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Structural Levels of Language and Their Interrelations (Lecture 1) the major questions is how we can place morphology within

the structure of language phonemes (allophones) morphemes (allomorphs) words phrases sentences (clauses) text syllables have nothing to do with meaning

allo a variant of something pat [pt] vs spat [spt] in this case we speak of 2 different allophones (segmentation) - p and p are allophones of the phoneme p allomorphs : -ed written in one and the same way, but it is pronounced in different ways depending on the nature of the preceding sound -il, -im, -in all of these are negative prefixes, that is a negative prefix which exists in all these variants Lecture 2

linguistic levels may be approached from the point of view of the units of language ; thus, one approach may be through the units and since we are dealing with morphology, the morpheme can be the starting point; there are other units besides morphemes these are different ranks or size-levels the larger ones are made up of the units below them

text sentence SIGNS clause phrase word (lexeme) morpheme phoneme (meaningless) DF distinctive features

/P/ - LABIAL, STOP, VOICELESS /K/ - VELAR, STOP, VOICELESS (in this case we dont speak of sequence, these features are simultaneously present) k | | t a result of linear segmentation, 3 segments

there is a difference between the phoneme and the rest of the units the phoneme is meaningless ; phonemes are the building material to signs ; different phonemes change the meaning but have no meaning of their own ; they have value but no meaning the level of meaning, the semantic level different theories in terms of its place according to some sources text and sentence belong to speech these units determine a specific level of language PHONETICS GRAMMAR syntax and morphology LEXICAL LEVEL SEMANTIC LEVEL THE LEVEL OF MEANING

meaning (content)

form (expression)

another possibility which is more or less accepted is that semantics cuts across all these levels text sentence semantics word morpheme in phonetics and phonology intonation has meaning what is morphology about ; the morpheme is its unit ; however, morphology deals not only with morphemes, but also its interested in words, the way they change and function from a grammatical point of view [pt] - aspirated ; [spt] unaspirated allophones (variants)

1. /t/ WORKED 2. /d/ LIVED allomorphs of the morpheme -ED 3. /Id/ WANTED this depends on the nature of the preceding sound (phoneme) and thats why they are defined as phonologically conditioned allomorphs ox (oxen) table (tables) -EN (survival of an old declension type) and S are lexically conditioned allomorphs please pleasure pleasant are also allomorphs morphemes are divided according to their position in the world -ED

ROOTS free forms, they are typically free, particularly the words of Germanic origin, the root is obligatory theres no such a word that consists only of an affix AFFIXES affixes are bounded, they can be lexical or grammatical , affixes modify the meaning of the root SUFFIXES PREFIXES INTERFIXES SPORTSMAN SPORT |S| MAN S is an interfix, it is between two roots WORDS = LEXEMES CONSIST OF MORPHEMES more abstract




more concrete

-S - EN

(table) (oxen)

this is the same morpheme of plurality and S and EN are its variants

go/went be/am/is, etc


HOW DOES A UNIT APPEAR IN CONTEXT ? 1. COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION we have different environment (context) and the meaning is the same - S , - Z , - IZ , - EN , etc these are variants of the morpheme of plurality, they all mean plural S Z

Each has a part of the distribution, they complement each other in the whole distribution of the morpheme of plurality.


CONTRASTIVE DISTRIBUTION we have the same environment and different meaning teach + ER sing + ER preach + ER All these can appear in the same environment, e.g. before ER, but they will have different meanings, such as teacher, singer etc.

substitution LOT HOT POT

L , H , P are also in contrastive distribution FREE VARIATION we have the same environment and the same meaning for example, the two different pronunciations of often ; the free variation is less common and less important than the other two distributions ; there is no such thing as absolute synonyms Grammatical Categories and Markers (Lecture 3)


Nouns Verbs Adjectives Conjunctions Adverbs Pronouns Tense Person Number Gender Voice Subject

These are the PARTS OF SPEECH / WORD CLASSES. This type of category is based on they way its members function in connected speech, their morphological behaviour and their morphological structure.

This category is related to the parts of speech. It is a grammatical or morphological category.

Object Adverbial Predicate

These are the PARTS OF THE SENTENCE. This category is based on the syntactic function / roles of its members. We have two words-forms, one of them has a marker, the other has a zero . These forms are mutually exclusive, we have to choose either one or another. The unmarked form has a zero (singular).

table tables
chair chairs ox - oxen

Nouns differ in terms of grammar they can be in their singular or plural form. Inevitably there is an opposition between singular and plural in this case. A grammatical category is obligatory. Gender is rather different from Number. It may be called a lexico-grammatical or classifying category. Gender is a covert category in English while in Bulgarian it is over. masculine feminine neuter man , uncle woman , aunt child, table

GRAMMATICAL MARKERS /Number, Tense, etc/ 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

inflectional suffix unmarked forms which are meaningful because of the choice and the contrast morphophonemic alternation the change of phonemes which express grammatical meaning foot feet /u/ /i:/ suppletive forms GO WENT inflection + morphophonemic alternation house houses Lecture 4 /s/ - /z/

work works worked working a paradigm -

love loves loved loving

take takes took taking

form class a class of forms that share the same grammatical marker the word forms in a paradigm share the same root (base) but they have different inflections ; the items differ grammatically, the different forms represent the lexeme in specific contexts transformational grammar a full linguistic model with the various level of language incorporated in it primary grammatical categories nouns, verbs secondary grammatical categories number, case, tense

WORD CLASSES (Parts of Speech) they are considered more central, more important

Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs

Conjunctions full, meaningfulPrepositions words Pronouns

connections which help organize sentences and texts


refer refer refer refer

to to to to

objects, things, entities which are involved in some kind of action/situation actions (activities), states, relations qualities circumstances

according to the ancient grammarians and some modern linguists, there are similarities between verbs and adjectives what are the criteria that we use when we want to assign something to a particular word class

