The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform [12]

References
[1] Wilson RW, Millero FJ, Taylor JR, Walsh PJ, Christensen V, Jennings S, Grosell M (2009) "Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle" (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 323/ 5912/ 359) Science, 323 (5912) 359-362. [2] Researcher gives first-ever estimate of worldwide fish biomass and impact on climate change (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news151251277. html) PhysOrg.com, 15 January 2009. [3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Commercial Fishing Fatalities - California, Oregon, and Washington, 2000-2006 (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ mm5716a2. htm). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. April 25, 2008/57(16);426-429. Accessed October 20, 2008. [4] Lincoln, Jennifer. Commercial Fishing Safety (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ blog/ nsb042808_fishing. html). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. April 29, 2008. Accessed October 20, 2008. [5] http:/ / www. worldfishingtoday. com/ [6] http:/ / www. trawlerphotos. co. uk/ forums/ [7] http:/ / www. fiskerforum. dk/ [8] http:/ / www. mcdonald. cam. ac. uk/ projects/ Medieval_Fishing/ [9] http:/ / www. blueplanetsociety. org/ [10] http:/ / www. nationalfisherman. com/ [11] http:/ / www. trawlerpictures. net [12] http:/ / go. worldbank. org/ MGUTHSY7U0

Handline fishing

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Handline fishing
Handline fishing, or handlining, is fishing with a single fishing line which is held in the hands. One or more lures or baited hooks are attached the line. Usually a weight and maybe a float are also attached. Handlining is one of the oldest forms of fishing and is still common. The line can be jigged or moved up and down in a series of short movements, most often close to the sea floor. The motion attracts the fish, which are normally caught while trying to eat the lure but also as they move close to the jigged lure. The line is then hauled in and the fish removed. Handlining is most often used to catch groundfish and squid but other species are sometimes caught, including pelagic zone species.

See also
Jigging

References
Bjarnason, B A (1992) Handlining and squid jigging. [1] FAO training series, No 23. ISBN 92-5-103100-2 Handlining [2]. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 21-Sep-2007.

References
[1] http:/ / www. fao. org/ DOCREP/ 003/ T0511E/ T0511E00. htm [2] http:/ / www. teara. govt. nz/ EarthSeaAndSky/ HarvestingTheSea/ FishingIndustry/ 2/ ENZ-Resources/ Standard/ 2/ mi

Glass float
Glass floats, glass fishing floats, or Japanese glass fishing floats are popular collectors items. They were once used by fishermen in many parts of the world to keep their nets afloat. Large groups of fishnets strung together, sometimes 50miles (80km) long, were set adrift in the ocean and supported near the surface by hollow glass balls or cylinders containing air to give them buoyancy. These glass floats are no longer being used by fisherman, but many of them are still afloat in the worlds oceans, primarily the Pacific. They have become a popular collectors item for beachcombers and decorators. Replicas are also being manufactured.

A Japanese glass fishing float

Glass float

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History
Norway was the first country to start production and use of glass fishing floats around 1840, many of which can still be found in local boathouses. Christopher Faye, a Norwegian merchant from Bergen, is credited for their invention. The glass float was developed through cooperation with one of the owners of the Hadeland Glassverk in Norway, Chr. Berg. The first time these modern glass fishing floats are mentioned is in the production registry for Hadelands Glassverk in 1841. The registry clearly shows that this is a new type of production. However, there might have been some other versions of glass floats in use before that time. In the early 1800s, the Schimmelmanns Glassverk (1779 1832) produced dark brown and very thick, bottle glass floats. Floats from this production are found in the ground where this factory was located, but are unmarked.

Small glass float from southern tip of Taiwan

The earliest evidence of glass floats being used by fishermen comes from Norway in 1844 where small egg-sized floats were used with fishing line and hooks. Around the same time, glass was also used to support fishing nets. By the 1940s, glass had replaced wood or cork throughout much of Europe, Russia, North American, and Japan. Japan started using the glass floats as early as 1910. Today, most of the remaining glass floats originated in Japan because it had a large deep sea fishing industry which made extensive use of the floats; some made by Taiwan, Korea and China. Glass floats have since been replaced by aluminum, plastic, or Styrofoam.

Manufacturing
The earliest floats, including most Japanese glass fishing floats, were hand made by a glassblower. Recycled glass, especially old sake bottles, was typically used and air bubbles in the glass are a result of the rapid recycling process. After being blown, floats were removed from the blowpipe and sealed with a 'button' of melted glass before being placed in a cooling oven. (This sealing button is sometimes mistakenly identified as a pontil mark. However, no pontil (or punty) was used in the process of blowing glass floats.) While floats were still hot and soft, marks were often embossed on or near the sealing button to identify the float for trademark. These marks sometimes included kanji symbols.

Mark of the Asahi Glass Company

A later manufacturing method used wooden molds to speed up the float-making process. Glass floats were blown into a mold to more easily achieve a uniform size and shape. Seams on the outside of floats are a result of this

Glass float process. Sometimes knife markings where the wooden molds were carved are also visible on the surface of the glass.

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Dispersion
Today most of the glass floats remaining in the ocean are stuck in a circular pattern of ocean currents in the North Pacific. Off the east coast of Taiwan, the Kuroshio Current starts as a northern branch of the western-flowing North Equatorial Current. It flows past Japan and meets the arctic waters of the Oyashio Current. At this junction, the North Pacific Current (or Drift) is formed which travels east across Pacific before slowing down in the Gulf of Alaska. As it turns south, the California Current pushes the water into the North Equatorial Current once again, and the cycle continues. Small glass float found while beachcombing in Japan Although the number of glass floats is decreasing steadily, many floats are still drifting on these ocean currents. Occasionally storms or certain tidal conditions will break some floats from this circular pattern and bring them ashore. They most often end up on the beaches of Alaska, Washington or Oregon in the United States, Taiwan or Canada. It is estimated that floats must be a minimum of 7-10 years old before washing up on beaches in Alaska. Most floats that wash up, however, would have been afloat for 10 years. A small number of floats are also trapped in the Arctic ice pack where there is movement over the North Pole and into the Atlantic Ocean.

Appearance
Once a float lands on a beach, it may roll in the surf and become "etched" by sand. Many glass floats show distinctive wear patters from the corrosive forces of sand, sun, and salt water. When old netting breaks off of a float, its pattern often remains on the surface of the glass where the glass was protected under the netting. Other floats have small amounts of water trapped inside of them. This water apparently enters the floats through microscopic imperfections in the glass while the floats are suspended in Arctic ice or held under water by netting.

Small glass floats found while beachcombing in Hokkaid Japan.

Glass float

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To accommodate different fishing styles and nets, the Japanese experimented with many different sizes and shapes of floats, ranging from 2 to 20inches (510mm) in diameter. Most were rough spheres, but some were cylindrical or rolling pin shaped. Most floats are shades of green because that is the color of glass from recycled sake bottles (especially after long exposure to sunlight). However, clear, amber, aquamarine, amethyst, blue and other colors were also produced. The most prized and rare color is a red or cranberry hue. These were expensive to make because gold was Large Glass Floats used to produce the color. Other brilliant tones such as emerald green, cobalt blue, purple, yellow and orange were primarily made in the 1920s and 30s. The majority of the colored floats available for sale today are replicas.

Resources
Beachcombing for Japanese Glass Floats by Amos L. Wood (Binford & Mort, 4th ed., 1985; ISBN 0-8323-0437-9) Glass Ball, A comprehensive Guide for Oriental Glass Fishing Floats found on Pacific Beaches by Walt Pich (First Edition 2004; ISBN 0-9657108-1-5) Beachcombers Guide to the Northwest, Glass Balls & Other Littoral Treasures, California to Alaska by Walt Pich (First Edition 1997; ISBN 0-9657108-0-7) Beachcombing the Pacific by Amos L. Wood (Schiffer, 1987; ISBN 0-88740-097-3) I'd Rather be Beachcombing by Bert and Margie Webber (Webb Research Group, 1991; ISBN 0-936738-20-0)

External links
Website dedicated to collecting glass floats [1] Website on beachcombing in the Pacific [2] A Japanese Glass Float Blog [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. glassfloatcollector. com [2] http:/ / home. comcast. net/ ~4miller [3] http:/ / japanese-glass-floats. blogspot. com/

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Other Marine Animals


Crab fisheries
Crab fisheries are fisheries which capture or farm crabs. Crabs are found in all of the world's oceans. There are also many freshwater and land crabs, particularly in tropical regions. Crabs make up 20 percent of all crustaceans caught and farmed worldwide, with about 1.4 million tonnes being consumed annually. The horse crab accounts for one quarter of that total. Other important species include flower, snow, blue, queen, edible, Dungeness and mud crabs, each of which provides more than 20,000tonnes [1] annually .
Crab boat from the North Frisian Islands working the North Sea

Commercial catch
The FAO groups fishery catches using the ISSCAAP classification (International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants).[2] ISSCAAP has a group for crabs and sea-spiders, and another group for king crabs and squat-lobsters. Crabs and sea-spiders are defined as including: "Atlantic rock crab, black stone crab, blue crab, blue swimming crab, dana swimcrab, dungeness crab, edible crab, cazami crab, geryons nei, green crab, hair crab, harbour spidercrab, Indo-Pacific swamp crab, jonah crab, marine crabs nei, Mediterranean shore crab, Pacific rock crab, portunus swimcrabs nei, queen crab, red crab, spinous spider crab, swimcrabs nei, and tanner crabs nei."[3]

Edible crabs being sorted by fishermen at Fionnphort, Scotland

King crabs and squat lobsters are defined as including: "Antarctic stone crab, blue king crab, blue squat lobster, brown king crab, carrot squat lobster, craylets, globose king crab, golden king crab, king crabs, king crabs nei, stone crabs nei, pelagic red crab, red king crab, red stone crab, softshell red crab, southern king crab, and subantarctic stone crab."[3] The following table summarises the capture in recent years by commercial fisheries in tonnes.

