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Lecture -1

Big Brother by Munshi Prem Chand


My brother was five years elder to me, but only three grades ahead. Not that his tryst with schooling began
late, it surely must been his keen devotion to learning that dissuaded him from any hasty progress. How
could the great monument of knowledge stand tall without a strong foundation? Hence the motto of
spending more than a year in each division.
My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me, his was obviously the final word. How could I
ever think of defying him? He was so studious always engrossed in books. I often found fancy cats,
dogs and birds drawn on few pages of his note books. could well have been his idea of taking a break
perhaps.
Many a times he wrote a single name several times over, or scribbled few sentences that didnt make any
sense to me. For instance, once I found the following etched in his notebook:
Special, Ameena, brothers, because, Radheshyam, Mr. Radhe shyam, one hour
At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the
mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in the fifth gradehow could I
attempt to dissect such intricate stuff?
I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper butterflies.
Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar.I had great fun, but back in the
hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
My brother would fling the first question rudely Where were you?
My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then caution me in a
flurry of kind and rude words.
Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no childs play dear. Slog for months and you barely
get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.
And I ask, do you not see me toiling , poring over books, if you fail to see, thats your fault. There are
umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches everyday, have you ever seen me taking a break. And despite this
devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years, you will probably spend a
lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli danda* to your hearts content.
Why blow Dadas** hard earned money for nothing?
I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest words. For a
second, I would be tempted to give upwhy not go home... I was happy being a dullard but god save me
from this struggle
But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the midnight oil, a
new time table sans fun and frolics....

Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch and
school. Back home at 3.30, half an hour rest, 4 to 5 Geography, 5 to 6 Grammar, stroll round the hostel half
an hour, 6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10 Hindi, 10 to 11
revision and then retire to bed. Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is another. The breach began
from day one. The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back
to the playground. And gone were all oaths, all resolve
The annual results were out. I stood first, he failed to clear. Now just two grades separated us. For a
second, I was tempted to confront him right away. And whatever happened to your penance? What do we
see?
But his crestfallen face made me think otherwise. Rage made way for compassion. But yes, now I had a
newfound confidence and the guilt was gone for good. Probably, he had guessed it.
Yet, he got his chance one day at the lunch table.
So you feel you have conquered the world. My dear fellow, this is just the beginning. History is replete
with stories of pride getting the better of the best. Remember what happened to the might of Ravana the
invincible demon king. What did you learn from his story? "
"Clearing an exam is one thing, knowledge is another. You were lucky this time, but it cant happen every
time. Dont judge me by my score, wait till you reach my grade. Algebra and Geometry will drive you
crazy and god save you from the atrocities of British history. Just try remembering emperors by names.
There have been eight Henries alone. Mention Henry the VII as VIII and you lose all marks. And we have
dozens of James and Williams, and countless Charleswhere are you dear? And every name troubles you
again with I, II, III, and IV
Had they asked me for options and I would have thrown up countless names. Why stick to the same name
again and again?
"Geometry is another torture. write A, B, C as A, C, B and you get a big zero. I just dont get the point
Daal, Rice, Chapati or Rice, Daal, Chapatiis it not the same...Then why kill poor students for the
goddamed sequence? But if you want to clear exams, you better suffer this nonsense. Write an essay on
the value of time in not less than 400 words. What kind of a joke is that? Common sense has it --- say
what you have to in 3-4 lines and move ahead in life. But no, 400 words please. This is nothing but
anarchy.
So you see, my darling brother, you have a long way to go. Dont float in the air; you will soon land with
a thud. Yes, I have flunked but I am still your elder brother and I know the world better.
I was getting late for school, waiting for this painful discourse to end. I simply lost my appetite over his
ghastly picture of higher grades.
Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact. Annual exams were round the corner again. I cleared
again, he flunked againI had no idea how, but I had topped again. And he had miserably failedThis
time, he was in real bad shapeface devoid of color, eyes sunk deepI felt sorry for him. And then a
wicked thought crossed my mind. One more year and we could end up in the same grade. no no How
could my mind be so devilish? I crushed the nasty thought.

But now he was no more the same brother I knew. He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and
generally kept off me. May be, he realized he had lost the right. This made me even more independent and
I roamed about at will all day long.
One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of 10-12 lads
carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. We were
oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. He was probably on his way back
home from the bazaar. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely
Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. If not anything, have some
respect for your grade. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as magistrates,
collectors, editors, leaders and scholars. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no doubt, but where's
your self-respect?
I can read your mind all right. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to question
you. But you are wrong. I am five years elder to you and will always remain soThis truth will prevail and
even God cant challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. " "And, thanks to the
kind of examiners we have these days, that's indeed possible. . ." he added with a wry smile.
"I have loads of worldly knowledge thats way above academic grades. Did our Amma*** and Dada ever
go to school? The government in America, constellations in space, wives of Henry the VIII, they may not
know, but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. Tomorrow, if I fall sick, you will surely
panic and send a telegram to Dada, but Dada in your place, would never react like that. He will first try
some home remedy, only if it fails, will he call for a doctor."
"Leave health issues" , he paused for effect to resume again, "those are grave matters, can we plan our
monthly budgets? Every rupee that Dada sends us, does it not vanish by the 22nd of the month? Are we not
left waiting for the next remittance? Did you know that Dada raised a family of nine in less than half of
what we blow up?"
"Look at our headmaster. He has an MA, that too from Oxford. He earns a handsome Rs. 1000 as salary.
But who runs his house? His aged mother. There goes his degree to the bin.
"So you see, do away with that false pride. You are nowhere near me. He then raised his hand consumed
by rage
And I will not hesitate to thrash you if need be. I know youll hate me for this
I was speechless and an intense, queer feeling swept over me. I could not bear the sight of my poor brother,
shaking nervously, and losing his mind with every word he uttered. As tears trickled down my cheeks, I
only managed to say,
No, I dont hate you, its all my undoing. Every word of what you say is true. Please forgive me He
hugged me instantly. His shaky voice was now barely audible.
I am not against flying kites, my love. Even I am tempted, but I am helpless. If I take it easy, who will
look after you?

Just then, we saw a kite above us, utterly helpless, cut reins hanging in shame, on its mournful journey
down. Tall that he was, my brother caught the twine and ran towards the hostel, hapless but fast. I followed
suit, pacing after him. To be done in reading:
WORDS

ANTONYMS

SYNONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in
each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading
Vocabulary Based on Text
WORDS GUESSED

MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 5

The Portrait of a Lady


Khushwant Singh
My grandmother, like everybodys grandmother, was an old woman. She had been old and wrinkled for the
twenty years that I had known her. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a
husband, but that was hard to believe. My grandfathers portrait hung above the mantelpiece in the drawing
room. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting clothes. His long, white beard covered the best part of his
chest and he looked at least a hundred years old. He did not look the sort of person who would have a wife
or children. He looked as if he could only have lots and lots of grandchildren. As for my grandmother
being young and pretty, the thought was almost revolting. She often told us of the games she used to play
as a child. That seemed quite absurd and undignified on her part and we treated it like the fables of the
Prophets she used to tell us.
She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from
everywhere to everywhere. No, we were certain she had always been as we had known her. Old, so terribly
old that she could not have grown older, and had stayed at the same age for twenty years. She could never
have been pretty; but she was always beautiful. She hobbled about the house in spotless white with one
hand resting on her waist to balance her stoop and the other telling the beads of her rosary. Her silver locks
were scattered untidily over her pale, puckered face, and her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer.
Yes, she was beautiful. She was like the winter landscape in the mountains, an expanse of pure white
serenity breathing peace and contentment.
My grandmother and I were good friends. My parents left me with her when they went to live in the city
and we were constantly together. She used to wake me up in the morning and get me ready for school. She
said her morning prayer in a monotonous sing-song while she bathed and dressed me in the hope that I
would listen and get to know it by heart; I listened because I loved her voice but never bothered to learn it.
Then she would fetch my wooden slate which she had already washed and plastered with yellow chalk, a
tiny earthen ink-pot and a red pen, tie them all in a bundle and hand it to me. After a breakfast of a thick,
stale chapatti with a little butter and sugar spread on it, we went to school. She carried several stale
chapattis with her for the village dogs.
My grandmother always went to school with me because the school was attached to the temple. The priest
taught us the alphabet and the morning prayer. While the children sat in rows on either side of the verandah
singing the alphabet or the prayer in a chorus, my grandmother sat inside reading the scriptures. When we
had both finished, we would walk back together. This time the village dogs would meet us at the temple
door. They followed us to our home growling and fighting with each other for the chapattis we threw to
them.
When my parents were comfortably settled in the city, they sent for us. That was a turning-point in our
friendship. Although we shared the same room, my grandmother no longer came to school with me. I used
to go to an English school in a motor bus. There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding
sparrows in the courtyard of our city house.

As the years rolled by we saw less of each other. For some time she continued to wake me up and get me
ready for school. When I came back she would ask me what the teacher had taught me. I would tell her
English words and little things of western science and learning, the law of gravity, Archimedes Principle,
the world being round, etc. This made her unhappy. She could not help me with my lessons. She did not
believe in the things they taught at the English school and was distressed that there was no teaching about
God and the scriptures. One day I announced that we were being given music lessons. She was very
disturbed. To her music had lewd associations. It was the monopoly of harlots and beggars and not meant
for gentlefolk. She said nothing but her silence meant disapproval. She rarely talked to me after that.
When I went up to University, I was given a room of my own. The common link of friendship was
snapped. My grandmother accepted her seclusion with resignation. She rarely left her spinning-wheel to
talk to anyone. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers. Only in the
afternoon she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows. While she sat in the verandah breaking the bread
into little bits, hundreds of little birds collected round her creating a veritable bedlam of chirrupings. Some
came and perched on her legs, others on her shoulders. Some even sat on her head. She smiled but never
shooed them away. It used to be the happiest half-hour of the day for her. When I decided to go abroad for
further studies, I was sure my grandmother would be upset. I would be away for five years, and at her age
one could never tell. But my grandmother could.
She was not even sentimental. She came to leave me at the railway station but did not talk or show any
emotion. Her lips moved in prayer, her mind was lost in prayer. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of
her rosary. Silently she kissed my forehead, and when I left I cherished the moist imprint as perhaps the
last sign of physical contact between us. But that was not so. After five years I came back home and was
met by her at the station. She did not look a day older. She still had no time for words, and while she
clasped me in her arms I could hear her reciting her prayers. Even on the first day of my arrival, her
happiest moments were with her sparrows that she fed longer and with frivolous rebukes.
In the evening a change came over her. She did not pray. She collected the women of the neighbourhood,
got an old drum and started to sing. For several hours she thumped the sagging skins of the dilapidated
drum and sang of the home-coming of warriors. We had to persuade her to stop to avoid overstraining.
That was the first time since I had known her that she did not pray. The next morning she was taken ill. It
was a mild fever and the doctor told us that it would go. But my grandmother thought differently. She told
us that her end was near. She said that, since only a few hours before the close of the last chapter of her life
she had omitted to pray, she was not going to waste any more time talking to us.
We protested. But she ignored our protests. She lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads. Even
before we could suspect, her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers. A peaceful
pallor spread on her face and we knew that she was dead. We lifted her off the bed and, as is customary,
laid her on the ground and covered her with a red shroud. After a few hours of mourning we left her alone
to make arrangements for her funeral. In the evening we went to her room with a crude stretcher to take her
to be cremated. The sun was setting and had lit her room and verandah with a blaze of golden light. We
stopped half-way in the courtyard. All over the verandah and in her room right up to where she lay dead
and stiff wrapped in the red shroud, thousands of sparrows sat scattered on the floor. There was no
chirruping. We felt sorry for the birds and my mother fetched some bread for them. She broke it into little
crumbs, the way my grandmother used to, and threw it to them. The sparrows took no notice of the bread.
When we carried my grandmothers corpse off, they flew away quietly. Next morning the sweeper swept
the bread crumbs into the dustbin.
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WORDS

ANTONYMS

SYNONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson: Teacher will pick all the difficult words in
each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading

WORDS GUESSED

MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 9

Letters Of Bhagat Singh


Letter to I.G. (Prisons), Punjab
[Prelude to a prolonged struggle in jail on the demand of a better treatment.]
Mianwali Jail
17 June, 1929
To
The Inspector-General(Jails),
Punjab Jails,
Lahore
Dear sir,
Despite the fact that I will be prosecuted along with other youngmen arrested in Saunders shooting
case, I have been shifted to Mianwali Jail from Delhi. The hearing of the case is to start from 26 June,
1929. I am totally unable to understand the logic behind this kind of shifting. Whatever it be, justice
demands that every under trial should be given all those facilities which help him to prepare and contest the
case. How can I appoint any lawyer while I am here? It is difficult to keep on the contact with my father
and other relatives. This place is quite isolated, the route is troublesome and it is very far from Lahore. I
request you that you order my immediate transfer to Lahore Central Jail so that I get an opportunity to
prepare my case. I hope that it will be given the earliest consideration.
Yours truly
Bhagat Singh
Letter to B.K. Dutt
[This letter gives an idea as to what Bhagat Singh expected from those comrades who would escape capital
punishment.]
Central Jail, Lahore
November,1930
Dear Brother,
The judgement has been delivered. I am condemned to death. In these cells, besides myself, there
are many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged. The only prayer of these people is that somehow
or other they may escape the moose. Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for
the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal. I will climb the gallows
gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can sacrifice themselves for the cause. I
will condemned to death, but you are sentenced to transportation for life. You will live and, while living,
you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can face every
calamity. Death should not be a means to escape the worldly difficulties. Those revolutionaries who have
by chance escaped the gallows for the ideal but also bear the worst type o tortures in the dark dingy prison
cells.
Yours
Bhagat Singh
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Bhagat Singh's Last Petition


To The Punjab Governor Sir, With due respect we beg to bring to your kind notice the following: That we
were sentenced to death on 7th October 1930 by a British Court, L.C.C Tribunal, constituted under the Sp.
Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance, promulgated by the H.E. The Viceroy, the Head of the British
Government of India, and that the main charge against us was that of having waged war against H.M. King
George, the King of England. The above-mentioned finding of the Court pre-supposed two things: Firstly,
that there exists a state of war between the British Nation and the Indian Nation and, secondly, that we had
actually participated in that war and were therefore war prisoners. The second pre-supposition seems to be
a little bit flattering, but nevertheless it is too tempting to resist the desire of acquiescing in it. As regards
the first, we are constrained to go into some detail. Apparently there seems to be no such war as the phrase
indicates. Nevertheless, please allow us to accept the validity of the pre-supposition taking it at its face
value.
But in order to be correctly understood we must explain it further. Let us declare that the state of war does
exist and shall exist so long as the Indian toiling masses and the natural resources are being exploited by a
handful of parasites. They may be purely British Capitalist or mixed British and Indian or even purely
Indian.
They may be carrying on their insidious exploitation through mixed or even on purely Indian bureaucratic
apparatus. All these things make no difference. No matter, if your Government tries and succeeds in
winning over the leaders of the upper strata of the Indian Society through petty concessions and
compromises and thereby cause a temporary demoralization in the main body of the forces. No matter, if
once again the vanguard of the Indian movement, the Revolutionary Party, finds itself deserted in the thick
of the war. No matter if the leaders to whom personally we are much indebted for the sympathy and
feelings they expressed for us, but nevertheless we cannot overlook the fact that they did become so callous
as to ignore and not to make a mention in the peace negotiation of even the homeless, friendless and
penniless of female workers who are alleged to be belonging to the vanguard and whom the leaders
consider to be enemies of their utopian non-violent cult which has already become a thing of the past; the
heroines who had ungrudgingly sacrificed or offered for sacrifice their husbands, brothers, and all that were
nearest and dearest to them, including themselves, whom your government has declared to be outlaws. No
matter, it your agents stoop so low as to fabricate baseless calumnies against their spotless characters to
damage their and their party's reputation. The war shall continue. It may assume different shapes at
different times. It may become now open, now hidden, now purely agitational, now fierce life and death
struggle. The choice of the course, whether bloody or comparatively peaceful, which it should adopt rests
with you. Choose whichever you like. But that war shall be incessantly waged without taking into
consideration the petty (illegible) and the meaningless ethical ideologies. It shall be waged ever with new
vigour, greater audacity and unflinching determination till the Socialist Republic is established and the
present social order is completely replaced by a new social order, based on social prosperity and thus every
sort of exploitation is put an end to and the humanity is ushered into the era of genuine and permanent
peace. In the very near future the final battle shall be fought and final settlement arrived at. The days of
capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. The war neither began with us nor is it going to end
with our lives. It is the inevitable consequence of the historic events and the existing environments. Our
humble sacrifices shall be only a link in the chain that has very accurately been beautified by the
unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. Das and most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade Bhagawati Charan and
the glorious death of our dear warrior Azad. As to the question of our fates, please allow us to say that
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when you have decided to put us to death, you will certainly do it. You have got the power in your hands
and the power is the greatest justification in this world. We know that the maxim "Might is right" serves as
your guiding motto. The whole of our trial was just a proof of that. We wanted to point out that according
to the verdict of your court we had waged war and were therefore war prisoners. And we claim to be
treated as such, i.e., we claim to be shot dead instead of to be hanged. It rests with you to prove that you
really meant what your court has said. We request and hope that you will very kindly order the military
department to send its detachment to perform our execution.
Yours'
BHAGAT SINGH