1. meaning (semantic considerations) e.g. kindness a noun, an abstraction, it names a quality ; flight names an action other abstract nouns name relationships, activities etc ; not all nouns would refer to objects and this maked the matter of criteria a quite tricky area 2. morphological the environment is important the works of Shakespeare -S stands for plurality, not 3rd person singular, present simple tense if a word is accompanied by an article, it should be a noun 3. syntactic Who did that? subject noun / pronoun / non-finite verb forms (the latter have something nominal about them) there is no one-to-one correspondence between parts of speech and parts of the sentence, but still there are important links

a predicate must be a verb

WORD CLASSES Specific Categories

boy boys

we should take notice of the way each word changes grammatically, i.e the paradigm of the noun boys boys HOMOPHONES

boy singular boys plural boys - singular boys plural -


these 4 forms are in fact the only 4 grammatical forms that a noun in English can have there are 4 forms in written English but there are two forms in spoken English SINGULAR/PLURAL COMMON/GENITIVE NUMBER CASE

it turns out that the English nouns distinguishes morphologically only 2 categories Number and Case ; there is no gender in English ; gender is a lexico-grammatical it is not a morphological category -ER is a derivational suffix in this case ; it is class-changing suffix since it changes the category of the word from Verb to Noun


-ESS is a non-derivational suffix ; it only changes the gender of the noun STEWARDESS

steward stewardess

base, free form (Noun) remains a Noun (different gender)

derivational morphology is not obligatory, the patterns are a matter of chance / a matter of historical development from the point of view of syntax nouns can be subjects, objects, modifiers (e.g. table leg), and even prepositional phrases which have adverbial function [We meet Fridays.] Abstract Nouns vs Concrete Nouns kindness vs table

abstract nouns do not easily appear in the plural Common Nouns vs Proper Nouns table vs Peter (names of people, places etc)

normally, proper nouns dont appear in the plural because they are believed to refer to unique persons, objects etc [There are two Marias in our group.] in the example above, linguistically, the noun has become a common noun and if we were to paraphrase it, it will be there are two persons ; we have a shift from proper to common nouns [He thinks hes an Einstein.] the same shift occurs in this case ; the proper noun undergoes a change in term of behaviour, as well ; it takes an article KNOWLEDGE pluralia tantum only plural even nouns which appear in only one form singular or plural actually remain inside the category of Number there is also the phenomenon of agreement (concord) Where are my scissors ? number is about quantity Number (Lecture 5)

two forms singular and plural this poses some linguistic problems of form and description

the marked form is the plural form there are three allomorphs which are phonologically conditioned regular plural, irregular plural, morphophonemic alternation (the change of the root vowel foot feet) in the case of HOUSE HOUSES we have both inflection and morphophonemic alternation but the change of the final consonant is not reflected in written language there are productive (living patterns) and non-productive inflections [-EN is a non-productive inflection] brother brothers brother brethren [stylistically marked] sheep sheep we can recognize the forms only in context thanks to the rules of agreement foreign plurals of Greek and Latin origin phenomenon phenomena

morphological analysis is based on comparison and similarity



similarity in the strict sense of coincidence the examples above are not typical of English, they are irregular and have a kind of inflection in the singular, as well these examples are marginal, they are not a central phenomenon in English memorandum memoranda [used by learned people, it is formal] difference in terms of style memorandum memorandums [everyday use]

memo / memos singular one

word-formative plural more than one

difference between marked and unmarked from functional point of view, i.e the point of view of meaning ; the unmarked form has more vague meaning (less specific meaning) than the marked one primitive opposition the unmarked member is deprived of meaning PRESENT unmarked / non-past vs PAST marked

often the present tense expresses other things besides activities that happen at the moment of speaking ; we can use the present tense in wider contexts because it is unmarked, i.e. it is less specific The horse is a domestic animal. generic use referring to the whole class Horses are domestic animals. A horse is a domestic animal.

the three sentences above have identical (logical/cognitive) meaning, but differ in style ; this is a sort of neutralization in terms of number The horses are domestic animals. [here the meaning is not generic1] links between the grammatical category of number and lexical meaning brother brothers / brethren differ in meaning there are a lot of cases like this one they are called differentiated plurals arm arms arms (plural) weapons used for fighting wars *The soldier left his arm in the barracks. how do compound nouns which consist of more than one root (base) form plurality toothbrush toothbrushes attorney general attorneys general

mother-in-law NOUN


PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE lilies of the valley forget-me-nots

lily of the valley forget-me-not

nouns derived through conversion of phrasal verbs runner-up runners-up

nominal element

take-off lay-by spoonful

take-offs lay-bys spoonfuls / spoonsful

both are grammatically correct but spoonfuls is more frequently used Case of the Noun

languages like Latin and Russian have developed a paradigm of the case form analytical languages English, Bulgarian synthetic languages Russian, Latin (case system) old English has a developed case system, now there are only two options, namely the Genitive and the Common case there are traces of Case in Bulgarian 1960s Charles Fillmore came up with the theory of Deep Cases which later became very popular

