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J. J.

Strossamayer University in Osijek Faculty of Philosophy

THEORY AND MECHANICS OF WRITING IN MLA STYLE

Osijek, 2009 Outline: 1. Theoretical part 1.1. What is an essay? 1.2. Paragraph 1.3. Composition 1.4. Argumentation 1.5. Style introduction 1.6. Diction 1.7. Research paper 1.8. A Basic 10 Step Research Strategy 2. Mechanics 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. The Format Punctuation Mechanics How to Quote? How to Create Works Cited List? Research Paper Sample

3. Exercises 4. References

1. Theoretical part 1.1. WHAT IS AN ESSAY?


Essay is a piece of writing in which students with logical and educated arguments try to explain their position on a particular theme. Basic structure of an essay: 1. Introduction: should include a few general statements about the subject to provide a background introduce the central idea to the essay and to attract the readers attention

2. Main body: main body consists of one or more paragraphs that contain main ideas and the body of a standard school essay consist of mainly three paragraphs in the first paragraph - give the arguments or examples for the main idea in the second - you attack your own idea with counterarguments in the third - you give more arguments or examples that will conquer counterarguments purpose of the essay must be made clear and the reader must be able to follow its development 3. Conclusion: includes the writers final point recall the issues raised in the introduction and draw together the points made in the main body arguments of the essay together with illustrations or examples

signal the reader that the essay is finished and leave a clear impression that the purpose of the essay has been achieved

1.2 PARAGRAPH
Whatever the purpose of writing, we always write in paragraphs, that is groups of related sentences set off by a beginning indention. Composing paragraphs has two goals: to express fully your ideas to help readers to follow and appreciate your thoughts

Qualities of effective paragraphs are: unity : the paragraph reflects one idea, meaning that each paragraph is an entity of its own that contributes to the main idea o it is customary that this idea appears at the beginning of the paragraph, but it can also be stated elsewhere o paragraph is unified if it holds together of that is if all its details and examples support the central idea coherence: parts of the paragraph relate clearly to each other o paragraph is coherent if readers can see how the paragraph holds together o when the reader must reread the sentence, it means that the sentences do not relate to each other (or that the reader is not concentrated) o the best trick to create coherence is by using transitional phrases they state the relationship between the sentences clearly o transitional phrases are also used for transition between paragraphs

addition

again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important,

finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too comparison concession also, in the same way, likewise, similarly granted, naturally, of course although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet certainly, indeed, in fact, of course

contrast

emphasis

after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for example or instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, illustration in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when

summary

time sequence

development: the idea of the paragraph is well supported with specific evidence such as details, facts, examples, and reasons o arrange the examples (chronologically, spatially, general-to-specific)

Length not proscribed the average, however is between 4-8 sentences (100-150 words) it depends on the idea you are trying to convey

not too short - it is either irrelevant or the idea is inadequately developed not too long - it contains more than one idea each paragraph is an essay on its own, it has a little introduction (main idea), details/evidence as the main body, and a short summary for a conclusion

Special types of paragraphs: Introduction /introductory paragraph o to draw readers attention o states what will the essay be about o Begin with an attention grabber startling information This information must be true and verifiable, and it doesn't need to be totally new to your readers. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the point you wish to make Anecdote An anecdote is a story that illustrates a point. Be sure your anecdote is short, to the point, and relevant to your topic. This can be a very effective opener for your essay, but use it carefully. Dialogue An appropriate dialogue does not have to identify the speakers, but the reader must understand the point you are trying to convey. Use only two or three exchanges between speakers to make your point Summary Information A few sentences explaining your topic in general terms can lead the reader gently to your thesis. Each sentence should become gradually more specific, until you reach your thesis. o do not open with The purpose of this essay is/The essay is about o dont open with a dictionary definition o dont apologize for your opinion

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o o o o o

The conclusion brings closure to the reader, summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences which do not need to follow any set formula Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic an anecdote can end your essay in a useful way give a symbolic or powerful fact or idea o dont simply restate your introduction o dont close with the next question

1.3 COMPOSITION
No writing takes place in a vacuum. Your composition always depends on several factors, which you have to take into consideration when writing. When writing a composition, consider these: Purpose Audience Information The main idea Plan of organization Schemes for organizing ideas in an essay Revision and editing

These are not always chronological, sometimes one will have to go back and forth 1. PURPOSE

The clearer your purpose is, the better your writing is likely to be. a) EXPRESSIVE expresses your feelings and reactions to the topic - diaries, personal letters, reminiscence b) EXPOSITORY focus on the objective world rather then feelings and opinion - encyclopedia articles, reports c) PERSUASIVE intention is to influence reader's attitudes and actions - arguing for or against something - depends on rational and emotional appeal - essays, research papers Most writings combine the three types of purposes but usually only one prevails. 2. AUDIENCE a) general reader is not an expert b) specialized - your fellow students and teachers c) multiple work-related group with different interests The audience defines also the purpose and influences your tone. 3. INFORMATION given assignment free topic: - choose own field of interest; write about things you know and like make a list of things that you know about the topic ask journalist questions (who, what, where, why, when, and how) this will help you to put even more things on the list limit your focus on the subject categorize your list and choose one category to write about (like taking a photo) 4. THE MAIN IDEA the main idea is the topic of composition helps the writer to stay focused during the process of writing also, it helps the reader to follow the writing more easily

5. PLAN OF ORGANIZATION o Informal working plan: o BRAINSTORM list all things you know about the main idea Write an OUTLINE: An outline is:
o o o o o

A schematic summary a logical, general description An organizational pattern A visual and conceptual design of your writing

Helps you organize your ideas Keeps you focused Presents your material in a logical form Shows the relationships among ideas in your writing Constructs an ordered overview of your writing

THE FIRST DRAFT : o quickly write, do not concern about spelling, punctuation, and usage o connect your outline into sentence form

o leave it for a day or two in order to get the distance and to be more objective TITLE: o After writing the whole composition, you can decide on the most appropriate title (in case that the title has not been assigned, only topic)

6. SCHEMES FOR ORGANIZING IDEAS IN AN ESSAY SPACE o Spatial organization is appropriate for expository essays that describe a place, an object, or a person. TIME 9

o Chronological organization is appropriate for reports of events that occurred in time, usually form first to last EMPHASIS o Deductive scheme (general to specific) common in expository and argumentative essays that start with general discussion and lead to specific examples o Inductive scheme (specific to general) is used in expository and argumentative essays that start with specific examples that lead to more general ideas and conclusions 7. STRATEGIES OF DEVELOPMENT They are a natural thinking process useful when you are generating ideas about your topic. o NARRATIVE How did it happen? mostly chronological arrangement, important events are more elaborated upon, less significant events are merely summarized First experience with the essay? When did you write your first essay?

o DESCRIPTION How does it look like? spatial arrangement in description of a person, place, or thing What does the essay look like?

o ILLUSTRATION OR SUPPORT How can it be illustrated or supported? list examples and reasons for your topic in order to support it How does the essay writing course helps you for your studies?

o DEFINITION What is it? specify the precise meaning of the word, object, or concept in order to differentiate the topic form other things in the same class Define an essay? (A piece of writing) 10

o DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION What are its parts or characteristics? How can it be categorized? list and detail the parts or classes of your topic What are the basic types of essays? (categorized by purpose)

o COMPARISON AND CONTRAST How is it like, or different from, other things? examine similarities and differences between topics In what way are essays different from creative writing/personal letters/novels? o CAUSE& EFFECT What are its causes or effects? leads to one or two organizations: first explain the effect and examine its causes, or explain the cause and examine possible effects Why were essays important? What is their effect in you/on academic community?

o PROCESS ANALYSIS How does it work? chronologically explain how something is functioning, step by step How to write an essay?