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Commercial crabs captured in tonnes Group Crabs, sea spiders 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

1 061 042 1 101 880 1 093 256 1 122 414 1 334 001 1 332 932 1 323 616 67 932 46 382 41 853 43 993 36 457 52 064

King crabs, squat lobsters 77 644

Crabs and sea-spiders


Horse crabs

Horse crab

World catch of horse crab in thousands of tonnes, [4] based on FAO catch data

External images
Distribution map
[5]

Horse crabs (Portunus trituberculatus), also known as the gazami crab or Japanese blue crab, is the most widely fished species of crab in the world, with over 300,000tonnes being caught annually, 98% of it off the coast of China[6] . Horse crabs are found from Hokkaid to South India, throughout the Malay Archipelago and as far south as Australia. In the Malay language, it is known as ketam bunga or "flower crab". It lives on shallow sandy or muddy bottoms, less than 50m deep, where it feeds on seaweeds and predates upon small fish, worms and bivalves. The carapace may reach 15cm (6inches) wide, and 7cm (2in) from front to back.

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Flower crabs
Flower crabs (Portunus pelagicus), also known as blue crabs, blue swimmer crabs, blue manna crabs or sand crabs, are a large crab found in the intertidal estuaries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Asian coasts) and the Middle-Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The name flower crab is used in east Asian countries while the latter names are used in Australia. The crabs are widely distributed in eastern Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The carapace can be up to 20cm in width. They stay buried under sand or mud most of the time, particularly during the daytime and winter, which may explain their high tolerance to NH4+ and NH3.[8] The species is commercially important throughout the Indo-Pacific where they may be sold as traditional hard shells, or as "soft shelled" crabs, which are considered a delicacy throughout Asia. The species is highly prized as the meat is almost as sweet as the blue crab, although P. pelagicus is physically much larger. These characteristics, along with their fast growth, ease of larviculture, high fecundity and relatively high tolerance to both nitrate[9] [10] and ammonia[8] , (particularly NH3-N, which is typically more toxic than NH4+, as it can more easily diffuse across the gill membranes), makes this species ideal for aquaculture.

Flower crabs

World catch of flower crab in thousands of [7] tonnes, based on FAO catch data

Snow crabs
Snow crabs (Chionoecetes), also known as spider crabs, queen crabs and other names, is a genus of crabs that live in the cold waters of the northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.[12] Snow crab are caught as far north as the Arctic Ocean, from Newfoundland to Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean, and across the Pacific Ocean, including the Sea of Japan, the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska, Norton Sound, and even as far south as California for Chionoecetes bairdi. Fishing for opilio (and rarely bairdi) crab has been the focus of the second half of all four seasons of Deadliest

Snow crab

Catch on the Discovery Channel.[13]

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World catch of snow crab in thousands of tonnes, [11] based on FAO catch data

Blue crabs
The Chesapeake Bay, located in Maryland and Virginia, is famous for its blue crabs, and they are one of the most important economic items harvested from it. In 1993, the combined harvest of the blue crabs was valued at around 100 million U.S. dollars. Over the years the harvests of the blue crab dropped; in 2000, the combined harvest was around 45 million dollars. Late in the twentieth century, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources created stricter guidelines for harvesting blue crabs to help increase populations. These include raising the legal size from 5 to 5 inches (from 12.7 to 13.3 cm) and limiting the days and times they may be caught. While blue crabs remain a popular food in the Chesapeake Bay area, the Bay is not capable of meeting local demand. Crabs are shipped into the region from North Carolina, Louisiana, Florida and Texas to supplement the local harvest.

Blue crab

World catch of blue crab in thousands of tonnes, [14] based on FAO catch data

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Edible crabs
Edible crabs (Cancer pagurus), also known as Cromer crabs or chancre, is a species of crab found in the North Sea, North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. It is a robust crab of a reddish-brown colour, having an oval carapace with a characteristic "pie crust" edge and black tips to the claws.[16] Mature adults may have a carapace width of up to about 25cm and weigh up to 3kg. The edible crab is abundant throughout the northeast Atlantic as far as Norway in the north and northern Africa in the south, on mixed coarse grounds, mud and sand from shallow sublittoral to about 100m. It is frequently found inhabiting cracks and holes in rocks but occasionally also in open areas. Smaller specimens may be found under rocks in the littoral zone.[17] Edible crabs are heavily exploited commercially throughout their range. It is illegal to catch crabs of too small a size around the coast of Britain, a conservation measure brought in the 1870s. Crabs with a shell diameter of less than 100mm should not be taken.

Edible crab

World catch of edible crab in thousands of [15] tonnes, based on FAO catch data

Dungeness crabs
The Dungeness crab inhabits eelgrass beds and water bottoms from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska to Santa Cruz, California.[19] Its binomial name, Cancer magister, simply means "master crab" in Latin. They measure as much as 25cm (10inches) in some areas off the coast of Washington, but typically are under 20cm (8inches).[20] They are a popular delicacy, and are the most commercially important crab in the Pacific Northwest, as well as the western states generally.[21]

A Dungeness crab measuring 7 inches

They are named after Dungeness, Washington,[19] which is located approximately five miles north of Sequim and 15 miles east of Port Angeles. The annual Dungeness Crab and Seafood Festival[22] is held in Port Angeles each October. Dungeness crab have recently been found in the Atlantic Ocean, far from their known range, raising concern about their possible effects on the local wildlife.[23]

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World catch of Dungeness crab in thousands of [18] tonnes, based on FAO catch data

Mud crabs
Mud crabs (Scylla serrata), also known (ambiguously) as mangrove crabs or black crabs, are an economically important crab species found in the estuaries and mangroves of Africa, Australia and Asia. In their most common form, the shell colour varies from a deep, mottled green to very dark brown. Generally cooked with their shells on, when they moult their shells, they can be served as a seafood delicacy, one of many types of soft shell crab. They are among the tastiest crab species and have a huge demand in South Asian countries where they are often bought alive in the markets. In the northern states of Australia and especially Queensland, mud crabs are relatively common and generally prized above other seafood within the general public.

World catch of mud crab in thousands of tonnes, [24] based on FAO catch data

There has been a huge interest in the aquaculutre of this species due to their high demand/price, high flesh content and rapid growth rates in captivity. In addition they have a high tolerance to both nitrate[10] and ammonia (particularly NH3) tolerance (twice that of the similar sized Portunus pelagicus), which is beneficial because ammonia-N is often the most limiting factor on closed aquaculture systems.[25] Their high ammonia-N tolerance may be attributed to various unique physiological responses which may have arisen due to their habitat preferences.[25] However their aquaculture has been limited due to the often low and unpredictable larvae survival.

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Spider crabs
European spider crabs (Maja squinado) are a species of migratory crabs found in the north-east Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. They are the subject of commercial fishery, with about 5,000tonnes caught annually, 70% off the coast of France, 10% off the coast of the United Kingdom, 6% from the Channel Islands, 3% from each of Spain and Ireland, 2% from Croatia, 1% from Portugal, and the remainder from Serbia and Montenegro, Denmark and Morocco,[26] although official production figures are open to doubt.[27] The European Union imposes a minimum landing size of 120mm for M. squinado,[28] and some individual countries have other regulations, such as a ban on landing egg-bearing females in Spain and a closed season in France and the Channel Islands.[27]

European spider crab

King crabs and squat lobsters

King crabs are not true crabs and squat lobsters are not lobsters. Both may be more closely related to hermit crabs, which are also not true crabs. However, they have been included in this article because the common perception is that king crabs are crabs, and because squat lobsters are more closely related to crabs than lobsters and the FAO classifies them together with king crabs.

King crabs
In Alaska, three species of king crab are caught commercially the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.[29] Distribution [30] the blue king crab, Paralithodes platypus.[31] Distribution [32] the golden (or brown) king crab, Lithodes aequispinus.[33] Most prized is the red king crab. King Crab 101- The different types [34] King Crab [35] FAO: Fishing Techniques: King Crab or Other Deep Sea Crab Pot Fishing [36] Retrieved 27 November 2009.
Alaskan fisherwoman holding a red king crab

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Squat lobsters
Squat lobsters are not lobsters, but are related to porcelain crabs, hermit crabs and, more distantly, to true crabs. They are distributed worldwide in the oceans, and occur from near the surface to deep sea hydrothermal vents. There are currently 870 described species.[37] Squat lobsters are much smaller than commercially-harvested true lobsters. They are often sold commercially as "langostino lobster," and are sometimes called "lobster" when included in seafood dishes, which irritates the Maine lobster industry.[38] Species with commercial significance include Cervimunida johnii, Pleuroncodes monodon and Pleuroncodes planipes. Distribution
[39]

Squat lobster Munidopsis serricornis

See also
Crab wars

References
[1] "Global Capture Production 1950-2004" (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ TabLandArea?tb_ds=Capture& tb_mode=TABLE& tb_act=SELECT& tb_grp=COUNTRY). FAO. . Retrieved August 26, 2006. [2] FAO: Fishery Fact Sheets: ASFIS List of Species for Fishery Statistics Purposes (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ collection/ asfis/ en), Rome. Retrieved 7 December 2009. [3] FAO: The current International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants (ISSCAAP) in use from 2000 (ftp:/ / ftp. fao. org/ FI/ DOCUMENT/ cwp/ handbook/ annex/ AnnexS2listISSCAAP2000. pdf), Rome. Retrieved 7 December 2009. [4] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Portunus trituberculatus (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2630/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [5] http:/ / www. seaaroundus. org/ gis/ default. aspx?dLayer=690143& Xmin=88. 4& Ymin=-39. 33& Xmax=156. 6& Ymax=44. 82& dGroup=2& dTaxon=Portunus%20trituberculatus%20%28Gazami%20crab%29 [6] "FAO fisheries global information system" (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ FiRefServlet?ds=species& fid=2630). . Retrieved 2006-08-02. [7] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Portunus pelagicus (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2629/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [8] N. Romano & C. Zeng (2007). "Ontogenetic changes in tolerance to acute ammonia exposure and associated histological alterations of the gill structure through the early juvenile development of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus". Aquaculture 266: 246254. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.01.035. [9] N. Romano & C. Zeng (2007). "Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae)". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 19551962. doi:10.1897/07-144. [10] N. Romano & C. Zeng (2007). Effects of potassium on nitrate mediated changes to osmoregulation in marine crabs. Aquatic Toxicology 85 202-208 [11] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Chionoecetes opilio (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2644/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [12] Jadamec, L. S., W. E. Donaldson & P. Cullenberg (1999). Biological Field Techniques for Chionoecetes crabs. University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program. Part 1 (http:/ / www. uaf. edu/ seagrant/ bookstore/ pubs/ AK-SG-99-02-b. pdf) [13] Deadliest Catch Official Site (http:/ / dsc. discovery. com/ fansites/ deadliestcatch/ deadliestcatch. html) [14] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Callinectes sapidus (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2632/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [15] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Cancer pagurus (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2627/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [16] Neal, K.J. & E. Wilson (2005). "Edible crab, Cancer pagurus" (http:/ / www. marlin. ac. uk/ species/ Cancerpagurus. htm). Marine Life Information Network. . [17] "Edible crab (Cancer pagurus)" (http:/ / www. arkive. org/ species/ ARK/ invertebrates_marine/ Cancer_pagurus/ more_info. html). ARKive.org. . [18] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Cancer magister (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 3461/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [19] "The Dungeness Crab" (http:/ / www. dungeness. com/ crab/ ). Dungeness community website. . Retrieved August 28, 2006. [20] Crabs are measured across the widest part of their back, excluding the legs. See, e.g., 2006-2007 Fishing in Washington Rule Pamphlet (http:/ / wdfw. wa. gov/ fish/ regs/ 2006/ 06regs_6. pdf) (pdf), p. 130.