generic the opposite of generic is specific, for example

Deep Cases are semantic ; they are based on the meaningful relations that exist between participants in an event/situation Deep Cases participant roles (actants) agent patient (recipient) instrument locative all these are expressed in analytical languages through prepositions and word order ; Deep Cases are semantic rather than structural categories morphological-grammatical categories such as Person, Number, Case, etc have an immediate bearing on the syntactic behaviour of words Case is even more specially related to syntactic structure when we speak of synthetic languages in English, from a syntactic point of view, the genitive has a subordinate position N1s N2 N2 is the head noun Johns watch/friend [watch/friend is the head noun] [Johns has a subordinate syntactic role2] there is an alternative to this construction which expresses the same type of relationship the of-genitive N2 of N1 N2 is the head noun cats tail = the tail of the cat the of-genitive is more like a syntactic item rather than a morphological one; it is a prepositional construction; these two constructions (s-genitive and of-genitive) are not always interchangeable there is another type of genitive the independent genitive N1s N2 a clear case of ellipsis Johns school is better than Marys. [ellipsis] the word occurs on its own, without the head noun butchers, bakers, chemists used for various shops and businesses this indicates a degree of lexicalization of the grammatical form, that is turning from something grammatical into something lexical, thus these forms have acquired a new meaning [bakers ] locative meaning Peters, my aunts, my uncles places where somebody lives, places of residence group genitive John and Marys refers to both John and Mary the king of Englands daughter [s refers to the king, not to England] group genitive (also called phrase genitive) s seems to be attached to the whole phrase rather than to the word it is immediately attached to the girl we met yesterdays mother / the cat under the tables tail3 [we met yesterday a whole relative clause is attached to the head noun]

what is the status of the s it can be attached to everything that is related to the noun or happens to the noun phrase; s behaves like a clitic these are little grammatical words which are not stressed ; the host of the clitic is a certain type of base clitics are somewhere between words and grammatical endings in Bulgarian clitics are the unstressed forms of pronouns . are clitics, they are attached to whether s is a clitic or an ending is rather controversial ; there is no doubt that it is something a bit different from an inflection The son of Pharaohs daughter is the daughter of Pharaohs son. CASE (Lecture 6)

2 3

case in English has two markers s or s phonologically conditioned allomorphs 3 different grammatical endings different forms are homophones one interesting thing is that cases are added not only to nominal bases but to pronouns, as well somebodys indefinite pronoun each others reciprocal pronoun s particular peculiarities it can be attached to the end of the noun phrase even in cases when therere postmodifiers classification of genitives principles, criteria /the independent genitive, the group genitive, the double genitive etc/ language rarely tolerates perfect synonymy a/the/this friend of Johns *a Johns friend *this Johns friend Johns watch in this case Johns is an alternative to the determiner the boys watch the refers to the boy rather than to the watch double genitive a friend of Johns this type of genitive is also known as pleonastic ; it allows us to combine the genitive and other determiners in a phrase still , not all genitives are determiners ; sometimes the Genitive in English is referred to as possessive case this is an attempt to describe the meaning of the Genitive as a relationship of possession between two entities Johns house the house that John owns, although this may be not necessarily the case (John may not be exactly the legal owner ; this leads to ambiguity) if we try to paraphrase the result will be : N1s N2 possessive type of genitive Johns watch John has/possesses a watch forms marked for the genitive case have a subordinate syntactic role this examples are informal but they are perfectly possible

the verb reveals the real (meaningful) relationship between John and the watch ; this is the first type (semantic type) of the Genitive the X of Y this structure is useless from a semantic point of view, it doesnt show us the actual relation between X and Y EXAMPLES Johns arrival John arrived. DESCRIPTION we are not interested in the tense arrival is a deverbal noun John is the subject, the doer of the action NB But not John was arrested. the nose is considered a part of Johns body, it is a special kind of possession it can be described as inalienable a special kind of relation which is again considered inalienable alienable for obvious reasons

TYPE Subject Genitive

Object Genitive Partitive Genitive

Johns arrest They arrested John. Johns nose 2 types tables leg possessive + part & whole Johns mother kinship relations Johns wife kinship through marriage Johns essay Bulgarias wines geographical origin a soldiers uniform what type of uniform a refers to uniform, not to soldier in such cases the genitive may be combined with an indefinite or a definite article, and other determiners, as well [the soldiers uniform]

Genitive of Authorship Genitive of Origin Qualitative = Descriptive Genitive

Genitive of Measure

a weeks absence some sort of adverbial which specifies the time yesterdays paper/meeting refers to times, but it doesnt answer the question how long it answers the question when a five miles distance a two weeks holiday a genitive construction a two-week holiday a compound adjective (this is an alternative to the genitive)

this type functions as a sort of adjective which answers the question what type the qualitative genitive does not function as a determiner ; it doesnt specify possession it describes what type the thing/object in question is the Genitives of Measure are not determiners we can measure worth, time, distance etc N1s N2 this constructions shows us that there is some kind of relationship between the two entities both classifications, i.e formal and semantic, are based on the type of relation between the two entities


how do we make the choice between the s genitive and of-genitive in 50% of the cases they are interchangeable and basically the choice depends on the opposition animate vs inanimate / human vs non-human yet, there are exceptions to this rule according to Leech4, there are 3 factors to be taken into consideration the semantic class of the noun (N1)

A. B. C. D. E. F. 2.

human class

most likely to determine the choice of s places with human association [Bulgarias wines] department, government

nouns that refer to places human organizations animals abstract nouns

the horses tail the taxs abolition the abolition of the tax (much more likely) a stones throw

concrete inanimate nouns (very rarely)

s is preferred when the relationship is : A. of origin B. subjective C. possessive D. attributive E. partitive F. objective NB the Genitive of Attribute should not be confused with the Qualitative Genitive Johns courage John is courageous. John has courage. the style of the text in question according to Leech there are three styles of language A. fiction texts B. journalistic texts C. academic texts The s construction appears most often in fiction, less often in journalistic texts and least often in academic texts. Gender


according to Leech the character of the noun is very important

1) 2)

with Gender the situation is quite different in comparison to Number and Case, the latter two being purely morphological categories there are two approaches : comparison between Gender and Number and Case comparison between Gender in English and Bulgarian nouns do not change for Gender Gender characterizes the lexical word in all its forms in other words, Gender is a lexico-grammatical category, rather than a purely grammatical category TABLE GENDER

table (singular)

tables (plural)

m. boy

f. girl

n. table

important difference between English and Bulgarian in Bulgarian gender depends primarily on the form of the noun nouns are morphologically marked in the majority of cases in English there is nothing in the form of the noun which indicates its gender it is based on meaning and for this reason gender in English is sometimes described as natural male / female / no sex if we are to analyse the noun boy, we will have three semantic components