8. REVISION AND EDITING o THE ESSAY AS A WHOLE 1. Does the whole essay stick to the purpose? 2. Have you kept the audience in mind? Do any terms require definition? 3. Is the focus consistent? Do the ideas in the essay show clear relationship to the central ideas, or thesis?

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4. Is the central idea or thesis sharply conceived? Does your thesis statement clearly suggest the stand and approach you are taking? 5. Have you chosen an effective method of development? 6. Is the reasoning sound in the essay and in individual paragraphs and sentences? 7. Will the introduction attract readers interest? Does it indicate what the essay is about? 8. Does the essay come to a satisfying close?

o PARAGRAPHS 1. Are all the paragraphs unified? Are there any ideas in any paragraph that do not belong there? 2. Is each paragraph coherent? Are sentences in each paragraph in a natural and effective order? Are the sentences connected by suitable transitional phrases, repetition of key words? 3. Is progression between paragraphs easy and natural? Are there clear transitions where needed? 4. Is each paragraph adequately developed? o SENTENCE AND DICTION 1. Are ideas giving appropriate emphasis within the sentence? 2. Does each pronoun refer clearly to its antecedent? 3. Are the sentences varied in length and type? 4. Are there any fragments? 5. Do all verbs agree with the subject? 6. Have you used the appropriate form of the verb? 7. Are any words imprecise or vague? 8. Have you avoided or defined all technical words that are unfamiliar to the audience? 9. Are all the words spelled out correctly?

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1.4 ARGUMENTATION
Critical thinking and writing points reader you will become critical to what you hear and see logical thinking and knowledge on fallacies will help you evaluate other you will be able to recognize problems in your own and others writing logical thinking and knowledge of fallacies will help you not just in writing Summarizing the main points will help you understand using well-reasoned and well-supported arguments, you will persuade the base your writing and reading on logical thinking to determine the validity of an argument, you have to understand its main

people's writing as well

but also in reading someone elses paper, and in discussion with your friends. Effective reasoning INDUCTIVE REASONING Build on evidence

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Students rarely attend showings of the school film society,

which presents only serious foreign films. Your colleagues seem to prefer SF, adventure, and horror movies. A magazine article says that these three kinds of entertainment are the most popular with people under twenty-five. Give a cause to these pieces of evidence (generalization) The president of the school film society is unaware of students

needs and preferences.

DEDUCTIVE REASONING SYLLOGISM major premise (general) - minor premise (specific) - conclusion Essays containing common fallacies get poor grades. Your essay contains fallacies. Your essay will get a poor grade. Unstated premises Mrs. Smith has taught essay writing for fifteen years, so she should know a great deal about the mechanic of writing. Johns father is an alcoholic, so he will become one too.

Overstated premises Drunk drivers are always young people. o Use limiting words such as some, many, and often rather than absolute words such as all, no one, never, or always FACING THE QUESTION Thesis statement usually centers on an issue or question. A good paper is if you manage to answer the question or support the statement with good arguments (facts and evidence). However, this can be rather difficult so writers usually oversimplify complex issues or argue

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only superficially about them. Although favored opinion dies hard, the readers must be critical of the evidence that does not support it (if you are against abortion and you are reading someones essay that is also against abortion but the evidence is poor, you must be critical). Begging the question - the writer begs the reader to accept his or her ideas from Teenagers should be prevented from having abortions, for they would not become pregnant in the first place if they werent allowed to terminate their mistakes. the start.

Ignoring the question writers sometimes ignore the question with appeals readers fear, pity, or sense of decency. There is also the matter of snob appeal. As any literate person knows, William Faulkner is the best twentieth century novelist.

FALLACIES = some kinds of faulty inductive and deductive reasoning, which are common in all sorts of writing. You should try to avoid them because they will weaken your essay. o NON SEQUITUR - a statement that does not follow logically from

what just has been said o Joe is honest; therefore he will get a good job. HASTY GENERALIZATION a generalization based on too little

evidence or on exceptional and biased evidence a stereotype) Teenagers are reckless drivers. The French are good lovers and the British have bad teeth. (based on

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OVERSIMPLIFICATION an argument that links two events as if

one caused the other directly, whereas the causes may be more complex, or the relation does not exist at all o People who pass tests are lucky. Poverty causes crime. FALSE CAUSE / POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC the

assumption that because one event follows the other, he first is the cause of the other. The new major took office last January, and crime in the streets has already increased 25 percent. o EITHER/OR FALLACY stating that only two alternatives exist

when in fact there are more Earth. o City policemen are either brutal or corrupt FALSE ANALOGY the assumption that because two things are alike We have only two choices: ban nuclear weapons or destroy the

in some ways, they must be alike in others Since the books are about the same length and cover the same material, one is probably as good as the other. o AD HOMINEM attacking a person who presents an issue rather than

dealing logically with the issue itself We should not listen to her arguments against national health insurance because she has enough money to afford private insurance. o BANDWAGON an argument saying that you will follow the majority Everyone else is cheating, so why shouldn't I? As everyone knows, marijuana use leads to heroin addiction.

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CIRCULAR REASONING similar to a definition that restates the

subject and its predicate o A computer virus as a virus that infects a computer. RED HERRING dodging the real issue or drawing attention to the

irrelevant issue Why worry about few terrorist when we ought to be doing something about the acid rain?

Argumentation writing is challenging because the aim is to affect, often to When forming convictions about arguable topics (capital punishment,

change the way readers think/feel about the subject feelings. The most effective arguments combine: RATIONAL APEALS (logical reasoning) EMOIONAL APPEALS (beliefs and feelings) RATIONAL APPEAL fails to address reader's feelings EMOTIONAL APPEAL fails to provide supporting evidence ASSERTIONS are fundamental to an argument Test them FACTS verifiable (we can determine if they are true) The World War II ended in 1945. OPINION a judgment based on facts, an honest attempt to draw euthanasia) we interpret the evidence through our beliefs, values, desires, and

o o o o o

reasonable conclusion from the evidence

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o values argument o

If national health insurance is too expensive for the state, BELIEF a conviction based on cultural or personal faith, morality,

we should think of other means to deal with inadequate medical care.

God exists. They are not based on facts and other evidence They should not serve as the thesis of an PREJUDICE an opinion based on insufficient or unexamined

evidence (Women are bad drivers.) Offensive belief attacking someones race, ethnicity, intellect, or culture.

o o o

Kinds of evidence STATISTICS EXAMPLES EXPERT OPINIONS (scientific)

They are all accurate relevant representative adequate and thus they support the assertions and convince the reader

Pay attention to advertisement or presidential campaigns they are full of inappropriate appeals to emotions. Think about them!

1.5 STYLE INTRODUCTION

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Style is the correct use of language. Style is the particular way in which something is done.

This general notes will help you to use the language correctly and also to create your own style. SENTENCE UNITY Good writing is unified: it sticks to the purpose. It applies not only to the sentence level, but also to the whole composition or a paragraph. o Make the relationship between ideas clear to the reader o Avoid excessive or poorly ordered detail o Eliminate unimportant detail because the length does not make the sentence effective o Avoid mixed metaphors Playing with fire can get you into deep water. o Avoid faulty predication. One book I read believes in eliminating subsides. o Avoid awkward definitions; is-when, is-where, is-because. The reason the package arrived so late is because he didnt mail it soon enough. MODIFIERS As a rule place modifiers near the words they modify. Rex just died with his boots on. Rex died with just his boots on. Just Rex died with his boots on.

