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1. Introduction This section of the course will review and introduce the fundamental concepts that are central to the operation of electrical machines and transformers. The concepts include reviewing electromagnetic theory and introducing the principles behind dc machines and ac machines. Since a good part of electromechanical energy conversion uses magnetic fields, it is important to review how to solve for the magnetic field quantities in simple geometries. 2. Magnetic Fields Magnetism is an integral part of almost every electrical device used today in industry, research, or the home. Generators, motors, transformers, circuit breakers, televisions, computers, tape recorders and telephones all employ magnetic effects to perform a variety of important tasks. In the region surrounding a permanent magnet there exists a magnetic field, which can be represented by magnetic flux lines similar to electric flux lines. They radiate from the North pole to the south pole through the magnetic bar, as shown below:

Figure 1.1 The strength of a magnetic field in a given region is directly related to the density of flux lines in that region. In the case of an Electric Field, we saw that unlike charges attracted and like charges repelled. A similar situation exists in the magnetic field case where like poles of magnets repel and unlike poles attract, as shown below:

Figure 1.2 Materials other than permanent magnets can also have an effect on the flux distribution of a magnet. If a non-magnetic material, such as glass or copper, is placed in the flux paths surrounding a permanent magnet, there will be an almost unnoticeable change in the flux distribution. However, if a magnetic material, such as soft iron, is placed in the flux path, the flux lines will pass through the material rather than the surrounding air. This is due to the fact that the magnetic field passes through magnetic materials easier than it does through air.

Figure 1.3

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Magnetic flux (denoted as ) is a measure of the amount of magnetic field passing through a given surface (such as a conducting coil). It is the group of force lines going from the North pole to the South pole of a magnet. The greater the numbers of lines of force, the greater the flux and the stronger the magnetic field. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb), where one Weber is equal to 108 lines. This is a very large quantity and for most practical situation the microweber (Wb) is used (the microweber is equivalent to 100 lines of force). The Magnetic Flux Density (denoted as B) is the amount of magnetic flux per unit area perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. B is measured in Teslas (T), such that one Tesla equals one Weber per square metre (Wb/m2). Thus,

B = /A

, where A is the cross-sectional area (m2) through which the flux passes.

Example.1: Find the flux density in a magnetic field in which the flux crossing a circle of area of 0.1m2 is 800 Wb?

Example.2: The figure below shows a part of magnetic core. If the flux density, B, is 1.2 T and the cross-sectional area of the core is 1.613 x 10-3 m2, determine the flux through the core.

3. Electromagnetism Electromagnetism is the production of a magnetic field by an electric current through a conductor. Fields created by current-carrying conductor are known as electromagnetic fields. An electromagnetic field is represented by concentric magnetic flux lines around the conductor, as shown in Figure 1.4. The direction of the magnetic flux lines can be determined by placing the thumb of the right hand in the direction of the current flow and noting the direction of the fingers (this method is commonly known as the right-hand rule). If the conductor is wound in a singleturn coil (as shown in Figure 1.5), the resulting flux will flow in a common direction through the centre of the coil.

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

A coil of more than one turn would produce a magnetic field that would exist in a continuous path through and around the coil, as shown in Figure 1.6(a) where an electromagnetic is formed using a

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

multi-turn coil wound around a steel former (core). Note that the flux distribution in this case is quite similar to that of a permanent magnet. The flux lines leaving the coil from the left and entering to the right simulate a North and a South Pole, respectively. You can work out the direction of the field in this case by placing the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the current flow around the core. The thumb will then point in the direction of the magnetic field/flux, as shown in Figure 1.6(b). A cross-sectional view of the same electromagnet is also shown in Figure 1.6(c) to introduce the convention for directions perpendicular to the page: the cross and the dot refer to the tail and head of an arrow, respectively.

Figure 1.6(a)

Figure 1.6(b)

Figure 1.6(c)

Magnetic Circuits and Electromagnetic Properties A magnetic circuit is the path of the magnetic flux through an object, a body or a device. The length l of this path is known as the mean magnetic path length MMPL. For example, consider the diagram of a two-pole electric motor shown in Figure 1.7 where the magnetic field is provided by an electromagnet formed by a coil wound around the stator poles. The magnetic circuit of this motor is the path of the magnetic flux through the stator body, across the air gap, through the rotor and back through the air gap into the stator. For electric machines in general, magnetic circuits are designed to produce the maximum flux possible and to concentrate it in the air gap between the rotor and the stator through which the coils move.