BOY + human + male + young -

GIRL + human + female + young


in Bulgarian form is also important and there is a high possibility that form and meaning will coincide / neuter because of the ending still there are exceptions (masculine, despite the ending) until recently the term gender was used only to refer to grammatical gender ( ) nowadays it is used as a social and cultural category gender has acquired another meaning for example it is used instead of sex when we classify nouns in terms of gender we can substitute them with pronouns gender is a covert category, the forms are not marked for gender, it is not explicit we can prove that it exists by using pronouns SHE WHO IT WHICH

PERSON vs NON-PERSON on the basis of this substitution we can establish 9 classes (according to Quirk et al) child it can be he , she , it and who family it or they , who or which ship it or she , which actor actress indication of Gender but this is an example of word-formation rather than inflection Gender (Lecture 7) Gender is a category which has a quite different nature from Case and Number it works in a different way number is a purely grammatical category, while Gender is rather a lexico-grammatical one Gender applies to the whole paradigm we have to oppose lexical items (words as lexemes) in order to establish Gender both in English and Bulgarian Gender is a lexico-grammatical category - in Bulgarian it is formally marked Gender in English is not explicitly marked although there are some exceptions in English Gender is a covert category, whereas in Bulgarian it is an overt one in order to establish such covert categories linguists need some formal procedures the simple procedure relevant when we speak of Gender is the procedure of substitution pronouns more grammatical than lexical pronouns represent a finite set of items unlike the lexicon of the language which is open and to some extent infinite LABEL masculine feminine dual EXAMPLES and DESCRIPTION

PRONOUNS 1. he, who 2. she, who 3. he, she, who 4. he, she, it, who, which

teacher, doctor baby we either treat baby as of dual gender or as thing something inanimate (it, which) it is a matter of choice, of personal attitude

5.1 it, which 5.2 they, who

6. she, it, which 7. it, which 8.1 it, she , which 8.2 it, she, which 9. it, he, which

family (collective nouns) again we can treat such words in 2 ways, but it depends on the nature of collectiveness, not so much on the opposition animate vs inanimate we may treat the family as a whole or we may treat it as a collection of individuals dividing collectiveness it is again a matter of two options cow ant ship, boat (inanimate) men drivers call their cars she sometimes some women drivers call their cars by he

the lexical meaning also incorporates the semantic component for example cow female (feminine) examples 8.2 and 9 are an expression of special attitude and affection when such kind of usage which special in some way (e.g defining a vehicle or an instrument as he or she_ becomes widely spread and accepted, it is no longer so special it becomes an established practice as in the case of boat/ship she that is a personification of some kind we treat inanimate objects as human and ascribe sex to them another type of personification has to do with mythology the Sun he the Moon - she countries are also regularly personified as she how are the differences in Gender expressed in English

boy girl ; uncle aunt ; king queen gender is expressed through different lexical items, i.e it is expressed lexically; there are different lexical items which signalize differences in Gender -ess derivational suffix for example goddess, hostess, actress any morpheme which follows the root (base) is a suffix derivational suffixes are word-formative inflectional suffixes are form-formative (e.g worked -ED is an inflectional suffix) PREFIX SUFFIX derivational changes the lexical meaning, produces new words inflectional


host and hostess these are two different lexical items, not two forms of one and the same item usher usherette -ette and ine are derivational suffixes hero heroine fox vixen suppletive forms compounding he-goat she-goat ; tomccat ; lady-doctor ; bull-elephant bride vs bridegroom widow vs widower MARKED vs UNMARKED

the only two cases where the masculine is marked in comparison to the feminine which is unmarked perhaps there are social reason fro this phenomenon

markedness may be purely formal when the marker is a derivational suffix or a compound noun markedness is quite obvious on the level of form there may be markedness from a functional point of view This dog is a bitch. dog is unmarked therefore it has a more general meaning, it can refer both to male and female animals bitch is marked in the sense that it is used less often and it is used for female animals only the animal dog bitch a female dog a male dog


Man over board used to refer to both men and women man refers to human beings here it is not marked political correctness and the strife for equality between men and women lead to change in language use, e.g flight attendat , chairperson etc generic uses of ma for human beings is not tolerated generic uses of pronouns he, him are also not acceptable instead we have to say they, s/he, their, etc Somebody has left their coat. master/mister vs mistress another sign of inequality The Verb (Lecture 8) the verb one of the major word classes

distinction between closed and open classes of words the closed class includes a fixed, limited number of items, e.g pronouns ; auxiliaries also belong to the closed classes of words the open class e.g verbs, nouns

1. 2. 3.

there are traditional criteria for the classification of words into word classes semantic (meaning) morphologic syntactic grammatical

verbs describe actions, states, processes there is an opposition between stative and dynamic verbs adjectives refer to stable qualities rather than dynamic tired - adjectival the typical adjectives can appear in the comparative form She is being silly. at the moment , its becoming more dynamic She is silly. stative syntax predicate (), gerund, participles verb forms FINITE vs NON-FINITE

non-finite finit e FINITE VERB FORMS these have tense, person, number the sentence