Crab fisheries
[21] "Species Fact Sheet. Cancer magister Dana, 1852" (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ FiRefServlet?ds=species& fid=3461). FAO. 2004-01-22. . [22] "Dungeness Crab and Seafood Festival" (http:/ / www. crabfestival. org). . [23] Andrea Cohen (2006-08-09). "Crab nabbed; circumstances fishy" (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2006/ crab. html). MIT News Office. . [24] FAO: Species Fact Sheets: Scylla serrata (http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ species/ 2637/ en), Retrieved 26 November 2009. [25] N. Romano & C. Zeng (2007). "Acute toxicity of ammonia and its effects on the haemolymph osmolality, ammonia-N, pH and ionic composition of early juvenile mud crabs, Scylla serrata (Forskl)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 148 (2): 278285. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.04.018. PMID17540593. [26] "Global Capture Production 19502004" (http:/ / www. fao. org/ figis/ servlet/ TabLandArea?tb_ds=Capture& tb_mode=TABLE& tb_act=SELECT& tb_grp=COUNTRY). Food and Agriculture Organization. September 9, 2006. . [27] Carl Meyer. "Maja squinado, the European Spider Crab: Biology and Fishery" (http:/ / www2. hawaii. edu/ ~carlm/ spider. html). . [28] "Council Regulation (EEC) No 3094/86" (http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ staging/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31986R3094:EN:HTML). Official Journal of the European Economic Community. 1986-10-07. . [29] NMFS: FishWatch: Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) (http:/ / www. nmfs. noaa. gov/ fishwatch/ specieS/ red_king_crab. htm). Retrieved 7 December 2009. [30] http:/ / www. seaaroundus. org/ gis/ default. aspx?dLayer=690621& Xmin=-180& Ymin=29. 65& Xmax=180& Ymax=81. 35& dGroup=2& dTaxon=Paralithodes%20camtschaticus%20%28Red%20king%20crab%29 [31] NOAA: Blue King Crab (Paralithodes platypus) (http:/ / www. afsc. noaa. gov/ Kodiak/ shellfish/ bkcupdate. htm). Alaska Fisheries Science Centre. Retrieved 7 December 2009. [32] http:/ / www. seaaroundus. org/ gis/ default. aspx?dLayer=690622& Xmin=-180& Ymin=55. 8& Xmax=179. 68& Ymax=60. 2& dGroup=2& dTaxon=Paralithodes%20platypus%20%28Blue%20King%20Crab%29 [33] NOAA: Golden King Crab Research (http:/ / www. afsc. noaa. gov/ Kodiak/ shellfish/ gkc. htm). Alaska Fisheries Science Centre. Retrieved 7 December 2009. [34] http:/ / www. fishex. com/ seafood/ crab/ king-crab-101. html [35] http:/ / www. professorshouse. com/ food-beverage/ food/ king-crab. aspx [36] http:/ / www. fao. org/ fishery/ fishtech/ 1071/ en [37] Keiji Baba, Enrique Macpherson, Gary C. B. Poore, Shane T. Ahyong, Adriana Bermudez, Patricia Cabezas, Chia-Wei Lin, Martha Nizinski, Celso Rodrigues & Kareen E. Schnabel (2008). "Catalogue of squat lobsters of the world (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura families Chirostylidae, Galatheidae and Kiwaidae)" (http:/ / www. mapress. com/ zootaxa/ 2008/ f/ zt01905p220. pdf). Zootaxa 1905: 1220. . [38] David Sharp (October 3, 2006). "Maine senator attempts to blow whistle on 'impostor lobster'" (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ local/ maine/ articles/ 2006/ 10/ 03/ senator_blows_whistle_on_wannabe_lobster/ ). Associated Press. . [39] http:/ / www. seaaroundus. org/ gis/ default. aspx?dLayer=490124& dGroup=2& dTaxon=Galatheidae%20%28Squat%20lobsters%29

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Bite indicator

104

Bite indicator
A bite indicator is a mechanical or electronic device which indicates to an angler that something is happening at the hook end of the fishing line. There are many types of bite indicators. Which ones work best depends on the type of fishing. Fishing floats widely used as bite indicators. Quiver tips attached onto the end of the fishing rod. Bite alarms electronic devices which bleep when a fish tugs a fishing line. The fishing line is wound on a running roller which makes a noise when the fishing line moves, thus alerting the angler that a fish might be hooked.[1] They are attached to the fishing rod between the reel and the first eye on the rod, and give an audibly alert when there is a simple movement of the line. Bite alarms can range from simple devices with an on/off switch that do no more than indicate when the line moves over the roller, to more complicated devices with volume, tone and sensitivity controls. They are useful when fishing with more than one rod, and are commonly used when coarse fishing for carp. Whereas floats can be used as visual bite detectors, bite alarms are audible bite detectors. Although more expensive than visual devices, audible devices are popular as they do not require constant monitoring. They were invented by Richard Walker.

External links
Fishing Bite Alarms [2]

References
[1] Bite indicators (http:/ / www. carp. net/ faq/ cfaq_3. htm#c3_5) [2] http:/ / www. fishing-hotspot. co. uk/ tag/ bite-alarm/

Turtle excluder device

105

Turtle excluder device


A turtle excluder device or TED is a specialized device that allows a captured sea turtle to escape when caught in a fisherman's net. In particular, sea turtles can be caught when bottom trawling is used by the commercial shrimp fishing industry. In order to catch shrimp, a fine meshed trawl net is needed. This results in large amounts of other marine organisms being also caught as bycatch. When a turtle gets caught or entangled in a trawl net, it becomes trapped and is unable to return to the surface. Since sea turtles are air-breathing creatures with lungs, they eventually drown.

Green turtle breaks the surface to breathe.

History
TEDs were first developed in the 1970s by a fisherman named Sinkey Boone, seeking to reduce his by-catch. His invention was called The Georgia Jumper. It is an original one of a kind design. Another style was patented on April 26, 1988 by inventor Noah J Saunders of Biloxi, Mississippi.[1] By decreasing the number of unwanted fish and creatures caught in their trawl nets, fishermen could trawl longer with the same net ideally catching more shrimp. Some resistance to the use of TEDs has arisen from the belief that the use of the devices actually causes fishermen to lose shrimp and other targeted species.[2] In 1987, the United States required all trawling shrimping boats to equip their nets with turtle excluder devices. As a follow-up two years after, the shrimp-turtle law was implemented. This required all countries that the USA was importing shrimp from to certify that the shrimp they shipped were harvested by boats equipped with TEDs. Countries that cannot guarantee the use of the escape devices were banned from exporting shrimp to the USA.[3] In 1996, the Indian government proposed legislature for the requirement of modified "indigenous" TEDs, which they called TSDs (Turtle Saving Devices) to be used by local fishermen. This was a response to the declining olive ridley population that were nesting in beaches such as in Orissa. The modified TSDs were similar to standard TEDs except for having fewer bars. This resulted in the increase of the distance between each pair of bars to ensure that bigger specimens of shrimp and fish were able to pass through the TSD and into the net.[4]
An example of a commercial turtle excluder device.

Turtle excluder device Even in United States use of TEDs is not universal. As of June 2010, the State of Louisiana has prohibited its marine enforcement officers from enforcing TED and tow time limits.[5]

106

Mechanism
External images
Turtle excluder device
[6]

The use of the devices ideally allow all bycatch larger than ten centimeters (10 cm.) to escape the nets unharmed. This selectivity is achieved by metal grids integrated into the trawl net structure. The grids act as a barrier for large creatures such as turtles from passing through the bars into the back of the net. A small opening in the net is then available either above or below the grid so that the creatures that are stopped by the TEDs are allowed to escape the net, relatively unharmed. Targeted species such as shrimp however, are pushed to the back of the net. The target design effectiveness of TEDs is 97%.[7] But the field effectiveness is often far lower. Seagrasses and other debris reduce fishing effectiveness of TEDs and in some situations may block sea turtles from exiting the net.[8] In addition, it is easy to tamper with TEDs so as to increase the fishing efficiency of the net, while eliminating the turtle-excluding properties of the TED.[9]

Failings and drawbacks


While turtle excluder devices have been somewhat successful in lessening sea turtle casualties as by-catch, they still have a few failings and drawbacks. It has been acknowledged that the larger sea turtles, primarily large loggerheads and leatherbacks are too large to fit through the escape hatches installed in most TEDs. These turtles remain trapped within the net and perish. U.S. legislation introduced in 2003 has attempted to address this issue by increasing the size of the escape chutes in the devices.[3] It is difficult to enforce TED compliance The problem is that TEDs reduce the efficiency of the net system, resulting in a loss of some of the catch. On a per boat basis, turtles are rarely caught, only one turtle per 322.5 hours in the Gulf of Mexico.[10] This creates an incentive for the trawler to cheat. The catch loss can be eliminated by simply tying the turtle escape opening shut with a tie. The tie is removed when the vessel returns to port, thus avoiding detection by enforcement officers, but placing turtles at risk while trawling. It has been theorized that the spike in dead turtles seen in the Gulf of Mexico in June and July 2010 was due to shrimp boats that were taking advantage of lax marine enforcement due to the gulf oil spill.[11]
Loggerhead turtle escapes from a fishing net through a TED.

