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Wireless Networking Design Seminar

Simulation of OFDM Impairments using ADS WLAN 802.11a Design Library and DesignGuide

Agilent Technologies

Contents
OFDM Modulation Review Using ADS to Evaluate Effects of Link Impairments on OFDM Modulation WLAN 802.11a ADS DesignGuide (ADS 2002 software release)

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 2

OFDM Modulation Review

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

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Page 3

Concept of OFDM
A type of multi-carrier modulation Single high-rate bit stream is converted to low-rate N parallel bit streams Each parallel bit stream is modulated on one of N sub-carriers Each sub-carrier can be modulated differently. For example, BPSK, QPSK or QAM To achieve high bandwidth efficiency, the spectrum of the sub-carriers are closely spaced and overlapped Nulls in each sub-carriers spectrum land at the center of all other subcarriers (orthogonal) OFDM symbols are generated using IFFT

OFDM Spectrum

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 4

Advantages of OFDM
Robustness in muti-path propagation environment More tolerant of delay spread: Due to the use of many sub-carriers, the symbol duration on the sub-carriers is increased, relative to delay spread. Inter-symbol interference is avoided through the use of guard interval. Simplified or eliminate equalisation needs, as compared to single carrier modulation. More resistant to fading. FEC is used to correct for sub-carriers that suffer from deep fade.

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 5

Design Challenges of OFDM Modulation


Sensitive to frequency offset need frequency offset correction in the receiver. Sensitive to oscillator phase noise -- clean and stable oscillator required. Large peak to average ratio amplifier back-off, reduced power efficiency. IFFT/FFT complexity -- fixed point implementation to optimize latency and performance. Intersymbol Interference (ISI) due to multipath-use guard interval.

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 6

Intersymbol Interference(ISI) Due to Multipath


ofdm symbol 1 ofdm symbol 2

Direct path signal

Multipath delayed signal

This part will destroy orthogonality of OFDM symbol

ISI

Symbol interferes with the delayed version of itself

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 7

Guard Interval

Multipath delays up to the guard time do not cause Inter-Symbol Interference Sub-carriers remain orthogonal for multipath delays up to guard time (no InterCarrier Interference)

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 8

Windowing

To reduce spectrum splatter, the OFDM symbol is multiplied by a raised-cosine window, w(t) before transmission to more quickly reduce the power of out-of-band sub-carriers. Figure above shows spectra for 64 sub-carriers with different values of the rolloff factor, of the raised cosine window. Larger , better spectral roll-off. However, a roll-off factor of reduces delay spread tolerance by a factor of TS.

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 9

OFDM Transceiver Block Diagram


Transmitter Data In
Scrambling/ Scrambling/ FEC Coding/ FEC Coding/ Interleaving Interleaving QAM QAM Mapping Mapping Pilot Pilot Insertion Insertion G.I. G.I. Addition Addition & & Windowing Windowing IQ IQ Modulator Modulator

DAC DAC

HPA

IFFT(TX) IFFT(TX) FFT(RX) FFT(RX) Frequency corrected signal QAM QAM Demapping Demapping Channel Channel Correction Correction Remove Remove G.I. G.I. ADC ADC

AGC Amp

Data Out

De-interleaving/ De-interleaving/ FEC Decoding/ FEC Decoding/ De-Scrambling De-Scrambling

Symbol Timing

Timing & Timing & Frequency Frequency Synchronisation Synchronisation

Rx Lev. Det.

LNA

Receiver

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 10

OFDM Transceiver Block Diagram: Sources of Link Impairments


Data In
Scrambling/ Scrambling/ FEC Coding/ FEC Coding/ Interleaving Interleaving QAM QAM Mapping Mapping Pilot Pilot Insertion Insertion G.I. G.I. Addition Addition & & Windowing Windowing DAC DAC IQ IQ Modulator Modulator

Power Amplifier Non-linearity

HPA Multipath

Fixed Point effects

IFFT(TX) IFFT(TX) FFT(RX) FFT(RX)

Oscillator Phase Noise

Data Out

De-interleaving/ De-interleaving/ FEC Decoding/ FEC Decoding/ De-Scrambling De-Scrambling

Frequency corrected signal QAM QAM Demapping Demapping Channel Channel Correction Correction Remove Remove G.I. G.I. ADC ADC

AGC Amp

Note: other impairments: -AGC response time -ADC/DAC quantization noise -Modem impairments....

Symbol Timing

Timing & Timing & Frequency Frequency Synchronization Synchronization

Rx Lev. Det.

LNA

Oscillator Phase Noise, Frequency Offset

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 11

Using Simulation to Evaluate Effects of Link Impairments on OFDM Modulation

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 12

Effects of Frequency Offset


Data In
Scrambling/ Scrambling/ FEC Coding/ FEC Coding/ Interleaving Interleaving QAM QAM Mapping Mapping Pilot Pilot Insertion Insertion G.I. G.I. Addition Addition & & Windowing Windowing

DAC DAC

IQ IQ Modulator Modulator

HPA

IFFT(TX) IFFT(TX) FFT(RX) FFT(RX) Frequency corrected signal QAM QAM Demapping Demapping Channel Channel Correction Correction Remove Remove G.I. G.I. ADC ADC

AGC Amp

Data Out

De-interleaving/ De-interleaving/ FEC Decoding/ FEC Decoding/ De-Scrambling De-Scrambling

Symbol Timing

Note: In OFDM link, the sub-carriers are perfectly orthogonal only if transmitter and receiver use exactly the same frequencies, any frequency offset results in Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI).