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o In formal English, modifiers like almost, only, just, even, hardly, nearly, and merely are placed immediately before the words they modify. The car cost only 500$. o Avoid awkward separation of the infinitive. I had in spite of my not living in a neighborhood as fine as Jennys a healthy measure of pride. o Avoid dangling modifiers, that is, phrases that do not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence. Not able to swim that far, a lifeguard came to my rescue. Because I was not able to swim so far, a lifeguard came to my rescue.

SHIFTS Avoid needless shifts in grammatical structures, in tone or style, and in viewpoint. Abrupt, unnecessary shifts from past to present, from singular to plural, from formal diction to slang, obscure the meaning and make the paper difficult to read. While they waited George argued with the policeman and his brother discusses the matter with the neighbor. The senior class is planning to ask their teacher to their spring dance. PRONOUNS The awkward use of you When one cannot swim, you fear deep stormy waters.

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Sometimes, the use of the impersonal, or indefinite you, is both natural and acceptable, because it means people in general or the reader. Most writers, however, do not use it in formal context.

EMPHASIS Place important words and thoughts at the beginning or and of the sentence Use active voice rather then passive Gain emphasis by repeating important words Gain emphasis by inverting the word order

VARIETY Vary the structure and the length of your sentences; it is more interesting and dynamic. Avoid series of short and simple sentences. It is too choppy. Vary the beginnings of each sentence (adverb or a PP)

1.6. DICTION
Language is maybe our most powerful tool with a strong language skill, we can more easily obtain what we want DICTION is the choice and the use of words

EXACTNESS o Choose words that are exact, idiomatic, and fresh o Good writing usually consists of short, familiar words o Avoid wrong, inexact, or ambiguous usage o Choose the word with the connotation as well as the denotation, appropriate to the idea you wish to express o Choose specific and concrete rather than the general and abstract words

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o To test whether the word is specific or not, ask questions like: Exactly what/what/when/where/how? Food - fast food pizza Bad children: rude, ungrateful, elfish Bad meat: tough, tainted, overcooked, contaminated o Use figurative language appropriately o Use fresh expressions instead of trite, worn-out ones (use the vocabulary you pick up at language practice) WORDINESS o Avoid wordiness the use of more words than necessary to express an idea When you lack ideas, you start to explain roundabout Omit any unnecessary words in the essay o Repeated words and ideas the reason why is because o Empty sentence openers in my opinion o Needless intensifiers really, very o Padded transitions because of the fact that) o Unnecessary clause openers which/what is) o Nouns ending in ence, -ance, -ment, -tion that could be replaced with an appropriate verb The painting is a glorification of Queen Victoria. The painting glorifies Queen Victoria. Waste of time Say what you have to say in as few words as possible

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Repeat a word or a phrase only when it is needed for emphasis or clarity WORDY: In the early part of the month of August, a hurricane was moving threateningly toward Huston. o the same thing. Commuters going back and forth to work or school CORRECT: In early August, a hurricane was threatening Huston. Tautology is one example of wordiness - the use of different words that say

NEEDLESS REPETITION one word implies the meaning of the other (blue sky, first and foremost) eliminate redundant words As I watched her skate, the impression that was most impressed on me was her athletic grace. Modifiers According to statistics, a new baby is born in the USA every three minutes. REPETITIOUS: A humorous person can make any unhumorous situation humorous. CORRECT: A humorous person can turn any serious situation into a witty joke. AVOID JARGON o The special vocabulary of any discipline or profession (doctors, economists, lawyers...) o Also, any vague, inflated language that states relatively simple ides in unnecessarily complicated way o Usually it requires translation JARGON: The necessity for individuals to become separate entities in their own right way, impel children to engage in open rebelliousness against parental authority or against sibling influence, with resultant confusion of those being rebelled against.

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TRANSLATION: Childrens natural desire to become themselves may make them rebel against bewildered parents or siblings. USING UNBIASED LANGUAGE o gender specific pronouns A student planning to graduate this spring should see his advisor at once. o avoid such problems by using the plural Students planning to graduate this spring should see their advisor at once. o occasional he or she is all right, but after a while it can become too demanding of the readers attention and the devise becomes more important then the message

ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE Sometimes recommended because it gives a formal touch, but one should not exaggerate ACTIVE: I found a lot of examples of humor in the play PASSIVE: A lot of examples of humor are to be found in the play.

PARALLEL STRUCTURES A way to join and emphasize equally important ideas Nouns: Rosario and Maria Verbs: revise and edit Prepositional phrases: government of the people, by the people, for the people faulty parallelism occurs when linked words do not have the same grammatical form He is tall, dark, handsome, and with a sly wit. Put words linked by a coordinating conjunction into a parallel form 24

I love skiing and raft. Put words in series into a parallel form As I plan this semester, I am dividing my life into three categories: academic, work, and pleasure. Put words linked by correlative conjunctions into a parallel form He dislikes both water rafting and camp.

1.7. RESEARCH PAPER


Research paper is body of information about a particular subject; it is scientific (objective, referent, truthful) differs from essays and composition - composition can be purely personal opinions or feelings; it is private you have to develop the subject in depth you have to give something new or important to the subject

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you have to give some facts and insights into the topic according to other peoples researches o contextualize it into the field o include the sources, information, and research of other people

objective acknowledge properly other people's ideas in your writing (direct and indirect quoting) show clearly what are your own thoughts, conclusions, attitudes relate you own thoughts/opinions/attitudes with others' thoughts/ opinions/attitudes

THE GOOD SIDES? you learn more about the topic/field you learn how to evaluate other peoples work you learn how to make a dialogue you develop your own way of thinking (sharpening you thoughts) you learn the difference between what is objective/subjective

BAD SIDES more time needed more work needed

USING REFERENCES (LITERATURE)

o go to the library and ask about that topic o go though books with title/subtitle that has something in relation with your topic first see the table of contents and introduction, than read some chapters that look interesting you will soon notice the style and main ideas that the author is communicating and which you can use it in your research 26

you do not have to read whole book just introduction and your chapter (sometimes only one chapter in the book relates to your thesis) o ask people who are from that field (you high school teacher) or have some interest in that (friends, parents sometimes have more knowledge about some topic than we assume) to give you some advice about the good literature or give their opinion (you need that for dialogue, to sharpen your ideas and thoughts) o when you read article/book, pay attention to the footnotes it can lead you to the other useful sources it shows the important books/people in the field and you have to mention them (if you are writing about psychoanalyses you have to mention Freud!) o the internet only reliable addresses (edu., org.), not some private blogues, if you are not sure about the information, it is advisable to double check it is better to not include it than to put something unreliable USING INFORMATION o read everything connected to your topic o choose information that are relevant for your thesis statement and that will help you in supporting it o choose information that oppose to your thesis replying to that will help clear your statement and give you more and better arguments (writing a research paper is dialogue!) o always take notes of books, authors, and pages you are going through because you will not find it later or you will spend hours in searching it (especially internet addresses that teachers like to check) o make notes of interesting topics and ideas that are not related to this research (maybe you will use it later in some other researches learning is a all-compassing and everlasting process)

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USING SOURCES o QUOTATION direct quotation important information incorporated in your text if fewer that 3 lines enclosed in quotation marks

paraphrase restatement of the source in about the same number of words shows that you have understood the reading make it simple your own words but the same content no quotation marks but you have to include the author, book and page that you have paraphrased form summarize shorter restatement omit any unnecessary information o plagiarism = lat. kidnapper no quotation marks but you have to include the author, book and page that you have paraphrased form

INTEGRATING BORROWED MATERIALS Presenting borrowed material o Use a signal phrase to present your borrowing o Write author's name o Introduce it with the most appropriate verb