Another turtle escapes through the excluder

Occasionally TED use becomes impractical due to debris in the water. device. When a TED is clogged with debris, it can no longer catch fish effectively or exclude turtles. For example, in September 2008 following Hurricanes Gustav and Ike, the National

Turtle excluder device Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) allowed temporary use of "Tow Times" in lieu of TEDs . Vessels were required to limit their tows to 55 minutes from the time the trawl doors entered the water until they were retrieved from the water. In June 2010 the limit was further reduced to 30 minutes.[12] Unfortunately vessels were not equipped with tow time data loggers, so there was no practical method to enforce these time limits.[13]

107

Bibliography
Lee, Scott (1999) (PDF). Ancient Sea Turtles: Stranded in a Modern World [14]. USA: Sea Turtle Restoration Project. "Turtle Excluder Device (TED)" [15]. Wildlife: Issues Facing Wildlife. The Humane Society of the United States. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-01. "Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs)" [16]. Fisheries: Office of Protected Resources. U. S. National Oceanographic Atmospheric Administration. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-01. (Book) Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention. USA: National Academy Press. 1990.

References
[1] http:/ / www. patentstorm. us/ inventors/ Noah_J__Saunders-2329448. html [2] Lee, Scott (1999) (PDF). Ancient Sea Turtles: Stranded in a Modern World (http:/ / www. bullfrogfilms. com/ guides/ astguide. pdf). USA: Sea Turtle Restoration Project. . [3] "Turtle Excluder Device (TED)" (http:/ / www. hsus. org/ wildlife/ issues_facing_wildlife/ turtle_excluder_device_ted. html). Wildlife: Issues Facing Wildlife. The Humane Society of the United States. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-09-01. [4] Behera, Chitta (September 2000). "Towards Averting the Dooms Day Imminent for Olive Ridleys: Indigenizing the Turtle Excluder Device and Reforming the Gillnetting Practice along the Orissa Coast of India". Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology 19: 215216. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-443. [5] http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 15/ science/ earth/ 15necropsy. html?pagewanted=3& ref=science [6] http:/ / www. afma. gov. au/ information/ students/ methods/ ted. htm [7] "Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs)" (http:/ / www. nmfs. noaa. gov/ pr/ species/ turtles/ teds. htm). Fisheries: Office of Protected Resources. U. S. National Oceanographic Atmospheric Administration. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-09-01. [8] Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention, National Academy Press, 1990 pp147. [9] http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 15/ science/ earth/ 15necropsy. html?pagewanted=3& ref=science [10] Sheryan P. Epperly, Biology of Sea Turtles, Volume II, 2003, pp 342. [11] http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 15/ science/ earth/ 15necropsy. html?pagewanted=2& ref=science [12] http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 06/ 26/ science/ earth/ 26turtle. html [13] Sea Turtle Conservation, Shrimp Trawling Requirements, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 50 CFR Parts 222 and 223 [14] http:/ / www. bullfrogfilms. com/ guides/ astguide. pdf [15] http:/ / www. hsus. org/ wildlife/ issues_facing_wildlife/ turtle_excluder_device_ted. html [16] http:/ / www. nmfs. noaa. gov/ pr/ species/ turtles/ teds. htm

Ghost net

108

Ghost net
Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been left or lost in the ocean by fishermen. These nets, often nearly invisible in the dim light, can be left tangled on a rocky reef or drifting in the open sea. They can entangle fish, dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, dugongs, crocodiles, seabirds, crabs, and other creatures, including the occasional human diver.[1] Acting as designed, the nets restrict movement, causing starvation, laceration and infection, and in those that need to return to the surface to breathe suffocation.[2]

Sea turtle entanged in a ghost net

Description
Some commercial fisherman use gillnets. These are anchored to the sea floor with floatation buoys along one edge. In this way they can form a vertical wall hundreds of metres long, where any fish within a certain size range can be caught. Normally these nets are collected by fisherman and the catch removed. However if this is not done the net can continue to catch fish until the weight of the catch exceeds the buoyancy of the floats. The net then sinks, and the fish are devoured by bottom-dwelling crustaceans and other fish. Then the floats pull the net up again and the cycle continues. Given the high-quality synthetics that are used today, the destruction can continue for a long time. The problem is not just nets; old-fashioned crab pots, without the required "rot-out panel", also sit on the bottom, where they become self-baiting traps that go on catching crabs year after year. Even balled-up fishing line can be deadly for a variety of creatures, including birds and marine mammals. Over time the nets become more and more tangled. In general, fish are less likely to be trapped in gear that has been down a long time.[3] The French government offered a reward for ghost nets handed in to local coastguards along sections of the Normandy coast between 1980 and 1981. The project was abandoned when people vandalised nets to claim rewards, without retrieving anything at all from the shoreline or ocean.[4]

See also
List of environmental issues Marine debris Drift netting Fishing net

References
Macfadyen G, Huntington T and Cappell R (2009) Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear [5] FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture, Technical paper 523. Rome. Ghost Net Project [6] Carpentaria Ghost Net Programme [7]

Ghost net

109

External links
Ghost net Removal [8] Team Hunts Deadly 'Ghost Nets' in the Pacific [9] Tracking Down Ghost Nets [10] Ghost net [11] - Youtube Huge 'Ghost Net' Filled With Dead Sharks, Fish [12] Massive Ghost Net Found In Territory Waters [13] Ghost nets kill sea turtles [14] Ghost nets hurting marine environment: UN report [15]

References
[1] Esteban, Michelle (2002) Tracking Down Ghost Nets (http:/ / www. eurocbc. org/ page54. html) [2] "'Ghost fishing' killing seabirds" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ highlands_and_islands/ 6248366. stm). BBC News. 28 June 2007. . Retrieved 2008-04-01. [3] Dunagan, Christopher (2000)The Sun. The net effect: trouble (http:/ / web. kitsapsun. com/ news/ 2000/ may/ 0504pugetsoundwa. html), 5 April [4] BBC News. "Ghost fishing" killing seabirds (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ highlands_and_islands/ 6248366. stm) [5] ftp:/ / ftp. fao. org/ docrep/ fao/ 011/ i0620e/ i0620e. pdf [6] http:/ / www. highseasghost. net/ [7] http:/ / www. ghostnets. com. au/ [8] http:/ / www. hcseg. org/ x98. xml [9] http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=4673939 [10] http:/ / www. eurocbc. org/ page54. html [11] http:/ / nz. youtube. com/ watch?v=FZU-hvcCxqQ& feature=related [12] http:/ / www. flmnh. ufl. edu/ Fish/ InNews/ salerno2004. htm [13] http:/ / newsroom. nt. gov. au/ index. cfm?fuseaction=viewRelease& id=3225& d=5 [14] http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ news/ environment/ ghost-net-turtle-toll-rises-as-cyclone-nears/ 2006/ 04/ 24/ 1145730846319. html [15] http:/ / www. fao. org/ news/ story/ en/ item/ 19353/ icode/

