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Kvikgrammatik – især udsagnsord (kongruens)


Krongruens = Grundleddet og udsagnsleddet skal altid stemme overens.

Ordstilling: På engelsk bruger vi altid ligefrem ordstilling, både i hovedsætninger og bisætninger.


(Det betyder, at grundleddet kommer FØR udsagnsleddet.)

Om tiderne (tenses) på engelsk


Nutid = PRESENT Datid = PAST
Simple present = nutid Simple past = datid
Present Perfect = førnutid Perfect past = førdatid
CONTINUOUS present (I am being) = udvidet CONTINUOUS past (I was being) = udvidet tid
tid

Selvstudie
What is a noun (navneord)?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXDuVBsVo0k

What is a verb (udsagnsord)?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsrNMw3lfi8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSBJaggBjRo

VERBS – 12 FORMS – et overblik


SIMPLE CONTINIUOUS PERFECT PERFECT
CONTINIUOUS
PRESENT I eat / he eats I am eating I have eaten I have been eating
PAST I ate / he ate I was eating I had eaten I had been eating
FUTURE I will eat I will be eating I will have eaten I will have been
eating

Questions SIMPLE CONTINIUOUS PERFECT PERFECT


CONTINIUOUS
PRESENT Do you eat / does Are you eating Have you eaten Have you been eating
he eat
PAST Did you eat Were you eating Had you eaten Had you been eating
FUTURE Will you eat Will you be Will you have Will you have been
eating eaten eating

Negative SIMPLE CONTINIUOUS PERFECT PERFECT


CONTINIUOUS
PRESENT I don’t eat / he I’m not eating I haven’t eaten I haven’t been eating
doesn’t
PAST I didn’t eat I wasn’t eating I hadn’t eaten I hadn’t been eating
FUTURE I won’t eat I won’t be eating I won’t have I won’t have been
eaten eating
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Ental (den der tales til) Flertal (de der tales til)
I (jeg) You (du) he / she / We (vi) you (i/De) they (de)
(taler) (tales til) it (taler) (tales til) (tales om)
han / hun
/ det / den
(tales om)
To be (at være) am are is are are are
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkAdvAOBbYI

Øvelse 1
Øvelse 2
Øvelse 3
Øvelse 4
Øvelse 5
It was (det var) was were was were were were
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdB5XPHJ5cY

To have have have has have have have

Simple Present (nutid) and Present Continiuous (udvidet tid)


- Kendsgerning eller almen sandhed (general fact) (The sun sets in the west).
- Vane (habits) eller gentaget handling (routines/schedules) (They go to church on Sundays).
- Permanent situation (I live in Liverpool).

Regelmæssige help help helps help help help


udsagnsord – nutid
Simple present

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7k2z9fkPhY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ln3eXK0nV6s

øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3
øvelse 4
øvelse 5
Øvelse 6 - ny

Udvidet tid – nutid Udvidet tid dannes ved hjælp af hjælpeverbet 'to be' + handleverbet i
Present Continuous -ingform.

1. det man er i færd med lige nu/sker lige nu, men som stopper i fremtiden.
(midlertidig situation)
- I am watching a movie.
- She is running down the hill.

2. noget der sker i fremtiden, og ikke forandres


- Bob is leaving for Seattle on Friday.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3UgRjpVTsQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghT81ByhIH4
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øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3
øvelse 4
øvelse 5
øvelse 6 - ny

Present simple eller Present Continuous

Øvelse 1 - ny
Øvelse 2 - ny
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Simple Past (datid) and Present Perfect (førnutid)


1) Regulær Verb (svagt bøjet, ændrer ikke vocal)
I helped my mother yesterday.

2) Irregulær Verb (stærk bøjet, ændrer vokal)


Ricky Martin sang a beautiful song at the concert in Kansas City

3) Fortæller om noget der er sket tilbage I en specifik tid: brug: go-went, take-took, be-was,were.
EKS: I went to the soccer game yesterday.

4) Fortæller om en vane der var engang men ikke mere: brug: used to: I used to be fat.

5) Fortæl om noget du havde muligheden for, men ikke gjorde: brug: (must, might, could) + have
+ the past participle of any verb e.g. I could have written her a letter, but I didn't.