Figure 1.7

Several important properties are related to electromagnetic fields and magnetic circuits. We will start with three properties/parameters: Permeability (denoted as ), Reluctance (denoted as R) and Magnetomotive Force (mmf; denoted as Fm). Permeability (): If cores of different materials with the same physical dimensions are used in the electromagnet, the strength of the magnet will vary in accordance with the core used, with the variation in strength is due to the number of flux lines passing through the core. A magnetic material is a material in which flux lines can readily be created and is said to have high permeability. Permeability () is a measure of the ease with which magnetic flux lines can be established in the material. It is an intrinsic property of the material. The permeability of a vacuum ( o) is 4 x 10-7 Wb/(AT.m) (i.e. Weber/Ampere-Turn.meter). The vacuum permeability is used as

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

a reference value against which the values of other materials are compared. This forms what is known as the relative permeability ( r). The relative permeability (r) of a material is the ratio of its absolute permeability value to that of the vacuum, i.e. r = / o . It is a dimensionless value as the units of and o cancel. Materials that have permeability slightly less than that of free space are said to be diamagnetic (examples: (bismuth, copper, lead, mercury, germanium, silver, gold, diamond) and those with permeability slightly greater than that of free space are said to be paramagnetic (examples: aluminium, magnesium, titanium, and tungsten). Magnetic materials, such as iron, nickel, steel and alloys of these materials, have permeability hundreds and even thousands of times that of free space and are referred to as ferromagnetic. There are only five elements known to be ferromagnetic. They are iron, nickel, cobalt, dysprosium, and gadolinium. A number of alloys of these five elements, which include non-ferromagnetic elements in their composition, also possess the property of ferromagnetism. Reluctance (R): The opposition that a material has to the establishment of a magnetic field is called its reluctance. The value of reluctance is directly proportional to the length (l) of the magnetic path and inversely proportional to the permeability () and the cross-sectional area (A) of the material. The unit of R is AT/Wb. Reluctance in magnetic circuits is analogous to resistance in electric circuits. Magnetomotive Force (mmf): We have already established that a current flowing in a conductor produces a magnetic field. The force that produces this magnetic field is called the megnetomotive force (mmf), and denoted here as Fm. The unit of mmf, Ampere-turn (At). The mmf is proportional to the product of the number of turns around the core (in which the flux is to be established) and the current through the turns of wire, i.e.:

Fm = NI

Ohms Law For Magnetic Circuits: Recall Ohms Law for electric circuits: Effect = Cause/Opposition, where the Effect is the electric current, I, the Cause is the impressed voltage E, and the Opposition is the total resistance of the circuit R. For magnetic circuits, the effect is the flux . The cause is the magnetomotive force (mmf) Fm, which is the external force (or pressure) required to set up the magnetic flux lines within the magnetic material. The opposition to the setting up of the flux is the reluctance R. Therefore, we can write:

Fm

Example.3: How much flux is established in the ring of magnetic material shown below if the reluctance of the material is 0.28 x 105 At/Wb ?

3A +

5 Turns

The magnetomotive force per unit length is called the magnetizing force or the magnetic field strength, and denoted as H. In equation form:

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

H =

Note that, H is independent of the type of core material, and determined solely by the number of turns, the current and the length of the core. The flux density B and the magnetic field strength H are related by the following equation:

B = H = o r H

This equation indicates that for a particular magnetizing force (magnetic field strength), the greater the permeability, the greater will be the induced flux density. Example.4: For the electromagnet with an iron core shown below, calculate the magnetic force H and the magnetic flux density B in the iron core, assuming the relative permeability if the iron to be =105.