To be done in reading:
WORDS

ANTONYMS

SYNONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in
each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading

WORDS GUESSED

GUESSED MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

11

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 13

The Diamond Necklace by Guy De Maupassant


The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born, as if by a slip of
fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no way of being known, understood,
loved, married by any rich and distinguished man; so she let herself be married to a little clerk of the
Ministry of Public Instruction.
She dressed plainly because she could not dress well, but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a
higher station; since with women there is neither caste nor rank, for beauty, grace and charm take the place
of family and birth. Natural ingenuity, instinct for what is elegant, a supple mind are their sole hierarchy,
and often make of women of the people the equals of the very greatest ladies.
Mathilde suffered ceaselessly, feeling herself born to enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. She was
distressed at the poverty of her dwelling, at the bareness of the walls, at the shabby chairs, the ugliness of
the curtains. All those things, of which another woman of her rank would never even have been conscious,
tortured her and made her angry. The sight of the little Breton peasant who did her humble housework
aroused in her despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. She thought of silent antechambers hung with
Oriental tapestry, illumined by tall bronze candelabra, and of two great footmen in knee breeches who
sleep in the big armchairs, made drowsy by the oppressive heat of the stove. She thought of long reception
halls hung with ancient silk, of the dainty cabinets containing priceless curiosities and of the little
coquettish perfumed reception rooms made for chatting at five o'clock with intimate friends, with men
famous and sought after, whom all women envy and whose attention they all desire.
When she sat down to dinner, before the round table covered with a tablecloth in use three days, opposite
her husband, who uncovered the soup tureen and declared with a delighted air, "Ah, the good soup! I don't
know anything better than that," she thought of dainty dinners, of shining silverware, of tapestry that
peopled the walls with ancient personages and with strange birds flying in the midst of a fairy forest; and
she thought of delicious dishes served on marvellous plates and of the whispered gallantries to which you
listen with a sphinx like smile while you are eating the pink meat of a trout or the wings of a quail.
She had no gowns, no jewels, nothing. And she loved nothing but that. She felt made for that. She would
have liked so much to please, to be envied, to be charming, to be sought after.
She had a friend, a former schoolmate at the convent, who was rich, and whom she did not like to go to see
any more because she felt so sad when she came home.
But one evening her husband reached home with a triumphant air and holding a large envelope in his hand.
"There," said he, "there is something for you."
She tore the paper quickly and drew out a printed card which bore these words:
The Minister of Public Instruction and Madame Georges Ramponneau request the honor of M. and
Madame Loisel's company at the palace of the Ministry on Monday evening, January 18th.
Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the invitation on the table crossly,
muttering: "What do you wish me to do with that?"
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"Why, my dear, I thought you would be glad. You never go out, and this is such a fine opportunity. I had
great trouble to get it. Everyone wants to go; it is very select, and they are not giving many invitations to
clerks. The whole official world will be there."
She looked at him with an irritated glance and said impatiently:
"And what do you wish me to put on my back?"
He had not thought of that. He stammered:
"Why, the gown you go to the theatre in. It looks very well to me."
He stopped, distracted, seeing that his wife was weeping. Two great tears ran slowly from the corners of
her eyes toward the corners of her mouth.
"What's the matter? What's the matter?" he answered.
By a violent effort she conquered her grief and replied in a calm voice, while she wiped her wet cheeks:
"Nothing. Only I have no gown, and, therefore, I can't go to this ball. Give your card to some colleague
whose wife is better equipped than I am."
He was in despair. He resumed:
"Come, let us see, Mathilde. How much would it cost, a suitable gown, which you could use on other
occasions--something very simple?"
She reflected several seconds, making her calculations and wondering also what sum she could ask without
drawing on herself an immediate refusal and a frightened exclamation from the economical clerk.
Finally she replied hesitating:
"I don't know exactly, but I think I could manage it with four hundred francs."
He grew a little pale, because he was laying aside just that amount to buy a gun and treat himself to a little
shooting next summer on the plain of Nanterre, with several friends who went to shoot larks there of a
Sunday.
But he said:
"Very well. I will give you four hundred francs. And try to have a pretty gown."
The day of the ball drew near and Madame Loisel seemed sad, uneasy, anxious. Her frock was ready,
however. Her husband said to her one evening:
"What is the matter? Come, you have seemed very queer these last three days."
And she answered:
"It annoys me not to have a single piece of jewelry, not a single ornament, nothing to put on. I shall look
poverty-stricken. I would almost rather not go at all."

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"You might wear natural flowers," said her husband. "They're very stylish at this time of year. For ten
francs you can get two or three magnificent roses."
She was not convinced.
"No; there's nothing more humiliating than to look poor among other women who are rich."
"How stupid you are!" her husband cried. "Go look up your friend, Madame Forestier, and ask her to lend
you some jewels. You're intimate enough with her to do that."
She uttered a cry of joy:
"True! I never thought of it."
The next day she went to her friend and told her of her distress.
Madame Forestier went to a wardrobe with a mirror, took out a large jewel box, brought it back, opened it
and said to Madame Loisel:
"Choose, my dear."
She saw first some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, then a Venetian gold cross set with precious stones, of
admirable workmanship. She tried on the ornaments before the mirror, hesitated and could not make up her
mind to part with them, to give them back. She kept asking:
"Haven't you anymore?"
"Why, yes. Look further; I don't know what you like."
Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb diamond necklace, and her heart throbbed with an
immoderate desire. Her hands trembled as she took it. She fastened it round her throat, outside her highnecked waist, and was lost in ecstasy at her reflection in the mirror.
Then she asked, hesitating, filled with anxious doubt:
"Will you lend me this, only this?"
"Why, yes, certainly."
She threw her arms round her friend's neck, kissed her passionately, then fled with her treasure. The night
of the ball arrived. Madame Loisel was a great success. She was prettier than any other woman present,
elegant, graceful, smiling and wild with joy. All the men looked at her, asked her name, sought to be
introduced. All the attaches of the Cabinet wished to waltz with her. She was remarked by the minister
himself.
She danced with rapture, with passion, intoxicated by pleasure, forgetting all in the triumph of her beauty,
in the glory of her success, in a sort of cloud of happiness comprised of all this homage, admiration, these
awakened desires and of that sense of triumph which is so sweet to woman's heart.
She left the ball about four o'clock in the morning. Her husband had been sleeping since midnight in a little
deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose wives were enjoying the ball.

14

He threw over her shoulders the wraps he had brought, the modest wraps of common life, the poverty of
which contrasted with the elegance of the ball dress. She felt this and wished to escape so as not to be
remarked by the other women, who were enveloping themselves in costly furs.
Loisel held her back, saying: "Wait a bit. You will catch cold outside. I will call a cab."
But she did not listen to him and rapidly descended the stairs. When they reached the street they could not
find a carriage and began to look for one, shouting after the cabmen passing at a distance. They went
toward the Seine in despair, shivering with cold. At last they found on the quay one of those ancient night
cabs which, as though they were ashamed to show their shabbiness during the day, are never seen round
Paris until after dark.
It took them to their dwelling in the Rue des Martyrs, and sadly they mounted the stairs to their flat. All
was ended for her. As to him, he reflected that he must be at the ministry at ten o'clock that morning.
She removed her wraps before the glass so as to see herself once more in all her glory. But suddenly she
uttered a cry. She no longer had the necklace around her neck!
"What is the matter with you?" demanded her husband, already half undressed.
She turned distractedly toward him.
"I have--I have--I've lost Madame Forestier's necklace," she cried.
He stood up, bewildered.
"What!--how? Impossible!"
They looked among the folds of her skirt, of her cloak, in her pockets, everywhere, but did not find it.
"You're sure you had it on when you left the ball?" he asked.
"Yes, I felt it in the vestibule of the minister's house."
"But if you had lost it in the street we should have heard it fall. It must be in the cab."
"Yes, probably. Did you take his number?"
"No. And you--didn't you notice it?"
"No."
They looked, thunderstruck, at each other. At last Loisel put on his clothes.
"I shall go back on foot," said he, "over the whole route, to see whether I can find it."
He went out. She sat waiting on a chair in her ball dress, without strength to go to bed, overwhelmed,
without any fire, without a thought.
Her husband returned about seven o'clock. He had found nothing.
He went to police headquarters, to the newspaper offices to offer a reward; he went to the cab companies-everywhere, in fact, whither he was urged by the least spark of hope.
15

She waited all day, in the same condition of mad fear before this terrible calamity.
Loisel returned at night with a hollow, pale face. He had discovered nothing.
"You must write to your friend," said he, "that you have broken the clasp of her necklace and that you are
having it mended. That will give us time to turn round."
She wrote at his dictation.
At the end of a week they had lost all hope. Loisel, who had aged five years, declared:
"We must consider how to replace that ornament."
The next day they took the box that had contained it and went to the jeweler whose name was found within.
He consulted his books.
"It was not I, madame, who sold that necklace; I must simply have furnished the case."
Then they went from jeweler to jeweler, searching for a necklace like the other, trying to recall it, both sick
with chagrin and grief. They found, in a shop at the Palais Royal, a string of diamonds that seemed to them
exactly like the one they had lost. It was worth forty thousand francs. They could have it for thirty-six.
So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days yet. And they made a bargain that he should buy it
back for thirty-four thousand francs, in case they should find the lost necklace before the end of February.
Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him. He would borrow the rest. He did
borrow, asking a thousand francs of one, five hundred of another, five louis here, three louis there. He gave
notes, took up ruinous obligations, dealt with usurers and all the race of lenders. He compromised all the
rest of his life, risked signing a note without even knowing whether he could meet it; and, frightened by the
trouble yet to come, by the black misery that was about to fall upon him, by the prospect of all the physical
privations and moral tortures that he was to suffer, he went to get the new necklace, laying upon the
jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand francs.
When Madame Loisel took back the necklace Madame Forestier said to her with a chilly manner:
"You should have returned it sooner; I might have needed it."
She did not open the case, as her friend had so much feared. If she had detected the substitution, what
would she have thought, what would she have said? Would she not have taken Madame Loisel for a thief?
Thereafter Madame Loisel knew the horrible existence of the needy. She bore her part, however, with
sudden heroism. That dreadful debt must be paid. She would pay it. They dismissed their servant; they
changed their lodgings; they rented a garret under the roof.
She came to know what heavy housework meant and the odious cares of the kitchen. She washed the
dishes, using her dainty fingers and rosy nails on greasy pots and pans. She washed the soiled linen, the
shirts and the dishcloths, which she dried upon a line; she carried the slops down to the street every
morning and carried up the water, stopping for breath at every landing. And dressed like a woman of the
people, she went to the fruiterer, the grocer, the butcher, a basket on her arm, bargaining, meeting with
impertinence, defending her miserable money, sou by sou.
Every month they had to meet some notes, renew others, obtain more time.
16

Her husband worked evenings, making up a tradesman's accounts, and late at night he often copied
manuscript for five sous a page.
This life lasted ten years.
At the end of ten years they had paid everything, everything, with the rates of usury and the accumulations
of the compound interest.
Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become the woman of impoverished households--strong and hard
and rough. With frowsy hair, skirts askew and red hands, she talked loud while washing the floor with
great swishes of water. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she sat down near the window
and she thought of that gay evening of long ago, of that ball where she had been so beautiful and so
admired.
What would have happened if she had not lost that necklace? Who knows? who knows? How strange and
changeful is life! How small a thing is needed to make or ruin us! But one Sunday, having gone to take a
walk in the Champs Elysees to refresh herself after the labors of the week, she suddenly perceived a
woman who was leading a child. It was Madame Forestier, still young, still beautiful, still charming.
Madame Loisel felt moved. Should she speak to her? Yes, certainly. And now that she had paid, she would
tell her all about it. Why not?
She went up.
"Good-day, Jeanne."
The other, astonished to be familiarly addressed by this plain good-wife, did not recognize her at all and
stammered:
"But--madame!--I do not know---- You must have mistaken."
"No. I am Mathilde Loisel."
Her friend uttered a cry.
"Oh, my poor Mathilde! How you are changed!"
"Yes, I have had a pretty hard life, since I last saw you, and great poverty--and that because of you!"
"Of me! How so?"
"Do you remember that diamond necklace you lent me to wear at the ministerial ball?"
"Yes. Well?"
"Well, I lost it."
"What do you mean? You brought it back."
"I brought you back another exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. You can understand
that it was not easy for us, for us who had nothing. At last it is ended, and I am very glad."
Madame Forestier had stopped.
17

"You say that you bought a necklace of diamonds to replace mine?"


"Yes. You never noticed it, then! They were very similar."
And she smiled with a joy that was at once proud and ingenuous.
Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took her hands.
"Oh, my poor Mathilde! Why, my necklace was paste! It was worth at most only five hundred francs!"

To be done in reading:
WORDS

ANTONYMS

SYNONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in
each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading.

WORDS GUESSED

GUESSED MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

18

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 23

A Speech By Gandhi
Address at Kingsley Hall
delivered 17 October 1931, London
[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio]
There is an indefinable mysterious power that pervades everything. I feel it, though I do not see it. It is this
unseen power which makes itself felt and yet defies all proof because it is so unlike all that I perceive
through my senses. It transcends the senses.
But it is possible to reason out the existence of god to an [unintelligible] exchange. Even in ordinary affairs
we know that people do not know who rules, or why, and how he rules. And yet they know that there is a
power that certainly rules.
In my tour last year in Mysore I met many poor villagers and I found upon inquiry that they did not know
who ruled Mysore. They simple said some god ruled it. If the knowledge of these poor people was so
limited about their ruler, I, who am infinitely lesser in respect to god than they to their ruler need not be
surprised if I do not realize the presence of god, the king of kings.
Nevertheless I do feel as the poor villagers felt about Mysore, that there is orderliness in the universe.
There is an unalterable law governing everything and every being that exists or lives. It is not a blind law,
for no blind law can govern the conduct of living beings. And thanks to the marvelous researches of Sir
J.C. Bose, it can now be proved that even matter is life.
That law then which governs all life is god. Law and the lawgiver are one. I may not deny the law or the
lawgiver because I know so little about it or him, just as my denial or ignorance of the existence of an
earthly power will avail me nothing. Even so, my denial of god and his law will not liberate me from its
operation. Whereas, humble and mute acceptance of divine authority makes lifes journey easier even as
the acceptance of earthly rule makes life under it easier.
I do dimly perceive that whilst everything around me is ever dying, ever guiding, there is underlying all
that change a living power that is changeless, that holds all together; that creates, dissolves, and recreates.
That informing power of spirit is god. And since nothing else that I see merely through the senses can or
will persist, he alone is.
And if this power is benevolent or malevolent, I see it as purely benevolent. For, I can see that in the midst
of death, life persists. In the midst of untruth, truth persists. In the midst of darkness, light persists. Hence I
gather that god is life, truth, light. He is love. He is the supreme good. But, he is no god who merely
satisfies the intellect, if he ever does. God to be god must rule the heart and transform it. He must express
himself in ever smallest act of his [goodery?]. This can only be done through a definite realization more
real than the fives senses can ever prove use.