Article Sources and Contributors

110

Article Sources and Contributors


Fishing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=376946635 Contributors: (jarbarf), .:Ajvol:., 02chcle, 21655, 63.252.148.xxx, 7&6=thirteen, A. B., A. Parrot, A8UDI, AGK, ARC Gritt, AZ.spartan118, Aa-armykid, Aapo Laitinen, Abby, Ace Class Shadow, Adambro, AgainErick, AgentFade2Black, Agne27, Aheaheahe, Ahoerstemeier, Ajcfreak, Akondofswat, Alan Au, Alan is cool, Alansohn, AlexiusHoratius, Alexmcfire, Ali babba233, Allan6647, Allstarecho, Alxrnz2, American Eagle, Amitch, Ammubhave, Amp7511, AnOddName, Andeggs, AndonicO, Andre Engels, AndreNatas, Andy Dingley, Andy M. Wang, Andycjp, AngelOfSadness, Angr, Angrysockhop, Anilocra, Anna Frodesiak, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Aplchian, Apoc2400, Apparition11, Ar-wiki, Aremith, Arikrizky, Ariobarzan, Arlinbenz, Arnejohs, Arpingstone, Arpowers, Arthena, AsianAstronaut, Athomas7990, Atomicidal14, Atulsnischal, Avihu, Bambikiller92, Bantosh, Bass fishing physicist, Beano123456789, Beetstra, Ben starling, Bensaccount, Bentenn1010, Berean Hunter, Bertotj, Bggoldie, Bidgee, BigHairRef, Bigsteeve, Bigxworm, Blanchette, Blehfu, Blue520, BlueMoon1969, Bluelion, Bmsmitty8, Bob98133, Bobblewik, Bobjagendorf, Bobo192, Bogey97, Bongwarrior, BorgQueen, Brian Crawford, Brian0918, Brinerustle, Britannicus, BrokenSegue, Bryan Derksen, Bsadowski1, Bu b0y2007, BullRangifer, Buttmunch3, Buxbaum666, C0N5T4NT1N3, CSWarren, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Camembert, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Canthusus, Capricorn42, Cassandra 73, Catgut, Caughtinflight, CedarSavage, Century0, Chaffers, Chamal N, Ched Davis, Cheeesemonger, Cheesenuggetbunnehman, Chinasaur, Chinchan, Chris the speller, ChristTrekker, Christian List, Chriswiki, Chuckles101, Chuq, ClanCC, Cleared as filed, Clearwaterlodge, Closedmouth, Cmh, Codman, Connormah, Coolperson420, Corti, Cosgrif, Courcelles, Cowfshdogog, Craignic11, Craigy144, Craxyxarc, Cremepuff222, Cushion r col, D6, DDerby, DJ Clayworth, DMacks, DVD R W, Daniel J. Leivick, Danlina, Dannykth, Darth Panda, Davewho2, David Underdown, Davidhc, Dawnseeker2000, DeadEyeArrow, Deathawk, Deirdre, Den fjttrade ankan, DennyColt, Deor, DerHexer, Dethlock99, Devilslave13, Dewlnh, Df747jet, Diemunkiesdie, Dina, Dingiswayo, Discospinster, Divinechocchip, Dj Capricorn, Dmsc893, Docboat, Docu, Donald Albury, Dontlaughatme9, Downer90, Download, Dreadstar, Dtobias, Dureo, Duric6, Dustythecat, Dwgalhardo, Dysepsion, Edward321, Eggyda5, Egil, EhJJ, Ehheh, ElKevbo, Elliskev, Elockid, Emonsmi, Enok Walker, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Epipelagic, Equendil, Erber13, Eric Ashford, Error -128, Esoltas, Espresso Addict, EvilSqueegee, Excirial, F jami3, Fabartus, Fabulous Creature, Failure.exe, Falcon8765, Falconhawk, Falconleaf, Fang 23, Faradayplank, Favonian, Fcb981, Ferrell90210, Fetofs, Fir0002, Fireweedstink, Fish Rule, Fish5319, Fishermen's News, Fishingz, Fishkrap2, Flint McRae, Flowerparty, Fluri, Flyfish98, Flyingdream, Frankenpuppy, Frecklefoot, Freeway1, FreplySpang, Fritzpoll, Func, Funknl, GDonato, GI JOed, Gadfium, Gail, Gaius Cornelius, Galorr, Galoubet, Garry-david-pine132, GearedBull, Gene Nygaard, Geneb1955, Geologyguy, George Best10, George2004, Ghirlandajo, Giano II, Gidonb, Giftlite, Gilliam, Gjs238, Gogo Dodo, GoingBatty, Goldiemaz, Gollobt, GongNone, Gopen, GraemeL, Grafen, GreatWhiteNortherner, Grick, Grosscha, Gunmetal Angel, Gurch, Gwernol, H51773, Hadal, Haham hanuka, Harrydies!, Havilahgold, Hcberkowitz, Hcsteve, Heavy Seltzer, Heegoop, Helga76, Heliac, Heron, HiDrNick, Hitmyfish, Hobartimus, Hobeze, Honukuono, HorseMadK, Hottie 08, Howeneil, Hoziron, Hulk Hogan, Husond, Hut 8.5, IKnowAWholeLottaOtherThings, ILovePlankton, IWhisky, Iamjackass101.576, Ian Page, IceUnshattered, Icey, Idtapthat, Ilyushka88, Indon, Inkypaws, Insanity Incarnate, Irene247, Iridescent, Irishguy, Isopropyl, IstvanWolf, J.delanoy, JForget, Jack555123, Jackol, James086, JamesAM, Jamestheladd, JamieS93, Jan eissfeldt, Jane Fairfax, Jared Preston, Jaredboy1234, Javierito92, Jbinder, Jdub smooth, Jean.artegui, Jedudedek, Jeff G., Jesse12345678910111213141516, JetLover, Jiang, Jimothytrotter, Jivee Blau, Jni, JoEmAn64, JoJan, JoanneB, JoeSmack, John254, Johnpseudo, Josh Parris, Jreferee, Jsc83, Jujutacular, Julie5007, Just plain Bill, JustAGal, Jw 193, K tremble, Karateman714, Karenjc, Karl2620, Katieh5584, Katr67, Kazzeh, Kbh3rd, Keenan0710, Keilana, Ken Thomas, Kingo25831, Kingpin13, Kirachinmoku, Kjrajesh, Kkarma, KnowledgeOfSelf, Koavf, Koektrommel, Kostisl, Kotaro kurosawa, Kross, Kubigula, Kuch, Kungfuadam, Kuru, Kvdveer, KyraVixen, L2m2m2l, LOL, La goutte de pluie, Landon1980, LaughingVulcan, Lear's Fool, LeaveSleaves, LedgendGamer, Lism123456789, Livia82, Loganis, Longhair, Lsucrazy04, Lucky 6.9, Luethcifer, Lyndsayruell, Lynkx, MER-C, Madhero88, Madmarigold, MagnusW, Mahlum, Maletic, Mangostar, ManuelGR, MapsMan, Marcusmax, Marek69, Martpol, Masspell, Mattv1978, Mboverload, McGeddon, Meaghan, Megan.rw1, Melanie-dash, 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SparrowsWing, SpeedyQuick, Speyburn, Spezchaz, Spindoctor69, SpuriousQ, Spygliukas, Starx, Stephen Bain, Stephenb, Stephensonsix, Stewartadcock, Stewy7, Stickee, Stormwriter, Streety18, Stubblyhead, Sujit kumar, SupaDane, SuperHamster, Supermancody, Sushant gupta, Sweaterbob, SyntaxError55, TBadger, THF, TUF-KAT, TakuyaMurata, Tanner-Christopher, Tarquin, TeaDrinker, Terryodash, Texture, Tgarrick, That Guy, From That Show!, Thcky16, The Librarian, The Random Editor, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheHacker146, TheProf07, TheiGuard, Thekidwithhugearms, Themcman1, Themfromspace, Thescarid, Theskippy7, Thingg, Thisisborin9, Thomas H. Larsen, Tide rolls, Timwi, Tlim7882, Tnxman307, Toasterjoey6, Tobby72, Tobias Hoevekamp, Tommy2010, TonyBallioni, Tornasole, Tregoweth, Tresiden, Truthteller2156, Tsange, Ttony21, TubularWorld, TutterMouse, Twp, Ugafan52, Uncle Milty, Usher69, Utcursch, Uyanga, VX, Vague Rant, Vbogucki, Vchorozopoulos, Veinor, Versus22, Vicki Rosenzweig, Vince, Vlad2000Plus, Vsmith, Vsk, Wafulz, Wai Wai, Walkerma, Wally waldhino, Wandering Traveler, Ward20, Wavelength, Wb1234, Webmarketboy, Weiner567, WikHead, Wiki2don, Wikibofh, Wikidudeman, Wikigi, Wikipe-tan, Wikiscient, Wikistyro, Willking1979, Willydick, Wilsonluong92, Wimt, Wintonian, Wisdom89, Wrockca, Wstitans11, Xavexgoem, Xiahou, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yasunat, Yath, Yayturtles, Yogetlow2, Yohan euan o4, Youssefsan, Yudiweb, ZFR, ZX81, Zackcalder, Zalgo, Zamphuor, Zekthedeadcow, Zerida, Zero Gravity, Zyarb, Zzuuzz, iedas, 1562 anonymous edits Fishing rod Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=376482533 Contributors: -- April, -Majestic-, 4everqos, ABF, Aflm, Alansohn, Alexmcfire, AndonicO, AndrewBonamici, Apoc2400, Avicennasis, B.Wind, Bassgroove, Bevo74, Big Bird, Blanchardb, BlueCanoe, Bntbrl, Bobblewik, Boing! said Zebedee, Brideshead, Butterscotch, CWii, Calmer Waters, Caltas, Calvin 1998, CapitalR, Citizen Premier, Cleared as filed, Codman, Crysis1234, Crystallina, D, DabMachine, DanMS, Danishrolls, Dedoo, Demon Duck of Doom, Discospinster, Drestros power, Dusti, Egil, Engineerscansell, Epipelagic, Fabrictramp, Falconleaf, Fireplace, Fluri, Fruggo, Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Garglebutt, Gavin Drake, Graham87, Greg47, Gtorell, Gkhan, HJ Mitchell, Halibutt, Hannes2, Harland1, Hede2000, Heron, Hq3473, Iceshark7, Iridescent, IstvanWolf, JQF, Jackbarrile, Jclemens, Jdpeppa, Jfdwolff, Jrash, Kalidasa 777, Kimiko, King of Hearts, Korg, Kukini, LaughingVulcan, Lonwolve, Lupo, MER-C, MPerel, Manop, Marcus Qwertyus, Marktaff, Markwaldin, Melos Antropon, Metalistheway, Mike Cline, Minimac's Clone, Mintleaf, Monkeyfeet, Montchav, Nubiatech, Ohnoitsjamie, Orca1 9904, PL290, Peewee949, Penfishingrods, Peterlewis, Phaedriel, Picaroon, Pie 2.0, Pikiwyn, Pilotte, Pro-flyfisherman, Randomator, Rchamberlain, Reach Out to the Truth, Reedy, Reflex Reaction, Rjwilmsi, Robertsonrn, Rrburke, Rubberdubtub, Shortstraw, Sky Attacker, Snowolf, Soccerking0987654321, SomeRandomGuy1123, Someguy1221, Stan Shebs, Starnestommy, Subey, T Long, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Takharii, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thenewdeal87, Theo10011, Thingg, Tide rolls, Tregoweth, Vina, Vssun, Wateradept42, Whisper256, Wik, Wrockca, Zibzer, Zidane2k1, 305 anonymous edits Fish hook Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=375774998 Contributors: Akheel00, Alansohn, Cecole, Chmee2, Chowbok, ColdWind, Cruccone, Crystallina, Doug, EncMstr, Engineerscansell, Epipelagic, Freakmancool1, GateKeeper, Gioto, HalfShadow, Hatmatbbat10, Joerebel, JohnCD, Matt Inman, Meelar, MichaelMaggs, Mike Cline, NawlinWiki, Nerdge, PL290, Piano non troppo, Pinethicket, Prabinepali, Quinsareth, Rjwilmsi, Rustdrake, Sammyd41, Stwalkerster, Sue in az, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Tkynerd, Torsin, Trcunning, Vassyana, WRK, Walrus heart, Wikiboy5698, Woohookitty, 57 anonymous edits Fishing line Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=367040571 Contributors: Alexf, Beaumont, BooyakaDell, Bu b0y2007, Cosgrif, Crohnie, DJ Clayworth, Danishrolls, DekeFish, Donald Albury, Elf, Emj, Epbr123, Epipelagic, Frymaster, Gene Nygaard, GreatWhiteNortherner, Hadal, Haza-w, Hephaestos, Hooperbloob, Jvanhorn, Kylu, Mangostar, Marcus Qwertyus, Mentifisto, Mike Cline, Mikeblas, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mintleaf, Mrschimpf, Mrtea, Muad, Mwanner, Mygerardromance, Neil916, Neilc, Night Gyr, Nonforma, Ocee, OneAmongBillions, Piercr, ProveIt, Rettetast, Rifleman 82, Rozek19, Rui Silva, Shaddack, Shimeru, Shootbamboo, Smack, Stan Shebs, Stevenandjames, Vicarious, Viridiflavus, Waggers, Wimt, Xanzzibar, Zibzer, Zoohouse, 137 anonymous edits Fishing sinker Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=372291439 Contributors: Altenmann, Epipelagic, Gioto, GregorB, Iain marcuson, Joel7687, Kusunose, Leonard G., Midnightcomm, Morwen, Perkons, Ramanpotential, RoyBoy, Themfromspace, Verne Equinox, Yath, 47 anonymous edits Fishing bait Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366109374 Contributors: Epipelagic, Gilliam, Gunnerlouis, Maarschalk, Mohammad ahmad, Portillo, Rjbain, Thesavagenorwegian, Vermisapiens, 6 anonymous edits Fishing lure Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371606997 Contributors: 1exec1, Ace Class Shadow, Alansohn, Ant465, Bass fishing physicist, Berean Hunter, Bettia, BullRangifer, Buster7, CINEGroup, Cander0000, Catgut, Codman, Cornellrockey, CredoFromStart, Custombait, CyberAnth, Daniel Case, Danishrolls, DigsFish, Discospinster, Drunkenmonkey, Dumptruckarmagedon, Ekul123, Epipelagic, Fishinglures, Gadfium, Gilliam, Gioto, Gobonobo, Happymercury, Indon, Isotope23, J.delanoy, Jeremykemp, Juliancolton, Kelvinbi, LorenzoB, LuisGomez111, MER-C, Markurxn, Mike Cline, Mintleaf, Natewegryn, Neil916, Nikai, Obli, Orca1 9904, Piano non troppo, Pooincrap, Qibin, Roger Flybox, Shovis, SilkTork, Skapur, Snarble, Stan Shebs, Syrgas, Tabletop, Tsemii, Unbiassed, Veinor, Violetriga, Viridiflavus, Wiffle1, Wikiscient, Wrockca, Zach77, 111 anonymous edits Fly fishing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=377554318 Contributors: -Majestic-, AVand, Abpaley, Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, Alex.muller, Ali, Allegrorondo, Alphachimp, Altenmann, AndrewBonamici, Aplchian, Aviper2k7, BD2412, Bardlidown, Beatfreak, BeckenhamBear, Beetstra, Betacommand, Bladeswin, BlueCanoe, Bluemoose, Bosman111, Brianga, Bu b0y2007, Bubblesqueak, Burlywood, Butwhatdoiknow, CIreland, Caliga10, Camembert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Cardston, Catsbarracuda, Chadschiel, Chasingsol, Chilin, Chris j wood, Coastalcutt, Colonies Chris, Conniemack29, Courcelles, DGG, DanMS, Darkwind, DavidWBrooks, Davidmcb64, Davidnat, Dcfleck, Deager, Dedoo, Deli nk, Deltabeignet, DerHexer, Dina,