Hysteresis and B-H Curve of a Magnetic Material: Above equation has shown the dependency of the flux density upon the magnetic field strength (magnetizing force) to which it is subjected. However, in practice, r is not constant but varies with the flux density in the material. Consequently, the relationship is not linear and this makes above B-H relationship rather impractical to use. Instead, engineers and designers refer to the curve of the flux density of B versus the magnetic force H of a material, known as a B-H curve (or B-H saturation curve). A typical B-H curve for iron is shown below. From this curve, it can be seen that increasing the mmf in a magnetic circuit increases the flux through the circuit but there is a limit to the flux density which can be created in magnetic materials such as iron when the material is said to be saturated. Above this point (saturation point) more and more mmf is needed to create less and less flux. In other words, the reluctance increases sharply when the material saturates. For maximum efficiency, electric machines/transformers are usually designed to work just below the onset of saturation. Associated with above B-H curve is a phenomenon known as hysteresis, which is well known in ferromagnetic materials. When a ferromagnetic material is magnetized in one direction, it will not relax back to zero magnetization when the imposed magnetizing field is removed. It must be driven back to zero by a field in the opposite direction. If an alternating magnetic field is applied to the material, its magnetization will trace out a loop called a hysteresis loop, as shown in Figure 1.8. The lack of retraceability of the magnetization curve is the property called hysteresis and it is related to the existence of magnetic domains in the material. Once the magnetic domains are reoriented, it takes some energy to turn them back again.

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Figure 1.8: The entire curve represented by bcdefb is called the hysteresis curve or loop. The flux density B lagged behind the magnetizing force H during the entire plotting of the curve. When H was zero at c, B was not zero but had only begun to decline. Long after H had passed through zero and had equaled to Hd did the flux density B finally become equal to zero.

Amperes Circuital Law (for magnetic circuits): The algebraic sum of the rises and drops of the mmf around a closed loop of a magnetic circuit is equal to zero; that is, the sum of the rises in mmf equals the sum drops in mmf around a closed loop, or in equation form: Fm = 0 . When this

closed loop

equation is applied to magnetic circuits, sources of mmf are expressed by the equation F m = NI . The mmf drop across a portion of a magnetic circuit can be determined by:

section of a magnetic circuit and l is the length of the section. As an example, consider the magnetic circuit (magnetic core) shown in Figure 1.9 constructed from three different ferromagnetic materials. Applying Amperes circuital law, we have:

NI

mmf drop

Impressed mmf

All the terms in above equation are known except for the magnetic field strength (magnetizing force), H, for each portion of the magnetic circuit, which can be found by knowing the relative permeabilities of each section or by using the B-H curve if the flux density B is known.

Figure 1.9

Example.5: For the series magnetic circuit given in Figure 1.10, find the value of the current I required to develop a magnetic flux of = 410-4 Wb, given that the relative permeability of the core is 940.

Figure 1.10

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Example.6: For the electromagnet shown below, determine the current I required to establish a magnetic flux = 3.510-4 Wb, if: lab = lcd = lef = lfa = 10 cm; lbc = lde = 1.25 cm and the crosssectional area of the core (throughout) = 6.45 cm2. Take r for the sheet steel to be = 6190 and for the cast iron to be = 270.

Effects of Air gaps on a Magnetic Circuit: Note the presence of the air gaps in the magnetic circuit of the motor of Figure 1.7. Let us consider here the effects that an air gap has on a magnetic circuit. As can be shown in Figure 1.11(a), the existence of an air gap causes a spreading of the flux lines outside the common area of the core. This is known as fringing. For our purposes in this module, we shall neglect the fringing and assume the flux distribution to be as in Figure 1.11(b). Following Figure 1.11(b) arrangement, the flux density of the air gap is given by:

Bg =

g

Ag

The permeability of air is taken to be equal to that of free space. The magnetizing force of the air gap is then determined by:

Hg =

Bg

Figure 1.11

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Example.7: Find the value of the current I required to establish a magnetic flux of = 0.7510-4 Wb in the series magnetic circuit shown below. Take the relative permeability of the cast steel for this case to be equal to 1425.

Example.8: Calculate the magnetic flux for the magnetic circuit shown below. Assume r for the cast iron to be equal to 270.

4. Principles of Electrical Machines and Transformers Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Michael Faraday discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831. This is now known as Faradays law of electromagnetic induction. It opened the door to a host of practical applications and established the basis of operation of transformers, generators and motors, as we will discuss in this module. Faradays law of electromagnetic induction revealed a fundamental relationship between the voltage and flux in a circuit. Faradays law states: If the magnetic flux linking a loop (coil or turn) varies as a function of time, a voltage is induced between the loop; and The value of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of flux.