19

Sense perceptions can be and often are false and deceptive however real they may appear to us. Where
there is realization outside the senses it is [imperial?], it is proved not by extreme extraneous evidence, but
in the transformed conduct and character of those who have felt the real presence of god within. Such
testimony is to be found in the experiences of an unbroken line of prophets and sages in all countries and
climes. To reject this evidence is to deny oneself. This realization is preceded by an immovable faith. He
who would in his own person, test the fact of gods presence can do so by a living faith.
And since faith itself cannot be proved by extraneous evidence, the safest course is to believe in the moral
government of the world and therefore in the supremacy of the moral law, the law of truth and love.
Exercise of faiths will be the safest where there is the clear determination summarily to reject all that is
contrary to truth and love.
I confess that I have no argument to convince through reason. Faith transcends reason. All that I can advise
is not to attempt the impossible.

To be done in reading:
WORDS

SYNONYMS

ANTONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in
each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading
WORDS GUESSED

GUESSED MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

20

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 27

Evelyn Hope by Robert Browning


Beautiful Evelyn Hope is dead!
Sit and watch by her side an hour.
That is her book-shelf, this her bed;
She plucked that piece of geranium-flower,
Beginning to die too, in the glass;
Little has yet been changed, I think:
The shutters are shut, no light may pass.
Save two long rays thro' the hinge's chink.
Sixteen years old when she died!
Perhaps she had scarcely heard my name;
It was not her time to love; beside,
Her life had many a hope and aim,
Duties enough and little cares,
And now was quiet, now astir,
Till God's hand beckoned unawares,-And the sweet white brow is all of her.
Is it too late then, Evelyn Hope?
What, your soul was pure and true,
The good stars met in your horoscope,
Made you of spirit, fire and dew
And just because I was thrice as old
And our paths in the world diverged so wide,
Each was naught to each, must I be told?
We were fellow mortals, naught beside?
No, indeed! For God above
Is great to grant, as mighty to make,
And creates the love to reward the love:
I claim you still, for my own love's sake!
Delayed it may be for more lives yet,
Thro' worlds I shall traverse, not a few:
Much is to learn, much, to forget
Ere the time be come for taking you.
But the time will come, at last it will,
When, Evelyn Hope, what meant (I shall say)
In the lower earth in the years long still,
That body and soul so pure and gay?
Why your hair was amber, I shall divine,
21

And your mouth of your own geranium's red


And what would you do with me, in fine,
In the new life come in the old one's stead.
I have lived (I shall say) so much since then,
Given up myself so many times,
Gained me the gains of various men,
Ransacked the ages, spoiled the climes;
Yet one thing, one, in my soul's full scope,
Either I missed or itself missed me:
And I want and find you, Evelyn Hope!
What is the issue? let us see!
I loved you, Evelyn, all the while!
My heart seemed full as it could hold;
There was place and to spare for the frank young smile,
And the red young mouth, and the hair's young gold.
So hush,--I will give you this leaf to keep:
See, I shut it inside the sweet cold hand!
There, that is our secret: go to sleep!
You will wake, and remember, and understand.
Vocabulary Exercise
Q1: Give the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences.
Hinge, Chink, Astir, Beckon, Diverge, Naught, Traverse, Stead, Ransacked
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Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text
For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given
below: To be done in reading
WORDS GUESSED

GUESSED MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

22

IN SENTENCES

Lecture 31

Casabianca
The boy stood on the burning deck
Whence all but he had fled;
The flame that lit the battle's wreck
Shone round him o'er the dead.
Yet beautiful and bright he stood,
As born to rule the storm;
A creature of heroic blood,
A proud, though child-like form.
The flames rolled onhe would not go
Without his Father's word;
That father, faint in death below,
His voice no longer heard
He called aloud'say, Father, say
If yet my task is done?'
He knew not that the chieftain lay
Unconscious of his son.
Speak, father!' once again he cried,
'If I may yet be gone!'
And but the booming shots replied,
And fast the flames rolled on.
Upon his brow he felt their breath,
And in his waving hair,
And looked from that lone post of death
In still yet brave despair.
And shouted but once more aloud,
'My father! must I stay?'
While o'er him fast,
through sail and shroud,
The wreathing fires made way.
They wrapt the ship in splendour wild,
They caught the flag on high,
And streamed above the gallant child,
23

Like banners in the sky.


There came a burst of thunder sound
The boyoh! where was he?
Ask of the winds that far around
With fragments strewed the sea!
With mast, and helm, and pennon fair,
That well had borne their part
But the noblest thing which perished there
Was that young faithful heart.

To be done in reading:
WORDS

ANTONYMS

SYNONYMS

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson :


Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

WORDS GUESSED

GUESSED MEANINGS

MEANINGS
DICTIONARY

24

IN SENTENCES

Speaking
Skills
25

Lecture -2

Big Brother
Vocabulary exercises based on text:
1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms Orally and

using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the
class. Points for the Story
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26

2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


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3.Give the summary of the lesson ?
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SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings
1

Spellings

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Antonyms

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Synonyms

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Sentence formation

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Forms (if verb)

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Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned illusionism]

Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.

Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual vocabulary
starting from the first letter of the name.

27

1.Summarize the story


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2.Prepare a short skit on the text .
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3.What would you change if you had to rewrite the story.
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28

4.Who is your favorite character in the story and why?


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5.Write the names of the characters on play cards, distribute them among Students and randomly pick
anytwo for role play.
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6.What touched you the most in the story?


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29

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30

Questions Based On Text :1.. Role Play- The narrator and his brother.
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2. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage of
time.
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31

3. Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education


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4,.Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful.
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5. Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.
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32

Lecture 6

The Portrait Of A Lady


Vocabulary exercises based on text:
1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms

and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which
the class. Points for the Story

Orally
they will share in

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33

Summarize the Essay


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What interested you the most in the essay ?
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Tense check based on textGD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
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34

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Questions Based On Text :1.Give a pen portrait of Khushwant Singhs grandmother.


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2. Describe the friendship between and the author and his grandmother?
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3. How does Khushwant Singh describe the physical looks of his grandmother?
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36

Lecture 10, 14
Visual based (3 based on famous speeches and 3 based on current events )

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The Great Arsenal of Democracy


My friends:
This is not a fireside chat on war. It is a talk on
national security; because the nub of the whole
purpose of your President is to keep you now,
and your children later, and your grandchildren
much later, out of a last-ditch war for the
preservation of American independence, and all
of the things that American independence
means to you and to me and to ours.
Tonight, in the presence of a world crisis, my
mind goes back eight years to a night in the
midst of a domestic crisis. It was a time when
the wheels of American industry were grinding
to a full stop, when the whole banking system of our country had ceased to function. I well remember that
while I sat in my study in the White House, preparing to talk with the people of the United States, I had
before my eyes the picture of all those Americans with whom I was talking. I saw the workmen in the
mills, the mines, the factories, the girl behind the counter, the small shopkeeper, the farmer doing his spring
plowing, the widows and the old men wondering about their life's savings. I tried to convey to the great
mass of American people what the banking crisis meant to them in their daily lives.
Tonight, I want to do the same thing, with the same people, in this new crisis which faces America. We met
the issue of 1933 with courage and realism. We face this new crisis, this new threat to the security of our
nation, with the same courage and realism. Never before since Jamestown and Plymouth Rock has our
American civilization been in such danger as now. For on September 27th, 1940 -- this year -- by an
agreement signed in Berlin, three powerful nations, two in Europe and one in Asia, joined themselves
together in the threat that if the United States of America interfered with or blocked the expansion program
of these three nations -- a program aimed at world control -- they would unite in ultimate action against the
United States.
The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and thought
in their own country, but also to enslave the whole of Europe, and then to use the resources of Europe to
dominate the rest of the world. It was only three weeks ago that their leader stated this: "There are two
worlds that stand opposed to each other." And then in defiant reply to his opponents he said this: "Others
are correct when they say: 'With this world we cannot ever reconcile ourselves.''' I can beat any other
power in the world." So said the leader of the Nazis.
37

In other words, the Axis not merely admits but the Axis proclaims that there can be no ultimate peace
between their philosophy -- their philosophy of government -- and our philosophy of government. In view
of the nature of this undeniable threat, it can be asserted, properly and categorically, that the United States
has no right or reason to encourage talk of peace until the day shall come when there is a clear intention on
the part of the aggressor nations to abandon all thought of dominating or conquering the world.
At this moment the forces of the States that are leagued against all peoples who live in freedom are being
held away from our shores. The Germans and the Italians are being blocked on the other side of the
Atlantic by the British and by the Greeks, and by thousands of soldiers and sailors who were able to escape
from subjugated countries. In Asia the Japanese are being engaged by the Chinese nation in another great
defense. In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet.
Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. But it is a
matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the
oceans which lead to this hemisphere. One hundred and seventeen years ago the Monroe Doctrine was
conceived by our government as a measure of defense in the face of a threat against this hemisphere by an
alliance in Continental Europe. Thereafter, we stood guard in the Atlantic, with the British as neighbors.
There was no treaty. There was no "unwritten agreement." And yet there was the feeling, proven correct by
history, that we as neighbors could settle any disputes in peaceful fashion. And the fact is that during the
whole of this time the Western Hemisphere has remained free from aggression from Europe or from Asia.
Does anyone seriously believe that we need to fear attack anywhere in the Americas while a free Britain
remains our most powerful naval neighbor in the Atlantic? And does anyone seriously believe, on the other
hand, that we could rest easy if the Axis powers were our neighbors there? If Great Britain goes down, the
Axis powers will control the Continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Austral-Asia, and the high seas. And they
will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this hemisphere. It is no
exaggeration to say that all of us in all the Americas would be living at the point of a gun -- a gun loaded
with explosive bullets, economic as well as military. We should enter upon a new and terrible era in which
the whole world, our hemisphere included, would be run by threats of brute force. And to survive in such a
world, we would have to convert ourselves permanently into a militaristic power on the basis of war
economy.
Questions based on Text
Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war?
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38

Q2. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Comment on this statement in the light of the
above speech.
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Q3. Discuss the role of america in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario.
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39

Martin Luther King, Jr.

"I Have a Dream"


My friends:
I am happy to join with you will go down in history as the
demonstration for freedom in nation. Five score years ago,
a great whose symbolic shadow we stand Emancipation
Proclamation. This decree came as a great beacon millions
of Negro slaves who had flames of withering injustice. It
daybreak to end the long night of But one hundred years
later, the free. One hundred years later, the is still sadly
crippled by the segregation and the chains of One hundred
years later, the lonely island of poverty in the ocean of
material prosperity. One later, the Negro is still languished
American society and finds his own land. And so we've
come dramatize a shameful condition. in what greatest the
history of our American in today, signed the
momentous light of hope to been seared in the came as a
joyous their captivity. Negro still is not life of the Negro
manacles of discrimination. Negro lives on a midst of a
vast hundred years in the corners of himself an exile in
here today to today
In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a
check. When the architects of our republic wrote the
magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a
promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black
men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit
of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her
citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro
people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient
funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that
will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. It would be fatal
for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate
discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three
is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now
be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither
rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt
will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

40

The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all
white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to
ealize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is
inextricably bound to our freedom.
We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.
We cannot turn back.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have
come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -quest for
freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You
have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is
redemptive.
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.
And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream
deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."
I have a dream today !
And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new
meaning:
My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.
Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,
From every mountainside, let freedom ring!
And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.
And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.
Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.
Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.
Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that:
Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.
Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.
Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.
From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when
we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to
speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and
Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:
41

Free at last! Free at last!


Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!
Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but
to the entire world.
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Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma
Gandhi.
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Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.
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Mary Fisher
1992 Republican National Convention Address
Delivered 19 August 1992, Houston, TX
Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City, I asked the Republican Party to lift the
shroud of silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS. I have come tonight to bring our
silence to an end. I bear a message of challenge, not self-congratulation. I want your attention, not your
applause.
I would never have asked to be HIV positive, but I believe that in all things there is a purpose; and I stand
before you and before the nation gladly. The reality of AIDS is brutally clear. Two hundred thousand
Americans are dead or dying. A million more are infected. Worldwide, forty million, sixty million, or a
hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years. But despite science and research,
White House meetings, and congressional hearings, despite good intentions and bold initiatives, campaign
slogans, and hopeful promises, it is -- despite it all -- the epidemic which is winning tonight.
In the context of an election year, I ask you, here in this great hall, or listening in the quiet of your home, to
recognize that AIDS virus is not a political creature. It does not care whether you are Democrat or
Republican; it does not ask whether you are black or white, male or female, gay or straight, young or old.
Tonight, I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every
segment of American society. Though I am white and a mother, I am one with a black infant struggling
with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital. Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and enjoy
the warm support of my family, I am one with the lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle from the
cold wind of his familys rejection.
This is not a distant threat. It is a present danger. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women
and children. Largely unknown a decade ago, AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans
today. But it wont be third for long, because unlike other diseases, this one travels. Adolescents dont give
each other cancer or heart disease because they believe they are in love, but HIV is different; and we have
helped it along. We have killed each other with our ignorance, our prejudice, and our silence.
Q1. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race, gender, country ,
or region but looms large.
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44

Q2. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.


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Q. 3 Headlines Students to see the visuals of the news headlines and speak on them
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45

Lecture -11

(1st Evaluation Based On All Speaking Topics)


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46

Lecture -17

Role Play based on social news


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47

Lecture-19

Revision of all modules worksheets to be given for practice

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48

Lecture 24

Oral Presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions


Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources and assign each student one idiom /
proverb to speak upon
1

Absence makes the heart grow fonder.


When you are away from someone you love, you love them even more.
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Actions speak louder than words.


What a person actually does is more important that what they say they will do.
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All cats are grey in the dark.


People are undistinguished until they have made a name.
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All good things come to those who wait.


Patience brings rewards.
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49

All that glitters is not gold.


Appearances can be deceptive.
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An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.


It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later.
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A good example is the best sermon.


Giving an example is better than giving advice.
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A man is known by the company he keeps.


A person's character is judged by the type of people with whom they spend their time.
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A rolling stone gathers no moss.


If a person keeps moving from place to place, they gain neither friends nor possessions
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10

A stitch in time saves nine.


It's better to deal with a problem at an early stage, to prevent it from getting worse.
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11

A stumble may prevent a fall.


Correcting a small mistake may help you to avoid making a bigger one.
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12

A tree is known by its fruit.


A man is judged by his actions.
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13

Be swift to hear, slow to speak.


Listen carefully before speaking.
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14

Better be alone than in bad company.


Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with
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15

Better lose the saddle than the horse.


It's better to stop and accept a small loss, rather than continue and risk losing everything.
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16

Birds of a feather flock together.


People of the same sort are usually found together.
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17

Don't count your chickens before they're hatched.


You must not be too confident that something will be successful.
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18

Don't dig your grave with your own knife and fork.
Don't do something yourself which causes your own downfall.
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19

Don't judge a book by its cover.


Don't judge by appearances.
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20

Elbow grease is the best polish.


Hard work gives the best results.
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21

Empty vessels make the most noise.


The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy.
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22

Every cloud has a silver lining.


There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation.
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Every man is the architect of his own fortune.


Life is what you make it.
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24

Experience is the father of wisdom.


Experience and knowledge result in better judgement.
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25

Facts speak louder than words.


People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than by what they say.
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26

Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade.


Nothing is achieved without effort.
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27

Haste makes waste.


If something is done too quickly, it may be done carelessly and need to be redone.
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28

Honey catches more flies than vinegar.


You can obtain more cooperation from others by being nice.
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If you chase two rabbits, you will not catch either one.
If you try to do two things at the same time, you won't succeed in doing either of them.
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30

In for a penny, in for a pound.


If you start something, it's better to spend the time or money necessary to complete it.
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It never rains but it pours.


Misfortunes usually come in large numbers
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32

It's no use crying over spilt milk.


Don't express regret for something that has happened and cannot be remedied
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Justice delayed is justice denied.


If the law is applied too late, there is no justice.
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Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age.


What you learn when you are young will be invaluable when you grow old.
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Kindness begets kindness.