NON-FINITE VERB FORMS no tense, no person, no number they perform different functions in

according to the old grammar books there are four non-finite verb forms ; according to the modern grammars they are three the non-finite verb forms are the infinitive, -ing forms (gerund, present participle because traditional grammars divide the ing form), the past participle the finite verb forms functions as predicates non-finite verb forms combine with auxiliaries to form analytical forms when on their own, the non-finite verb forms CANNOT function as predicates I have been reading. the whole phrase is finite morphology a short paradigm work works 3rd person, singular worked past tense / past participle working present participle, gerund as an auxiliary the verb to be has the largest number of forms because it enters the paradigm of all verbs (analytical forms) but even so the list of the verbal paradigm of English is not long typologically, English and Bulgarian belong to different groups pro-drop in Bulgarian the pronoun is dropped because there is redundancy null-subject in Bulgarian there are sentences with no subject

VERBAL CATEGORIES (morphologically marked) tense

mood (morphologically speaking, it is argued whether theres mood of the verb in English) (finitude) aspect () voice () correlation / perfectivity some include it in the Aspect perfect vs non-perfect polarity emphasis person

Derivational morphology / word formation copular/link verbs

simple verbs ; verbs with prefixes, suffixes

VERBAL SUFFIXES - en wide + en = widen -ise (ize) personalize - ify electrify VERBAL PREFIXES en en + large = enlarge en- is class changing be be + friend = befriend be- is class changing undisthese prefixes do not typically change the class mis-

CONVERSION finger (noun) to finger (verb)

water (noun) to water (noun) compound conversion compound verbs are result of conversion back-formation to hitchhike, to whitewash to troubleshoot (troubleshooter) to babysit (babysitter) PERSON 1 2 3 and NUMBER plural


Person it is about the doer but not always it is not always an agent sometimes it is a bearer Number it is about the number of entities that appear Person 1st, 2nd, 3rd PERSON



3rd somebody/something non-participant in the act of communication

participants in the act of communication speaker (1st) and hearer/recipient (2nd) PERSON

1st speaker


3rd non-speakers (depends on the point of views of the role in the act of communication)

Person is a deictic category5 (shifters) (I You) depends on the point of view 3rd person is a deictic yet it is a bit different tense is also a deictic category depends on the reference to the moment of speaking thou callest art -est is an inflection for 2nd person (archaic) -eth for the 3rd person thou/thee ye/you Tense (Lecture 9)

in order to define what is a grammatical category we need some proof we need a formal opposition, sets of grammatical forms at least 2 if we have only one tense, we cannot consider tense to be a grammatical category the markers should be grammatical inflections, analytical forms

work vs worked no change in the meaning the grammatical opposition is independent of the lexical meaning, it is over and above it yet, sometimes they do after all interact still, we have to establish first their independence and then point out their interaction the progressive sometimes we have to explain it through the semantics of the verb, e.g verbs of perception how many tenses are there in English the most common position nowadays is that there are two tenses, though traditional grammars claim there are three (past, present, future) the forms of the future what is their nature

will + infinitive analytical, but its also grammatical the English analytical verbal form is a combination of an auxiliary and an inflection be + -ing all these are a combination of an auxiliary and an inflection have + -ed2

be + -ed2

will + the case is a bit different according to some scholars, the future is not accepted as an analytical verbal form will keeps its modal meaning because it is one of the modal auxiliaries each auxiliary hs an individual meaning and still, they are often interchangeable (may and can) will volition (its basic meaning) it came from the verb want in Bulgarian the case is the same > () the development from a full semantic verb into an auxiliary (or an article as in Bulgarian ) theres definitely a connection between will and the future , +


another way to express futurity is by using verbs of movement e.g going to will + it may express pure future tense if the modal meaning is not there meaning without volition One day I will die. no volition, future tense One day we will die. still, in quite a lot of cases, there is no clear-cut division between volition and the expression of pure future tense thus, we accept that will + (inf) is a modal verb plus an infinitive, rather than future tense ll the modality will be weaker, it comes closer to pure futurity when we talk about the future, it is not the same as when we talk about the present or the past be + -ing have + -ed2 be + -ed2 in structural linguistics we will simply say that these are the markers of the progressive, the perfect and the passive

but this is known as a complex marker, also called discontinuous () according to some linguists, the auxiliary is a grammatical word, sometimes it is considered to be empty of meaning but the cognitive linguists think otherwise they look for meaning everywhere they claim that it is not by chance that it is be or have historically, this development must be connected with their meaning formed by the verb , although some dialects use - -

there are different opinions as to the existence of future tense we have present and past tense futurity not future tense futurity is a functional-semantic category based on meaning the common ground is meaning + function expression of future time activities traditional future tense

be + going to formally, this looks like go in the progressive, but the lexical meaning is weakened or gone and go is used now as a functional grammatical word, as an auxiliary present progressive be + -ing to refer to something arranged present simple (also called future as fact by some people) timetables, schedules be + infinitive modality, obligation be + about to something that will happen very soon

in some contexts these expressions may be interchangeable or at least they are pretty close in meaning similarity is a matter of degree the future progressive something in the future which is in progress

Ill be going to Plovdiv tomorrow. according to Leech, the future progressive is future as a matter of cause Will you eat this? Will you be eating this? more polite

the progressive seems to be a category which is getting stronger and stronger, developing more and more

Im loving it. now, Im experiencing it at this moment

1. 2.

be + going to intention (but not always) Im going to do my homework. near future This is going to fall. Its going to rain. the basic idea of be + going to a future event or activity which is a fulfillment of the present situation (condition) She is going to have a baby. I am going to be sick in a minute. Tense Part 2 (Lecture 10)

Tense is a deictic category deictic features features of language which refer directly to the personal, temporal or locational6 characteristics of a situation within which an utterance takes place

locational here and there

aspects of the speech situation time, place and participants these are also reflected in the structure of language through grammatical categories when we say that tense is deictic category, it means that it depends on the situation of speech an event may be placed before, after or simultaneously with the moment of speaking S | Time has only one dimension, it is represented as a line we understand time in relation to the point of speaking. E before S Past (an event before the moment of speaking)

E after S E simultaneously S E simultaneously S general E simultaneously S

Future Present
Present Simple however, it doesnt always refer to the moment of speaking, e.g truths valid for all time performative verbs absolute coincidence between the moment of speaking and Present Simple, e.g I declare Some grammar books draw the present like something expanding.