Timing & Timing & Frequency Frequency Synchronization Synchronization

Rx Lev. Det.

LNA

Frequency Offset

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 13

Inter-Carrier Interference(ICI) Due to Frequency Offset


Integer number of cycles of the subcarrier ensures that the nulls of the spectrum lands on the FFT bin, condition to avoid inter-carrier interference (ICI)

FFT

T
FFT window

No frequency offset

FFT

T
With frequency offset

1/T

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 14

OFDM Operation (ICI problem)


I-Q Modulator
QAM_ModExtOsc Q1 Power=0.01 W VRef=1 V GainImbalance=0 PhaseImbalance=0 FloatToTimed F15 TStep=0.0 sec WaveFormCx W1 Value="(0) (0) (0) (1+j) " ControlSimulation=NO Periodic=YES Period=64 FFT_Cx F11 Order=6 Size=64 Direction=Inverse CxToRect C1

I-Q Demodulator
QAM_DemodExtOsc Q2 Sensitivity=0.5 GainImbalance=0 PhaseImbalance=0 TimedToFloat T4 RectToCx R1 FFT_Cx F17 Order=6 Size=64 Direction=Forward NumericSink RF1

IFFT

FFT

FloatToTimed F16 TStep=0.0 sec

TimedToFloat T5

N_Tones N1 TStep=tstep sec Frequency1=FCarrier MHz Power1=.010 W Phase1=0.0

N_Tones N2 TStep=tstep sec Frequency1=(FCarrier-0.06) MHz Power1=.010 W Phase1=0.0 RandomPhase=No

Frequency offset = 60 kHz


1.5
0.03 0.02
0.03 0.02

1.5

0.00 -0.01 -0.02

real(RT1)

mag(F1)

real(T1)

0.01

0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 -0.03

mag(RF1)

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

-0.03 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Index

Index

Index

Index

Symbol to be transmitted (Magnitude spectrum)

I-channel signal (after IFFT)

Demodulated I-channel signal

Recovered symbol contains ICI

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 15

Effects of Frequency Offset Without Frequency Correction


Frequency offset expressed as a percentage of sub-carriers frequency spacing (f=312.5kHz): 0%
AA=0 Freq. Offset = 0 Hz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 0%
1.0 1.5

1%
AA=1 Freq. Offset = 3.125 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 1%
2

AA=2 Freq. Offset = 31.25 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 10%
15

10%

50%
AA=3 Freq. Offset = 156.25 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 50%

1.0 0.5 0.5 1

10

imag(iq[3,::])
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

imag(iq[0,::])

imag(iq[1,::])

0.0

imag(iq[2,::])

0.0

-0.5 -1.0

-0.5

-1

-5

-1.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-2

-10 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

real(iq[0,::])

real(iq[1,::])

real(iq[2,::])

real(iq[3,::])

Index AA=0.000 AA=1.000 AA=2.000 AA=3.000 40 40 40 40

ReceiverEVM 1.198E-5 0.025 0.268 2.840

Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing


0% 1% 10% 50%

Why you need frequency offset correction: assume freq. offset=3kHz (1%), requires: oscillator stability: 3k/5.8G=0.5ppm!

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 16

Frequency Offset Estimation Using Preambles

Make use of short preamble for coarse frequency offset estimation and long preamble for fine frequency offset estimation. Short preamble symbol duration of 0.8s allows frequency correction up to 1/(2x0.8s)=625kHz Assume RF frequency=5.8GHz, the tolerable frequency offset (worst case) =0.5x625k/5.8G=53.8ppm > 20ppm specified in 802.11a.

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 17

Frequency Offset Estimation and Correction


Frequency offset compensation network:
Short Preamble
Sync

WLAN

WLAN_BurstSync FrameSy nc Order=Order

Fork3 F13

Coarse frequency offset correction


WLAN
O
x h

Channel correction
Eq u a l i z e r

WLAN_FreqSy nc FreqOffs etDetec t Order=Order Fork 3 F12


WLAN

Fork 2 F14 FFT_Cx F10 Order=Order Siz e=FFTSize Direction=Forward

t r ack h x

WLAN

WLAN

WLAN

f
WLAN
b u rs t

WLAN_FineFreqSy nc Add2 W1 A1 Order=Order

WLAN_MuxDataChEs tWLAN_Phas eTrac k MuxData_and_ChEs t Phas eDerotated Length=Length Length=Length Rate=Rate Rate=Rate Order=Order Carriers=52 Order=Order Phas e=0