If you are kind to people, they will be kind to you.
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Little strokes fell great oaks.


If you divide a task into small parts, it becomes easier to do.
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Look before you leap.


Consider possible consequences before taking action.
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Man proposes, God disposes.


Our destiny depends on God's will.
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39

Necessity is the mother of invention.


The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining it.
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Nothing ventured, nothing gained.


You cannot expect to achieve anything if you don't take risks.
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One man's trash is another man's treasure.


What is useless to one person could be valuable to another
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Opportunity seldom knocks twice.


Don't miss opportunities that come along.
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Out of sight, out of mind.


We tend to forget people or things that we do not see.
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Practise what you preach


Do yourself what you advise others to do.
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Prevention is better than cure


It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later
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46

Rome was not built in a day.


It takes a long time to do a job properly. You should not expect to do it quickly.
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Silence gives consent.


If you don't object to something it can be assumed that you agree with it
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Still waters run deep.


A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom.
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A stitch in time saves nine


It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages, because if you don't, it will get worse.
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The early bird catches the worm.


If you want to do something successfully, you should do it as soon as you can
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The pen is mightier than the sword


Words and communication have greater effect than war and fighting
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52

Time has wings.


Time goes by quickly.
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53

To err is human, to forgive divine


It is human nature to make mistakes, therefore one should forgive
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54

Union is strength.
A group has more force than an individual.
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55

Variety is the spice of life.


Doing a lot of different things makes life more interesting
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56

When the cat's away, the mice play.


People misbehave when their boss, or the person in authority, is absent.
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57

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.


You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are visiting, and behave in the same
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57

Lecture -28

Role play (based on social news , real events and stories)


Q1: Suppose you want to be a model and you are just on the verge of leaving your family to fulfil your
dreams and suddenly on the TV set the news of Vivekas suicide is flashed and members of your family
start reacting otherwise and forbid you from going. Enact the given situation while playing various role viz.
father, mother, you, newsreader, sibling etc
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Q2: Enact a court scene depicting Kasab in dock and trying to justify himself.
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Q3:

Create a scene of Apki kacheri with any social issue.

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Q4:

Enact the scene from Big Brother while introducing 2-3 more characters(fictitious).

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59

Lecture 32
PPT presentations on the themes emerging from text and speeches Students/ Teacher to choose themes
from texts , movies, advertisements etc and prepare PPTs
Teacher to provide list of themes Students to write points only for preparation of PPTs
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Lecture 35

Revision
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Grammar

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Lecture -3
Narrations {Direct and Indirect Speeches}
The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called Narration. There are two main ways of reporting the
words of a speaker.
1. Direct Speech
2. Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
In this form the actual words of the speaker are put in quotes .
Examples:- Rama said, I am very busy now.
In the above example the Speaker i.e
Rama is known as Reporter, said is known as Reporting verb and
I am very busy now. is known as Reported Speech.
Indirect Speech
In this form the actual words of the speaker are transformed and said/written in simple manner.
Example:- Rama said that he was very busy then.
Basic rules to convert a Direct Speech to Indirect Speech.
There are five basic things that have to be changed while converting a Direct speech to an Indirect speech.
1.
To change the reporting verb according to the reported speech.
2.
To remove the inverted commas from the direct speech and replace them with an appropriate
conjunction.
3.
To change the pronoun of reported speech accordingly.
4.
Change the adverbs of the Direct Speech.
Example: Active - Rajiv said to me, I shall go to the picture today
Passive - Rajiv told me that he would go to the picture that day.
In the above example, Reporting verb said to is changed into told. Inverted Commas are replaced by the
conjunction that. Reported speechs pronoun I is changed into She. Reported speechs verb shall go is
changed into would go. As another changes today is changed with the word that day.
Rules of change of Pronouns
Nominative Possessive Objective Reflexive
I My Me Myself
We Our Us Ourselves
You Yours You Yourself
He His Him Himself
She Her Her Herself
They Their Them Themselves
Pronouns are changed according to a rule designated as SON where
S stands for Subject
O stands for Object
N stands for No change.
First person changes to subject of Reporting Verb
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Second person changes to Object of Reporting Verb


There is no change if it is a Third person.
Rule No 1.
1st Person pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to the Subject of Reporting verb.
1. Direct: She says, I am in tenth class.
Indirect: She says that she is in tenth class.
2. Direct: I say, I am an honest man.
Indirect: I say that I am an honest man.
Rule No 2.
2nd Person pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to Object of Reporting verb.
1. Direct: She says to me, you have done your work
Indirect: She tells me that I have done my work.
2. Direct: She says to her, You have done your work
Indirect: She tells her that she has done her work.
3. Direct: I say to them, you have done your work.
Indirect: I tell them that they have done their work.
Rule No 3.
3rd Person Pronoun of Reported speech is not changed.
1. Direct: He says, He does not work hard
Indirect: He says that he does not work hard.
2. Direct: Everybody says, They have spoken the truth
Indirect: Everybody says that they have spoken the truth.
Rules of change of verb or Tense
Rule No.1
If reporting verb is given in Present or Future tense then there will be no change in the verb or tense of
Reported speech
1. Direct: The teacher says, Gayatri performs on the stage
Indirect: The teacher says that Gayatri performs on the stage.
2. Direct: The teacher is saying, Gayatri performs on the stage
Indirect: The teacher is saying that Gayatri performs on the stage.
3. Direct: The teacher will say, Gayatri is performing on the stage
Indirect: The teacher will say that Gayatri is performing on the stage.

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Rule No.2
If reporting verb is given in Past tense then the tense of the verb of Reported Speech will change into
corresponding Past tense.
1. Direct: The teacher said, I am suffering from fever.
Indirect: The teacher said that she was suffering from fever.
2. Direct: She said to me, I took the breakfast in the morning.
Indirect: She told me that she had taken the breakfast in the morning.

Corresponding Changes to past form in indirect speech from the verb in Reported speech.
1. Simple present changes to Simple Past
2. Present Continuous changes to Past Continuous
3. Present Perfect changes to Past Perfect
4. Present Perfect Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous
5. Simple Past changes to Past Perfect
6. Past Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous
7. In Future Tense will/Shall changes to would
8. Can changes to Could
9. May changes to Might
Some of the exceptional cases of Rule 2
Exception 1:
If Reporting speech has Universal Truth or Habitual fact then there is no change in the Tense.
1. Direct: Our teacher said, The earth is round
Indirect: Our teacher said that the earth is round.( Universal Truth)
2. Direct: Rajiv said to me, He plays with right hand
Indirect: Rajiv told me that he plays with right hand.(Habitual fact)
Exception 2:
If reporting speech has Past Historical Fact then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: Our teacher said, Asoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga.
Indirect: Our teacher said that Asoka left war after the conquest of kalinga.
Exception 3:
If Reporting speech has two actions to be happened at a time then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: She said My wife was making lunch when I was studying
Indirect: She said that her wife was making lunch when she was studying.
Exception 4:
If Reporting speech has some Imagined Condition then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: She said If I were rich, I would help him.
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Indirect: She said that if she were rich she would help her.
Exception 5:
If Reporting speech contains had 3rd form, to infinitive and would, could, should, must, might,
ought to etc. then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: She said to me, You should obey your elders.
Indirect: She told me that I should obey my elders.
Some other small changes that used to take place while changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech.
Here Changes to There
Now Changes to Then
This Changes to That
These Changes to Those
Today Changes to That day
To-night Changes to That night
Yesterday Changes to The previous day
Last night Changes to The previous night
Last week Changes to The previous week
Tomorrow Changes to The next day
Next Week Changes to The following week
Ago Changes to Before
Thus Changes to so
Hence Changes to Thence
Hither Changes to Thither
Come Changes to Go
Note:-An in indirect speech we talk about such incidents that are after the time of reporting and had
happened away from the place of reporting therefore the words that show nearness has to be replaced by
the words that show distance.
Some exception in these changes
1.
2.

Come is changed to go if there is some word given after come that shows nearness.
If this, here and now points to such a thing, place or time that is in front of the speaker then no
change takes place in Indirect Narration.

Rules for Change in Narration of different type of sentences


Type No 1. Assertive Sentences
Rule 1
If there is no object after Reporting verb there it should not be changed.
If there is some object after Reporting verb then say is changed to tell, says to tells and said to told.
According to the context said to can be replaced by replied, informed, stated, added, remarked, asserted,
assured, pleaded, reminded, reported or complained etc.

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Rule 2
Put conjunction that in place of .
Change the pronouns of the Reported speech as enlisted earlier.
Examples showing some Assertive Sentences Changed into Indirect form
Direct: She said to me, I shall sleep now
Indirect: She told me that she would play then.
Direct: He said, My brothers marriage comes off next month.
Indirect: He said that his brothers marriage would come off the following month.
Type No 2. Interrogative Sentences
Rule 1
As interrogative sentence is meant to ask questions therefore Reporting verb said/said to is changed to
asked.
Said to can also be changed into enquired or demanded
Rule 2
If question is formed with the help of any of the helping verbs like is/are/am, was/were, has/have, do/does,
will/would etc then __ are to be replaced by if or whether
If question is formed with the help of words starting with Wh like who, whose, what, whom, when etc
(also known as W family) or How then to replace ___ no conjunction is used.
Rule 3
In these sentences question form of the sentence is removed and full-stop is put at the end of the sentence.
Helping verb is /are/am, was/were etc should be put after the subject.
If the interrogative sentence is expressing positive feeling then do/does of the Direct speech is removed
while converting it into indirect speech.
If the interrogative sentence is expressing negative feeling then do/does of the Direct speech is changed
into did while converting it into Indirect speech.
Did or has/have of the interrogative sentence is changed to had.
Rule 4
Pronouns and verbs are changed according to the set rule of Narration.
Imperative Sentences includes the sense of order, command, request or advice, the reporting verb said to
is changed to ordered, commanded, requested or advised to.
Example: -

I said to him, Work hard.


I advised him to work hard.
In Negative Imperative Sentence do is replaced with NOT TO or said to is changed to forbade
Example: -

1.

The teacher said to the boys, Do not make a noise.


The teacher ordered the boys not to make a noise.
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2.

The gardener said to the boys, Do not pluck the flowers.


The gardener forbade the boys to pluck the flowers.

In Exclamatory Sentences.
Said + Ah! or Alas! is changed to exclaimed with sorrow.
Said + Aha! or Ha! or Hurrah is changed to exclaimed with joy.
Said + Sorry! is changed to exclaimed with regret.
Said + Oh! or What! or How! is changed to exclaimed with surprise.
Said + Pooh! or Pshaw! is changed to exclaimed with contempt.
Said + Bravo or Alas! is changed to applaudedsaying
Examples
The teacher said, Hurrah! We have won the match.
The teacher exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.
She said to her servant, How Silly and careless you are!
She exclaimed that her servant was very silly and careless.
Practice exercise.
1. She said to me, I shall play now.
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2. They said to us, You have done your work.
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3. You said to me, I teach you English.
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4. He said to me, I have been studying since morning.
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5. Rajni said to me, Your song appealed us
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6. He said to me, do I sing a song now?


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7. They said to her, Are we wasting your time?
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8. We said to them, Is she making a noise?
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9. She said to you, will you accompany me to Chennai?
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10. He said to them, Does she not serve her mother in-law?
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11. She said to me, Who teaches you English?
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12. She said to us, Why are you disturbing us?
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13. He said to them. How were you returning home?
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14. Her mother said, What will you have you for breakfast, Rajni?
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15. Anil said to his sister, How did you fare in the interview?
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16. I said to her, Kindly give me a lift


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17. Sit down, boys said the teacher.

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18. My mother said to me, Do not tell a lie.
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19. She said to me, Do not go farther
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20. She said, Alas! I have lost all of my ornaments.
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21. He said, Sorry! I cannot lend you my scooter.
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22. The general said to his soldiers, Bravo! You fought bravely.
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Lecture 7

Words Commonly Mis - spelt


(A) absence abundance accessible accidentally acclaim accommodate accomplish accordion accumulate
achievement acquaintance acquire acquitted across address advertisement advice advise affect alleged
amateur analysis analyze annual apartment apparatus apparent appearance arctic argument ascend atheist
athletic attendance auxiliary
(B) balloon barbecue bargain basically beggar beginning belief believe beneficial benefit biscuit
boundaries business
(C) calendar camouflage candidate Caribbean category cemetery challenge changeable changing
characteristic chief choose chose cigarette climbed clothes clothing cloth collectible colonel column
coming commission committee commitment comparative competent completely concede conceivable
conceive condemn condescend conscience conscientious conscious consistent continuous controlled
controversial controversy convenient correlate correspondence counselor courteous courtesy criticize
criticism
(D) deceive defendant deferred definitely definition dependent descend describe description desirable
despair desperate develop dictionary difference dilemma dining disappearance disappoint disastrous
discipline disease dispensable dissatisfied dominant drunkenness
(E) easily ecstasy effect efficiency eighth either eligible eliminate embarrass emperor encouragement
enemy encouraging entirely environment equipped equivalent especially exaggerate exceed excellence
exhaust existence existent expense experience experiment explanation extremely exuberance
(F) facsimile fallacious fallacy familiar fascinating feasible February fictitious fiery finally financially
fluorescent forcibly foreign forfeit formerly foresee forty fourth fuelling fulfill fundamentally
(G) gauge generally genius government governor grammar grievous guarantee guardian guerrilla guidance
(H) handkerchief happily harass height heinous humorous hygiene hypocrisy hypocrite hemorrhage heroes
hesitancy hindrance hoarse hoping
(I) ideally idiosyncrasy ignorance imaginary immediately implement incidentally incredible independence
independent indicted indispensable inevitable influential information inoculate insurance intelligence
interference interrupt introduce irrelevant irresistible island
(J) jealousy judicial
(K) knowledge mathematics
(M) miscellaneous mischievous mysterious medicine millennium millionaire miniature minuscule minutes
missile misspelled mortgage mosquito mosquitoes murmur muscle
(N) narrative naturally necessary necessity neighbor neutron ninety ninth noticeable nowadays nuisance
(O) obedience obstacle occasion occasionally occurred occurrence official omission omit omitted opinion
opponent opportunity oppression optimism optimistic orchestra ordinarily origin outrageous overrun
(P) pamphlets parallel particular pavilion peaceable peculiar penetrate perceive performance performance
permanent permissible permissible permitted perseverance persistence personal personnel perspiration
physical physician piece pilgrimage pitiful planning pleasant portray possess possession possessive potato
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potatoes possibility possible practically prairie


precede precedence preceding preference preferred
prejudice preparation prescription prevalent primitive principal principle privilege probably procedure
proceed profession professor prominent pronounce pronunciation propaganda psychology publicly pursue
(Q) quantity quarantine questionnaire quizzes
(R) realistically realize really recede receipt receive recognize recommend reference referring relevant
relieving religious remembrance reminiscence repetition representative resemblance reservoir resistance
restaurant rheumatism rhythm rhythmical ridiculous roommate
(S) sacrilegious sacrifice safety salary satellite scary scenery schedule secede secretary seize sense sentence
separate separation sergeant several severely shepherd shining siege similar simile simply simultaneous
sincerely skiing sophomore souvenir specifically specimen sponsor spontaneous statistics stopped strategy
strength strenuous stubbornness studying subordinate subtle succeed success succession sufficient
supersede suppress surprise surround susceptible suspicious syllable symmetrical synonymous
(T) tangible technical technique temperamental temperature tendency themselves theories therefore
thorough though through tomorrow tournament towards tragedy transferring tries truly twelfth tyranny
(U) unanimous undoubtedly unforgettable unique unnecessary until usable usage usually utilization
(V) vacuum valuable vengeance vigilant village villain violence visible vision virtue volume
(W) warrant warriors weather Wednesday weird wherever whether which wholly withdrawal woman
women worthwhile writing
(Y) yacht yield young

Proverb Explanation / Meaning


1. A Absence makes the heart grow fonder. When you are away from someone you love, you love them

even more.
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2. Accidents will happen. Some unfortunate events must be accepted as inevitable.

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3. Actions speak louder than words. What a person actually does is more important that what they say

they will do.


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4. Advice is cheap. It doesn't cost anything to offer advice.