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Signal phrases: Acknowledges, admits, agrees, argues, asserts, adds, advises, argues, believe, claims, comments, compares, declares, defines, denies, disputes, emphasizes, hints, hopes, illustrates, implies, indicates, notes, objects, reports, responds, reveals, suggests, thinks, warns o Present the quotation o Document the borrowing information about the source In his article Smith emphasizes that a woman living in the south has always been perceived as less valuable than a man (86). USING ELLIPSIS POINTS TO SIGNAL OMISSION o Omission of less then a sentence - three evenly spaced periods o Omission of more than a sentence four evenly spaced periods o Remaining word must stay grammatically complete In his article Smith emphasizes that a woman (. . .) living in the south has always been perceived as less valuable than a man (86). In his article Smith emphasizes that a woman living in the south (. . . .) has always been perceived as less valuable than a man (86). BRACKETS FOR INSERTIONS o Used to insert your words into a quotation to explain it Nature writer Wallace Stegner believes that recreation could be as dangerous [to wilderness areas] as logging or extractive use" (43). DRAFTING o write a first draft o cool of the writing o identify the status (type of essay, organizational principle, aim, goal and audience) o change a focus

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o compare plan to results REVISING AND EDITING PROOFREADING FINAL DRAFT

1.8. A BASIC 10 STEP RESEARCH STRATEGY

What is the difference(s) between an essay and a research paper? ESSAY - Personal - Subjective - Your own ideas, arguments, thoughts - No quotation - Requires only thinking abut the topic - Less time - Format 1. SELECT YOUR TOPIC o State the topic as a question o Identify what kind of information you need RESEARCH - impersonal - objective - others ideas, arguments - quotation - requires research - more time - format

2. CREATE A MIND MAP FOR YOUR TOPIC o Brainstorm all possible keywords and concepts 3. FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATION

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Encyclopedias, Dictionaries..

4. DETERMINE THE FOCUS OF YOUR TOPIC o Focus o working outline o Thesis: what do you want to say/prove with your research? 5. FIND BOOKS AND PERIODICALS o library o Ask the librarian o Look at the table of contents o write down the author, title, edition and page number 6. FIND INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET o Search engines o use reliable sites (edu.) o Also make sure that you get all the necessary information about the article so it doesnt get lost (author, title of the article, paragraph, web site, date when it was posted, date of access) 7. EVALUATE WHAT YOU HAVE FOUND o Author, qualifications o Teacher/other people in that field 8. RECORD YOUR INFORMATION o Gather all the information o Highlight/Cut and paste o Start creating your works cited section in alphabetical order 9. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES AND CREATE A FINAL OUTLINE o strategies of development (spatial, chronological, compare/contrast)

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o Write a synopsis 10. WRITE YOUR PAPER o Write a rough draft - get your ideas on paper o Revision - pay attention to style, transitions, mechanics o Final copy - follow MLA guidelines o Proof read - look for all possible errors (revisers checklist)

2. Mechanics 2.1 THE FORMAT

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1. PAPER - always use a regular white A4 paper format 2. MARGINS - leave one-inch (2,5cm) all around the text of the paper top, bottom, left , and right 3. SPACING - double-space throughout the text 4. JUSTIFY the text on both sides 5. FONT - Times New Roman in a 12-point font size 6. COVER PAGE - should contain student's name and year of the study, instructor's name, name of the course and date at the top of the paper, at the left-hand margin 7. TITLE - center the title above the text and capitalize the first, the last, and all principal words of the title do not use quotation marks around the title or underline it do not use periods after the title

8. INDENTION indent the first word of each paragraph ten spaces from the left margin 9. PAGING always use Arabic numerals (without periods and parentheses) in the upper-hand corner, one-half inch from the top, and type your surname before the page number 10. PAGE one page of a text has 1800 characters including spaces word tools word count characters with blank spaces the given number divide by 1800 and you will get the number of pages e.g. 6300 characters / 1800 = 3,5 cards

11. OUTLINE the cover page in a research paper is followed by an outline with divisions and subdivisions; in the body of the paper, these divisions and subdivisions are also included

2.2. PUNCTUATION
1. THE PERIOD.

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statements, mild commands, or indirect questions and with most abbreviations! The piano played quietly in the background. Please do not smoke. Students sometimes wonder whether the teacher read the papers they write. Ph.D. 2. THE QUESTION MARK? a) after direct questions. What is the difference between these two people? b) doubt about the correctness of a number or date. The Greek philosopher Socrates was born in 470 (?) B.C. and died in 399 B.C. 3. THE EXCLAMATION POINT! emphatic statements, interjections, and strong commands. No, we must not lose these elections! Oh, no! Stop! 4. THE COMMA, a) to separate main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, or, so, but, yet) The steering was stiff, but the car rode smoothly. b) to set off most introductory/ transitional expressions Fortunately, the ride would be comfortable. As a result, we were not very tired. c) to set off nonrestrictive elements We dreaded the trip, which would take sixteen hours. Our destination, Las Vegas, was unfamiliar to us. d) to separate items in series

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We would need a new home, new schools, and new friends. - note that there is a comma in front of the last element f) to separate coordinate adjectives A bumpy, cramped road was unbearable. g) use commas to prevent misreading. Soon after, she left the town for good h) use commas according to convention in dates, addresses, place names, and long numbers. July 4, 1776, was the day the Declaration of Independence was signed. Their anniversary on 15 December 1982 was their fiftieth. Use the address 5543 Laurie Lane, Memphis, Tennessee, for all correspondence. A kilometer is 3,281 feet (or 3281 feet). Russias 8,649,490 square miles make it the largest country in the world. 5) THE SEMICOLON; - separate main clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction. Directing movies was only one of his ambitions; he also wanted to direct theatrical productions of Shakespeares plays. 6.) THE APOSTROPHE a) Use the apostrophe with possessive nouns or indefinite pronouns Parks b) with contractions Wont; shouldnt, theyre c) with plurals of letters and numbers 60s As and Bs

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7) QUOTATION MARKS / 1. double a) use double quotation marks for direct quotation, that is what someone has said or written in the exact words of the original. According to Disraeli, Gladstone did not have a single redeeming defect. Disraeli once said, He [Gladstone] has not a single redeeming defect. b) and for minor titles short stories, essays, short poems, songs, articles in periodicals, and subdivisions of books. Andrew A. Rooneys Pieces of My Mind contains essays like Procrastination and The Power of Negative Thinking. In his poem London William Blake expressed c) use double quotation marks for a minor title appearing in a longer italicized title. Modern Interpretations of My Last Duchess d) ocassionally, double quotation marks may be used to enclose words in a special sense A normal, healthy person 2. single a) use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. Edgar Allan Poes A Predicament is one of the funniest stories I have ever read!, Chet exclaimed. 3. no qoutation marks a) no quotation marks are used for indirect quotation. Claudia Miniken said that hill climbing is not so difficult when one has a good friend. 8.) THE COLON: Use the colon to introduce and to separate. Two chief elements make the work interesting: first, the exrcise of skill, and second, construction.

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9.) THE DASH Use the dash to indicate sudden changes in tone or thought. He tells us does he really mean it that he will speak the truth form now on. The may be replaced with commas. 10) PARTENHESIS ( ) The populaton of Philadelphia (now about 1.7 million) has declined since 1950. Then, my father arrived at two points in his life: (1) his last years, and (2) the realization that he had made a tragic mistake. In Hamlet Shakespeare presents the most famous soliloquy in the history of the theatre: To be, or not to be (3.1.56-89). 11.) BRACKETS [ ] Disraeli once said, He [Gladstone] has not a single redeeming defect. According to the newspaper report, The car slammed thru [sic] the railing and into the oncoming traffic. 12.) ELLIPSIS MARK . . . a) three spaced periods when omitting less than one sentence But all these places . . . are so different from each other that one couldnt help thinking: this kind of talk was shorthand for confusion. b) four spaced periods (. . . .) when omitting one or more sentences c) to indicate the omission of a full line or more in quoted poetry, use spaced periods covering the length of the omitted line: The hoary prince in majesty appeared, High on a throne of his own labors reared. .. His brow thick fogs, instead of glories, grace, And lambent dullness played around his face.