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Discospinster, Dogaroon, Drcooling, Dwgalhardo, E Wing, Eds23, Edward321, ElKevbo, Eliz81, Epbr123, Epipelagic, EricR, Euchiasmus, Euryalus, F-402, FaerieInGrey, Falconhawk, Fastfission, Feinoha, Felipegut, Feour, Firsfron, FisherQueen, Fishnogeek, Floaterfluss, FloweringHearth, Floydian1486, Fluri, Flyfisher56, Frencheigh, Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Gary King, Ghosthost, Gilesmorant, Gioto, Goldenrowley, Graham.milam, Grmi64, Gscshoyru, Hadal, Harps, Harrytoppett, Hatch68, Hburdon, Heartlander, Hej7, Hmoul, Hobartimus, Hut 8.5, I.M.S., I3ballin, Impala2009, Iridescent, IrishFloatTube, Iwashigumo77, J d hurley, J.delanoy, Jalevan, Janderk, Jarmo H, Jdpeppa, JerrySteal, Jjd1946, Jkl, Jnocook, John Carter, Jpgordon, Kbh3rd, Keilana, KeithB, Kingpin13, Kinitawowi, Klonker, Ktorbett, Kturner2008, Laserpointer35, Legosarefun, Lightmouse, Lobsterthermidor, Loganis, LowVelocity, MPF, Madhero88, Magister Mathematicae, MagnusW, Malcolm Morley, Mandarax, Marek69, Marie Rowley, Marj Tiefert, Markwaldin, Martin H., Mattwarnock, Max, Mboverload, Mctrain, Medicellis, Meekywiki, Merky588, Methcub, Michael Snow, MichaelMaggs, MidgleyDJ, Mifter, Mike Cline, Mintleaf, Mion, Monkeyman, Mozzie, Mrkwpalmer, Mwanner, Nborders1972, Neil916, NeonMerlin, Netdoctor, Nicholas Perkins, Nick Number, Ninly, Nistra, Nixeagle, Nono64, Nuovoastro, Nztayls, Obli, Ohnoitsjamie, Oneliner, OregonStreams, Ospalh, P Carn, Patchcock, Pbrown600, Peko, Pfly, Phillies1fan777, Phiz, PigFlu Oink, Pil56, Pitonpro, Polishphysicist, Pollinator, PotentialDanger, Pro-flyfisherman, Professor J Lawrence, Purgatory Fubar, Reach Out to the Truth, Recognizance, Reflex Reaction, Reyk, Rhalden, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Robballan, Robbie swift, Roger Flybox, Roundhouse0, Rsrikanth05, Ryulong, Salmo Trutta, Sam Hocevar, Santasa99, Sbkb, Schmiteye, Sebasletelier, Shell Kinney, Shoessss, Shrew, Silvestre, Someguy1221, Spitfire19, Stan Shebs, Stegop, Stewy7, Stigmhenriksen, SunCreator, TTTR, Tad Lincoln, Tagishsimon, Taylorutah, Tcncv, Texyak, The Rambling Man, The.dharma.bum, Thefirstwizard, Theo10011, Thesmothete, Thistlebones, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Trico99, Trout001, Troutlet, Trutta, Ttassin, Ukexpat, Ukulele, Unschool, Unyoyega, Viridiflavus, Virtualphtn, Voyagerfan5761, Vsmith, WTG9454, WeeCub, WereSpielChequers, Woohookitty, Wtmitchell, Xray84, Xunex, Zh, Zven, 713 anonymous edits Artificial fly Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=377374300 Contributors: Alanmaher, Bugger39, Epipelagic, Euchiasmus, Gioto, Hellbus, Inwind, Iridescent, John of Reading, JohnI, Kanohara, Kiore, Lobsterthermidor, Mike Cline, Ospalh, Richard New Forest, Robertsonal, TheNightRyder, 13 anonymous edits Fishing techniques Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366885314 Contributors: Ar-wiki, Arlinbenz, Arnob1, Bellhalla, Bgag, Bob98133, CharlotteWebb, Dusty.crockett, Dysmorodrepanis, Emperor Genius, Epipelagic, Gaius Cornelius, Hamlet, Prince of Trollmark, Indeterminate, J04n, Jehamilt, Jjron, Julius Sahara, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Mangostar, Mattv1978, Nilheda, Ohnoitsjamie, Pieceoshit, Quercus basaseachicensis, RexNL, Rje, Sigma 7, Tabletop, Troutlet, Vivio Testarossa, Woohookitty, 27 anonymous edits Spearfishing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=376100559 Contributors: AAA!, AKeen, Abyssadventurer, AdjustShift, AgnosticPreachersKid, Alias Flood, Anna Lincoln, Anthony Appleyard, Audiosmurf, Australianskindiver, B, Badseed, Bgreen01, Brooker, Casey Abell, Cewvero, Chris the speller, DLP, DMacks, Daniel5127, Dhaluza, Discospinster, Diveplanet, Edward, Elahk09, Enviroboy, Epastore, Epipelagic, Euchiasmus, EurekaLott, Everyking, Ewlyahoocom, Farzanegan, Figarow, Gaius Cornelius, Gelber21, Gettingtoit, Ginkgo100, Gjd001, Gjs238, GoingBatty, GreenByl, Gurch, IRP, Janderk, Jfrusciantix, Jumbo Snails, Jussian, Kalidasa 777, Kalogeropoulos, Katefan0, Korg, Lfstevens, MONGO, Mandarax, Mangostar, Marc Lacoste, Mbz1, MentalBurn, Odiferous, Omegatron, Oregondesert, Pedro, Pietrow, Pollinator, Que-Can, RexxS, Riadismet, Richard.carmichael, Sheilbrown46, Silly rabbit, Soap, Spearfishingnz, Stan Shebs, SuperHamster, Surfin simo, Tealwisp, Tekenduis, That Guy, From That Show!, The Anome, The undertow, Tide rolls, Tmorton166, WacoJacko, Weregerbil, Yourrfriend, Yugyug, Ziggurat, Zinnmann, Zondor, 178 anonymous edits Fishing net Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=373944308 Contributors: Ar-wiki, Bob98133, Bobo192, Bu b0y2007, Charly Steinbeisser, Da monster under your bed, Epipelagic, Eras-mus, Foobar, Fred Hsu, Gaius Cornelius, GorillaWarfare, Gurchzilla, Hmbrger, J.delanoy, Kellyfyke, Korath, Max, Moverton, Olivier, Pjbflynn, Postrach, Remuel, Renebeto, Scorpion451, Signalhead, SimonP, Spencer, Thinking of England, Tsange, Tsiaojian lee, Velela, Vicarious, Ynhockey, Z10x, 44 anonymous edits Fish trap Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366959901 Contributors: Anna Frodesiak, Billinghurst, Bjenks, Bvlax2005, Chiunghsinhsu, Cmh, Deathvail, DougsTech, Epipelagic, Haltiamieli, Hooperbloob, Keeper76, LeaveSleaves, Lmanthegod, MER-C, Mangostar, Mentifisto, Nhobgood, PhilKnight, Radagast83, Theirrulez, Umbertoumm, Vuo, Weasel5i2, Yvwv, 31 ,anonymous edits Angling Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=376942974 Contributors: Alansohn, Alxndr, Arnejohs, Arpingstone, Astronaut, Barticus88, BlueMoon1969, Bob98133, Bowlhover, Brequinda, Bu b0y2007, Charles Matthews, Codman, Cryptic, Danlina, Dedoo, Deli nk, Deltabeignet, Doktor Faustus, Donald Albury, Dustinomorales, Dwgalhardo, ENeville, Em Mitchell, Enter The Crypt, Epipelagic, Falconhawk, FirefoxRocks, Fishforall, Fishwww, Fluri, Fred Hsu, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, Gioto, Gjs238, Gwernol, Hadrians, Halclyon, Hamlet, Prince of Trollmark, HappyVR, Hvn73, Ian Pitchford, Ib1234, Icarus3, Inkypaws, IrishFloatTube, IstvanWolf, Jduck1979, JerrySteal, Jonathan shields, Jrmiller, Justafishermen, Kalidasa 777, Kelisi, Kwekubo, Lakitu4192, MER-C, Maltenby, Mangostar, MarchHare, Marcus Qwertyus, Marek69, Mbz1, Melanochromis, Melly Marco, Metalfish41, Miami33139, MichaelMaggs, Mike Cline, Montgomery '39, Mwanner, NIH TallGuy, Neil916, Nsmohan, Omegaman66, Onedodd, Ourboldhero, PMDrive1061, Pinethicket, Pitonpro, Pollinator, R'n'B, RWardy, Radagast3, Radagast83, RexNL, Richard.carmichael, Robert Daoust, Rodw, Rogerd, Ronhjones, SAFTAG, Saydee928, Shereth, Shyam, SirIsaacBrock, Skoban, Skullketon, Smokizzy, Spaully, Stan Shebs, Terrifictriffid, TheSurfcaster, Themcman1, Traveling max, Tregoweth, Turtile199, W1RFI, Wavelength, Winchelsea, WizOfOz, Woohookitty, Wrockca, YeahIKnow, Zbik2607, 160 anonymous edits Trawling Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=377180668 Contributors: ABF, AbsoluteZero280, Alansohn, Andrewpmk, Anilocra, Anthony Appleyard, Apoc2400, Arnejohs, Bass fishing physicist, Bellhalla, Ben starling, Bkonrad, BrainyBabe, Bry9000, Calliopejen1, Calltech, CatherineMunro, Cavrdg, Chowbok, ChrisCork, Closedmouth, Cmdrjameson, Croft465, Daliminator, DanniellaWB, Deweaver, Drmies, Epipelagic, Everyking, Excirial, Fawcett5, Finavon, Gioto, Hammersfan 1, IstvanWolf, Jergen, John Hill, JustShin, Kajmal, Lfstevens, Lhiester, Mahlum, Mangostar, Mattisse, Michael Hardy, Nertzy, Omgee, Oregondesert, Pearle, Plbman, Ppntori, Quale, Rich257, Rui Silva, Segv11, Snowolf, SoniaLuthra, Spiritia, Stan Shebs, Suisui, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, TerraFrost, The wub, Toh, Vicarious, Wedge3D, 75 anonymous edits Commercial fishing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=368657403 Contributors: Aldaron, Altenmann, Ar-wiki, Assianir, Beetstra, Bob98133, D99figge, Eastlaw, Epbr123, Epipelagic, Fishermen's News, Fred Hsu, Huhsunqu, Invertzoo, J.delanoy, Jojhutton, Killerhacker, Krawi, Lukobe, Mandarax, Martin451, Michael Devore, Mlcool96, Myrabella, NatFisherman, Ncmvocalist, Ronhjones, Scientus, Sdm9093, Springnuts, The Thing That Should Not Be, Vwhennin, Wikigi, Worksafe, 39 anonymous edits Handline fishing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=351704807 Contributors: Arnejohs, Badagnani, Epipelagic, Gaius Cornelius, Mangostar, Mike Cline, Stewartadcock, Torasap, 1 anonymous edits Glass float Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=364063776 Contributors: Afluegel, Bendono, Betacommand, Bossk-Office, Digon3, Epipelagic, Floatcollector, Hanamaui, Hooperbloob, Jgrimmer, Jjhake, Kaarmu, Piano non troppo, Quadell, Rterrace, Skyskraper, Tree.tw, Yomangani, Zachiojulisaur, 37 anonymous edits Crab fisheries Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371962168 Contributors: Epipelagic, JaGa, NatFisherman, Ojay123, Rich Farmbrough, Stemonitis, Timneu22, Uncle G, Wildhartlivie, 13 anonymous edits Bite indicator Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=361176026 Contributors: Alansohn, Charly Steinbeisser, DougsTech, Epipelagic, Graeme Bartlett, LilHelpa, Mangostar, Neil Larson, Northernbob, PhilKnight, PotentialDanger, 1 anonymous edits Turtle excluder device Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=377048363 Contributors: Epipelagic, Everlong, Gomericuskahn, Jcreek201, Junemm, Justanother, KeithD, Krallja, Mangostar, Mattisse, Meredyth, MoodyGroove, NHSavage, Nickel33, Rjwilmsi, Sgt Pinback, Shrumster, Stifle, Surv1v4l1st, Susvolans, Tabletop, Tedernst, Tortuga chica, Ukexpat, 16 anonymous edits Ghost net Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=362890240 Contributors: Aicchalmers, Alan Liefting, Alvis, Anxietycello, Ayacop, Bento00, Carolmooredc, CiTrusD, Circeus, Clearly kefir, DxMxD, El Cid, Epipelagic, Erebus555, Fod2009, Gaius Cornelius, GaylordBumBum, HoodedMan, Joyous!, Mboverload, Michael Hardy, Pavel Vozenilek, Pekinensis, Pimlottc, Pjbflynn, Seemi67, Stephenb, The Magnificent Clean-keeper, TheDoctor10, Twas Now, 36 anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