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5. Advice is least heeded when most needed. When a problem is serious, people often do not follow the

advice given.
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6. All cats are grey in the dark. People are undistinguished until they have made a name.

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7. All good things come to those who wait. Patience brings rewards.

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8. All that glitters is not gold. Appearances can be deceptive.

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9. All days are short to Industry and long to Idleness. Time goes by slowly when you have nothing to

do.
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10.

All is fair in love and war Things that are done in love or war can often be excused.

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11.

All's well that ends well There is a solution to everything even though there are doubts.

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12.

All that glitters is not gold. What look good on the outside may not be so in reality.

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13.

All things grow with time - except grief. As time goes by, grief subsides little by little

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14.

All things are difficult before they are easy. With practice things become easier.

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15. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.


Everybody needs a certain amount of relaxation. It is not good to work all the time.
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16. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.*


Eating an apple every day can help to keep you healthy. Other interpretation : A small preventive treatment
wards off serious problems.
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An empty purse frightens away friends. When one's financial situation deteriorates, friends tend
to disappear.

17.

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18. An Englishman's home is his castle.


An English man's home is a place where he feels safe, enjoys privacy and can do as he wishes.
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19.

An idle brain is the devil's workshop. When you work you avoid temptation.

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20.

A bad tree does not yield good apples. A bad parent does not raise good children.

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A bad workman blames his tools. Blaming the tools for bad workmanship is an excuse for lack of
skill.

21.

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A bird in hand is worth two in a bush. It's better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by
searching for something better.

22.

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23.

A burnt child dreads the fire. A bad experience will make people stay away from certain things.

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24. A cat has nine lives.
1) Cats can survive many accidents because they land on their feet without injury.
2) Three lives = 3 years to play, 3 years to stray, 3
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24.

A fool and his money are soon (easily) parted. A foolish person usually spends money carelessly.
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25.

A fool at forty is a fool forever. If a person hasn't matured by the age of 40, they never will.

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A friend in need is a friend indeed. Someone who helps you when you are in trouble is a real
friend.

26.

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A friend to all is a friend to none. Someone who is a friend to everyone makes none of them feel
special.

27.

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28.

A friend's eye is a good mirror. A real friend will tell you the truth.

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29.

A good example is the best sermon. Giving an example is better than giving advice.

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A good beginning makes a good end. If a task is carefully planned, there's a better chance that it
will be done well.

30.

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31.

A rising tide lifts all boats. Describes something that will be helpful to all.

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32. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
If a person keeps moving from place to place, they gain neither friends nor possessions. Another
interpretation is that, by moving often, one avoids being tied down!
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A rotten apple spoils the barrel. A dishonest or immoral person can have a bad influence on a
group.

33.

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34.

A smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. Overcoming adversity leads to competence

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35.

Bad news travels fast. People tend to circulate bad news (accidents, illness etc.) very quickly.

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36. Beauty is only skin deep. A person's character is more important than their appearance.
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37. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Different people have different tastes.
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38. Beauty is the wisdom of women. Wisdom is the beauty of men.
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39. Be swift to hear, slow to speak. Listen carefully before speaking.
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40. Better be alone than in bad company. Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with.
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41. Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a lion. It's better to be the leader of a small group than a
subordinate in a bigger one.
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42. Better flatter a fool than fight him. It's better to avoid disputes with stupid people.
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43. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know
It's better to deal with somebody difficult but familiar, than change and risk dealing with somebody worse.
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44. Charity begins at home. A person's first duty is to help and care for his own family.
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45. Children and fools tell the truth.
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46. Cleanliness is next to godliness. A clean body is just as important as a pure soul.
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47. Clothes don't make the man. Appearances can be deceiving.
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49. Constant occupation prevents temptation. When you work you avoid temptation.
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50. Dead men tell no tales
A dead person cannot cause difficulties by revealing something that it would be preferable to conceal.
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51. Diamond cuts diamond. Refers to two people equally matched in wit or cunning.
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52. Diligence is the mother of good fortune. Hard work brings rewards
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53. Don't count your chickens before they're hatched. You must not be too confident that something
will be successful.

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54. Elbow grease is the best polish. Hard work gives the best results.
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55. Empty vessels make the most noise. The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy.
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56. Every ass likes to hear himself bray. People like to listen to themselves talking.
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57. Every cloud has a silver lining There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation.
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58. Experience is the father of wisdom. Experience and knowledge result in better judgement.
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59. Facts speak louder than words. People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than by
What they say.
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60. Failure teaches success.
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61. First come, first served. The first person in the line will be attended to first.
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62. Fool me once, shame on you;
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63. fool me twice, shame on me. One should learn from one's mistakes.

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64. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread Inexperienced people act in situations that more intelligent
people would avoid
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65. Half a loaf is better than none. You should be grateful for something, even if it's not as much as you
wanted.
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66. Hard words break no bones.
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67. Haste makes waste. If something is done too quickly, it may be done carelessly and need to be redone.
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68. Hatred is a blind as love. A person who feels hatred does not see any qualities in the person he/she
hates.
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69. He who knows nothing, doubts nothing. Knowledge leads us to make choices.
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70. Honesty is the best policy. It's always better to be honest.
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71. Hunger is a good sauce. All food tastes good when you are hungry.
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72. f you chase two rabbits, you will not catch either one. If you try to do two things at the same time,
you won't succeed in doing either of them.
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73. If two ride a horse, one must ride behind.
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When two people do something together, one will be the leader and the other will be the subordinate.
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74. If you want a friend, be a friend.


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75. If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride. Wishing alone is of no use; you must act as well.
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76. Ignorance is bliss. Possible interpretation: What you do not know causes no worry or sadness.
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77. Learn to walk before you run. Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it.
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78. Let bygones be bygones. Let's forgive and forget past quarrels.
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79. Little strokes fell great oaks. If you divide a task into small parts, it becomes easier to do.
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80. Look before you leap. Consider possible consequences before taking action.
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81. Love is blind. A person in love does not see the faults of the person he/she loves.
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82. Man proposes, God disposes. Our destiny depends on God's will.
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83. Manners make the man. Possibly: a person's manners show their origins.
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84. Many hands make light work. Sharing work makes work easier.
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85. Money is the root of all evil. Money is the main cause of wrongdoing and problems.
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86. Necessity is the mother of invention. The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining
it.
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87. No news is good news.
If the news was bad, we would hear of it. Since we have heard nothing, we can assume that all is well.
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88. No smoke without fire. There could be some truth in the rumour...
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89. No wind, no waves. Similar to : 'no smoke without fire'.
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90. One swallow doesn't make a summer. A single satisfactory event does not mean that all the others
will be as good.
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91. Out of sight, out of mind. We tend to forget people or things that we do not see.

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92Practice makes perfect. Doing something repeatedly is the only way to become good at it.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

93. Prevention is better than cure It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the
damage or cure the disease later.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
94. Pride comes before a fall. Don't be too self-confident or proud; something may happen to make you
look foolish.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
95. Put all your eggs in one basket Risk everything by relying on one plan (by putting all one's money in
one business).
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
96. Spare the rod and spoil the child If you don't punish a child when he does wrong, you will spoil his
character
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
97. A stitch in time saves nine
It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages, because if you don't, it will get worse.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
98. The apple doesn't fall far from the tree. Children resemble their parents.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
99. The darkest hour is just before dawn. There is hope even in the worst of times.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
100. The first step is the hardest. The most difficult thing is to begin.
83

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

84

Words over mis-spelt


PRACTICE EXERCISES: 1. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Boundary
2. Exhibit
3. Depresion
4. Demonstration
2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Transmit
2. Attribute
3. Constitute
4. Investegate
3. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Seperation
2. Desertion
3. Dissertation
4. Sincerely
4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Period
2. Saggest
3. Famous
4. Reference
5. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Intellectual
2.Opportinity
3. Efficiency
4. Responsibility
6. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Embarassment
2. Commitment
3. Harassment
4. Predicament
85

7. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Besiege
2. Grieve
3. Recieve
4. Deceive
8. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Lineage
2. Ceremony
3. Mileage
4. Previlege
9. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Ceremony
2. Mutiny
3. Matrimony
4. Tyrany
10. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Benefecient
2. Magnificent
3. Ancient
4. Adolescent
11. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Compression
2. Oppression
3. Supression
4. Depression
12. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Begining
2. Besiege
3. Borne
4. Barrister
13. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
86

1. Embarrassment
2. Merriment
3. Judgement
4. Statement
14. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Erosion
2. Ocassion
3. Ovation
4. Evasion
15. Choose the correct option
1. Impass
2. Compass
3. Trespass
4. Mistress
16. Choose the correct option:
1. Intemperation
2. Determination
3. Sedimentation
4. Complementation
17. Write the missing words into the gaps. The word in (brackets) tells you how many letters are
missing (number of underscores).
Example: There are seven _________ (cla_ _rooms) upstairs.
Answer: There are seven classrooms upstairs.

Do you like going to____________________(b_ _ _ _day) parties?

My grandmother had three sons and four_____________________(d_ _ _ _ters).

He _____________________ (apolo_ _ _ed) for being late.

Tracy works in the computer _____________________ (b_ _ _ _ess).

I _____________________ (u_ _ _lly) get up at 6 o'clock.

Look! The _____________________ (t_ _ _ _er) is writing on the board.

Be careful! Skydiving is a _____________________ (dan_ _ _ _ _s) hobby.

William the _____________________ (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _r) won the battle of Hastings.

_____________________ (A_ _ _ _bly) starts at 8 o'clock every morning.

My friend found an _____________________ (a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ship) as a car mechanic.


87

88

18. Some of the words in parentheses require the addition of the letter e; others are correct as they stand.

Gusis(tru-ly)sorryforkeepingyouawakelastnight.

_____________________________________________________________________
2

Wewerecriticized(sever-ly)bythesewingcircle.

____________________________________________________________________
3

Theshedwas(complet-ly)demolished.

_____________________________________________________________________
4

Merdinewas(sincer-ly)gratefulforthereprieve.

_____________________________________________________________________
5

TheSimpsonsare(argu-ing)again.

____________________________________________________________________
6

They(argu-d)lastnightforhours.

_____________________________________________________________________
7

WhenisMr.Wolfe(com-ing)home.

_____________________________________________________________________
8

Mayais(writ-ing)herautobiography.

_____________________________________________________________________
9

Mr.Whiteis(judg-ing)theessaycontest.

_____________________________________________________________________
10

Be(car-ful)whenyoulightthefurnace.

_____________________________________________________________________
19. Some of the words require the addition of ie; others require ei.
1

Paintthe(c--ling)beforeyoupaintthewalls.

_____________________________________________________________________
2

Gushasbeen(rec--ving)threateninge-mails.

_____________________________________________________________________
3

A(w--rd)noisecameoutoftheattic.

_____________________________________________________________________
89

Ipaidalmostfivedollarsforthat(p--ce)ofpie.

_____________________________________________________________________
5

Idon't(bel--ve)incoincidence.

_____________________________________________________________________
6

Theguestsbrought(th--r)childrentothewedding.

_____________________________________________________________________
7

(N--ther)ofuscanhelpyoutoday.

_____________________________________________________________________
8

The(n--ghbors)complainedaboutourparents.

_____________________________________________________________________
9

Linda(w--ghs)lessthanhercollie.

_____________________________________________________________________
10

Wewaitedforthe(fr--ght)traintopass.

_____________________________________________________________________

20. Some of the words require the addition of i; others require y.


1

Haveyou(tr-ed)thedessert

yet?

_____________________________________________________________________
2

Thebaby(cr-ed)throughoutthechurch

service.

_____________________________________________________________________
3

Wecomparedtwo(theor-es)of

evolution.

_____________________________________________________________________
4

Peggyfelt(betra-ed)byher

manager.

_____________________________________________________________________
5

Youshouldbe(stud-ing)forFriday's

exam.

_____________________________________________________________________
6

(Lonel-ness)wasneveraproblem

for

_____________________________________________________________________
90

Henry.

She(fl-es)onbroken

wings.

_____________________________________________________________________
8

Ihavealways(rel-ed)onmy

friends.

_____________________________________________________________________
9

PleasegiveMr.Flannerymy

(apolog-es).

_____________________________________________________________________
10

Itwasa(pit-ful)

sight.

_____________________________________________________________________
21. Complete each word with the letter a, e, or i.
1

Iborrowedtheseflowersfromthe

(cemet-ry).

_____________________________________________________________________
2

Myparakeeteatshuge(quant-ties)ofbird

seed.

_____________________________________________________________________
3

Thetaxcutswill(ben-fit)the

wealthy.

____________________________________________________________________
4

Itwasa(priv-lege)tomeet

you.

_____________________________________________________________________
5

Hehasaremarkably(unpleas-nt)

disposition.

_____________________________________________________________________
6

Weplacedthepuppiesin(sep-rate)

rooms.

_____________________________________________________________________
7

Henryisan(independ-nt)

thinker.

_____________________________________________________________________
8

Ifoundan(excell-nt)excusetoresignfromthe

committee.

_____________________________________________________________________
9

Shechoseitemsfromdifferent

(cat-gories).

_____________________________________________________________________
10

ProfessorLegreemadeanother(irrelev-nt)

remark

_____________________________________________________________________

91

22. Some of these words require the doubling of a consonant; others are correct as they stand.
1. Thesunwas(shin-ing)down

like

honey.

_____________________________________________________________________
2. Theexperimentwas(control-ed)by

madman.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. Theregionisslowly(begin-ing)

to

recover.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Doug(pour-ed)sugaroverYoddy's

oatmeal.

_____________________________________________________________________
5. Shekeeps(forget-ing)to

call

me.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. Gus(admit-ed)his

mistake.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. Theywere(sweat-ing)in the

classroom.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. Thatideanever(occur-ed)

to

me.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. Thebunnywent(hop-ing)downto

the

abattoir.

_____________________________________________________________________
10. His doctor (refer-ed) him to a dimple specialist.
_____________________________________________________________________

23. Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters; others are correct as they stand.
1. Marriage comes without a (g-arantee).
2.Caley(su-prised)

me.

_____________________________________________________________________
3.Youare(prob-ly)goingto

be

late.

_____________________________________________________________________
92

4.Doesshe(reali-e)thathersocks

don't

match?

_____________________________________________________________________
5.(D-scribe)themanwho

hit

you.

_____________________________________________________________________
6.Wewaited(until-)themortician

arrived.

_____________________________________________________________________
7.Merdine(recom-ended)a

psychiatrist.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. Take two (asp-rin) and go to bed.
_____________________________________________________________________
9.Shesupportsastrong(ath-letic)

program.

_____________________________________________________________________
10.The(tem-rature)reached109degrees

in

Yuma.

_____________________________________________________________________
24. Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters; others are correct as they stand.

She(a-quired)agoodtanandanewboyfriend.

_____________________________________________________________________
2

Gusis(basic-ly)lazy.

_____________________________________________________________________
3

Wemustworktogethertoimprovethe(envir-ment).

_____________________________________________________________________
4

IwishHanselwouldjust(dis-pear).

_____________________________________________________________________
5

Mr.Summersshouldattendtohis(bus-ness).

_____________________________________________________________________
6

AliceWalkerwroteanessay(sim-lar)toyours.

_____________________________________________________________________
93

TheRedSoxhave(fin-ly)wonaballgame.

_____________________________________________________________________
8

Iwas(dis-appointed)bythecranberriesindillsauce.

_____________________________________________________________________
9

DocBrownwasworkinginhis(lab-ratory).

_____________________________________________________________________
10

BaronLeibnizworksforthe(gover-ment).

_____________________________________________________________________

Exercises based on Text :EVELYN HOPE


1. Complete the following. Do write the correct the spellings given below: Beauty + Full =
_________________ Plural of Book-shelf =_________________ Plucked ed + ing = ______________
Begin + ing = _________________ Scarce + ly = ___________________ Plural of duty =
______________ Diverge + ed =__________________ Plural of itself = __________________ Miss +
ed = ________________ Spoil + ing = ____________________

Pick out the phrasal verbs used in the poem. Write the meaning and make sentences.