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13.) THE SLASH / a) use the slash between options I do not know why some teachers oppose to fail/pass courses. b) and to separate lines of poetry that run in to the text The E. E. Cummingss form of expression, such as in the lines next to of course god america i / love you land of the pilgrims, c) to separate lines in verse plays In Hamlet Shakespeare presents the most famous soliloquy in the history if theatre: To be, or not to be / that is the question . . . ( 3.1.56-89) 14.) SPECIAL EMPHASIS - in order to emphasize some words in the research paper, the author may enclose some words with quotation marks, underline, or bold (seldom) them a) When authors want to emphasize their own words, they usually use quotation marks "Subversive" drama is a line within contemporary American drama which shows losers on stage. b) When authors want to emphasize some words within a quote, they should put the parenthesis explaining what kind of a change was made and provide the initial of the author Davis argues that Nick "is a successful (underlined by P. P.) character".

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2.3 MECHANICS
CAPITALS - in titles and subtitles of books, plays, student papers and so on, capitalize the first and last words and all other nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives in the title. Looking Back: A Chronicle of Growing Up Old in the Sixties ITALICS Italicize titles of books, plays, long poems, films, works of art, magazines, newspaper, TV shows 60 Minutes Hamlet USA Today Verdis Aida - foreign words and phrases are also italicized in the context of an English sentence The maxim of the French Revolution still echoes in our ears: liberte, egalite, fraternite. - use italics for emphasis What are you doing? do not italicize parts of the Bible (Genesis, Revelation) nor legal documents (Bill of Rights) ABBREVIATIONS 58 BC; AD 70; 8:00 a.m.; Washington D.C.; the U.S. Army FBI, NYU, NBC, JFK, IQ, TV, cf. (compare) ect. (and so forth) et al. (and others) i.e. (that is)

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e.g. (for example) ACRONYMS

vs. (versus)

Anti-satellite interceptor (ASAT) is a very important.

NUMBERS Usually, spell out the numbers that can be expressed in one word or two and use figures for all others but tend to be consistent. after 124 years BUT after twenty-two years

o numbers are advisable when writing dates, addresses, pages of books or plays, large round numbers, decimals o avoid numbers at the beginning of the sentence

TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Place the illustrative material as close as possible to the part of the text that it illustrates. A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and captioned. Table 1 Language Immersion Program of the State University ff New York Language American Sign Italian Russian 1999 6 134 56 2001 4 223 89

Source: Henry Urbansky, The Language Immersion Program at New Paltz, ADFL Bulletin. New York: Little, 2003.

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Any other type of illustrative material (a photograph, a map, line drawing, graph) should be labeled Figure (usually abbreviated Fig.) assigned in arabic numeral, and given a title or caption. Everything is placed under the illustration.

Fig. 1. Leslie Lowe, Flower, Washington Post, 2002.

Fig.2. Number of Environmental Education Methodology Courses Taught by Institutions from Mastrilli, Johnson, and McDonald, Inclusion of Environmental Education in Pennsylvania Teacher Preparation Curricula: A Survey of Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Programs. <http://www.pcee.org>.

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G) PHOTOGRAPHS

Fig. 3. Romeo i Julija. By William Shakespeare. Dir. Petar Veek. Perf. Zrinka Cvitei. HNK Zagreb. 2 Mar. 2002.

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2.4 HOW TO QUOTE?


PROSE 1) long quotation a) set off long quotes (longer then 3 lines) by indention one inch from the ledft hand margin b) introduce them with a colon (:) c) double space them d) do not use quotation marks e) put a period at the end f) state the author of the book (if not mentioned before the quote) and page number in the brackets Example: Metal coins replaced bartering. Then paper money became more convenient to use then metal coins not only because it is easy to handle but also because, as Certon and OTool say in Encounters with the Future, it has other advantages: Printing more zeroes is all it takes on a bill to increase its value. Careful engraving makes it easy to recognize and difficult to counterfeit. The fact that private individuals cannot create it at will keeps it sacre. Karl Marxs once said that paper money was valued only insofar as it represents gold but that may never have been true. (188)

2. short quotation a) incorporate them in your text and enclose in quotation marks b) put authors name and page number in the parenthesis c) put the period at the end Example: Thoreaus Walden is one of theten books that shaped America (Yardley 24). 43

POETRY 1) long quotation a) set off long quotes (longer then 3 lines) by indention fpr one inch form the left-hand margin b) introduce them with a colon (:) c) double space them d) do not use quotation marks e) put a period at the end f) state the author of the book (if not mentioned before the quote) and number of verse in the parenthesis Example: In London William Blake expressed his horror of institutional callousness: How the Chimney sweepers cry Every blackning Church Appals; And the hapless Soldiers sigh Runs in blood down Palace walls. (9-12)

2. short quotation a) incorporate them in your text and enclose in quotation marks b) a slash with a space on each side indicates the divisions between the lines Example: When in Mr. Floods Party the hero sets down to jug his feet, as a mother lays her sleeping child / Down tenderly, fearing it may awake, one feels Robinsons heart to be quite simply on his sleeve.

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DRAMA 1) long quotation a) set off long quotes (longer then 3 lines) by indention for one inch b) introduce them with a colon (:) c) double space them d) do not use quotation marks e) put a period at the end f) use the upper case for name of the character, followed by a colon g) indent the name of the character by ten spaces and all other lines should be indented additional three spaces below characters name h) for verse plays, state the author of the play (if not mentioned before the quote) followed by act, scene, and number of lines in the parenthesis i) for modern plays state the author of the play (if not mentioned before the quote) followed by page number Example for a verse play: By the end of the 16th century, Shakespeare wrote Richard III, a play of a lame, disfigured character whose body manifests all the greed and evilness of his heart and soul: GLOUCESTER: I, that am curtaild of this fair proportion, Cheated of feature by dissembling nature, Deformed, unfinishd, sent before my time Into this breathing world, scarce half made up, And that so lamely and unfashionable That dogs bark at me when I halt by them; (1.1.18-23)

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Example for a modern play: How great a handicap pity can be is familiar to Don in Butterflies Are Free. He does not want to be pitied because he does not admit that blindness is a reason for pity: DON: Listen, the one thing that drives me up the wall is pity. I dont want and I dont need it. Please-dont feel sorry for me. I dont feel sorry for me, so why should you? (Gershe 15)

2. short quotation a) incorporate them in your text and enclose in quotation marks b) a slash with a space on each side indicates the divisions between the lines c) put act, scene and number of lines in the brackets d) a period comes after the parenthesis Example: In Hamlet Shakespeare presents the most famous soliloquy in the history of the theatre: To be, or not to be (3.1.56-89).

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2.5. HOW TO CREATE WORKS CITED LIST?


