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09/07/2011 y y y y y TA Name Alexandra (201,203,207) Clyde (202,204,206) Sergio (205,208,209) Whats in a name?

The Category of the Third World o Initially, a taken for granted concept (1950s-1980s)  Common problems seen as DEFINING the TW. (poverty, chaos)  Also significance of Cold War context with US/NATO vs Communist bloc o Later, dismissed out of hand as politically incorrect  Extensive diversity, pejorative connotations as problems  With end of Cold War, meaninglessness of numeric ordering y Communist Bloc, no second world, makes no sense. o Dr. Sil s view: more complex  Term not relevant and critics are right to raise important issues  But category MATTERS: shared colonial legacies and post-colonial challenges despite variation, positive narrative independence/self-reliance  The reason for the category is not geopolitics or an absolute remaining of backwardness  ITS ALL ABOUT COLONIALISM. Recognize comparative framework. A boundary that justifies analysis within that category. o Summary: its all about an alternative alliance. Lets not align with FW or SW (west or soviets), lets band together. Was a term of PRIDE. NON ALIGNED MOVEMENT. Critics were right to say its not homogenous, though. Its complicated. As TW countries industrialized, you had a lot of them moving up. Political Change also a complicated concept o Political is fundamentally intertwined with social, economic and cultural  True for all key issues: econ dev, democracy, revolution, ethnic conflict o Change is fundamentally intertwined with continuity and affected by history  Western bias: narrative of change/progress, but past becomes a blindspot  Especially for TW: legacy of earlier experiences affects later patterns of change o Especially relevant for current US foreign policy  US not a major colonial power (and a key spokesman for decolonization)  So, blindspot w.r.t how colonial history can feed general anger vs West y (Iran s behavior today related to 53, 79, and 9/11) o General note on political bias: NOT left/right or liberal/conservative  Rather: try to cultivate a SOUTHERN perspective y As opposed to mainstream Northerm images and views o Summary: Its political, economic and cultural differences combined. Course Structure and Requirements (see Blackboard) o Three parts noted clearly in syllabus

General patterns and regional variations with regards to colonial and post colonial development  Specific country experiences: Brazil, India, Algeria, Iran, Nigeria, S. Korea  Part 3: looking ahead as more recent challenges gain more significance Readings: about 125 pages a week on average  Electronic docs (blackboard), bulkpack (CCC), textbook (Haynes) y No rush for textbook won t be used for a month or so. Won t need textbook or bp for a few weeks. y Bulkpack very small and thin most on blackboard o Available in about a week or so Requirements: see syllabus for dates and deadlines and grade distribution  Midterm (in class) + take home essay + final (+ recitation participation) y Essay is basically why did 2 countries with diff/same beginnings end up in the diff/same place 9/12/2011

Before Colonialism: Uncertainty, Risk and Community Subsistence o Relevance Why bother with this?  Impact of colonialism matters, but impact on what? y Common lifeworld prior to encounter with West and Indus Revolution  Post-colonial society: recovery of authentic past includes some sense of old values y Plus fact remains that agriculture (not industry) still key to most TW societies  Summary: Only after colonialism does this lecture make any sense. Only now, only from here, does any of this make any sense. Most people still grow their own food, in the world. The way the land was worked prior to colonialism is important as we can then see how it was disrupted. o Western Persepectives on Pre-industrial Third World Peasantry  Early anthropologists study of primitive peasant (eg Malinowski) y Focus on magic, superstition and ritual, unsophisticated y Positive (pure, naturalistic) and negative (irrational, unscientific)  Opposite: rational peasant model (Samuel Popkin) y Peasant behavior interpreted as individual cost-benefit calculus  Most practical: James Scott on moral economy of the peasant (READ THIS) y no, peasants are not irrational but the rationality is not indiv. Gain y instead: subsistence ethic based on collective survival and risk sharing y nothing is assured, so if someone is gaining you are losing. No control over science and nature, therefore something else takes its place o that is risk mitigation