112

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Stilts fishermen Sri Lanka 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stilts_fishermen_Sri_Lanka_02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Bgag Image:Ptzcuaro-Trad-Fishing-3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ptzcuaro-Trad-Fishing-3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Rgis Lachaume Image:36-pesca,Taccuino Sanitatis, Casanatense 4182..jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:36-pesca,Taccuino_Sanitatis,_Casanatense_4182..jpg License: unknown Contributors: unknown master Image:Metkrok av ben frn stenldern, funnen i Skne.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Metkrok_av_ben_frn_stenldern,_funnen_i_Skne.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andrva, Den fjttrade ankan, Fingalo, Glenn, Jon Harald Sby, Lokal Profil Image:Egyptian fishery3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Egyptian_fishery3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: JMCC1, Jamin, Severino666, Themightyquill Image:.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Petr Ruzicka from Prague, CZ Image:angler at devizes england arp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Angler_at_devizes_england_arp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arpingstone, ComputerHotline, Man vyi Image:Fishing off pier.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_off_pier.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Andre Engels, Arpingstone, Fir0002, Nevit, Stunteltje File:Albatun Dod.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albatun_Dod.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Clipper, Stunteltje Image:Biosecure KOI breeding and growing intensive facility in Israel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Biosecure_KOI_breeding_and_growing_intensive_facility_in_Israel.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Original uploader was Daben2000 at en.wikipedia File:Derkovits, Gyula - Still-life with Fish I (1928).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Derkovits,_Gyula_-_Still-life_with_Fish_I_(1928).jpg License: unknown Contributors: Gyula Derkovits (1894-1934) Image:Krabbenkutter Ivonne Pellworm P5242390jm.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Krabbenkutter_Ivonne_Pellworm_P5242390jm.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Germany Contributors: Original uploader was Jom at de.wikipedia File:Drawing of a sport fishing boat.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Drawing_of_a_sport_fishing_boat.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Not stated Image:Fish sorting.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fish_sorting.JPG License: unknown Contributors: Anilocra, 2 anonymous edits File:Fishing down the food web.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_down_the_food_web.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Lycaon Image:ona1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ona1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Kjell Jran Hansen Image:Deepsea.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Deepsea.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Lsuff, Stunteltje, Werckmeister Image:fishingpole.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishingpole.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Achim Hering, ChongDae, Coyau, Marktaff, PeterSymonds, 4 anonymous edits Image:Anatomyofafishhook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anatomyofafishhook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Fish hooks.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fish_hooks.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Angeln zubehoer wobbler 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Angeln_zubehoer_wobbler_01.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Raboe001 Image:Green Highlander salmon fly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Green_Highlander_salmon_fly.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:MichaelMaggs Image:HookinFinger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HookinFinger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Nerdge Image:HookEyes.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HookEyes.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:FloatingWormHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FloatingWormHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:OffsetWormHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OffsetWormHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:LargeTrebleHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LargeTrebleHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:SaltwaterJigHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SaltwaterJigHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:RedBaitHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RedBaitHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:KeelFlyHook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KeelFlyHook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Saltwaterbendbackhook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Saltwaterbendbackhook.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Angeln_zubehoer_hacken.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Angeln_zubehoer_hacken.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Raboe001 Image:Angeln zubehoer grundblei 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Angeln_zubehoer_grundblei_01.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Raboe001 Image:Pimephales promelas2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pimephales_promelas2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Melanochromis, Monkeybait, Sfan00 IMG, Terrapin83 Image:Eristalis_close.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eristalis_close.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Jsarratt Image:Spinner lure no feather ora.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spinner_lure_no_feather_ora.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Jeremykemp at en.wikipedia Image:Fishing lure.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_lure.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Unbiassed Image:Flyfishing.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flyfishing.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Sl-Ziga Image:browntrout.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Browntrout.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Dodo, Martin H., Mike Cline Image:DanBaileyca1970s.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DanBaileyca1970s.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Mike Cline Image:BrookesFrontpiece1790.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BrookesFrontpiece1790.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Mike Cline Image:TheEndofAStiffFightRhead.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TheEndofAStiffFightRhead.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Louis Rhead Image:Maramec Spring fishing ls.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maramec_Spring_fishing_ls.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: User:Kbh3rd Image:AnglerAboveOjoCalentiBendFireholeRiverOctober2007.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AnglerAboveOjoCalentiBendFireholeRiverOctober2007.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:AdamsDryFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AdamsDryFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:NymphingTheGardnerRiver2005.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NymphingTheGardnerRiver2005.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:AlaskaTrout.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AlaskaTrout.jpg License: unknown Contributors: OregonStreams Image:Louisiana Redfish.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Louisiana_Redfish.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Louisiana Angler