BOOKS:
ONE AUTHOR Shakespeare, William. Richard III. London: Penguin Books, 1969. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS - list the names in the order the appear on the title page - only the first author's name should be reversed (last name, first name) - use commas between author's names - if there are more then three authors, name only the first and add et al. Rowe, Richard, and John Juffus. Our Civic Duty. New York: Bookrags, 1998. TWO OR MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR - in this case, give the name only in the first entry - for the next entry, type three hyphens, add a period and skip a space (---. ) then give the title - the hyphens stand for the name in the first entry Scott, Susan. Exploring the Bay. London: Qxford University Press, 1987. ---. Animals in the Bay. London: Oxford University Press, 1997. Author (last name, first name). Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

SECOND AND OTHER EDITION Author (last name, first name). Title of Book. Edition. City of Publication: Publisher, 1967. Huber, Michael. Marine Biology. 5th edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

EDITOR OR COMPILER - if the person is an editor or a compiler, rather than the author, add a comma and then the abbreviation ed. or comp. Carpenter, Allan, ed. Facts About the Cities. New York: Wilson, 1992

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CORPORATE AUTHOR

Public Agenda Foundation. The Health Care Crisis: Containing Costs, Expanding Coverage. New York: McGraw, 1992.

BOOK IN AN ANTHOLOGY Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.

Malouf, David. "The Kyogle Line." The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Ed. Patricia Craig.

ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK Coulter, Ellis Merton. "John Adair." Dictionary of American Biography. Ed. Allen Johnson. Vol. 1. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1964.

GOVERNMENT AGENCY AS AUTHOR Name of Government. Name of Agency. Title. Number of Congress. Number of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication United States. Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-05. 124th ed. Washington, DC: GPO, 2004. ENCYCLOPEDIA: Author of Article (if given). Article title. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE, SIGNED

Epps, Helen H.. "Textiles." World Book Encyclopedia. 2003 ed.

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ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE or DICTIONARY ENTRY, UNSIGNED

"Onomatopoeia." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. ARTICLE: - give complete dates for weekly magazine in this order: d.d. mm yy - abbreviate the months ARTICLE FROM A MONTHLY MAGAZINE

Hitchens, Christopher. "A Breath of Dust." Atlantic Monthly Jul-Aug 2005: 142- 46. ARTICLE FROM A WEEKLY MAGAZINE

Boyce, Nell. "A Law's Fetal Flaw." U.S. News and World Report 21 July 2003: 49-51.

WEB SITES: - sometimes the complete publication information is not available foe a Web site; provide what it is given ENTIRE INTERNET SITE. SCHOLARY PROJECT OR PROFESSIONAL SITE Title of the Site. Editor. Date and/or Version Number. Name of Sponsoring institution. Date of Access <url>. Encyclopedia Myhica. 2204. 13 May 2004 <http://pantheon.org/>.

DOCUMENT FROM A WEB SITE Author. Title of Web Page. Title of the Site. Editor. Date. Name of sponsoring Institution. Date of Access <url>. Sutton, Bettye, et al. "1800-1810." 19th Century Cultural History. Ed. Peggy Whitley. 2003. Kingwood College Library, Kingwood, TX. 28 July 2005 <http://kclibrary.nhmccd.edu/19thcentury1800.htm>.

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NO AUTHOR

Dutch Recipes. 9 Jun. 1998. 16 Sept. 2003. <http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/verona/190/eten.htm>. AUTHOR, NO DATE <http://jamesdawe.com/austen.html>. FILM OR VIDEOTAPE Defpr, and Christian Scott Thomas. Mirimax, 1996. LIVE PERFORMANCE OF A PLAY

Dawe, James. The Jane Austen Page. 16 Sept. 2003

The English Patient. Dir. Anthony Minghella. Perf. Ralph Finnnes, Juliette Binoche, William

Six Characters in Search of an Author. By Luigi Pirandello. Dor. Robert Brustein. Perf. Jeremy Geidt, David Ackroyd, Monoca Koskey, ana Marianne Owen. American Repertory Theatre, Cambridge. 14 Jan. 1997.

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COVER PAGE FOR A RESEARCH PAPER J. J. Strossmayer University in Osijek Faculty of Philosophy

Blanche and Stella as Two Types of Southern Belle in Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire

Perica Peri

Essay Writing, 3rd year Sanja Runti, PhD.. May 5, 2007

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SYNOPSIS AND OUTLINE FORMAT


2. Name of the student: Course: Professor: Date:

Title: Stella and Blanche as Two Types of Southern Belle

SYNOPSIS .................................................................................. ................................................................................ ................................................................................

OUTLINE 1. Introduction 1.1. .. 1.2. . 2. .. 2.1. . 2.2. 2.3. 3. . 3.1. . 3.2. . 4. Conclusion 5. Works Cited 52

3. EXERCISES FOR THE ESSAY WRITING COURSE

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BASIC STRUCTURE EXERCISE Look at the following essay and identify the basic structure. Also, state which sentences express main ideas of the essay and which sentences only support it! Perica Peri Sanja Runti, PhD. Essay Writing 5 October, 2007 A Cat is Mans Best Friend "A dog is man's best friend." That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets. In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they're not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. Using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats will even fetch! In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don't even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don't often have "accidents." Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws, and

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owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be declawed. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cleaning a litter box is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return. Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal housepet.

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MECHANICS II EXERCISES Correct any faulty capitalization, italics, abbreviations, and numbers in the following sentences. Be prepared to explain your choice. Note that some of the sentences are correct. 1. I can't remember who wrote The sound and the fury. 2. Senator Hilary Clinton is running for the president of the United states. 3. Although Rushid is a Moslem, he is very knowledgeable about the bible, especially the old testament. 4. Colson, the doctor, knew his medicine, but his manner made his patients nervous. 5. African-americans do not like to be called Blacks. 6. My favorite pieces of art are Michelangelo's David and da Vinci's Mona Lisa. 7. The director warned the writer that the screenplay for Ophelia in Love had better be finished happily. 8. Both the New Testament and the Old Testament of the Bible offer profound lessons in human nature. 9. San Francisco's major newspapers are the Chronicle and the Examiner. 10. The essay contains many puns and jeux de mots. 11. One prof. spent 5 hrs. reading from the handbook. 12. Mount Vesuvius erupted in anno domini 79 and buried Pompeii. 13. The dog is thirty in. high but it can dig a six ft. deep hole. 14. The speed limit on that road is 75 miles per hour. 15. Prof. Abbott has office hrs. on Tues., Wed., and Thur. in the A.M. 16. I lost a trivia game because I forgot that sixteen hundred Pennsylvania Avenue is the White House. 17. Not until page ninety-nine, in the middle of the Chapter five does the author introduce the main character. 18. Carol paid one hundred and forty-five dollars for a bridesmaid's dress. 19. She got up at two o'clock and her brother at 2.30 in the afternoon. 20. 103 of the opening-night audience asked for the refund.

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EXCERCISES FOR PARAGRAPH I. The following paragraph does not support the central idea. Identify the topic sentence and delete any irrelevant material. Most people don't realize how difficult it is to work and go to school at the same time. If you want to make good grades but you need to pay your own way, the burdens are tremendous. I work in an office sixteen hours a week. Each term I have to work out a tight schedule that will let me take the courses I want and still be at work when Im needed. I like the job. The people there are pleasant and they are eager to help me learn. In the end my job will be good training for the kind of managerial position I hope to have some day, because Im gaining useful experience in office procedures and working with people. Its hard for me to have a job and go to school, but when I graduate both will make me more employable.

II. Revise the sentences and add transitional phrases in the following paragraph so the thought flows smoothly from one sentence to the next. Cable television sounds like a good idea at first. All available local channels can be piped into a television set for a relatively low cost per month. The reception is clear a real bonus in fringe and rural areas. Several channels for news and local access are in the basic monthly fee. A cable connection to the second or third TV set costs extra. In most places subscribers have to pay as much as thirty dollars a month extra to get the channels like HBO and The Disney Channel. The movies change each month. Many of the movies offered each month are office flops or reruns of old movies that can be viewed on regular channels. Cable television isnt really a bargain.