WLAN_OFDMEqualiz er Equalizer Carriers =52

Port P2 Num=2

0 S

WLAN
L D ATA

OFDM Sy m

Port P1 WLAN_Burs tReceiv er Num=1 Burs tRec Length=Length Rate=Rate Order=Order

WLAN_Demux Burs t Demux Frame Length=Length Rate=Rate Order=Order

FFT_Cx F8 Order=Order Siz e=FFTSiz e Direc tion=Forward

Long Preamble1

WLAN
O

WLAN
CR I

FFT_Cx F11 Order=Order Siz e=FFTSiz e Direc tion=Forward

Long Preamble2

WLAN_Phas eEs t Phas eDerot Carriers=52 Order=Order

WLAN_ChEs timator ChannelEs timator Carriers =52 Order=Order

Fine frequency offset correction & channel estimation

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 18

Effects of Frequency Offset with Frequency Correction


Frequency offset expressed as a percentage of sub-carriers frequency spacing (f=312.5kHz): 0%
AA=0 Freq. Offset = 0 Hz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 0%
1.0 1.0

1%
AA=1 Freq. Offset = 3.125 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 1%
1.0

10%
AA=2 Freq. Offset = 31.25 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 10%
1.0

50%
AA=3 Freq. Offset = 156.25 kHz Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing = 50%

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

imag(iq[0,::])

imag(iq[1,::])

imag(iq[2,::])

imag(iq[3,::])
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-1.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-1.0

-1.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

real(iq[0,::])

real(iq[1,::])

real(iq[2,::])

real(iq[3,::])

Index AA=0.000 AA=1.000 AA=2.000 AA=3.000 40 40 40 40

ReceiverEVM 1.199E-5 1.214E-5 1.211E-5 1.210E-5

Freq. Offset / Freq. Spacing


0% 1% 10% 50%

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 19

Effects of Oscillator Phase Noise


Data In
Scrambling/ Scrambling/ FEC Coding/ FEC Coding/ Interleaving Interleaving QAM QAM Mapping Mapping Pilot Pilot Insertion Insertion G.I. G.I. Addition Addition & & Windowing Windowing

DAC DAC

IQ IQ Modulator Modulator

HPA

IFFT(TX) IFFT(TX) FFT(RX) FFT(RX) Frequency corrected signal QAM QAM Demapping Demapping Channel Channel Correction Correction Remove Remove G.I. G.I. ADC ADC

AGC Amp

Data Out

De-interleaving/ De-interleaving/ FEC Decoding/ FEC Decoding/ De-Scrambling De-Scrambling

Note: A practical oscillator does not produce a carrier at exactly one frequency, but rather a carrier that is phase modulated by random phase jitter, As a result, the frequency is never perfectly constant, thereby causing ICI.
Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Symbol Timing

Timing & Timing & Frequency Frequency Synchronization Synchronization

Rx Lev. Det.

LNA

Oscillator Phase Noise

Agilent Technologies

Page 20

Effects of Oscillator Phase Noise

1/T FFT Bin Spacing is 1/T


Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 21

Effects of Oscillator Phase Noise (continued)


N_Tones model is used to model the phase noise Based on Lorentzian spectrum Characterized by 3dB-linewidth, -20dB per decade slope
PSD[Hz] 0 -3
N_Tones N1 TStep=50 nsec Frequency1=FCarrier MHz Power1=.010 W Phase1=0.0 AdditionalTones="" RandomPhase=No PhaseNoiseData=PN PN_Type=Random PN

Ss ( f ) =

2 / f l 1 + f 2 / fl 2

f l : 3dB linewidth

-20dB/decade

Frequency offset[Hz] -3dB linewidth

Phase noise profile based on Lorentzian spectrum

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 22

Effects of Oscillator Phase Noise (continued)


3 profiles of phase noise were simulated:

N_Tones N1 TStep=50 nsec Frequency1=FCarrier MHz Power1=.010 W Phase1=0.0 AdditionalTones="" RandomPhase=No PhaseNoiseData=PN PN_Type=Random PN

Var Eqn

VAR VAR4 AA=1 PN0=" " PN1=" 120 -15 300 -23 3000 -43 30000 -63 300000 -83 1200000 -95" PN2=" 120 -35 300 -43 3000 -63 30000 -83 300000 -103 1200000 -115" PN=if (AA==0) then PN0 elseif (AA==1) then PN1 else PN2 endif

dBm(S1[0,::])

dBm(S1[1,::])

dBm(S1[2,::])
5.201

-20

-20

-20

-120 5.199 5.201

-120 5.199

-120 5.199 5.201

freq, GHz

freq, GHz

freq, GHz

Ideal

-3dB linewidth=30Hz =0.01% of sub-carrier spacing

-3dB linewidth=3Hz =0.001% of sub-carrier spacing

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 23

Effects of Oscillator Phase Noise (continued)


Ideal
1.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5

-3dB linewidth=30Hz
1.0

-3dB linewidth=3Hz

imag(iq[0,::])

imag(iq[1,::])

0.5

imag(iq[2,::])

0.0

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5 -1.0

-0.5

-1.0 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

-1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-1.0 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

real(iq[0,::])

real(iq[1,::])
5E-1

real(iq[2,::])

1E-1

40

BER_pn

Index

AA=0.000 1.199E-5

ReceiverEVM_pn AA=1.000 0.143

1E-2

AA=2.000 0.014

-3dB linewidth=30Hz -3dB linewidth=3Hz

1E-3

1E-4

Ideal

1E-5 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

BER_pn.DF.CN

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 24

Effects of Fixed Point Implementation of IFFT/FFT


Data In
Scrambling/ Scrambling/ FEC Coding/ FEC Coding/ Interleaving Interleaving QAM QAM Mapping Mapping Pilot Pilot Insertion Insertion G.I. G.I. Addition Addition & & Windowing Windowing

DAC DAC

IQ IQ Modulator Modulator

HPA

Fixed Point effects

IFFT(TX) IFFT(TX) FFT(RX) FFT(RX) Frequency corrected signal

AGC Amp
ADC ADC

Data Out

De-interleaving/ De-interleaving/ FEC Decoding/ FEC Decoding/ De-Scrambling De-Scrambling

QAM QAM Demapping Demapping

Channel Channel Correction Correction

Remove Remove G.I. G.I.