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH


The following words taken from the text have been misspelled. Rectify these:

Prilude

______________________

Condenemd

______________________

Torturres

______________________
94

Revolutoinaris ______________________

Acqueiscing

Ungredgingly ______________________

Unparalelled ______________________

Exploitasion ______________________

Anksiously

______________________

Neverteless

______________________

______________________

Find the word. Each alphabet should be used in the word and no alphabet can be repeated more than two
times:

USNTOPI

______________________

RCBIATUE

______________________

ESOMCPIR

______________________

OGNTIAE

______________________

AGVRDNU

______________________

AZLMODTIERN

______________________

EMTNSL

______________________

SIELDOG

______________________

NADTHMEC

______________________

UGENI

______________________

The following words from the text have been misspelled. Correct the following:

Repeserented

Community

Postiivly

Propsositon

Sensitivety

Consideration

95

Potpuris

Accommodated

Audeinces

Culturel

Portrayed

Rendeing

Popularty

Entertainment

Caricutures

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

96

Lecture 15
Phrasal Verbs:I was brought up in a small town in the countryside. Growing up in the countryside offered lots of
advantages for young people. The only problem was that we often got into trouble as we made up stories
that we acted out around town. I can remember one particular adventure in particular: One day as we were
coming back from school, we came up with the brilliant idea to make out that we were pirates looking for
treasure. My best friend Tom said that he made out an enemy ship in the distance. We all ran for cover and
picked up a number of rocks to use for ammunition against the ship as we got ready to put together our
plan of action. We we were ready to set off on our attack, we slowly went along the path until we were face
to face with our enemy - the postman's truck! The postman was dropping off a package at Mrs. Brown's
house, so we got into his truck. At that point, we really didn't have any idea about what we were going do
next. The radio was playing so we turned down the volume to discuss what we would do next. Jack was all
for switching on the motor and getting away with the stolen mail! Of course, we were just children, but the
idea of actually making off with a truck was too much for us to believe. We all broke out in nervous
laughter at the thought of us driving down the road in this stolen Postal Truck. Luckily for us, the postman
came running towards us shouting, "What are you kids up to?!". Of course, we all got out of that truck as
quickly as we could and took off down the road.
Phrasal Verbs -Make sentences with the following

to make out

to make off with

to drop off

to set off

to get out of

to get into

to get ready

to be up to

to take off

to grow up

to make up

to set off

to turn down

to get into

to bring up

to break out

97

Verb

Meaning

Example

ask around

ask many people the same


question

I asked around but nobody has


seen my wallet.

Add up to something

equal

Your purchases add up to


$205.32.

back something up

reverse

You'll have to back up your car


so that I can get out.

Blow up

explode

The racing car blew up after it


crashed into the fence.

Break down

stop functioning (vehicle,


machine)

Our car broke down at the side


of the highway in the
snowstorm.

break in

force entry to a building

Somebody broke in last night


and stole our stereo.

Break into something

enter forcibly

The firemen had to break into


the room to rescue the children.

break in

interrupt

The TV station broke in to


report the news of the president's
death.

Break up

end a relationship

My boyfriend and I broke up


before I moved to America.

Break out

escape

The prisoners broke out of jail


when the guards weren't looking.

Bring someone down

make unhappy

This sad music is bringing me


down.

bring something up

start talking about a subject

My mother walks out of the


room when my father brings up
sports.

call around

phone many different


places/people

We called around but we


weren't able to find the car part
we needed.

Call someone back

return a phone call

I called the company back but


the offices were closed for the
weekend.

call something off

cancel

Jason called the wedding off


because he wasn't in love with
his fianc.

call on someone

ask for an answer or opinion

The professor called on me for

98

question 1.
calm down

relax after being angry

Catch up

get to the same point as someone You'll have to run faster than
else
that if you want to catch up with
Marty.

Check in

arrive and register at a hotel or


airport

We will get the hotel keys when


we check in.

Check out

leave a hotel

You have to check out of the


hotel before 11:00 AM.

Check out someone/something

look at (informal)

Check out the crazy hair on that


guy!

Chip in

help

If everyone chips in we can get


the kitchen painted by noon.

clean something up

tidy, clean

Please clean up your bedroom


before you go outside.

come across something

find unexpectedly

I came across these old photos


when I was tidying the closet.

come apart

separate

The top and bottom come apart


if you pull hard enough.

come down with something

become sick

My nephew came down with


chicken pox this weekend.

come forward

volunteer for a task or to give


evidence

The woman came forward with


her husband's finger prints.

come from somewhere

originate in

The art of origami comes from


Asia.

Cross something out

draw a line through

Please cross out your old


address and write your new one.

cut in

pull in too closely in front of


another vehicle

The bus driver got angry when


that car cut in.

cut something off

remove with something sharp

The doctors cut off his leg


because it was severely injured.

cut something off

stop providing

The phone company cut off our


phone because we didn't pay the
bill.

Dress up

wear nice clothing

It's a fancy restaurant so we have

99

You are still mad. You need to


calm down before you drive the
car.

to dress up.
drop back

move back in a position/group

Andrea dropped back to third


place when she fell off her bike.

drop in/by/over

come without an appointment

I might drop in/by/over for tea


some time this week.

Drop someone/something off

take someone/something
somewhere and leave them/it
there

I have to drop my sister off at


work before I come over.

drop out

quit a class, school etc

I dropped out of Science


because it was too difficult.

eat out

eat at a restaurant

I don't feel like cooking tonight.


Let's eat out.

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

We ended up renting a movie


instead of going to the theatre.

fall apart

break into pieces

My new dress fell apart in the


washing machine.

fall down

fall to the ground

The picture that you hung up last


night fell down this morning.

figure something out

understand, find the answer

I need to figure out how to fit


the piano and the bookshelf in
this room.

fill something in

to write information in blanks


(Br.E.)

Please fill in the form with your


name, address, and phone
number.

fill something out

to write information in blanks


(N.Amer.)

The form must be filled out in


capital letters.

fill something up

fill to the top

I always fill the water jug up


when it is empty.

find out

discover

We don't know where he lives.


How can we find out?

Get something across/over

communicate, make
understandable

I tried to get my point


across/over to the judge but she
wouldn't listen.

get along/on

like each other

I was surprised how well my


new girlfriend and my sister got
along/on.

get around

have mobility

My grandfather can get around


fine in his new wheelchair.

get away

go on a vacation

We worked so hard this year that

100

we had to get away for a week.


get away with something

do without being noticed or


punished

Jason always gets away with


cheating in his maths tests.

get back

return

We got back from our vacation


last week.

get back at someone

retaliate, take revenge

My sister got back at me for


stealing her shoes. She stole my
favourite hat.

get together

meet (usually for social reasons)

Let's get together for a BBQ


this weekend.

get up

get out of bed

I got up early today to study for


my exam.

give someone away

reveal hidden information about


someone

His wife gave him away to the


police.

give something back

return a borrowed item

I have to give these skates back


to Franz before his hockey
game.

give in

reluctantly stop fighting or


arguing

My boyfriend didn't want to go


to the ballet, but he finally gave
in.

give something out

give to many people (usually at


no cost)

They were giving out free


perfume samples at the
department store.

give up

stop trying

My maths homework was too


difficult so I gave up.

go after someone

follow someone

My brother tried to go after the


thief in his car.

go against someone

compete, oppose

We are going against the best


soccer team in the city tonight.

go ahead

start, proceed

Please go ahead and eat before


the food gets cold.

go back

return to a place

I have to go back home and get


my lunch.

go out

leave home to go on a social


event

We're going out for dinner


tonight.

go out with someone

date

Jesse has been going out with


Luke since they met last winter.

go over something

review

Please go over your answers


101

before you submit your test.


Go without something

suffer lack or deprivation

When I was young, we went


without winter boots.

grow apart

stop being friends over time

My best friend and I grew apart


after she changed schools.

grow back

regrow

My roses grew back this


summer.

Grow up

become an adult

When Jack grows up he wants


to be a fireman.

hand something down

give something used to someone


else

I handed my old comic books


down to my little cousin.

Hang in

stay positive (N.Amer.,


informal)

Hang in there. I'm sure you'll


find a job very soon.

Hang on

wait a short time (informal)

Hang on while I grab my coat


and shoes!

hang out

spend time relaxing (informal)

Instead of going to the party we


are just going to hang out at my
place.

Hang up

end a phone call

He didn't say goodbye before he


hung up.

hold on

wait a short time

Please hold on while I transfer


you to the Sales Department.

hold onto someone/something

hold firmly using your hands or


arms

Hold onto your hat because it's


very windy outside.

keep on doing something

continue doing

Keep on stirring until the liquid


comes to a boil.

keep something from someone

not tell

We kept our relationship from


our parents for two years.

keep someone/something out

stop from entering

Try to keep the wet dog out of


the living room.

keep something up

continue at the same rate

If you keep those results up you


will get into a great college.

let someone down

fail to support or help,


disappoint

I need you to be on time. Don't


let me down this time.

look after someone/something

take care of

I have to look after my sick


grandmother.

look down on someone

think less of, consider inferior

Ever since we stole that


chocolate bar your dad has

102

looked down on me.


look for someone/something

try to find

I'm looking for a red dress for


the wedding.

Look forward to something

be excited about the future

I'm looking forward to the


Christmas break.

look into something

investigate

We are going to look into the


price of snowboards today.

look out

be careful, vigilant, and take


notice

Look out! That car's going to hit


you!

Make up

forgive each other

We were angry last night, but we


made up at breakfast.

pass away

die

His uncle passed away last night


after a long illness.

pass out

faint

It was so hot in the church that


an elderly lady passed out.

pass something up

decline (usually something


good)

I passed up the job because I am


afraid of change.

pay someone back

return owed money

Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll


pay you back on Friday.

put someone down

insult, make someone feel stupid

The students put the substitute


teacher down because his pants
were too short.

put something off

postpone

We are putting off our trip until


January because of the
hurricane.

put something out

extinguish

The neighbours put the fire out


before the firemen arrived.

put something together

assemble

I have to put the crib together


before the baby arrives.

run over someone/something

drive a vehicle over a person or


thing

I accidentally ran over your


bicycle in the driveway.

run over/through something

rehearse, review

Let's run over/through these


lines one more time before the
show.

run away

leave unexpectedly, escape

The child ran away from home


and has been missing for three
days.

run out

have none left

We ran out of shampoo so I had

103

to wash my hair with soap.


send something back

return (usually by mail)

My letter got sent back to me


because I used the wrong stamp.

Set someone up

trick, trap

The police set up the car thief by


using a hidden camera.

shop around

compare prices

I want to shop around a little


before I decide on these boots.

sleep over

stay somewhere for the night


(informal)

You should sleep over tonight if


the weather is too bad to drive
home.

sort something out

organize, resolve a problem

We need to sort the bills out


before the first of the month.

Stick to something

continue doing something, limit


yourself to one particular thing

You will lose weight if you stick


to the diet.

take after someone

resemble a family member

I take after my mother. We are


both impatient.

take off

start to fly

My plane takes off in five


minutes.

Take something out

remove from a place or thing

Can you take the garbage out to


the street for me?

Tear something up

rip into pieces

I tore up my ex-boyfriend's
letters and gave them back to
him.

think back

remember (often + to,


sometimes + on)

When I think back on my


youth, I wish I had studied
harder.

think something over

consider

I'll have to think this job offer


over before I make my final
decision.

throw something away

dispose of

We threw our old furniture


away when we won the lottery.

Turn something off

stop the energy flow, switch off

Your mother wants you to turn


the TV off and come for dinner.

Turn something on

start the energy, switch on

It's too dark in here. Let's turn


some lights on.

turn up

appear suddenly

Our cat turned up after we put


posters up all over the
neighbourhood.

try something on

sample clothing

I'm going to try these jeans on,

104

but I don't think they will fit.


try something out

test

I am going to try this new brand


of detergent out.

use something up

finish the supply

The kids used all of the


toothpaste up so we need to buy
some more.

Wake up

stop sleeping

We have to wake up early for


work on Monday.

Warm someone/something up

increase the temperature

You can warm your feet up in


front of the fireplace.

Warm up

prepare body for exercise

I always warm up by doing situps before I go for a run.

Wear off

fade away

Most of my make-up wore off


before I got to the party.

work out

exercise

I work out at the gym three


times a week.

Exercises based on text :THE BIG BROTHER


Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences, give their meanings and use them in sentences of
your own:
I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery.
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I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper butterflies.
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I had great fun, but back in the hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
_______ . I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was.
__________________________________________________________________________ . But all
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tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.
_______ .
Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch and
school.
_______ .
6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10 Hindi, 10 to 11 revision and
then retire to bed.
_______ . Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is another.
_______ .
The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back to the
playground.
_______ .
Dont float in the air; you will soon land with a thud.
_______ . Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact.
_______ . This time, he was in real bad shapeface devoid of color, eyes sunk deepI felt sorry for him.
_______ . He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and generally kept off me.
_______ . One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites.
_______ . We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother.
This truth will prevail and even God cant challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move
ahead. "
1.

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2.

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3.

_______ . "Look at our headmaster.

4.

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5.

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6.

_______ . "So you see, do away with that false pride.

7.

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8.

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9.

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10.

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11.

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12.

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13.

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14.

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15.

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16.

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17.

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18.

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19.

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20.

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Idioms / Proverbs
Khatte angoor - Sour grapes (also, literally)
Bandar kya jaane adrak ka swad - Casting pearls before swine
Dal mein kaala - More to it than meets the eye
Naach na jaane, aagan tedha A poor worker blames his tools
Door ke dhol suhavane lagte hain The grass seems greener on the other side
Aage kuan peeche khaee Between the devil and the deep sea
Garajne wale badal baraste nahin hain Barking dogs seldom bite
Ab pachatae kya jab chidiya chug gayi khet No use crying over spilt milk
Anth bhala to sab bhala Alls well that ends well (almost, literal)
Taali ek haath se nahin bajti It takes two to quarrel
Jahan chaah wahaan raha Where theres a will, theres a way
Doodh ka jala chaas bhi phook-phook kar peeta hai Once bitten twice shy
Jaisa desh, vaisa bhes In Rome do as the Romans do
Ek myaan mein do talawaren nahi samaati No man can serve two masters
Khotta chana baje ghana - Empty vessels make more noise
Aanko ka tara-Apple of ones eye.
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kabhi nahin se der bhali-better late than never


Jaisa karoge waisa bharoge- As you sow, so shall you reap.
Jalti par tail dalna- Add fuel to the fire.
Khayali pulao banana-To build the castle in the air

Practice Exercises : I. Use the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the
prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) an form meaningful sentences.
Example: My parents are out. So I have to _________ my baby-brother.
Answer: My parents are out. So I have to look after my baby-brother.
1)
Quick!________________ the bus. It's ready to leave.
2)
I don't know where my book is. I have to _________________ it.
3)
It's dark inside. Can you ______________ the light, please?
4)
_________________ the form, please.
5)
I need some new clothes. Why don't you _______________ these jeans?
6)
It's warm inside. _____________ your coat.
7)
This pencil is really old. You can ________________ it___________________.
8)
It's so loud here. Can you _____________the radio a little.
9)
The firemen were able to ______________ the fire in Church Street.
10)
Does your little brother_____________________ ghosts?
II. Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meanings in brackets.
1.. (remove, do not wear) _______________ your shoes.
2.. Somebody has to (take care of) _______________ the baby.
3.. Could you (do not leave it on) _______________ the radio?
4.. Where can I (see if it fits) _______________ the sweater?
5.. (be quick) _______________ .
6.. Why don't you (take a seat) _______________ ?
7.. I will (enter) _______________ the train now.
8.. Shall I (consult a dictionary) _______________ the word in a dictionary?
9.. When do you (rise from bed after sleeping) _______________ in the mornings?
III. Fill in the phrasal verbs:

Make sure to _____________ pick-pockets when you go to the market.


The boy ___________ the man and returned his wallet.
Mary ______________ me at the party last night and introduced herself.
Have you ____________ if you won the competition yet?
I need to ____________ from work and take a holiday.
She still hasn't __________ the death of her cat.
My daughter is a great cook, she really _____________ her mother.
Could you ___________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
Extension 28? I'll _______________.
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She promised to ____________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.


He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ____________ a brilliant idea.
I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't __________________.