III. Write a well-developed paragraph with one of the following ideas or an idea of your own. Make sure that your paragraph is unified and coherent as well as adequately developed with specific information. 1. why you like (or don't like) poetry 2. an unusual person you know 3. a place where you feel comfortable

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EXERCISES FOR COMPOSITION 1. Look at the following topics and explain how you could treat each (1) as expressive writing, (2) as expository writing, (3) as persuasive writing. a. Why a foreign language should be required in college b. The place where I feel most relaxed c. How to find a trusty automobile mechanic

2. Write the main idea and brainstorm about the topic Abortion! 3. Write a sketch outline about the topic!

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FALLACIES EXERCISES I. The following sentences exemplify the most common fallacies. Determine what is wrong with each sentence and then revise it to make it more logical.

1. A successful marriage demands maturity that no one under twenty-five possesses. 2. Students persistent complaints about the grading system prove that it is unfair. 3. The United States got involved in World War II because the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. 4. People watch television because they are too lazy to talk or read or because they want a mindless escape from their lives. 5. Working people are slaves to their corporate masters: they have no freedom to do what they want, and they can be traded to other companies. 6. Mountain climbing is more dangerous than people think: my cousin has fainted three times since she climbed Pikes Peaks. 7. Racial tension is bound to occur when people with different backgrounds are forced to live side by side. 8. If the United States does not supply military assistance to Central and South American countries, we will eventually be subjected to Communism. 9. She admits to being an atheist, so how can she be a good philosophy teacher. 10. Why can't I buy a car? All my friends have them. 11. He frowns all the time, so he must be sick. 12. There are only two kinds of politicians: those interested in their own welfare and those interested in the welfare of the people. 13. These razor blades give the smoothest shave; all the baseball players use them. 14. Bill is the most popular boy in the class. You should vote for him for president. 15. Mary missed class twice last week. She must have been sick. 16. She's a woman, so she's no good at math. 17. Our jails are full because a lot of people do not have enough money to buy necessities. 18. If you walk self-confidently, you probably will not get mugged. 19. A person who cannot spell should not become a journalist. 20. Women will vote for him because he is good-looking.

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II. Evaluate the following brief essay for its effectiveness in persuading you to accept the writer's argument. Look especially for sound or unsound inductive or deductive reasoning, begging or ignored questions, overstated assumptions, and fallacies. Let's Hear It for Asphalt The truly disadvantaged students on this campus are the commuters. We pay our money and work hard for our degrees, yet we can never find places to park our cars. Commuters are regularly treated as second-class citizens with resident students. But nowhere is the discrepancy more noticeable than in the parking situation. The fact is that there aren't enough parking spaces for half cars on the campus. Students are lucky to make their classes at all after driving around for hours looking for a place to stop their car. If parking were easier, students would get better grades, and the school administrators would probably have the higher enrollment they're so desperate for. The most maddening thing is that we have to pay good money for parking tickets on top of tuition and everything else. The money probably goes towards the new faculty office building or dormitory or one of the other building projects that eat up what little parking space there is. Meanwhile, we commuters are pushed farther away from the center of the campus. But then why should the rich folks in charge of things care what happens to few struggling students, some with families to support, who seek to better themselves. The commuting students are like Jews wandering in the wilderness. We need homeland for our cars and freedom from persecution by campus cops.

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STYLE EXCERCISES I. Revise each sentence to eliminate excessive detail. 1. At last I returned the book that I had used for the report which I had on Tuesday to the library. 2. A course in business methods helps undergraduates to get jobs and in addition helps them to find out whether they are fitted for business and thus to avoid postponing the crucial test, as so many do, until it is too late. II. Revise each sentence to eliminate mixed metaphor, faulty predication, and awkward definitions! 1. For Don, money does grow on trees, and it also goes down the drain quickly. 2. Unlike a fact, a judgment is when you express personal opinions. 3. Like a bat guided by radar, Jane was always surefooted in her business tasks. 4. I felt like a grain of sand crying out in the wilderness. III. Circle each misplaced modifier; draw an arrow to show its proper position. 1. The explosion only killed one person. 2. The new computer program nearly cost a hundred dollars. 3. He even daydreams when you talk to him about salary. 4. Bruce polished his new car almost until he could see his face in it. IV. Revise the sentences to eliminate needless separation of related sentence parts. 1. Bill failed to, because he was sleepy, lock the back door. 2. John promised when he was going to the store to pick up some milk. 3. The puppy advertised in the last night's paper which is already nine weeks old is a registered retriever. V. Revise the sentences to eliminate dangling modifiers. 1. Once mixed, you must freeze the ingredients within the hour. 2. Ready to camp, the windstorm hit. 3. By standing and repeating the pledge, the meeting came to an end. VI. Correct all needles shifts in tense, person, and number. 1. Before the game began, Karl comes over to our seats and asked us to wait for him later. 2. Every witness was questioned, and they were taken to police station. 3. If Lou really likes someone, he would make any sacrifice for them. 4. The exercise is good because stress is reduced and the body is strengthened.

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STYLE AND DICTION EXERCISES I. The italicized words are wrong, inexact, or ambiguous. Replace such words with the exact ones. 1. The faculty was concerned about the affects of the new admission standards. 2. My father's curly hair and dimples give him a childish appearance. II. Revise each sentence to eliminate tautology, delete unnecessary words, and needles repetition. 1. The exact date has been set and it is unknown to us. 2. Long lines of starving refugees in need for food were helped by the Red Cross volunteer people. 3. Perhaps maybe the chief reason or cause for obesity in people who are overweight is lack of exercise. 4. The tall skyscraper buildings form a dark silhouette against the evening sky. 5. It seems to me to be obvious. 6. Because of the fact that Larry was there, the party was lively. 7. Other things being equal, it is my opinion that all of these oil slicks, whether they are massive or not so big, do damage to the environment to a greater or a lesser degree. 8. A few of the listeners who had become angry called in so that they would have the opportunity of refuting the arguments set forth by Ian. 9. These hazards are not visible, and they cause accidents, many of which are fatal ones. 10. The United States was being invaded. What I mean by that is a takeover of land. Foreign investors were buying up farms. 11. In spite of the fact that my parents did not approve of it, I was married to Evelyn last June. 12. The manager returned the application back because of illegible handwriting that he could not read. 13. In this day and time, it is difficult today to find in the field of science a chemist who shows as much promise for the future as Joseph Blake shows. 14. From time to time during one's life, one needs to remember that one who is learning to walk has to put one foot before the other one. 15. When the fans in the stadium shout and yell, the shouting and yelling is deafening, and so the total effect of all this is that is a contributing factor in decisions to stay home and watch the games on TV. 16. A distant hurricane or a seaquake can cause a tidal wave. This wave can form when either occurs. 17. A comedy of intrigue (or a situation comedy) is a comedy that relies on action instead of characterization for its comedy. 18. In my family, schoolwork came first, horse came second, fun and games came next, and discussions came last.