S |

definition of Present tense a period of time which includes the moment of speaking moreover, the present (simple and progressive) may sometimes refer to the future but we should make a distinction between these two uses: PRESENT 1. basic, normal usage 2. used to refer to the future or even to the past, e.g the historical present this usage may be called transferred or metaphorical using the Present to talk about the past is not the same as using the Past to talk about the past

MARKEDNESS MARKED - past - future vs UNMARKED - present (no marker except for the s in 3rd person, singular)

the unmarked form tends to have a wider potential of usage, it is much more vague functionally and semantically the Present behaves as the unmarked form the Past can also be used to refer to something different from the past I wish I were there. I wish I were rich. Is this the Past tense in a transferred type of usage?

was1 was2 -

past (the indicative mood) present unrealized (hypothetical mood)

these have two different meanings they have nothing to do with each other we may say that this is a polysemantic word or that they are homonyms some linguists speak of remoteness the past being more remote compared to the present in the indicative remoteness in time in the hypothetical mood remoteness in reality Jesperson discusses 9 tenses (3x3) some of them are realized in languages, while others are only potential

later Jesperson reduced them to 7 he gets rid of the past in the present and the present in the future the differences are not so much in terms of tense as a location in time, but have to do with aspectuality (whether the activity is completed) S R orientation point R | S | R |

E before R before S E before R after S E before R simultaneously S

Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Perfect (R and S coincide) S | R

the three tenses have in common time orientation, additional orientation point (R) yet the Present Perfect is rather peculiar (that is why we call it ...) Tense is a deictic category Aspectuality is a non-deictic category simple tense Which is not past or perfect and is unmarked OR (choice)




Progressive OR (be + -ing) Perfect OR (have + -ed2) -

Past OR (Future) (-ed) Non-progressive Non-Perfect

Tense Aspect Correlation (Perfectivity)


have three distinct grammatical categories Tense Aspect Correlation (Perfectivity)

Tense Aspect Correlation Tense and Aspect Forms in English (Lecture 11) it is difficult to separate Tense from Aspect they always work together one possible way to establish the difference is by relying on the fact that Tense is a deictic category, and Aspect is a non-deictic one Tense location of the event in time in relation to the moment of speaking there are three possibilities past, present and future Aspect is independent of the moment of speaking it describes how the event develops in time S | I read a book. I was reading a book.

in terms of time both actions are situated in the past both are before the moment of speaking but they are different in terms of aspect non-progressive vs progressive we have to look into the situation, to examine the internal contour of the situation in order to define what the differences are Aspect the internal temporal organization complete vs non-complete


in the first case the whole book is read from beginning to end , the activity is completed this is the unmarked form and it may be interpreted in a wider way the other form (was reading) is marked Simple Tenses we may say that they are marked in relation to tense but they are unmarked for the progressive and the perfect they are non-progressive and non-perfect meaning and uses of Simple Tenses E simultaneously S yet, sometimes we refer to a larger period but it always has to include the moment of speaking this is the invariant meaning additional features may be, for example, the nature of the verb, its lexical meaning other contextual factors include adverbials

He scores goals. He scores a goal.

(habitual) (probably now, at the moment of speaking)

Leech difference between State (not dynamic) and Event (likely to be dynamic) verbs he makes a comparison between State and Event verbs and countable and uncountable nouns

event verbs resemble countable nouns

state verbs resemble uncountable/mass nouns an event has a beginning and an end, it implies some boundaries

know it is a state verb, but in the example : As soon as I saw her, I knew there was something wrong. here it is an event () NB the different senses of the verb should be taken into account there are three basic uses of the Simple Tenses (we should put aside all transferred meanings of the Simple Tenses) S

He lives in Sofia. Every day I get up at 8 oclock. He scores a goal!


the third type, the Instantaneous Use, is most peculiar - it requires specific types of discourse such as sports commentaries, demonstrations it is used with performative verbs, e.g I sentence you to death. I declare the meeting open. habitual and instantaneous use event verbs transferred uses the present used to refer to the past (the historical present) the present used to refer to the future (schedules, timetables, etc) The train leaves at 2.30 in the afternoon.

Past Simple marked (-ed is an inflection)

deal dealt inflection ; root vowel changes /i:/ - /e/

does the past Tense offer us the same options as the Simple Present, only shifted in the past S

He lived in Sofia. He went to school by bus every day. He opened the door.

only the third use is different this is a common, single unitary event in the past, there is nothing peculiar about it it is quite normal there is a gap theory between the Past and the Present He lived in Sofia. but not anymore he may have moved or he may even be dead another use of the Past when it is used with a modal or hypothetical meaning If I had money Its time this lecture finished. temporality is linked with modality Modality and Mood (Lecture 12)

there are two possible directions of analysis from meaning to form from form to meaning (function) how do they relate this is the business of linguistics the most likely approach in morphology would be from form to meaning, i.e morphology studies form however, sometimes we may reverse the direction TEMPORALITY ASPECTUALITY MODALITY vs vs vs TENSE ASPECT MOOD grammatical categories

semantico-functional categories

This is the approach of functional grammar we are not interested in form but in function. The grammatical categories are in the centre. There is a possibility that these may even overlap, e.g Temporality and Tense. But if there is a grammatical category, it is believed to be in the centre. This is an organizing principle. MODALITY



mood is a category of the verb (, , , ) it is not marked should we place mood in the centre the indicative mood is not marked there are people who claim that there is no mood at all in English as a morphological category in Bulgarian there are forms referring to mood things are clear