Regelmæsssige helped helped helped helped helped helped


udsagnsord
Simple past
Regular

Uregelmæssige
udsagnsord Base form Past form Present Past
Irregular
participle participle
begin began beginning begun
(begynde) (begyndte) (begyndt)

eat (spise) ate (spiste) eating eaten (har


spist)

know knew knowing known


eat ate eating eaten
become became becoming become
fly flew flying flown
leave left leaving left
fall fell falling fallen
feel felt feeling felt
make made making made
drive drove driving driven
Se flere på www.sorenm.dk – engelsk

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRsLLGnYhJ0
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jmYApnLJPzQ
Regular and Irregular verbs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYkawMUgHYE

Øvelse 1
Øvelse 2
Øvelse 3
Øvelse 4
Øvelse 5
Øvelse 6
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Øvelse 7
Øvelse 8
Øvelse 9
Øvelse 10 - ny
Øvelsee 11 - ny

Førnutid R have have has helped have have have


Har spist, har egul helped helped helped helped helped
leget (noget ar have have have have have have
der er sket moved moved moved moved moved moved
lige før nu) Irre have have has have have have
Present gula had had had had had had
Perfect r have have has have have have
eaten eaten eaten eaten eaten eaten
have have has have have have
gone gone gone gone gone gone
Dannes af hjælpeverbet (have/has) + handleverbet i datid

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2fPHzkBMok
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4pvpBK01HI

Eks:
- He has walked down the road
- You have eaten mine.

Øvelse 1
Øvelse 2
Øvelse 3
Øvelse 4

Førdatid R had helped had helped had helped had helped had helped had helped
Past Perfect egul had had had had had had
Havde spist, ar moved moved moved moved moved moved
havde leget Irre had had had had had had
(noget er slut gula gone gone gone gone gone gone
i fortiden og r had had had had had had
så skete der been been been been been been
noget andet) had had had had had had
broken broken broken broken broken broken

Dannes af hjælpeverbet (had) + handleverbet i datid

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jcJBi675_M
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9PTZQEox_Q

Eks:
- He had walked down the road
- I had worked for that university for 14 years before I quit

øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3
øvelse 4
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Present Perfect have have been has been have been have been have been
Continuous been running running running running running
running
# They have been talking for the last hour.
# She has been working at that company for three y
# What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?

Datid: med had. Fremtid med Will have

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4pvpBK01HI

Udvidet tid – datid Udvidet tid dannes ved hjælp af hjælpeverbet 'to be' i datid (was/were) +
Past Continuous handleverbet i -ingform.

1. Udvidet tid i datid (parallelle forløb): Om en handling, der var i gang,


men så skete der noget andet:
- He was walking down the street when I met him
- She was reading the paper while he was doing the

2. afbrudte handlinger – lige-da-tid:


- The girl was writing when he came in.

3. Om en handling, der danner baggrund for en anden handling:


- The sun was rising when I heard the shot.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtB87Zzq-G8

øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3
øvelse 4
øvelse 5
øvelse 6

Past continuous eller Perfect continuous


øvelse 1
øvelse 2 - ny

Nutid (present) eller datid (past):


øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3
øvelse 4 - ny

Present perfect (førnutid) eller Past


øvelse 1 - ny

Uregelmæssige udsagnsord
øvelse 1
øvelse 2
øvelse 3 - ny
øvelse 4 - ny
øvelse 5 - ny

Do og did
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øvelse 1
øvelse 2

There is - There are


øvelse 1
øvelse 2
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Future (fremtid)
Will: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rm7jS8mr8s8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udNmaJFwHE4

Going to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGPgn6loHnA

Bruges om planer, intentioner, forudsigelser, tidsplaner og ønsker.


1) Future
Simple form: Brug: will/shall:
He will leave
I 3. person kan du bade brug shall eller will
I will/shall see
We will/shall see

Brug: Present Continuous Tense of the verb to go with an infinitive when the action is to take place
very soon (nære fremtid):
- I am going to wash my car.
- Now I am going to tell you a story.

Brug: Present Continuous Tense with a word/phrase indicating the future:


- The Channel Tunnel is opening for passenger travel next year.

Brug: a statement beginning with let us or let's when wishing to ask a question:
- Let's eat our lunch now! (Shall we eat our lunch now?)

2) Planer / arrangementer (plan for meget i fremtiden, som du har tænkt på og talt med andre
om)
BE GOING TO + base form : She is going to the party tonight.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS: They are staying at the Burgos Hotel next week.
Maybe, Perhaps, Probably, I think, it's possible + will : Probably, I will stay at the Burgos Hotel.
I'm not returning home for the holidays, so I can come to your party after all!
Are you doing anything on Sunday morning?
Do you know if he is going to the dance with Maiko next week?

3) Intentioner: vi bruger: will or be going to


I am going to try to finish the homework in a hour.
Jaime will try to stop smoking by the year 2000.

4) Forudsigelser: vi bruger: will or be going to


Bob believes that Allen will win the lottery very soon.
It is probably going to rain in the afternoon.