Consequently, we can establish the action of electrical transformers, motors and generators as follows:

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Transformer Action: if the flux varies inside a coil of N turns, as shown in Figure 1.12, the voltage induced is given by:

E=N

d dt

, where E = induced voltage (measured in V), N = number of turns in the coil, and d/dt is the rate of flux change with time (measured in Wb/s)

Figure 1.12

Motor Action: Michael Faraday also showed that passing a current through a conductor freely suspended in a fixed magnetic field (as is the case in an electric motor) creates a force which causes the conductor to move through the field. Conversely, if the conductor rather than the magnet is constrained then the magnet creating the field will move relative to the conductor. More generally, the force created by the current, now known as the Lorentz force, acts between the currentcarrying conductor and the magnetic field, or the magnet creating the field. The magnitude of the force acting on the conductor is given by: F = BLI , where F is the force on the conductor (measured in N), L is the length of the conductor (measured in m) and I is the current flowing through the conductor (measured in A), as shown in Figure1.13 .

Figure 1.13 A commonly used method to determine the direction of the force F is Fleming's left hand rule see below. This rule shows the direction of F on a conductor carrying a current I in a magnetic field B.

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Generator Action: Faraday also showed that the converse of above is true, i.e. moving a conductor through a magnetic field, or moving the magnetic field relative to the conductor, causes a current to flow in the conductor due to the induced voltage across its terminals (commonly referred to as emf electromotive force). The magnitude of the emf generated in this way is given by: E = BLv , where E is the induced voltage (or generator emf) (V), L is the length of the conductor (m), and v is the relative speed of the conductor through the field (m/s). Fleming's right hand rule is commonly used to determine the direction of the induced current (or induced voltage E) when a conductor moves in a magnetic field B.

Example.9: A coil of 2000 turns surrounds a flux of 5 mWb produced by a permanent magnetic as shown in the figure. The magnet is suddenly withdrawn causing the flux inside the coil to drop uniformly to 2 mWb in 1/10 of a second. Determine the induced voltage in the coil.

Example.10: A rectangular coil, 20cm40cm has 100 turns of wire of total resistance 10 ohms and is placed in a magnetic field of flux density 0.9T at right angle to the plane of the coil. If the coil is withdrawn in 0.2 seconds: (a) calculate the average induced voltage (b) calculate the average current in the coil

10

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Example.11: The stationary conductors of a large electrical generator have an active length of 2 m and are cut by a magnetic field whose flux density is 0.6 T, moving at a speed of 100 m/s (See Figure 1.14). Calculate the voltage induced in each conductor.

Figure 1.14

Example.12: A conductor 3 m long carrying a current of 200 A is placed in magnetic field whose flux density is 0.5 T. Calculate the force on the conductor if it is placed perpendicular to the lines of force, as shown in Figure 1.15.

Figure 1.15

(Note that the force is zero when the conductor is parallel to the magnetic field, as shown below)

11

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

5. The Basic Electrical Machine The majority of electrical machines (motors and generators) sold today are based on Faradays law of electromagnetic and the Lorentz force (as discussed in Section 4 above), and their principle of operation can be demonstrated by the example below in which a single turn coil carrying electrical current rotates in a magnetic field between the two poles of a magnet.

For multiple turn coils, the effective current is NI (Ampere Turns) where N is the number of turns in the coil (based on the concepts discussed in Section 3). If the coil is supplied with a current the machine acts as a motor. If the coil is rotated mechanically, current is induced in the coil and the machine thus acts as a generator. In rotating machines the rotating element is called the rotor or armature and the fixed element is called the stator. Magnetic Fields in an Electrical Machine: The motor's magnetic field is provided by the stator and in the above example the stator is a permanent magnet. However, in the majority of electrical machines the magnetic field is provided electromagnetically by coils wound around the stator poles. The stator windings are also called the field windings and the motor is said to be "field energised". The rotor is normally wound on an iron core to improve the efficiency of the machine's magnetic circuit. The earliest electrical machines depended on permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field. However the best magnetic materials available at the time were only capable of providing very weak fields limiting potential machine applications to laboratory demonstrations. It was eventually realised that much stronger magnetic fields could be generated by using electromagnets powered by the applied or generated line voltage. This allowed the construction of much more powerful machines enabling the development of practical applications. Advances in magnetic materials have now created much more powerful permanent magnets enabling their use in practical machines, simplifying machine construction by eliminating one set of windings. Electric machines can have multiple magnetic pole pairs. Multiple pole machines usually provide more efficient magnetic circuits and smoother torque characteristics. As mentioned in Section, in the case of electrical machines, the magnetic circuit is the path of the magnetic flux through the stator body, across the air gap, through the rotor and back through the air gap into the stator. 6. General Characteristics of Electrical Machines Torque Production: Some electrical machines (motors in specific) are rated by the torque they can provide, others are rated by the power they produce. Torque and power are important parameters for any motor. Although torque and power are different physical parameters, if one is known the other can be obtained.