these are recognized as the Imperative Mood

but in English the situation is rather different the Imperative mood is not marked there is no auxiliary, no inflection the hypothetical moods rely on modal auxiliaries or past tense in other words, in English these are not distinct forms as in Bulgarian mood is morphologically non-existent in Old English there was a strong category of Mood, but today practically nothing is left of it it is not Mood that we shall place in the centre we have to put the modal auxiliaries as the central way of expressing modality in English there are also lexical ways of expressing modality in English past tenses and even suprasegmental means, e.g intonation (expressing certainty/uncertainty) the modal auxiliary verbs comprise a closed set this is a special class of verbs some modal verbs are marginal we can list them we cannot arbitrarily add other verbs to this class or take out items modality expresses the speakers attitude it offers an evaluation of the propositional content of the sentence assessment on the part of the speaker judgement about the likelihood of something being true or not modality is delimited by the various meanings of modal auxiliaries ROOT vs EPISTEMIC7

the epistemic modality is more abstract than root modality children find it more difficult they start learning the epistemic meanings later He must have left already. epistemic (on the basis of what I know a cognitive kind of process evaluation of the truth value of the proposition of the sentence) You must go now. root (we impose our will on someone obligation) the examples above show that one and the same modal verb can be used in both sense DEONTIC binding it is about obligation, permission, prohibition ROOT obligation, volition, ability sometimes it is not easy to decide what type of modality we have we have to rely on the context interpreting meanings imagining situations INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC these roughly correspond to ROOT and EPISTEMIC modality


will is related to the future future tense volition (root modality)

But in It will rain tomorrow. the modal auxiliary WILL expresses a prediction it is epistemic. we could analyze modal meanings in various ways different levels of abstraction Can you pass mi the salt, please! one of the ways to determine the type of modality is through paraphrase Are you able to pass me the salt? can is used in its ability sense on the pragmatic levels, it is a request so, functionally it is a request the epistemic meaning of ability politeness there are different levels of analysis it sentence in the example looks like a question, but functionally it is a request

1. 2.

epistemic it is about knowledge it comes from epistemology ( )


to determine the modality we should have in mind the degree of abstraction the physical ability can be reduced to possibility wed better keep necessity and possibility to epistemic modality possibly not = not necessary 1. possibility 2. ability

when we paraphrase we should not replace one modal verb with another epistemic modality it is easily taken out of the propositional meaning of the sentence

S = M (P) M evaluation on the part of the speaker He must have left already. It is certain [that he left]. it is certain modal meaning that he left the proposition minus the modal meaning

He cant have left. (negation) It is not possible [that he left].

external negation

external negation we negate the modality here what is negated is the possibility not refers to the possibility

He mustnt go there. root modality It is obligatory [that he does not go there]. internal negation

internal negation the main verb in the proposition is negated He neednt go there. It is not | obligatory [that he go there]. | necessary

there are formal grammatical properties isolating the modal auxiliaries from the primary auxiliaries N I C E Negation Interrogative (inversion) Code Emphatic

Code and so can I Do Emphatic I did go there. You must go there. 1. (through stress)

2. 3.

negation the negative particle not inversion (S V) Can I go there? code - they participate in constructions as those in the sentence Peter can swim and so can I. emphasis modal verbs employ intonation while with full verbs we insert do

BUT modal auxiliaries do not take -s for the 3rd person, singular do not have non-finite forms are formed by the bare infinitive have abnormal time reference, e.g they do not have a normal Past Tense

can may shall will

could might should would

all these forms very rarely function as past forms we often list them separately as modal verbs usually the difference between could, might, should, would and can, may, shall, will is in terms of modality, not tense historically, must in Old English was a past tense form ought to in Old English was the past tense form of the verb owe ought to is peculiar because it lacks one property of those which characterize the other modal auxiliaries, namely it has to (it takes the infinitive with to, not the bare infinitive) MOOD

morphologically speaking, mood is weak, even non-existent in English there are imperative sentences but the verb itself is not marked

imperative sentences are peculiar in their syntax the subject is missing but we understand that it is you the imperative sentences may vary from an order to a request and normally the subject is missing yet, sometimes the subject may appear on the surface Open the door! [Open the door, will you!] You be quiet! Dont you dare speak! some people use imperatives in the 3rd person there is shift from 2nd to 3rd person Somebody open the door. LETS = LET US literary it means allow us this is in fact the only case where we have a contracted form of a pronoun (us) let is grammaticalized it functions as an auxiliary there are two ways of negation Lets not quarrel! Dont lets quarrel! (it is more colloquial) SUBJUNCTIVE it is formally divided into Present Subjunctive and Past Subjunctive the present subjunctive is recognizable formally by the absence of the -s in 3rd person, singular otherwise, it cannot be distinguished from the Indicative I insist that he go. be is more peculiar If I was If I were we can use the Indicative instead of subjunctive there is only difference in style, the subjunctive being more formal the subjunctive is more common in American English than in british English USES of SUBJUNCTIVE mandative subjunctive propose, suggest, demand, require, decide, insist in main clauses also in phrases such as its advisable/desirable and the decision be formulaic subjunctive it appears in set phrases Come what may! Suffice it to say God Save the Queen! Be that it may! Long live the King! also in If I were you VOICE