Given below are few sentences along with the preposition. Add an appropriate ion or verb to make a
phrasal verb:
1

Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this
afternoon. (in)

We need to ________ the price of the product, which is relatively high, and focus on its quality as a
selling point.(down)

Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the ads?
(across)

We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead.(on)

This poster is horrible and can't be used. The colors and images are all wrong. We will have to
__________. (do)

We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and _________
the free sample coupons.(out)

We're going to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time.(off)

This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product. Can you explain to me what dancing
chickens __________ sport shoes? (with)

My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this one.(in)

10

I like that magazine, but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has
increased.(off)

Pick out the phrasal verbs from the list given below and complete the sentences:
1. Have you _________________ if you won the competition yet?
2. I need to _________________ from work and take a holiday.
3. She still hasn't _________________ the death of her cat.
4. My daughter is a great cook, she really _________________ her mother.
5. Could you _________________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
6. Extension 28? I'll _________________ .
7. She promised to _________________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.
8. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ______________ a brilliant idea.
9. I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't______________.
10. Donata_______________ my cats while I was away on holiday.
11. We're not ready yet, we are going to have to _______________ the meeting until next week.
12. I'm _________________ Simon's address. Do you know it?
13. Mary _________________ twenty minutes late for the party.
14. I'm tired of waiting for Jacek. Can we _________________ our work?
15. If you really want to lose weight, you need to __________eating desserts.
16. Let's __________the grammar one more time before the test.
17. I was __________ an old t-shirt when I __________ this photograph of my high school class.
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18. Look Magda, I've __________your bad behaviour long enough!


19. There is just too much work to be done. We'll have to __________some new employees.
20. When the father saw what had happened he __________ and shouted at his son.
21. I had to __________ her offer of a job. The salary on offer was just not good enough.
22. We __________at six in the morning on our drive to the coast.
23. Jacek and Gosia __________last week. They just weren't happy together.
24. We'd better stop soon. Otherwise, we'll __________of gas.
25. I want you to __________ every bad word you've said about my brother.
Find out, get on with, hold on, get away, blow up, make up, run out, tell off, break up, give up, take up,
take after, turn down, put off, cut down, set off, take back, take on, put up with, go over, look after, come
up with, add up, put through, look for, get over, turn up, come across
1. Complete each gap with a suitable word:
"I'm afraid I haven't got enough copies of this exercise. I tried to have more run ________________ but the
photocopier had broken________________ and the repairman didn't turn _____________________ when
he was supposed to. He did ring_________________ to say he'd been held ________________
unexpectedly, but that's the second time that company has let us _______________ recently. Well, there's
nothing else for it: you're just going to have to look ____________ with your neighbour. While you're
doing that, I'll just ___________________ the test you did last week. Some of you slipped
_______________ in a few places, but, on the whole, the results were good. If you carry
_____________________ as you've been doing, you should do fine!"

Exercise based on Text :BOLLYWOOD AND THE MUSLIM MOVIES


Write the meanings of the phrasal verbs and use these in sentences of your own:

Pick up

Focus at

Reduced to

Fallen in

Move to

Pushed towards

Stand out

Married off

Make up

Spread over
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Set in

Eloping with

Dressed in

Bursting at

Brought in

Made with

Break away

Churning out

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Lecture -21
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Activity
1

Pick 2-3 idioms and build a short story or a paragraph on it.

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2

Quiz based on idioms.

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3

Match idioms with the pictures[ to be given by the teacher].

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Relate the above given idioms with the movie names for example-Ladla- Apple of ones eye.
Practice Exercises : PROVERBS
I. Given below are some commonly used proverbs. Some of them, you may have studied and some of them
may be new to you. Try to locate the meaning of each proverb:
The first step is the hardest _____________________________________________ .
They Brag Most That Can Do the Least _____________________________________________ .
Pain is so close to pleasure _____________________________________________ .
Never say die _____________________________________________ .
Make hay while the sun shines _____________________________________________ .
I had no shoes and complained, until I met a man who had no feet _______________________.
Better an open enemy, than a false friend _______________________________________.
A bad workman blames his tools _____________________________________________.
Absence makes the heart grow fonder _____________________________________________ .
Better bend than break _______________________________________ .
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II. Find the correct endings to the proverbs:


a.

You can't teach an old dog


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b.

Once bitten
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c.

In for a penny
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d.

it never rains
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e.

too many cooks


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f.

a friend in need
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g.

a stitch in time
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h.

never put off until tomorrow


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i.

what the eye does not see


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j.

like father
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k.

one swallow
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l.

promises
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m.

better safe
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n.

out of sight,
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o.

listeners
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III. Which of the proverbs mean the same as these sentences.


1

It is not a good idea to decide if a thing is good or bad just by how it appears at first or by its
outward appearance.
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2
When a bad thing happens there is always a positive aspect to it.
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3
If you don't see someone for a long time you like them better.
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4
When you are in a strange place (temporarily) it is better to follow the local customs.
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5
You should be happy with what you have got even if it is less than what you want.
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6

In many areas in life if you do not confront a problem when it starts it can deteriorate rapidly
therefore it is much better to act soon.
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7

This proverb was probably written by someone who owns his own house and doesn't stay up all
night dancing.
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8
Don't become very upset by trivialities.
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9
Don't take risks.
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10

Those who cast threats are seldom man enough to carry them out.

IV.
use the proverbs given below in sentences of your own:
Spare the rod and spoil the child.
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One today is worth two tomorrow
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Need teaches a plan
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Put all your eggs in one basket
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The end justifies the means
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Wonders will never cease!
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Better lose the saddle than the horse
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A watched pot never boils
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Every path has its puddle
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Hatred is as blind as love
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117

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Find pictures that describe the following proverbs.

the devil and the deep sea

Between
1. burnt child dreads fire

2. hungry man is an angry man

3. Empty vessels make the most noise

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4. an idle brain is the devils workshop

5. Faint heart never won the fair lady

6. A penny saved is a penny gained

7. A rolling stone gathers no moss

8. as you sow, so shall you reap

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9. barking dogs seldom bite

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10. a bird in hand is worth two in the bush

11. birds of a feather flock together

12. call a spade a spade

13. charity begins at home

14. all that glitters is not gold

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123

Use the following proverbs in sentences of your own


where theres a will, theres a way
discretion is the best part of valor
any time means no time
dead men tell no lies
better late then never
an ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit
a friend in need is a friend indeed
first come, first served
a man is as old as he feels great talkers are little doers

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Lecture 25

Conditionals
Practice Exercises :I. Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody's really keen on preparing and
organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will
also do something.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1

If Caroline and Sue_______________( prepare) the salad, Phil____________ (decorate) the house.

If Sue _____________ (cut) the onions for the salad, Caroline______________ (peel) the
mushrooms.

Jane ______________ (hoover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim ____________ (move) the
furniture.

If Bob _______________ (tidy) up the kitchen, Anita ____________ (clean) the toilet.

Elaine ______________ (buy) the drinks if somebody _________ (help) her carry the bottles.

If Alan and Rebecca ______________ (organize) the food, Mary and Conor ____________ (make)
the sandwiches.

If Bob _________ (looks) after the barbecue, Sue ______________ (let) the guests in.

Frank _______________(play) the DJ if the others__________ (bring) along their CDs.

Alan ___________ (mix) the drinks if Jane ____________ (give) him some of her cocktail recipes.

10

If they all (do) their best, the party (be) success.

II. Complete the story The Cat and the Mouse using conditional sentences:
1

Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off. Give me back my tail, said the mouse. And the
cat said, Well, I (give)_______________ you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. But
that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.

The mouse, however, went to the cow. The cat (give / only) ______________ me back my tail if I
fetch her some milk.

And the cow said, Well, I would give you milk if you (get)_____________ me some hay. But
that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.

The mouse, however, went to the farmer. The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow
(give)_________________ me some milk. And the cow (only / give) ______________________
me milk if I get her some hay.
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And the farmer said, Well, I would give you hay if you (bring) _____________ me some meat.
But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.

The mouse, however, went to the butcher. The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give)
_____________________ me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) __________
some hay. And the farmer (only / give) _____________ me hay if I get him some meat.

And the butcher said, Well, I would give you meat if you (make) ________________ the baker
bake me a bread. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.

The mouse, however, went to the baker. The cat (give / only)____________________ me back my
tail if I fetch her some milk. And the cow (give / not) ___________ me milk if I don't get her hay.
And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcher (have)__________________ some meat for
him. And the butcher will not give me meat if you (bake / not) _______________ him a bread.

And the baker said, Well, I (give) __________ you bread if you promise never to steal my corn or
meal.

10

The mouse promised not to steal, and so the baker gave the mouse bread, the mouse gave the
butcher bread. The butcher gave the mouse meat, the mouse gave the farmer meat. The farmer gave
the mouse hay, the mouse gave the cow hay. The cow gave the mouse milk, the mouse gave the cat
milk. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back.

11

But imagine what would have happened otherwise:

12

If the mouse (promised/not) _______________ never to steal corn or meal, the baker
(not/give)____________the mouse bread.

13

If the baker (not / give) _______________ the mouse bread, the butcher (refuse) ______________
to give her meat for the farmer.

14

If the butcher (refuse) _____________her any meat, the farmer (not/be) __________willing to give
the mouse hay.

15

If the farmer (not/be)______________willing to give the mouse hay, the mouse (not/receive)
_________________milk from the cow.

16

If the mouse (not/receive) _________________ milk from the cow, she (not/get) __________back
her tail

III. Complete the sentences according to the basic rules for Conditional Sentences.
1

Do you like jazz music? Because if you (like)_______ jazz, you (love) __________ New Orleans.

Vanessa hates boat trips. But if she (hate / not)______________ boat trips, she (enjoy) __________
a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi.

I (do) _________a course in jazz dancing if I (have)________more time. But unfortunately I don't
have time.

If the founders of the city (hate) ___________the King of France, they (call /not)__________ the
place Nouvelle-Orlans in honor of him.
127

It (be) _____________ silly if we tried to walk there.

I (watch) __________ the film only if the reviews are good.

She'd have taken me to the station if her car (break) ____________ down.

If you (ask) ____________, , he won't help you.

If it (rains) ____________, yesterday, we would have gone sailing.

10

(Look) ______________after their dog again if they go on holiday this year?

11

Would you mind if I (use) _____________ your mobile?

12

I (open) ________________ the mail if it had contained a virus.

13

Even if I (have) _____________, a wet-suit, I wouldn't go scuba-diving.

14

(be) _____________ that strict if you'd known the truth?

15

If you (go) __________out with your friends tonight, I (watch) ___________the football match on
TV.

16

I (earn) __________a lot of money if I (get)_________ that job.

17

If he (try) ________harder, he (reach) __________his goals.

18

If she (hurry / not)__________, we (miss) ________the bus.

19

If we (listen) __________to the radio, we (hear) ___________the news.

20

She (come)_________to our party if she (be / not) ____________on holiday.

21

I (buy) ________these shoes if they (fit) _______________

22

It (surprise / not) ____________me if he (know / not) ____________the answer.

23

If you (switch) __________on the lights, you (fall / not) ____________over the chair.

24

If I (be) _______________ stronger, I'd help you carry the piano.

25

If we'd seen you, we (stop) _________________.

26

If we (meet) __________, him tomorrow, we'll say hello.

27

He would have repaired the car himself if he (has) _____________ the tools.

28

If you drop the vase, it (break) ________________.

29

I wouldn't go to school by bus if I (has) ___________a driving licence.

30

I (travel) __________to London if I don't get a cheap flight.

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Lecture33

TEST BASED ON ALL GRAMMAR TOPICS


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Lecture 36

Revision :______________________________________________________________________________________
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Conditionals :-

Type I or Type II
1.

Decide whether the following Conditional Sentences are Type I or Type II.
a. If they go to Australia, they will go whale-watching.
b. If she had a mobile, I would call her.
c. If Bob were here, he would have a solution for our problem.
d. If you move here, we will see each other more often.
e. You'll live longer if you stop smoking.
f. If Sarah didn't go with John, Anna would try to become his girlfriend.
g. I will only dance if they play my favorite song.
h. I wouldn't buy that computer if I didn't need it.
i. If she doesn't feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor.
j.

I'd lend you money if I had any.

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2.

Fill in the blanks with if or unless:

____________ you are caught drinking and driving, you will lose your licence.

____________ you stop smoking, you'll be seriously ill.

I won't be able to do it ____________ you help me.

____________ you stop making that noise, I'll call the police.

____________ you're late, I'll leave without you.

____________ he gets caught, he'll go to jail.

I won't do it ____________ you agree to help me; I'm not doing it alone.

____________ she pays up, we're going to be in real trouble.

____________ we get the cheque today, we must bank it.

She'll never agree to that ____________ you accept her suggestions.

____________ they're late again, I'll be furious.

I don't want to go out ____________ it's raining- I hate getting wet.

We'll be in trouble ____________ it goes wrong.

____________ he gets caught, he'll make a fortune.

3. Choose the correct option:


1. If I were you, I ____________ her straightaway.

shall tell

will tell

would tell

should tell

2. If I were you, I____________ that.

wouldn't do

wouldnt have done

wont have done

wont do

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3. If I'd been there, things ____________different now.

would be

would have been

will be

will have been

4. If I'd known, I ____________.

will help

would help

would have helped

will have helped

5. Should you see her, ____________her to call me?

will you tell

would you have told

would you tell

will you have told

6. If you did that, it ____________cause trouble

would probably

might probably

will probably

shall probably

7. If you did that, it ____________ cause trouble

will

would

shall

should

8. If you liked it, ____________you buy it?

will

would

shall

should
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9. If it took all day, ____________ you want to do it?

will

would

shall

should

10. Were you to fail, what ____________ ?

will you do

would you do

would you have done

will you have done

11. If I'd known, I would ____________ there.

go

have gone

went

have to go

12. If you are there, ____________ you do me a favour?

will

would

could

should

13. If you'd been, there ____________ you have helped?

will

could

would

should

14. Were you ____________ the job, how would you feel?

get

to get

getting

will be getting
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4. Choose the correct answer.


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

If you'd arrived on time, none of this would have happened

This sentence is about something that happened in the past

This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen

If I were you, I'd get in touch with a solicitor

This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future

This is about something now

If I won the lottery, I'd go on a cruise

This is about the present

This is about the future

If you should see him, tell him I've got the video he was looking for

This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him..

This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him...'

If the weather stays good, I'll play a round of golf tomorrow.

This is about something that is unlikely to happen

This is about something that has a good chance of happening

If they win, they'll be top of the Premier Division.

This could well happen

This is unlikely to happen

But for Jane's help, I'd never have got it done on time

Jane helped the speaker

Jane didn't help the speaker

It might not have been Sally

The speaker thinks that it probably was Sally

The speaker is fairly sure it wasn't Sally

John, should you see her, could you ask Helen to give me a quick ring?

John is likely to see Helen

John might possibly see Helen


134

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

If I told you what happened, would you keep it to yourself

The speaker is definitely going to tell the person what happened

The speaker might tell the person what happened

As long as you do what the doctor told you, you should be better in a few days

The person will probably get bette

It is unlikely that the person will get better

If I were in your shoes, I'd be celebrating

This is unlikely to happen except in the distant future

This is describing an imaginary present situation

If I were in your shoes, I'd make sure that it is paid on time

The speaker is giving an order

The speaker is giving an order

Unless you stop working so late, you'll never stop being so tired.

The person should stop working late

It's alright to work late

If you see him, will you tell him that I need to talk to him

There's a reasonable chance of seeing him

There's a reasonable chance of seeing him.

5. Identify The Conditionals


1.

2.

If I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

I'll tell her if she comes.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

135

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

I'd have helped had I been there.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If he's there, could you tell him that I really need to speak to him.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If I were you, I'd buy it as soon as possible.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If I had the time, I'd help you.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

I would have handled things differently if I'd been in charge.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional
136

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If she'd tried harder, she might have succeeded.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If you work hard enough, you may well pass.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If we fail, who will be held responsible?

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If she went, she could report back to us all.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional
137

13.

14.

15.

If he'd studied at a good college, he might have got a better grade.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If you ever need help, just ask me.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

If anyone complains, we deal with it immediately.