their practices are not purely rational, nor are they simple minded, there is a reason but it takes a closer look o there are different ways this was handled. Russians redistributed. Japanese had paternalism.  Dr. Sil s view: overlooks difference sin MEANS (eg paternialism vs redistribution) y Still: captures basic thrust of collective survival as driving force, linked to o Four Common Aspects of Pre-Colonial Society  Despite huge variations across regions, communities,g eography, there were some common features (only by contrast to industrialized west)  Fundamental view of material resources as fixed pie (zero sum game) y Gradual technology progress and increases in production over time BUT y On the whole, low resource, technology base so scarcity as the rule y stability means redistribution y if you see your neighbor getting rich you are getting screwed  Common acceptance of extreme uncertainty y High mortality, low life expectancy, threat of disease and natural disaster y Ubiquitous sense of FATE or FATALISM (at the mercy of nature) y Wasn t until the renaissance that even Europe thought things were controllable  Common submersion of individual in community/collective y Individual gain doesn t disappear, but linked to whole groups situation y Individual makes sense only in how it fits in. subordinated. y Thus, ostracism as effective punishment: almost equivalent to death y Inequalities, but checked by mutual aid and redistrubtion ( feast)  Strong sense of constancy over time, space, and social values y Time: repetition of agricultural cycles, not rapid progress y Space: local face to face community > abstract pol entity (empire) y Society: constant (invented) tradition focused on continuing identity/values Implications for this class o Colonialism brings a true class of civilizations  Not just b/w cultures or religions  But b/w opposite views of the social and natural worlds o All 4 above features reversed in the post-enlightenment world of European colonizers  Some adapt, climb up ladder during and after colonialism  Rest get marginalized, exploited and controlled  Linked to experience of who the have s and have-nots are today  No fixed pie, expanding pie!  We have control! y

9/14/2011 y Young o Spanish  Wasn t really a modern state, was pre scientific. Heyday of alchemy.  Thus much less technological endeavor.  Procure and plunder land.  Carried out by quasi state entities (sponsored groups of explorers)  Indians required enslavement for their own good.  Early western colonies were not called colonies y Less autonomy? o Dutch  Holland had a diverse merchant base history  When science was under attack in Southern Europe it went to Northern (Holland, etc). diversity. Free thought.  Different approach, Dutch and English chartered merchant associations invested with sovereign attributes as their weapon  ECONOMIC motives, but practical results were indiscernable from those of conquistador  Basically given a charter to do whatever is necessary to compel trade.  Its mandate allowed it to take action against anyone treating it unjustly y (Dutch) thus shaped its operation and turned it in to an agent of territorial rule o English  The trading association slowly became the jewel in the imperial crown  first declared, with their charter, a body corporate and politic in deed and in name  colonization started under the auspices of the need for permanent warehouses and factories  English did not have the strength to force this, so they negotiated permission for warehouses y Invited in  1685 the East Indian Company articulates sovereignty for the first time on the Madras strip  Moved in almost passively. They went in as a warehouse, then a staff, then a security group.  Much different image from Spanish. o Over time conditions for colonized nations improved somewhat, they were no longer debating whether or not you were human, by the 19th century. o Africa met a colonial power much different from that which settled in North America or Central America  A true state, with police, and bureaucracies

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Initial wide array of state craft, narrowed down in to one basic way of overseas territorial domination

Memmi o Colonized painting varies from excessive submission to European methods to a radical change The Encounter with Colonialism Economic, Political and Social Psychological Aspects o Definition of colonialism  Differences in: political control, settlement, education, religious conversion  Definition rests on common primary motivation: economic y Cheap RESOURCES (incl labor) and new markets  Distinguish from imperialism political control is most consistent feature  NOTE: definitions often inverted no correct version, only convenient  Summary: these are some of the most common similar happenings. Not all about settling as in American. Can t be defined that way. Lack of consistency. England wasn t particularly interested in converting large amounts of people, Spanish were more in to that. Individual countries were pushed to colonize by other countries colonizing; fear of falling behind. Consistently motivated by a common economic thread of resources and open markets needed. o The Main Players and their Colonies  (more on regional specifics next week, plus case studies in part 2)  Spain/Portugal in LATIN AMERICA (late 16th c-early 19th) y Pre industrial, but still, precious metals large farms w/ cash crops  Britain/Holland/france in S. and S.E. Asia (18th c- mid 20th c) (YOUNG READING) y British and dutch navies are beginning to catch up and explore y Initially no grand scheme, no blueprint for new british century, etc o Rolling effort o Started with just low economic ambitions. Trading agreements in place, etc. y Most aggressive middle classes, industry took off here, etc y These countries thus very quickly decided their factories were perfect for expansion o Land not as important as in Spain and Portugal o Must set up factories, build railroads, etc  Above powers PLUS Germany , Belgium and Italy in Africa (1880s-1950s, 60s) y Special role of BERLIN CONFERENCE (1884-85) see map o Euro powers gather, decide how to chop up Africa o No consideration given to ethnic states, etc o Entirely a line drawing experiment y Everyone wants a chunk of Africa y Lets not fight with each other over parcels of land, lets divide it up voluntarily