Symbol Timing

Timing & Timing & Frequency Frequency Synchronization Synchronization

Rx Lev. Det.

LNA

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 25

Effects of Fixed Point Implementation of IFFT/FFT


64-point IFFT/FFT in fixed-point arithmetic Decimation in Frequency, Radix-2 algorithm Parameterized bit precision Bit precision of 2.8, 2.10, 2.12 and 2.14 were simulated

Not e :

So m g r d i

e m

wr e s i a kn g i

n i m

t h s d e sg n i i o d f c a t on s i i i

m a y b e df f c ut . i i l

of f o f I f t h s i

t h e

o c c ur s , p e a se l t ur n e n a be l Edg e sn a p pn g i G r d/ Sn ap ) . i

of f G r d s n a pp n g a n d i i ( O p t o n s >P r e f e r en c e cs > i

Re Cx

0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l Xe 2 9 R3 Cx 0 h Re Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

Re Cx

Re Cx Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf X3 3 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 3 10 h C3 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 3 20 h C3 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X3 t _ f e 3 3c e _ 0h l Rf Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l Xe 3 4 R3 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 3 50 h C3 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 3 60 h C3 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 4 4c e _ 0h l R3 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx C l f f F FT _ _ 0_ 0 h t _c e l eh X3 Re 4 3 Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

0 h

Re Cx

f f F FT _ Ce_ 0 h t _c e _ 0l l h XRe 3 2 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l X2 7 4 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 50 h 2 7 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 60 h 2 7 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X2 7 _ f Re 7c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l XRe 8 2 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 90 h 2 7 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 00 h 2 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 80 h 3 2 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X3 2 _ f Re 7c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l XRe 6 3 2 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 50 h 3 2 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 40 h 3 2 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X3 2 _ f Re 3c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ Ce_ 0 h t _c e _ 0l l h XRe 2 3 2 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X3 2 1

Re Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l X1 Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 2 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 3 0 h Re Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf X1 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 8 0 h C1 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 9 0 h C1 Re Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf X3 3 0 h Cx Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X3 4 Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f e t _ c e _0 m h l Rf Xx 5 C3 1 6 Re Re Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

0 h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X4 Cx 9 - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l Xe 0 R5 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X5 Cx 1 - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t f 5 2 _c e _ 0m h l Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l X4 t f Re _ ce _ 0h f l Cx 0 h e R Re Cx Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _ ce _ 0h l XR e 5 Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 6 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 7 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _ ce _ 0h l X8

Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf t f 2 0 _c e _ 0h l Re Cx Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx

Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l Xf t f 3 66 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l Re Cx Re 0 h

Re Cx

Re Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m h l Xf f e 1 _c e _ 0m h l R2 t Cx 8 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Xe 2 R2 Cx 1 Re 6 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 X2 3 Cx 2 Re 4 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l X2 4

Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l X3 t f e 7_ c e _0 h l Rf Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X3 8 Re Cx Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 3 _c e _ 0h l R5 t Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X5 4 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

Re Cx

f f FF T e _ 0 m_ 0 m h t _ c 8 l Ce l h Xe 9 R3 Cx 1 6e R Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X4 0 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx

f f F FT e _ 0h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X5 Re 5 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X5 6 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 4 2 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 4 10 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 4 00 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 3 9c e _ 0h l R3 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X3 Re 3 8 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf X3 3 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 6 00 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 5 90 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 5 8c e _ 0h l R3 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx

Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f Re _ ce _ 0m h f t l XC x 9 4 Re Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

0 h

Re Cx

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Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 4 l X1 0 f Re 6 4_ c e_ 4 f t l Cx 8 Re Re Cx Cx f f F F 4_ c e_ 8 _ 8 t 6 T6 4 _l e l C XR e 1 1 Cx Re 1 2 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 12 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 2 f t l X1 2 Cx Re 1 6 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 6 f t l XC x 1 3 2 0 Re Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 20 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 2 0 f t l XC x 1 4 2 4 Re Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 24 l X1 5 f Re 6 4_ c e_ 2 4 f t l Cx Re 2 8 Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 28 l f f t 6 4_ c e_ 2 8 l X1 6

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l Xe 1 R4 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X4 2 Re Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l X4 t f e 3_ c e _0 m h l Rf Cx 1 6e R Re Cx Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X4 4 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 5 0 h C4 Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X4 6 Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f e t _ c e _0 m h l Rf Xx 7 C4 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l Xf t f 4 86 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l h

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X5 Re 7 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X5 8 Re Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 9 _c e _ 0h l R5 t Cx - 0 h e R Re Cx Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X6 0 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f l Re t _c e _ 0m h X2 Cx 9 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f e t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Rf Xx 0 C3 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l Xf f e 1 64 _ c e_ 1 6 l R3 t Cx 2 Re 4 Re Cx Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l X3 2