Zero Conditional

First Conditional

Second Conditional

Third Conditional

Mixed Conditional

138

Writing
Skills

139

Lecture 4

Big Brother
Text based Questions :1

Write in your own words the summary of the story.

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Keeping in mind the relationship of the brothers in the lesson relate any story based on the
relationship shared by two siblings
2

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3

Relate / Comment on the relationship you share with your brother / sister

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Vocabulary exercises based on text:


1.

Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms Orally and
using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the
class.

Points for the Story

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1. Summarize the story ?


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2. What would you change if you have to rewrite the story. ?
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3. Who is your favorite character in the story and why?
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Questions Based On Text :1. Role Play- The narrator and his brother.
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2. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage
of time.
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3. Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education
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4. Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful.


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5. Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.
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144

Lecture 8

The Portrait of a Lady


Text Based Questions :1. How does Khushwant Singh describe the daily routine of his grandmother while she lived in the

village.
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2. Grandmother is portrayed as a kind and religious woman. What details given in The portrait of a

Lady give that impression.


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3.

How does Khushwant Singh describe the death of his grandmother?


1.

Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms
Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which
they will share in the class. Points for the Story

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145

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4. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.
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146

Lecture -12

(FD Roosevelt)
Questions based on Text
Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war?
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Teacher to tell students to come prepared with at least one speech and students to summarize it
(Home work)
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147

Q2. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Comment on this statement in the light of the
above speech.
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Q3. Discuss the role of America in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario.
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(Martin Luther I have a Dream)


Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but
to the entire world.
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148

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Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma
Gandhi.
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Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.


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149

(Mary Fisher)
Q1. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race , gender, country , or
region but looms large.
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Q2. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.


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150

Lecture 16

Dialogue writing based on movie clippings and speech


visuals
The following dialogue sheet can be used to teach students to include the basic characteristics of good
dialogue in their own writing. The form may be modified to include whatever characteristics the instructor
desires.
*NOTE: Dialogue is a conversation between 2 or more characters.
A.

Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's occupation,


Explain your choice. ______________________________________

B.

Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's nationality?


Explain your choice. ______________________________________

C.

Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's social position or social class?
Explain your choice. _______________________________________

D.

Write some dialogue which advances the action by relating to a conflict? (Include
___________ vs _____________ in the explanation.) Write two examples.

Example one:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________


Example two:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________


E.

Write some dialogue which contains conversational give and take? (Where the speakers talk
back and forth.) Write three examples:

Example one:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________


Example two:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________


Example three:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________

151

F.

Write some dialogue which reveals something about the character and personality of the
speaker? Write two examples.

Example one:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________


Example two:

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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________

Q1.

Students to see the clippings of movie scenes and write the dialogues for the characters ?

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Q2:

Write down the fictitious conversation between the characters you have seen in the video clipping.
At least 25 dialogues.

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152

Lecture -18
( 2nd EVALUATION)

BASED ON ALL WRITING TOPICS :_______________________________________________________________________


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153

Lecture - 20
REVISION
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154

Lecture -22

Comparative analysis of themes of texts and speeches :_______________________________________________________________________


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155

Lecture 26

Comprehension passages from essays and


text in reading module
Comprehension Passage Big Brother
Q1:

Read the following passage and answer the questions asked below:

At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the
mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in the fifth gradehow could I
attempt to dissect such intricate stuff ?
I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper butterflies.
Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar.I had great fun, but back in the
hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
My brother would fling the first question rudely Where were you?
My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then caution me in a
flurry of kind and rude words.
Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no childs play dear. Slog for months and you barely
get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.
And I ask, do you not see me toiling, poring over books, if you fail to see, thats your fault. There are
umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches every day, have you ever seen me taking a break. And despite this
devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years; you will probably spend a
lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli danda* to your hearts content.
Why blow Dadas** hard earned money for nothing?
I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest words. For a
second, I would be tempted to give upwhy not go home... I was happy being a dullard but god save me
from this struggle
But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the midnight oil, a
new time table sans fun and frolics.... Give the meanings of the underlined words.
1. I broke my head means ___________________________________. to burn the midnight oil means

______________________________. What was the speaker fond of?


2. What kind of relations were the two brothers sharing? Explain in 25-30 words.
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3. What did the speaker used to do after being scolded by his elder brother?
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Passage 2
One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of 10- 12 lads
carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. We were
oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. He was probably on his way back
home from the bazaar. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely
Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. If not anything, have some
respect for your grade. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as magistrates,
collectors, editors, leaders and scholars. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no doubt, but where's
your self-respect?
I can read your mind all right. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to question
you. But you are wrong. I am five years elder to you and will always remain soThis truth will prevail and
even God cant challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. " "And, thanks to the
kind of examiners we have these days, that's indeed possible. . ." he added with a wry smile.
"I have loads of worldly knowledge thats way above academic grades. Did our Amma*** and Dada ever
go to school? The government in America, constellations in space, wives of Henry the VIII, they may not
know, but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. Tomorrow, if I fall sick, you will surely
panic and send a telegram to Dada, but Dada in your place, would never react like that. He will first try
some home remedy, only if it fails, will he call for a doctor."
157

Give the meanings of the underlined words.

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you have caught up with me means_______________________.


Are you out of your mind? means ________________________.
What happened when the narrator was playing with his friends?
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Why cant the big brother ever lose the right of scolding the narrator?
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158

What is more important for the big brother: bookish knowledge or worldly knowledge and why?
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Vocabulary Exercise from Big Brother
Match the following synonyms:

Grade

Dissuade

Motto

Defy

Flunk

Etched

Dissect

Intricate

Eerie

Flurry

Match the following:

Toil

Umpteen

Dullard

Breach

Penance

Crestfallen

Rage

Replete

Anarchy

Thud

159

Pick the odd one out of the following: ?

Ghastly, horrible, frightful, pleasing

Terse, large, concise, pithy

Queer, bizarre, sober, eccentric Trickle, bounce, dribble, ooze Twine, staff, coil, rope Scribble,

eradicate, scrawl, doodle Tug, jerk, haul, skip Remittance, debt, allowance, payment Thrash,

flog, stroke, lash Hapless, fortunately, miserably, wretchedly

Comprehension Passage
The Necklace
Read the given passage and answer the questions asked below:
The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born, as if by a slip of
fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no way of being known, understood,
loved, married by any rich and distinguished man; so she let herself be married to a little clerk of the
Ministry of Public Instruction.
She dressed plainly because she could not dress well, but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a
higher station; since with women there is neither caste nor rank, for beauty, grace and charm take the place
of family and birth. Natural ingenuity, instinct for what is elegant, a supple mind are their sole hierarchy,
and often make of women of the people the equals of the very greatest ladies.
Mathilde suffered ceaselessly, feeling herself born to enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. She was
distressed at the poverty of her dwelling, at the bareness of the walls, at the shabby chairs, the ugliness of
the curtains. All those things, of which another woman of her rank would never even have been conscious,
tortured her and made her angry. The sight of the little Breton peasant who did her humble housework
aroused in her despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. She thought of silent antechambers hung with
Oriental tapestry, illumined by tall bronze candelabra, and of two great footmen in knee breeches who
sleep in the big armchairs, made drowsy by the oppressive heat of the stove. She thought of long reception
halls hung with ancient silk, of the dainty cabinets containing priceless curiosities and of the little
coquettish perfumed reception rooms made for chatting at five o'clock with intimate friends, with men
famous and sought after, whom all women envy and whose attention they all desire..
160

1. Describe in detail the kind of life Mathilde dreamed of and what she had on the real surface of life.
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2. What does make Mathilde distressed?


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3. Elaborate the character-sketch of Mathilde.


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4. Give the meanings of the underlined words.


Distinguished, ingenuity, hierarchy, shabby, bewildering
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5. Use the word grace as noun and as verb.


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Lecture 30
Formal Letter/Business Letter and E-mails
1. Explain various parts of Letter as follows:
Address of the sender
Date Line
Address of the recipient
Subject:
Salutation
Body_1Paragraph
Body_2 Paragraph
Body_3 Closing line
Complementary Close
Signature Name

2: Arrange the following in order.


Name
Saluation

Date Line

Address of
Recipient

Address of
Sender

Complementary Close

Body of letter

Signature Subject

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3:

Cut redundant ideas, words and phrases Avoid using words with similar meanings. Drop one and
see if your sentence still makes sense. For example:
1.

12 noon noon

2.

Added bonus bonus

3.

Advance notice notice

4.

City of Renton Renton

5.

Close Proximity Close, near

6.

Current Status Status

7.

Filled to capacity full, filled

8.

First and foremost first

9.

Future Plans ` Plans

10.

General Consensus Consensus, agreement

11.

Join together Join

12.

Month of November November

13.

Past History, Past experience history, experience

14.

Period of time time, Period

15.

Postpone until later Postpone

16.

Refer back refer

17.

Total number Total

1. Rearrange the jumbled format of the given letter


Subject: To apply for the post of Project Manager.
The March 15, 2010, issue of the Times of India contained an advertisement for the Post of Project
manager in your esteemed organisation. After reading the required qualifications I believe I can
meet your Firms needs as I have led various similar projects. Yours Faithfully Campbell
Companies Cannaught Palace New Delhi 110005
As my enclosed resume indicates, I have an M.E. in Manufacturing Engineering. Since I could
maintain my high C.G.P.A. during the course of my B.E., my university awarded me merit
scholarship. XYZ Street Delawar Road Karnal 1122990 Om Parkash April 6, 10 Dear Mr John
Amen
I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given the
opportunity of meeting you. I hope to meet you soon.____________________________________164

Worksheet no 2 for letter writing Assuming that you have the requisite credentials, draft Job Application
Letters in response to the following advertisement:

Wanted a Plant Manager at our new factory in Gaziabad, UP. Engineering Graduates with
minimum 5 years experience in manufacturing industries as Plant Managers can apply. Salary is
negotiable. Apply with particulars within 15 days.

If you are a recent post-graduate in science and interested in research, apply for the post of Junior
Research Associate in our R&D Division. You should hold a post-graduate degree in
mathematics/physics/chemistry or Biology. If selected you will be given a Research Assistantship
of Rs 8000/- p.m. and you will have the opportunity to work in excellent laboratories
__________________

Formal Letter
Letter Writing
Instructions :- Letter of Complaints
I.

Break into 2 groups to brainstorm and write a list of possible problems


Have each group choose what they feel is an important and or regularly occurring problem
Ask groups to write a quick outline of the problem

II.

Have one group generate vocabulary and structures used when complaining, ask the other
group generate vocabulary used when responding to complaints
Have two groups write their generated vocabulary on the board Ask for further vocabulary
and/or structures that the opposing group may have missed

III.

Ask groups to compose a letter of complaint about the problem they have previously outline
Have groups exchange finished letters. Each group should proceed by first reading, then
correcting and finally, responding to the letter.

IV.

Collect student letters and correct reply by pointing out which types of mistakes have been
made

(i.e. S for syntax, PR for preposition etc.)


While correcting the letter have groups mix and discuss their responses to the problem Redistribute
corrected letters to original groups and have students try to correct their letters using the cues given by the
correction \

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BUSINESS LETTER WRITING LESSON PLAN


Procedure:
Teachers: discuss with your students the importance of proper, clear communication to a business, and how
important it is to follow the formal business letter format. Hand out the example business letter to students.
Go over each part in detail. Here are some topics to discuss:

Business Letters are a formal way to communicate with a business or companies.

Neatness counts no errors in spelling or grammar.

Organized in a very specific way following exact format.

Formal English, no slang or casual chat.

All parts in the letter are left justified, or lined up on the left.

Business Letter Parts


(Block Style Format): In order from top to bottoms:

Return address address of letter writer. First and last name, address, city, state and zip code.

The date

Inside address of recipient (who you are writing the letter to) First and last name, title, Company,
address, city, state and zip code.

Salutation If the person is not a friend, write Dear Mr. Smith. If the person is a friend, you may
say Dear Sally.

Body of Letter this is the purpose of the letter. Should be clear and concise, with more than one
paragraph.

Closing sincerely, or best regards, yours truly, etc

Space for a handwritten signature

Typed name of writer

Thank You Letters


Letter writing is not as common with the new technology of email, texting, and cell phones. A thank you
can be expressed with the simple click of a button, however too often it is a simple thank you.

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A simple thank you is polite and appreciated but a thank you letter is a little more personal and thoughtful.
Writing a thank you letter requires a little more effort and reflection. The sender must think about why they
are thankful and what the person did to make their day a little more enjoyable.
Letter Writing Lesson Plan
Teach students the art of writing letters and the impact they create. Students are to write a friend, teacher,
doctor, policeman or other person in the community a thank you letter. The letter is to express the students
sincere gratitude for their service.
Often younger children are very willing to write to their doctor or dentist to thank them for an enjoyable
experience. However, as we age, the time required to write the letter is outweighed by other activities. If a
student feels the impact of the letter they may be more willing to write a letter.
If a teacher is able to input the time, write each student a thank you letter over the course of the year. Near
the end of the year, distribute the thank you letters to the students before commencing the letter writing
lesson. After the child reads their letter they will personally feel the value of the thank you letter. Teach
students the basics of letter writing and give them a sample of a thank you letter.
Letter Writing Etiquette
Date: List the date, the letter is being sent. The date should be written in full with no abbreviations.
Address:

Includes street number, name, city, province, postal code, and country if
being sent internationally. As well, all the information is written in full with
no abbreviations.

Greeting and Salutation:

For a thank you letter it is best to address it Dear Mr. Smith. If the letter is
informal you may wish to write their full name.

Body Text:

Write your letter as if you are speaking to them in person. A conversational


tone but refrain from slang.

Closing:

Write an informal closing as you are writing a thank you letter. Best regards
is suitable for this type of letter writing.

Signature Lines:

Everyone should sign their letter.

Proofread:

It is imperative to proofread your letter to ensure it is free of grammatical and


spelling errors. The letter is sent with good intent but it should show that you
have put effort into writing the letter. If the letter has spelling errors it
suggests it was rushed and written carelessly.

Folding:

After you have written an excellent letter, do not crumple the letter into the
envelope. Choose paper size to match your envelope. Be sure to fold the
letter with care.

Thank you Letter Template

167

May 30, 2007


Johnny Gage
Paramedic 123 Sunshine
Lane Toronto, On, M9M 1C5

Dear Mr. Gage:

Body Paragraph: 3-4 paragraphs thanking the recipient for their service to you. Questions to Answer in the
Body What service they provided and why you appreciated it? How their service made you feel? Why you
want to thank them?
Best Regards
Theodore Rainbow

A Persuasive Letter
Idea Web
What is the problem? Who gets our letter? Why are changes needed? How can we fix the problem?

Writing a Persuasive Letter


Idea Web
You can use this graphic organizer to model how to begin organizing ideas.Children can make a similar
planner for their own work.

What is the problem?


The park needs fixing up.
Who gets our letter? The mayo. Why are changes needed? The play equipment is dangerous. How can we
fix the problem?

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A Persuasive Letter
Revising Checklist
The Parts of a Letter
A letter usually includes the following parts:
The heading of the letter usually includes the address and date at the top of the letter. The greeting is the
opening like Dear Mom followed by a comma for a friendly letter or a colon for a business letter. The body
is the heart of the letter. This is where you write your message. Remember to keep your writing clear and
easy to read. Write for your reader! The closing is the ending of your letter. Sign your name at the end of
the letter under a closing word such as Sincerely followed by a comma. Here are some common
abbreviations that you may need when you have small spaces to write a word.

N. north

S. south

E. east

W. west

St. street

Ave. avenue

Blvd. boulevard

Rd. road

Dr. drive

Ln. lane

Cr. Circle

XING crossing

Hwy. highway

I interstate

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Lecture -34
REVISION
General writing Practice based on the speeches and text given in the reading module
Q1: Compare and contrast the theme and mood/style of the poems Casabianca and Evelyn

Hope.

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Q2: Bring out the chief traits of the personality of Shaheed Bhagat Singh after reading his

letters.

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Q3: Summarize the ideas of Gandhi about the existence of God


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Q.4 Bring out the elements of irony and pathos in the story. The Necklace
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