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19. Numerous products can be made form tobacco. The nicotine form this plant is used in pesticides. A sugar extracted from tobacco helps control blood pressure. UNBIASED LANGUAGE EXERCISE AVOID mankind businessman chairman cleaning lady clergyman congressman forefather postman policeman stewardess weatherman o RACE, ETHNICITY, NATIONAL ORIGIN Negro, colored Oriental Indian Eskimo native o AGE elderly, aged, old, the elderly, the aged o PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES OR ILLNESS/ SPECIAL NEEDS PEOPLE Mongoloid AIDS victim USE

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polio victim the handicapped deaf-mute STUDENTS ESSAY MISTAKES (GRAMMAR and STYLE) 1. Whether the Bologna process will improve or not the education for Croatian students 2. People look at it without trust and suspiciously. 3. The quality of higher education in Croatia is one of the most important things in her development. 4. Students are forced in continually work 5. If student is very talented and works hard he will be reward for that. 6. Him can be given more exams per semester and he can finish his college earlier. 7. They learn students to think with their own mind and to come to conclusion with the own mind. 8. A person develops personality and tolerance, it learns how to include itself in group work. 9. Students can go study, if they want, in other cities in its country and also 10. Students learn how to take care for themselves. 11. What is very important today in our society 12. Teachers are 24-7 made available to the students. 13. Musicians have a lot of possibilities to choose of 14. Accept combining different genres, one can. 15. So womens low level of testosterone makes her a more peaceful human beings. 16. 98.5 cases out of 100 abuses in families are done by men. 17. Womens biological predominates over men. 18. These two ideas are great in theory, but there are many arguments about whether they are really accomplished or not in reality. 19. There are too much students and lack of classrooms. 20. Women put their lives to risk. 21. Adoption is a better solution in this case because the child gets the chance for living, education, and a normal surrounding. 22. Women, who decide to end their pregnancy with abortion, are 23. Still, the actual process differs to the old ways in many things and because I studied in both ways these differences might be made more clear to then to mine fellow students. 24. In one single semester 25. Where as in the Bologna process continuant knowledge checks in 26. The fact that this is still an underplayed job remains. 27. College education lasted four years, and after finishing it, student was given a Ph. D. 28. Many larger cities have as well university centers. 29. Opportunity to study in college 30. Trough the EU, also other European countries would be able to buy natural produced Croatian food. 31. The thing is that they want to enjoy their youth. 32. What is really sad is that not everybody succeeds and this has been proven by the increasing divorce statistics around the world.

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33. Maybe this is so because people forget what was it they promised in the church before God. 34. I must say that the fact that serious doctors are even considering of attempting to clone human beings, left me speechless.

CITATION EXERCISES

In each case I have tried to show that all the action in a "Jamesian novel" may be taken as a result of philosophical differences of opinion among the principal characters, and that these differences in turn are explainable by reference to the characters' differing social background. - Frederic C. Crew's The Tragedy of Manners: Moral Drama in the Later Novels of Henry James, p. 8

1. Quote it directly! 2. Paraphrase it!

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PARAPHRASING EXERCISES Decide whether the paraphrased passages are acceptable or unacceptable. Original Source A key factor in explaining the sad state of American education can be found in overbureaucratization, which is seen in the compulsion to consolidate our public schools into massive factories and to increase to mammoth size our universities even in underpopulated states. The problem with bureaucracies is that they have to work hard and long to keep from substituting self-serving survival and growth for their original primary objective. Few succeed. Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience. If there is a single stumbling block on the road to the future, it is the bureaucracy as we know it. Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture, Anchor Publishing, 1977, p. 219

Paraphrase 1 American education is overly bureaucratic. This is manifest in the increasing size of educational institutions, even in small states. Bureaucracies are bad because they tend to work to promote their own survival and growth rather than that of the institution, as was their initial objective. Most bureaucracies fail because they have a conscience or a soul. I believe that bureaucracies are the biggest stumbling block on the road to the educational future. Paraphrase 2 Bureaucratization has proved to be a major stumbling block on the road to our educational future. American institutions have become factories that are more conducive to the growth of bureaucratic procedures than to the growth of the students who attend them. This means that, as Edward T. Hall says in his book, Beyond Culture, today's educational institutions "have no soul, no memory, and no conscience". Paraphrase 3 In his book, Beyond Culture, Edward T. Hall discusses the problems posed by the increasing bureaucratization of American educational institutions. Hall maintains that overbureaucratization is one of the key factors governing the state of education in America today. He points to the tendency of bureaucracies to promote their own growth and survival first and foremost, and observes that few overcome that tendency. He believes that this is responsible for the fact that 66

many public schools bear a closer resemblance to factories than to educational institutions. In Hall's words, "Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience."

OUTLINE EXERCISE Make an outline to match the essay! Pro-Choice When it comes to deciding on the question of abortion, there have always been two opposite and, in advocating their own opinion, very passionate sides. Those sides can be roughly and yet accurately described by their names: pro-life and pro-choice. The public has been bombarded with their debates, especially since Roe v. Wade in 1973, when abortion was legalized in the US. Many questions have been raised, and even more arguments given. So why is this such an important question? Because it involves constitutional rights, the freedom to choose and have control over ones body, and subsequently life. When all the arguments are tested and verified, the only conclusion is that abortion should be legal, and the many arguments to support the pro-choice point of view can be generally classified in three categories: legal issues; social issues, and difficult cases. When it comes to legal issues there are two main questions. First, is the embryo a human being? Undeniably, the embryo has the potential of becoming one, but it is not an actual person yet. The fetus is neither autonomous nor self-sufficient; it completely depends on the mother it is physically attached to her through the placenta and the umbilical cord, and thus it cannot be regarded as a separate human being, but as a part of the womans body. That is why abortion cannot be considered as murder, and on the other hand, no one can be expected to donate their body to harbor another future life if they do not want to. The second important question is whether the woman has the right to single-handedly decide to have an abortion? Do the rights of 67

the fetus prevail over the mothers? Margaret Sanger, an American birth control activist, said: No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body. which is a fundamental concept for women. On the other hand, when it comes to the fathers right to veto abortion, the American Supreme Court decided in 1976 that when a wife and husband disagree, since only one view can prevail, it should be hers, because she physically bears the fetus and is directly affected by the pregnancy. Next, the social issues category can be divided into two segments: quality of parenthood and quality of life, and health. Since a large number of unwanted pregnancies happens to young girls, often teenagers, and most of the times the fathers are not willing to participate, there is a situation where a child is responsible for bringing up a child. This raises serious doubts in the capabilities of those young girls, and in the quality of parenthood the child will get. In addition, young parents often do not have a large or steady income, so in the best case they are on the verge of being poor, and in the worst they have to struggle for survival. Furthermore, if it is discovered during the pregnancy that the fetus is damaged or unhealthy, the option of aborting should be available. Every parent has the right to spare their child of a whole life of suffering, and the right to try again for a healthy baby. Similarly, the pregnancy can pose a threat to the woman, whether it is a danger to her health or even life. In that case a woman cannot be forced to carry out the pregnancy on the cost of her own health or life. Finally, there is the question of difficult cases. If a woman is raped she absolutely has to have the option to abort. Of course, one might say that the criminal here is the man who raped her, so why should the fetus pay the price? But the woman is the victim too, and she must not be forced to bear the child of a monstrous crime that happened to her, and to live with a reminder every day for the rest of her life. Equally important, and equally heinous, is the case of a woman

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being a victim of incest, in which case, again, she absolutely must have the possibility of abortion. The argument that the perpetrator should be prosecuted, and the victim should accept the pregnancy as a good thing that has come out of something bad, is rather revolting and sickening. Certainly, this is a very complex question, especially because there are many interest groups, which want to impose their opinion and make a law out of it. This is also too difficult an issue for people to be guided, or rather misguided, by dogmatist church doctrines. Indeed, there are arguments both for pro-life and pro-choice option, and all the arguments and counterarguments may be first-class, but what it all comes down to is that every case is individual. Every woman has her own reasons for deciding to have or not have an abortion, and after she evaluates all the pros and cons, she will make the right decision for herself. And that is precisely why abortion must be legal: there always has to be a choice.

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4. REFERENCES:
Fowler, H.Ramsey and Aaron, Jane E., The Little Brown Handbook. 4th edition. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Campany. 1989. Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers. 6th edition. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2003. Hashimoto, Irvin Y. et al. Strategies for Academic Writing. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. 1985. Hodges, John C. et al., eds. Harbrace College Handbook. 11th ed. Chicago: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1990.

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