Tense, Aspect and Correlation are categories that work together it is difficult to separate them but Voice is somewhat apart it has different nature Voice cannot be properly understood unless we involve syntax our starting point will be morphological we need to establish formal opposition, i.e voice has to be divided into formal subclasses we have Active and Passive voice, and active and passive forms of the verb, respectively we can recognize them even in isolation (we can recognize the marked forms) the passive form is the marked one the nature of the marker is discontinuous we have an auxiliary (be) and inflection (past participle) take (the active form) vs is taken (the passive form) the marked form (the passive form) is analytical whichever verbal form we see in isolation we can judge whether it is passive or active this category is not limited only to finite verbal forms non-finite forms also have it to take vs to be taken being taken this is the -ing form of take in the passive PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE has been being taken we do not often come across such forms they are too heavily marked, yet they do occur are there other oppositions besides active vs passive reflexive, reciprocal, middle we have Reflexive passive [Ive cut myself.] the verb is an active form, what is reflexive is the meaning and the pronoun this is expressed by reciprocal pronouns one another, each other They kissed. [reciprocal] morphologically these are not distinct other constructions include Middle Voice The door opened. [Somebody opened the door.] it is passive in meaning and active in form Cheese cuts easily. ergative

the door is an inanimate object so it cannot do anything but if we look at the verb we see that it is in the active voice morphologically, it has to be rejected John opened the door. ACTIVE The door was opened by John. PASSIVE to turn an active sentence into a passive one, the whole structure has to be rearranged Chomsky transformational grammar (deriving one structure from another) the unmarked form is the basic one we change the position of the subject and the object (we introduce by) and the form of the verb from active to passive (see the example above) NP1 NP2 V NP2 V passive by NP1 (be + ED) John opened the door. The door was opened (by John).

if the passive constructions lacks NP1, it is agentless passive or short passive it lacks explicit mentioning of the agent we can have long passive, respectively (including by NP1) before the active and the passive sentences were believed to have the same deep structure 9semantically equivalent) Chomsky studied many syntactically ambiguous sentences John opened the door. they mean the same thing an odd situation in other categories there is The door was opened by John. difference (Tense, Aspect, etc) what is the point (is it for embellishment)? the category of voice it has an important role to play in text organization and connected speech meaning various aspects, various levels what is the same is the cognitive (logical) content it describes the same situation but there are other aspects and then the active and the passive are not always interchangeable it does make a difference the noun phrase functions as a whole there are semantic-syntactic aspects deep cases John opened the door. John is the subject opened is the predicator the door is the object DEEP CASES John is the agent the agent is typically an animate entity (most typical agentive situations) the door is the affected object (the patient) The door was opened by John. the door is the subject was opened is the predicator by John is the prepositional phrase (it is optional) we could say that the active and the passive sentences mean the same thing (they have the same cognitive meaning) there is also a syntactic level of analysis formal syntax (subject, predicator, object) the most typical situation we have an agentive subject but there are many subject which are not [Chicago is windy.] The door opened. (we ascribe to it some sort of activity) different school have tackled such problems - the Prague school employed the FSP (Functional Sentence Perspective) THEME vs RHEME

THEME what you are talking about only in actual communication, its functional the point that you want to make the important bit of information which is mentioned in relation to the theme one of the ways to express these is by suing Voice but there are other ways, as well e.g intonation (it can be very powerful) John opened the door. (RHEME John) John opened the door. word order can also be very powerful the passive voice rearranges the word order in English, we cannot have a subjectless sentence in Bulgarian, we can the passive gives us the chance to leave out the agent English is not a pro-drop language if we want to suppress the agent, we can use a passive construction (especially the short passive) John opened the door. THEME John RHEME opened the door (What did John do?) The door was opened by John. THEME the door RHEME was opened by John

THEME topic, given RHEME comment, new TOPIC and COMMENT are terms from American linguistics there are three levels


formal syntax

subject, object, etc

2. 3.

semantic syntax FSP

agent, patient theme, rheme

there are other auxiliaries besides be that are used to form the passive voice get and have written broken cut passive participles ( ) have causative constructions be and get are sometimes interchangeable yet, they do differ there is stylist difference get is more informal, colloquial the get-passive has a resultative meaning there is transition from one state to another Were getting bogged down. (transition/change) We have to get dressed. He got taught a lesson. vs He was taught a lesson. get is more appropriate in idiomatic expressions figurative meaning it serves him right in English, we have primary, secondary and tertiary passive there are different types of objects in the active sentence which can become subjects in a passive construction transitive verbs are those that have objects monotransitive and ditransitive (two objects) John gave Mary the book. Mary given the book. The book was given to Mary. in Bulgarian, this is not possible English is quite liberal with respect to objects we can cave prepositional objects some of them allow this transformation the preposition stays after the verb it is called STRANDED PREPOSITION They laughed at John. John was laughed at. I was taken care of.

The house has not been lived in for ages. Nobody has lived in the house The bed has been slept in.

adverbial of place are not always easily distinguishable but English allows some of them to be turned into subjects of passive sentences this is possible but not always *The garden was played in by the children. there is no clear-cut boundary in the first two examples adverbial locativie expressions (partake in the nature of the prepositional objects) there is some kind of result (the house is dirty) PHRASAL VERBS

An important decision was arrived at. (figurative use abstract, non-physical mental journey) *The railway station was arrived at. (physical, concrete meaning) The problem was gone into. *The cave was gone into. (physical journey - impossible)

there are various constraints on the passive constructions the type of the object, the type of meaning etc we can have NP1 V NP2 but we may not have a passive corresponding construction (have, own, possess, fit, lack) He has a new car. *A new car is had He lacks confidence.

certain types of objects cannot be passivized What she was pretty was seen by them. (this sentence sounds rather odd) there are active sentences which cannot be passivized the reverse also occurs there are verbs that are used only in the passive John was said to be a very good expert. They said that he was this does not absolutely correspond to the passive He was born in Paris. other constrictions John cant be taught. Somebody cant teach John. these are different in terms of modality because of can in the first sentence the meaning is he is unable to learn in the second sentence the meaning is someone is unable to teach such transformations involve a change of meaning to sum up, passive constructions are more common in scientific texts we do not focus on the doer of the action