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X6 Cx 1 - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X6 2 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X6 Cx 3 - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t f 6 4 _c e _ 0m h l

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X3 Re 5 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 5 60 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X3 Cx 5 50 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 5 4c e _ 0h l R3 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ _ 0_ 0 h t _c e l eh C l X3 Re 5 3 Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf X3 4 5 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 4 60 h C3 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 4 70 h C3 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X3 t _ f e 4 8c e _ 0h l Rf Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l Xe 4 9 R3 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf X3 5 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f e t _c e _ 0h l Rf Xx 5 10 h C3 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X3 5 2 Re Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f Re _c e _ 0m h f t l XCx 2 2 2 7 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 f t l XCx 1 4 2 7 Re Re Cx

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So m e wr e s i n t h s d e sg n i i i m a y b e of f o f t h e g r d m a kn g i i m o d f c a t on s i i i df f c ut . i i l I f t h s i o c c ur s , p e a se l t ur n of f G r d s n a pp n g a n d i i e n a be l Edg e sn a p pn g i ( O p t o n s >P r e f e r en c e cs > i G r d/ Sn ap ) . i

Re Cx

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Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 6 5 0 h Re Re Cx h Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l X6 6 f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx

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F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X8 Cx 1 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 2 _c e _ 0h l R8 t Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT e _ 0h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X8 Re 3 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X8 4 Re Cx Re Cx - 0 h e R Cx

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 7 0 h C9 Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l Xf t f 9 8_ c e _0 h l Re Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f FF T e _ 0 m_ 0 m h t _ c 8 l Ce l h Xe 03 R1 Cx 1 6e R Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X1 04 Re Cx 0 h Re

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 1 2- 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t _ f 1 1 3c e _ 0m h l Re Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT e _ 0h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X1 Re 1 4 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 1 5 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx h

Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _4 l X2 7 6 f Re 04 _ c e_ 4 f t l Cx 6 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c __ 6 _6 t 64 6 4 el e l C XRe 9 2 6 Cx 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _8 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 8 f t l X2 6 8 Cx 1 0 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 0 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 1 0 f t l XCx 7 1 2 2 6 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 2 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 1 2 f t l XCx 6 1 4 2 6 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 4 l X2 6 6 f Re 54 _ c e_ 1 4 f t l Cx 1 6 e R Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 6 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 l XRe 4 2 6 Cx 1 8 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 8 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 1 8 f t l XCx 3 2 0 2 6 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 0 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 0 f t l XCx 2 2 2 2 6 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 2 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 2 f t l XCx 1 2 4 2 6 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 4 l X2 6 6 f Re 04 _ c e_ 2 4 f t l Cx 2 6 e R Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 6 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 6 l XRe 9 2 5 Cx 2 8 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 8 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 8 f t l XCx 8 3 0 2 5 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _3 0 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 3 0 l X2 5 7

f f F F Te _ 0h 0 h t _ c_ l e_ C l XR e 6 7 Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l X6 8 Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 6 9 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 7 0 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l X7 1 f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h e R Re Cx Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _ ce _ 0h l X7 2

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0m h X8 5 Cx 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f e t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Rf Xx 6 C8 1 6 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 X8 Cx 7 2 4 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l Xf t f 8 8 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l

Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf X9 9 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X1 00 Re Cx Re Cx - 0 he R Cx e _ 0m l m h h

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 1 6 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 1 9 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx e_ 0 h l 0h e x Ce _ 0 m l 0m h

Re Cx Re Cx

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F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l X7 3 f Re _ ce _ 0m h f t l Cx Re 4 Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 4 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 4 f t l X7 4 Cx Re 8 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 8 f t l XC x 7 5 1 2 Re Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 12 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 2 f t l XC x 7 6 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 16 l X7 7 f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 6 f t l Cx 2 0 Re Re Cx Cx f f F F 4_ c e_ 2 0 20 t 6 T6 4 _l e _ C l XR e 7 8 Cx Re 2 4 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 2 4 f t l X7 9 Cx Re 2 8 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 28 l f f t 6 4_ c e_ 2 8 l X8 0

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 9 _c e _ 0h l R8 t Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X9 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X9 Cx 1 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X9 2 Re Cx Re Cx

FF T 8 _C f e t _ c e _0 l Rf Xx 01 C1 1 6 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ f f t 6 4 _ ce X1 02 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce f e t _ c e _0 l Rf Xx 05 0 h C1 Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce f f t _ c e _0 l X1 06 Re Cx - 0 he R Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _C f e t _ c e _0 l Rf X1 20 Cx 1 6e R Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ f f t 6 4 _ ce X1 11 Re Cx Re 0 h

Ce _1 6 l _ 1 6 l

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F FT _ C f f l Re t _c e _ X1 Cx 1 7- 0 h R C Re Cx F FT 8 _ f f t _c e _ l X1 1 8 Re Cx 0 h R C Re Cx F FT _ C f f l Re t _c e _ X1 Cx 2 1- 0 h R C Re Cx F FT 8 _ f f t _c e _ l X1 2 2 Re Cx 0 h R C Re Cx F FT _ C f f l Re t _c e _ X1 2 3 Cx - 0 h R C Re Cx F FT 8 _ f f t _c e _ l X1 2 8 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

e x e_ 0 h l 0h e x Ce _ 0 m l 0m h e x e_ 0 h l 0h e x Ce _ 0 m l 0m h h h

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F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m h l Xf f e 3 _c e _ 0m h l R9 t Cx 8 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Xe 4 R9 Cx 1 Re 6 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 X9 5 Cx 2 Re 4 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l X9 6

Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l X1 t _ f e 07 c e _0 h l Rf Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X1 08 Re Cx Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 2 7c e _ 0h l R1 t _ Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 2 6 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

Re Cx

f f FF T e _ 0 m_ 0 m h t _ c 8 l Ce l h Xe 09 R1 Cx 1 6e R Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X1 10

f f F FT e _ 0h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X1 Re 2 4 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 2 5

Not e :

So m g r d i

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wr e s i a kn g i

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t h s d e sg n i i o d f c a t on s i i i

m a y b e df f c ut . i i l

of f o f I f t h s i

t h e

o c c ur s , p e a se l t ur n e n a be l Edg e sn a p pn g i G r d/ Sn ap ) . i

of f G r d s n a pp n g a n d i i ( O p t o n s >P r e f e r en c e cs > i

Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Re t _c e _ 0m h f f l Cx 9 2 1 X3 Re Cx

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Re Re Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 2 0 h 1 9 Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 1 0 h 1 9 Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 0 0 h 1 9 Re Re Cx Cx Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 60 0 h C1 Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l Xe 59 R1 Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f e t _ c e _0 m h l Rf X1 54 Cx 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx

Re

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F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 1 l Xf f e 9 14 _ c e_ 1 l R3 t 6 Cx 2 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c __ 2 _ 2 t 64 6 4 el e l C X3 Re 9 0 Cx 3 Re Re Cx Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 3 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 3 X3 8 9 Cx 4 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 4 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 4 X3 Cx 8 8 5 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 5 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 5 X3 Cx 8 7 6 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 Xf f e 8 64 _ c R3 t Cx 7 R Re C Cx F FT 6 4 f f t 64 _ c X3 Re 8 5 Cx 8 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c X3 7 7 Cx 9 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c X3 Cx 7 8 1 0 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c Xx 7 9 1 1 C3 R Re C Cx _Ce _ 6 l e_ 6 l e x _Ce _ 7 l e_ 7 l e x _Ce _ 8 l e_ 8 l e x _Ce _ 9 l e_ 9 l e x _Ce _ 10 l e_ 1 0 l e x

Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l XRe 1 4 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l X4 0 2 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 30 h 4 0 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 40 h 4 0 Re Re Cx Cx

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F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 4 5- 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l Xe 4 4 R1 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 4 3- 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t _ f 1 4 2c e _ 0m h l Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l X1 8 _ f Re 9 ce _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h e R Re Cx Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _ ce _ 0h l XR e 8 1 8 Cx 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 7 0 h 1 8 Re Cx Re Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _ ce _ 0h f t l XC x 6 0 h 1 8 Re Re Cx Cx F F T_ Ce_ 0 h l Xf t _ f 1 8 5 ce _ 0h l

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Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l Xe t _ f 1 58 c e _0 h l Rf Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X1 57 Re Cx Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 4 1c e _ 0h l R1 t _ Cx - 0 h e R Re Cx Cx h

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X4 0 _ f Re 5c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l XRe 6 4 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 70 h 4 0 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 80 h 4 0 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X4 1 _ f Re 6c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ Ce_ 0 h t _c e _ 0l l h XRe 5 4 1 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l X4 1 4 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 30 h 4 1 Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f Re _c e _ 0h f t l XCx 20 h 4 1 Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l X4 1 _ f Re 1c e _ 0h f t l Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l XRe 0 4 1 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X4 0 9

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 3 8 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

Re Cx

FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m h l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X1 56 Re Cx 1 6e R Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X1 55 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf X1 52 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X1 51 Re Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l Xe t _ f 1 37 c e _0 m h l Rf Cx 1 6e R Re Cx Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X1 46 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h h Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X1 Re 4 0 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 3 9 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx

- 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f Re _ ce _ 0m h f t l XC x 4 1 8 4 Re Re Cx

Re Cx

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F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 6 80 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 6 7c e _ 0h l R1 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx

Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 4 l X1 8 6 f Re 3 4_ c e_ 4 f t l Cx Re 8 Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f f t 6 4_ c e_ 8 l XR e 2 1 8 Cx Re 1 2 Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 12 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 2 f t l XC x 1 1 8 1 6 Re Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 1 6 f t l XC x 0 1 8 2 0 Re Cx Re Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 20 l f Re 6 4_ c e_ 2 0 f t l XC x 9 1 7 2 4 Re Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 24 l X1 7 6 f Re 8 4_ c e_ 2 4 f t l Cx Re 2 8 Re Cx Cx F F T6 4 _Ce _ 28 l f f t 6 4_ c e_ 2 8 l X1 7 7