5) Tidsplaner
Spring break begins on March 22.
The football game starts at 7:00 p.m.

6) Ønsker
Will you (please) help me carry this?, Could you.., Would you..., Why don't you help me..
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Ing (doing, singing) or to (to do, to sing)


Hvornår skal du bruge ”to”?
To bruges altid efter tillægsord (og efter tilægsord + enough)
- disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised

I was happy to help them.


She will be delighted to see you.
The water was too cold to swim in.
Is your coffee too hot to drink?
He was strong enough to lift it.
She is rich enough to buy two.

Nogle verber har altid to efter sig


- aim, ask, promise, refuse, etc.
- forget, help, learn, teach, train
- choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like
- agree, encourage, pretend, recommend
- allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse
- afford, wish

The president said he aimed to bring down taxes.


He asked Congress to pass a tax reduction bill.
The president's party consented to lower the taxes.
I forgot to close the window.
Mary needs to leave early.
Why are they encouraged to learn English?
We can't afford to take a long holiday.

Hvornår skal du bruge ”–ing”?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7nsDbYqEeow
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4gh14qUyyI

Nogle verber er altid efterfulgt af en –ing form


- admit, consider, feel like, avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind/not mind, practise.
cannot help, deny, escape, fancy, keep (on), mind, risk, stand (= holde ud).
Bob admitted taking the money from the desk.
The teacher considered calling the police.
Misty said she was so embarrassed that she felt like dying.

Altid når ordet er subject (grundled)


Swimming is good exercise.
Doctors say that smoking is bad for you.
Running is my favorite pastime

Når, efter forholdsord (preposition)


I look forward to meeting you.
They left without saying "Goodbye."

Nogle verber kan bruge begge former:


- begin, like, love, try, regret, continue, hate, intend, prefer, propose, start.
Monica's husband, Bob, began taking cooking lessons last month.
Soon he began to try out all his new creations on her.
Helen said she likes eating as much as Bob likes to cook.
She loves to sample his new recipes and she loves not cooking herself.
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-ed eller –ing


Ali quit smoking in 1977.
He just decided to quit one day.

Tingen/personen skal forårsage effekten, så er det –ing.


Rules frustrate me. Rules are frustrating.
Snakes terrify me. They are such terrifying creatures.

Når personen/tingen oplever effekten, er det –ed.


Rules frustrate me. I am frustrated when I have to learn them.
Snakes terrify me. I'm always terrified when I see one.

Go + ing form bruges ofte ved aktiviteter.


go boating, go canoeing, go fishing, go sailing, go camping, go hunting, go skating, go shopping, go
skiing, go sightseeing, etc.

Verberne remember, regret, forget, stop, try,:

To…(noget, der skal ske/skete eller skal ske/skete efter et stykke tid)
- You remember to do something. I remembered to put the car in the garage
- You regret to do something. I regret to tell you that your journey to England has been cancelled.
- You forget to do something. I forgot to tell you that David and Sally were coming round tonight
- You stop to do something. I stopped to have a cup of tea
- You try to do something. I tried to read a book, but the children were too loud.

Ing (der henvises til en tidligere handling):


- You remember doing something. I remember meeting you last year.
- You regret doing something. I regret answering the phone
- You will never forget doing something. I'll never forget going to Japan.
- You stop doing something. I stopped reading my book because it was boring.
- You try doing something. The key didn't fit, so I tried using another one
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Do (nutid) do do does do do do
Did (datid) did did did did did did
eks: what does your mother do?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1pLw79-9II
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6uOjx_YxqU

hovedudsagnsordet står altid i navneform!


You did not live in London?

There is There are I sætninger der begynder med there skal udsagnsleddet tilpasses det egentli-
ge grundled:

There is a man in the house. (ental)


There are many books in the library. (flertal)

Mådeudsagnsordene can / may / must / ought to / shall / will


(modalverber) får IKKE –s i 3. person ental nutid.

Ejefald Ord, der i forvejen ikke ender på - s tilføjer ’s

Eks: my farther’s car

Ord, der ender på - s, tilføjer ’

Eks: my parents’ house

Om TING bruges mest omskrivning med ”of”


The roof of the house.
The door of the car.

Personlige stedord me you Him/her/it us you them


Er genstandsled
I visit them.
He loves her.
Shall or Will 1: person (ental/flertal): I / we shall miss the train / I'll miss the train.

Derudover bruges shall kun I spørgsmål om hvad man skal gore I en konkret
situation:
Where shall I put the books? Shall I help you?
Side 12 af 12

Ellers will:
3: person: The teacher will give me the answer on Monday.