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:ClassicTriumphBassFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ClassicTriumphBassFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:1stIllustrationofAnArtificialFly.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1stIllustrationofAnArtificialFly.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Mike Cline Image:BowlkersArtofAnglingFrontpiece.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BowlkersArtofAnglingFrontpiece.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Mike Cline Image:PikeFly.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PikeFly.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Mike Cline Image:OrangeStimulator.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OrangeStimulator.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:RoyalWulffDryFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RoyalWulffDryFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:GreenDrakeDry.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GreenDrakeDry.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Grizzly King Wet Fly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Grizzly_King_Wet_Fly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:BlackandBrownBeadheadWoollyWorm.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BlackandBrownBeadheadWoollyWorm.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Professor with pinched barb.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Professor_with_pinched_barb.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: JStripes Image:PartridgeandOrange.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PartridgeandOrange.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:BrooksMontanaStone.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BrooksMontanaStone.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:PurpleAndBlackBeadHeadWoollyBugger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PurpleAndBlackBeadHeadWoollyBugger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mike Cline Image:MickeyFinnStreamer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MickeyFinnStreamer.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:ClouserDeepMinnow.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ClouserDeepMinnow.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:BlackEggSuckingLeech.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BlackEggSuckingLeech.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Muddler Minnow Small.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Muddler_Minnow_Small.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Marc Yarascavitch, Mike Cline Image:SchenksWhiteMinnow1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SchenksWhiteMinnow1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:RoyalCoachmanBucktail.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RoyalCoachmanBucktail.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:DavesHopper.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DavesHopper.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Durham Ranger salmon fly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Durham_Ranger_salmon_fly.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:MichaelMaggs Image:WhiteLeftysDeciever.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WhiteLeftysDeciever.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:BendbackGoldShrimp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BendbackGoldShrimp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:CockroachDeciever.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CockroachDeciever.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:CrazyCharlieBonefishFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CrazyCharlieBonefishFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:StuApteTarponFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuApteTarponFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mike Cline Image:Ama2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ama2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andre Engels, Fg2, Haragayato, Kluka, Malo, Man vyi File:A smoky day at the Sugar Bowl--Hupa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_smoky_day_at_the_Sugar_Bowl--Hupa.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David.Monniaux, DieBuche, Hailey C. Shannon, Himasaram, Howcheng, Jon Harald Sby, Lupo, Makthorpe, Manuelt15, Mattes, Ranveig, Red devil 666, Saperaud, Shizhao, 1 anonymous edits Image:Kerala fisherman.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kerala_fisherman.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Challiyil Eswaramangalath Vipin from Chalakudy, India Image:Eilif Peterssen-Laksefiskeren (1889).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eilif_Peterssen-Laksefiskeren_(1889).jpg License: unknown Contributors: BjrnN, Kre-Olav, Olivier2, Ranveig Image:Fishing, C Mau.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing,_C_Mau.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Viet Bach from Saigon, Vietnam File:Trolling for bluefish2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trolling_for_bluefish2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Artist: Frances F. Palmer (1812-1876); Lithograph: Currier & Ives File:Jigging off Queenscliff Pier, Vic, jjron 5.12.2009.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jigging_off_Queenscliff_Pier,_Vic,_jjron_5.12.2009.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Jjron Image:Slabbing jig fishing lure.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Slabbing_jig_fishing_lure.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Dusty.crockett File:Nuvola apps kview.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nuvola_apps_kview.svg License: unknown Contributors: Ch1902 Image:Searchtool.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Searchtool.svg License: GNU Lesser General Public License Contributors: User:Ysangkok Image:MuriwaiExtremeFishing3b.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MuriwaiExtremeFishing3b.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Mozasaur at en.wikipedia Image:Float-tube-pikeangler.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Float-tube-pikeangler.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Norman Greene Image:Wooden Fish Wheel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wooden_Fish_Wheel.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Laubenstein, Karen Image:Lobster pots at Beer, Devon.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lobster_pots_at_Beer,_Devon.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Graham Cole Image:Man with cormorant.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Man_with_cormorant.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Bieniasxyz, Calliopejen, FlickreviewR, Gabbe, Nagy, Olivier2, Para, Vmenkov, 1 anonymous edits Image:Jensens Crossing fish survey Dec07 012.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jensens_Crossing_fish_survey_Dec07_012.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jason Carroll Image:Spear fishing Peru.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spear_fishing_Peru.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Gelber21 at en.wikipedia File:Tombof Usheret01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tombof_Usheret01.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown Artist(s) / photographer? Image:Poseidon sculpture Copenhagen 2005.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Poseidon_sculpture_Copenhagen_2005.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Hansjorn Image:Astyanax vs Kalendio mosaic.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Astyanax_vs_Kalendio_mosaic.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amcaja, Dulcem, PKM, Zaqarbal, 2 anonymous edits Image:Trident fishing gallaeus.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trident_fishing_gallaeus.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Diwas, Kilom691, Lotsofissues Image:Fishing arrow Guyana.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_arrow_Guyana.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Avron, Gaius Cornelius, Kilom691, Stunteltje Image:Spearfisherman Ryu Kyu Islands July 2007.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spearfisherman_Ryu_Kyu_Islands_July_2007.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Yugyug at en.wikipedia File:Spear fisherman in Hawaii.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spear_fisherman_in_Hawaii.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Mbz1 Image:PaulKane-HuntingFish-ROM.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PaulKane-HuntingFish-ROM.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Captmondo, Lupo, Origamiemensch, P199, Rmhermen, Themedpark, Urban, Wsiegmund, Wst Image:Inuit hunter with harpoon.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Inuit_hunter_with_harpoon.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: CambridgeBayWeather, Pburka

113

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:FraserRiverSalmonFishing.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FraserRiverSalmonFishing.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Zone42 File:Net.gsfc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Net.gsfc.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:ArnoldReinhold File:Fishing_In_Orissa.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_In_Orissa.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sujit kumar File:Coracles River Teifi.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coracles_River_Teifi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Velela File:Chinese nets.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chinese_nets.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Kotoviski, Multichill, Roland zh, Wst File:Fuiken.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fuiken.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:China Crisis Image:BD-fishermen.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BD-fishermen.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Quadell, Ranveig, ~Pyb, berraschungsbilder, 1 anonymous edits Image:Fisherman mending net.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fisherman_mending_net.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Renault Image:Vissersboot(01).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vissersboot(01).jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: JoJan, Man vyi, Stunteltje, berraschungsbilder Image:Fishing.cropped.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing.cropped.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was JoJan at en.wikipedia File:CMOC Treasures of Ancient China exhibit - boat-shaped pot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CMOC_Treasures_of_Ancient_China_exhibit_-_boat-shaped_pot.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: User:Editor at Large Image:Albrecht Drer 107.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albrecht_Drer_107.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Bhringer, G.dallorto, Gryffindor, Jmabel, Mattes, PKM, Ronaldino, Skipjack, Wst, Xenophon, 1 anonymous edits Image:Hdgs Fishing.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hdgs_Fishing.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Fred J, Plrk Image:Trabucco Rodi Garganico.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trabucco_Rodi_Garganico.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Giuseppe Phoenix at it.wikipedia Image:Wagenya Rapids.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wagenya_Rapids.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Tornasole, 1 anonymous edits Image:t .jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:t_.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Petr & Bara Ruzicka from Prague, CZ Image:Fuiken.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fuiken.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:China Crisis Image:Traditional fish trap.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Traditional_fish_trap.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Nhobgood Image:Fishing Katcha Valai.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishing_Katcha_Valai.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Karthik Image:Fishhook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fishhook.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Fluri at en.wikipedia Image:Eristalis close.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eristalis_close.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Jsarratt Image:Removing the hook.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Removing_the_hook.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Solitude at en.wikipedia File:Cropped trout 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cropped_trout_3.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Rmlawdad File:Taiwan 2009 East Coast ShihTiPing Giant Stone Steps Fishing FRD 6627.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Taiwan_2009_East_Coast_ShihTiPing_Giant_Stone_Steps_Fishing_FRD_6627.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Fred Hsu ( on en.wikipedia) Image:Fish on Trawler.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fish_on_Trawler.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mahlum, Man vyi, Thuresson, Toto-tarou File:Trawl catch of myctophids and glass shrimp from a layer associated with the bottom at greater than 200 meters depth.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trawl_catch_of_myctophids_and_glass_shrimp_from_a_layer_associated_with_the_bottom_at_greater_than_200_meters_depth.jpg License: unknown Contributors: David Csepp, NOAA/NMFS/AKFSC/Auke Bay Lab Image:Trawling Drawing.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trawling_Drawing.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NOAA Image:Old Trawling Nets.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_Trawling_Nets.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NOAA File:Setting a trawl in Stephens Passage , Alaska.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Setting_a_trawl_in_Stephens_Passage_,_Alaska.jpg License: unknown Contributors: David Csepp, NOAA/NMFS/AKFSC/Auke Bay Lab File:Greetsiel 33 Poseidon 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Greetsiel_33_Poseidon_01.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Ra Boe Image:Large Glass Fishing Float with Net 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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chionoecetes_bairdi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Stemonitis at en.wikipedia File:World catch queen crab 19502007.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_catch_queen_crab_19502007.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Geronimo20 Image:Blue crab on market in Piraeus - Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 20020819-317.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blue_crab_on_market_in_Piraeus_-_Callinectes_sapidus_Rathbun_20020819-317.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Wpopp File:World catch blue crab 19502007.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_catch_blue_crab_19502007.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Geronimo20 Image:Cancer pagurus.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cancer_pagurus.jpg License: Creative Commons 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File:World catch mud crab 19502007.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_catch_mud_crab_19502007.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Geronimo20 File:Maja squinado underside.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maja_squinado_underside.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Gryffindor, Stemonitis, Tintazul Image:Redkingcrab.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Redkingcrab.jpg License: unknown Contributors: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration File:Munidopsis tridentata.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Munidopsis_tridentata.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Stemonitis Image:Chelonia mydas got to the surface to breath.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chelonia_mydas_got_to_the_surface_to_breath.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Mila Zinkova File:Turtle excluder device.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turtle_excluder_device.jpg License: unknown Contributors: William B. Folsom, NMFS Image:logger ted 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Logger_ted_01.jpg License: unknown Contributors: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Image:TED2.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TED2.png License: unknown Contributors: Junemm, Monkeybait, Themania Image:Turtle entangled in marine debris (ghost net).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turtle_entangled_in_marine_debris_(ghost_net).jpg License: unknown Contributors: B kimmel, Cory, GeorgHH, 1 anonymous edits

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/