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

12

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Torque is produced when a force exerts a twisting action on a body, tending to make it rotate, as the case in a motor. Torque is equal to the product of the force, F, times the perpendicular distance between the axis of the rotation and the point of application of the force (See figure below): T=Fr, where T = torque (N.m), F= force (N) and r = radius (m) Generally speaking the torque produced by a motor is proportional to the current it consumes and also proportional to the flux in the air gap. In DC motor for example, torque T can be calculated from the following equation: T = K IA ,

where K is a constant that depends on the physical parameters of the motor and IA is armature current in amperes (A). to calculate the power from the torque, we must know the rotational speed of the motor either in rad/s (radians per second) or in rpm (revolutions per minute). So for a given value of torque at a certain speed, a motors mechanical output power P in Watts is given by: P = T OR , where is the speed in rad/s and T is the torque in N.m n is the speed in rpm.

P=

2 nT = 0 .105 nT , 60

Example.13: What is the power developed by a motor that turns at 350 rpm when the torque is 3.6 N.m?

Example.14: During a prony brake test on an electric motor, the spring scales indicate 25 N and 5 N, respectively. Calculate the power output if the motor turns at 1700 rpm and the radius of the pulley is 0.1 m ?

Gearing: For a given torque, the motor power is proportional to the speed. Low speed motors will thus deliver very low power. Applications requiring high torque at low speeds will require very high currents and impractically large motors. Such applications are better served by higher speed motors with gearing mechanisms to reduce the speed and increase the torque. Size: The size of a motor is determined by the torque it has to deliver. For similar motors with similar cooling systems the motor torque is proportional to the volume of the rotor and hence the overall motor volume. Efficiency of a Machine: The efficiency of an electrical machine (or a transformer) is given by:

Dr A E Mahdi Lecture Notes 1

13

Electrical Energy (Electrical Machines) EE4014/EE4024 BSc Electronics & BSc Energy

Po 100 Pi

, where = efficiency (percent), P0 = output power of the machine in Watts (W), and Pi = the input power of the machine in Watts (W).

In the case of a motor and as noted above, for a given torque, the motor power is proportional to the speed whereas the electrical and windage losses tend to be roughly constant, rising relatively slowly. Thus the motor efficiency increases with speed. Efficiency is also dependent on the size of the motor since resistive losses tend to be proportionately much higher in smaller devices than in larger machines which can be designed with more efficient magnetic circuits. Losses: Losses reduce the efficiency of the machine and usually result in unwanted heat. Sources of losses in electrical machines and transformers are: Copper losses: These are the I2R heat losses resulting from the current flowing in the windings. The copper losses are variable, depending on the current and hence the load on the machine. The iron and other losses tend to be relatively constant. R above represents the stator winding resistance and the rotor winding resistance. Iron Losses: These are losses which occur in the magnetic circuit, and comprises: o Saturation loss: This is the wasteful use of energy associated with using materials at flux densities above the saturation point of its B-H curve. o Hysteresis loss: This is the energy needed to magnetise and demagnetise the iron in the magnetic circuit each machine cycle due to hysteresis of the material. The magnetic material absorbs energy during each cycle and this energy is dissipated as heat. Since the losses per cycle are fixed, they will increase in line with the frequency. Special low hysteresis steels have been developed to reduce these losses. o Eddy current loss: These losses are due to the unwanted, circulating currents which are induced in the iron of the machine's magnetic circuit by the machine windings. They are minimised by using laminated iron in the magnetic circuits instead of solid iron (See Figure 1.16). The insulating oxide layer on the laminations inhibits eddy current flow between laminations.

Figure 1.16 Flux Leakage: In practical magnetic circuits it is not always possible to concentrate all of the magnetic flux where it is needed for optimum magnetic coupling and the maximum energy interchange between the rotor and the stator. Consequently some of the applied energy is lost. Windage / Friction: These are the mechanical losses resulting from the drag on the movement of the rotor.

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