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 11 l Xf f e 8 04 _ c e_ 1 1 l R3 t 6 Cx 1 Re 2 Re Cx Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 12 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 1 2 l X3 Re 8 1 Cx 1 Re 3 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 13 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 3 X3 Cx 8 2 1 4 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 14 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 4 X3 Cx 8 3 1 5 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 15 l Xf f e 8 44 _ c e_ 1 5 l R3 t 6 Cx 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c __ 1 _ 16 t 64 6 4 el e 6 C l X3 Re 6 1 Cx 1 Re 7 Re Cx Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X1 Re 6 6 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X1 6 5 Re Cx Re Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 3 6 Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 3 5 Re Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 3 4c e _ 0h l R1 t _ Cx - 0 h e R Re Cx Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _ 0m h l X1 2 9 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

- 0 h Re Cx h

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Re Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f e t _c e _ 0m h l Rf Xx 6 4 8 C1 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l X1 t 6 f e 6 34 _ c e_ 8 l Rf Cx 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c e_ 1 6 16 t 64 6 4 _l e _ C l X1 Re 6 2 Cx 2 Re 4 Re Cx Cx

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 50 0 h C1 Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l Xf t _ f 1 49 c e _0 h l Re Cx - 0 h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f e t _ c e _0 m h l Rf X1 48 Cx 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l Xf t 6 f 1 47 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 3 0- 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t _ f 1 3 1c e _ 0m h l Re Cx Re Cx 0 h h

Re Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 17 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 7 X3 6 2 Cx 1 Re 8 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 18 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 8 X3 Cx 6 3 1 9 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 19 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 9 X3 Cx 6 4 2 0 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 Xf f e 6 54 _ c R3 t 6 Cx 2 1 R Re C Cx F FT 6 4 f f t 64 _ c X3 Re 6 6 Cx 2 R 2 C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c X3 6 7 Cx 2 R 3 C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c X3 Cx 6 8 2 4 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f f Re t 64 _ c X3 Cx 7 6 2 5 R Re C Cx _Ce _ 20 l e_ 2 0 l e x _Ce _ 21 l e_ 2 1 l e x _Ce _ 22 l e_ 2 2 l e x _Ce _ 23 l e_ 2 3 l e x _Ce _ 24 l e_ 2 4 l e x Re Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f Re _c e _ 0m h f t l XCx 0 2 4 0 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 f t l XCx 9 4 3 9 Re Re Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l X1 6 1

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X1 Cx 3 3- 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l Xf t _ f 1 3 2c e _ 0m h l h

Not e :

So m e wr e s i n t h s d e sg n i i i m a y b e of f o f t h e g r d m a kn g i i m o d f c a t on s i i i df f c ut . i i l I f t h s i o c c ur s , p e a se l t ur n of f G r d s n a pp n g a n d i i e n a be l Edg e sn a p pn g i ( O p t o n s >P r e f e r en c e cs > i G r d/ Sn ap ) . i

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

Re Cx Re Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 25 l Xf f e 7 54 _ c e_ 2 5 l R3 t 6 Cx 2 Re 6 Re Cx Cx

W W W W W W W W

0 h

Re Cx

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

0 h

Re Cx Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

0 h Re Cx

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

0 h

Re Cx

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 26 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 6 l X3 Re 7 4 Cx 2 Re 7 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 27 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 2 7 X3 Cx 7 3 2 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 28 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 2 8 X3 Cx 7 2 2 9 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 29 l Xf f e 7 14 _ c e_ 2 9 l R3 t 6 Cx 3 0 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c __ 3 _ 30 t 64 6 4 el e 0 C l X3 Re 7 0 Cx 3 Re 1 Re Cx Cx

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 9 3c e _0 h l R1 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT e _0 h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X1 Re 9 4 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _0 h X1 9 5 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _0 h X1 Cx 9 60 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _0 h X1 Cx 9 70 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 9 8c e _0 h l R1 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _0 h l X1 Re 9 9 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _0 h l X2 0 0

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf f e 0 9c e _ 0h l R2 t _ Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT e _ 0h 0 h t _c _ l e_ C l X2 Re 1 0 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X2 1 1 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X2 1 2 Re Cx - 0 h e R Cx Re Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f e t _c e _ 0m h l Rf Xx 1 3 8 C2 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f e t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Rf Xx 1 4 1 6 C2 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l Xf f e 1 54 _ c e_ 1 6 l R2 t 6 Cx 2 4 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c e_ 2 4 24 t 64 6 4 _l e _ C l X2 1 6

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l X2 2_ f Re5 c e _0 h f t l Cx 0 he R Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X2 26 Re Cx - 0h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m h l f Re_ c e _0 m h f t l X2 31 Cx Re 16 Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X2 32 Re Cx 0 he R Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f Re_ c e _0 h f t l XCx7 2 2 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X2 28 Re Cx - 0h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m h l f Re_ c e _0 m h f t l X2 29 Cx 16 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l Xf t 6 f 2 30 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f Re_ c e _0 h f t l XCx3 2 3 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l Xf t _ f 2 34 c e _0 h l Re Cx - 0h Re Cx

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l X2 t _ f e 40 c e _0 h l Rf Cx - 0 he R Re Cx Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 41 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf X2 42 Cx - 0 he R Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 43 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 44 - 0 h C2 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 47 Re Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 45 - 0 h C2 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l Xf t _ f 2 46 c e _0 m h l Re Cx Re Cx 0 h

Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _4 l X3 9 6 f Re 84 _ c e_ 4 f t l Cx 6 Re Re C Cx F FT 6 4 f f t 64 _ c XRe 7 3 9 Cx 8 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f Re 64 _ c f t XCx 6 1 0 3 9 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f Re 64 _ c f t XCx 5 1 2 3 9 R C Re Cx F FT 6 4 f Re 64 _ c f t XCx 4 1 4 3 9 R Re C Cx x _Ce _6 l e_ 6 l e x _Ce _8 l e_ 8 l e x _Ce _1 0 l e_ 1 0 l e x _Ce _1 2 l e_ 1 2 l e x

F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 31 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 3 1 l X3 6 9

F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 4 l X3 9 6 f Re 34 _ c e_ 1 4 f t l Cx 1 6 e R Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 6 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 l XRe 7 4 1 Cx 1 8 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 8 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 1 8 f t l XCx 8 2 0 4 1 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 0 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 0 f t l XCx 9 2 2 4 1 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 2 l X4 2 6 f Re 04 _ c e_ 2 2 f t l Cx 2 4 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c __ 2 42 4 t 64 6 4 el e _ C l XRe 1 4 2 Cx 2 6 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 6 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 6 f t l X4 2 2 Cx 2 8 e R Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 8 l f Re 64 _ c e_ 2 8 f t l XCx 3 3 0 4 2 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _3 0 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 3 0 l X4 2 4

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W W W W W

- 0 h e R Cx h

Re Cx Re Cx

W W W W

0 h Re Cx

Re Cx

F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m l f f t _c e _0 m h l Xe 0 1 R2 Cx 4 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _4 l f e t 64 _ ce _ 4 l Rf Xx 0 2 8 C2 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _8 l f e t 64 _ ce _ 8 l Rf Xx 0 3 1 2 C2 Re Re Cx Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _1 2 l X2 t 6 f e 0 44 _ ce _ 1 2 l Rf Cx 1 6 Re Re Cx Cx f f F FT _ c e _ 1 61 6 t 64 6 4 _l e _ C l Xe 0 5 R2 Cx 2 Re 0 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 0 l f e t 64 _ ce _ 2 0 l Rf X2 0 6 Cx 2 Re 4 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 4 l f f l Re t 64 _ ce _ 2 4 X2 Cx 0 7 2 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _2 8 l f f t 64 _ ce _ 2 8 l X2 0 8

F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f t _c e _ 0h l X2 Re 1 7 Cx 0 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X2 Cx 1 80 h Re Cx Re Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l f f l Re t _c e _ 0h X2 Cx 1 90 h Re Re Cx Cx F FT _ Ce_ 0 h l Xf t _ f 2 2 0c e _ 0h l

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 49 - 0 h C2 Re Re Cx Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l Xf t _ f 2 50 c e _0 m h l Re Cx 0 h Re Cx h

Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m h l f Re_ c e _0 m h f t l X2 48 Cx 16 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X2 39 Re Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l XRe5 2 3 Cx 0 he R Cx Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l X2 36 Re Cx - 0h Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m h l f Re_ c e _0 m h f t l X2 37 Cx Re 16 Cx Re Cx FF T 6 4_ Ce _1 6 l f f t 6 4 _ ce _ 1 6 l X2 38

Re Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf Xx 51 - 0 h C2 Re Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 56 Re Cx 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f f t _ c e _0 h l Xe 55 R2 Cx - 0 he R Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 54 Re Cx Re Cx 0 h Re Cx

Re Cx - 0 h Re Re Cx Cx F F T 8 _ Ce _ 0 m h l f f t _c e _ 0m h l Xe 2 1 R2 Cx 8 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 8 l f e t 64 _ c e_ 8 l Rf X2 2 2 Cx 1 Re 6 Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 16 l f f l Re t 64 _ c e_ 1 6 X2 Cx 2 3 2 4 Re Cx Re Cx F FT 6 4 _Ce _ 24 l f f t 64 _ c e_ 2 4 l X2 2 4

W W W W

F F T _ Ce _ 0 h l f e t _ c e _0 h l Rf X2 52 Cx - 0 he R Cx Re Cx FF T 8 _Ce _ 0m l f f t _ c e _0 m h l X2 53

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 26

Effects of Fixed Point Implementation of IFFT/FFT (continued)


Bit precision: 2.8
1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5

2.10
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4

2.12
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4

2.14

imag(iq_fp[0,::])

imag(iq_fp[1,::])

imag(iq_fp[2,::])

0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6

0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0

imag(iq_fp[3,::])

0.4

0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-0.8 -1.0

-1.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

-1.2 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

-1.2

-1.0

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

real(iq_fp[0,::])

real(iq_fp[1,::])

real(iq_fp[2,::])

real(iq_fp[3,::])

Bit Precision= 2.8

Bit Precision= 2.10

Bit Precision= 2.12


5E-1

Bit Precision= 2.14

1E-1

BER_36Mbps_fp

1E-2

Index 40

AA=0.000 0.118

ReceiverEVM_fp AA=1.000 AA=2.000 0.027 0.006

AA=3.000 0.001

1E-3

2.8 2.14

1E-4

1E-5 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

BER_36Mbps_fp.DF.CN

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 27

WLAN 802.11a ADS DesignGuide Schematic Menu

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 28

The Details
3 Parts: Tutorial Impairments Pre-built test benches

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 29

WLAN DesignGuide Example

Wireless Networking Design Seminar DesignGuide November, 2001

Agilent Technologies

Page 30