Briatin and France most prevalent in the Middle East y Tied to weakening, then collapse, of ottoman empire y More recent, ottoman empire collapsed much more gradually y Wasn t just a divide it up kind of thing y After WW1 (Ottoman collapse) british and French were parceled out o Iraq: british, Syria French, etc  Japan in East Asia: Manchuria; Korea; Taiwain (1890s-wws) y Copying Europe, but also framed as asian resistance y Main colonizer in East Asia was Japan o But Japan didn t really start with an idea of colonization o 1868- major turning point, Japan set out to become a modern competitive power y Japan basically emulated Europeans y Had this view of leading asia AGAINST Europe o We are colonizing asia in contrast to Europe o Raising up dark unenlightened people (Europe) o We are rising up as one against Europe (japan)  East asian coprosperity sphere y Not a lot of serious redividing of preexisting boundaries.  Not colonized, but significant foreign influence: China, iran, Thailand y No one power able to take control but similar effects y Never fully colonized y Managed to avoid full foreign domination y Parts were influenced by groups, but so many interested in the area no one was able to establish control Across Time and Space, Some Common Consequences  Economic MIS-development not just lack of development y Note: marx s end of feudalism vs lenin s chain of imperialism o Marx thought capitalism was needed for abundance o Feudal areas needed to have colonialism to break the old feudal way o British were producing a positive impact on india, moving it forwards o Lenin however has to deal with WW1 and revamps the whole argument, looking at colonialism, has to explain why Brit workers are not rising up  Marx seemed to indicate this shouldbe the moment o Lenin pointed out that the wages of the British, French and German workers were rising  Thus exploitation is happening elsewhere  Capitalists are exploiting colonies

THAT IS WHY THERE IS NO COMMUNIST REVOLUTION Lenin is basically saying in these areas you are not seeing the breaking of feudal areas you are just seeing new exploitation  No serious communist revolution in any part of the world EXCEPT WHERE CAPITALISM IS THE WEAKEST y Not colonies, too weak. Need leading. y British French and german workers are bought by high wages. y Communist revolution will come from weakest link in capitalism. That s Russia. Yay! y Push for export crops famines! (Amrtya Sen) o Moral economy (James Scott) is under attack o Colonizers start saying come on, less of the food stuff more of the profitable stuff o Grow manufacturing goods for dyes and whatnot o Creating a man made famine o Amrtya Sen said the famines in India were due to Britain (Nobel Prize) y Suppress native business to aid colonizers goods o Effort to keep things twisted, keep them serving the colonial economies, not native. Be it agricultural or industrial, its all about the colonizers. y Even best cases: serves colonizers econ needs Political: problems related to colonial administration (read: C Young) y Pol boundaries not coinciding with ethnic/religious/linguistic distribution y Foreign institutions, laws and bureaucracy not rooted in familiar practices y Mistrust and tensions b/w coopeted natives and those resisting y Basically had to pull up a few people from the native land, chosen, selectively. Social-psychological consequences (read Fanon, Memmi) y Note ambivalence: resentment/humiliation + awe/envy o LIFE OF BRIAN SCENE o Oh man these people these foreigners control us. Bastards! o We are so bad. We are so able to be dominated. We suck! o Wow. These people are AMAZING. How did they come so far? I envy you! y Note paradox: certain native groups targeted for education o Designed to simplify administration of colony

 

o Produces the nucleaus of new nationalist elite o TWO General Axes of Variation Linked to Colonizer  Economic features of colonialsm vary across time/space: y Nature of econ explotationa nd infrastructure (Brazil v india) y Level of political unity vs ethnic cleavages (Congo/Nigeria v S Korea)  Pattern of colonial administration: eg Brit vs French models  Brit: native authorities, divide and rule, minimal settlement  French: settlement, assimilation and intrigration as part of French nation Recitation 9/14/11 o Scott: wants to argue that peasants are acting rationally  Thai rice farmers have subsistence field right next to village  Days trip away = cash crop field  Lots of reasons to act in the opposite way to the rational way westerners would say y So, take a feast, a common characteristic of these cultures is looking down on individualistic behavior y So if someone benefits, theyre going to bestow that benefit on their family and kinsman y Expectation of reciprocity  The state is a much less reliable way of insuring yourself y Put your money in your family.  Afraid to try a new crop y As they are more interested in keeping a high yearly yield, versus higher average over a longer period  Tendency to cultivate a variety of crops, not just one y Minimize risk y Plant a few diff varieties of corn in case a blight wipes out one y

Notes on Readings y Cabral o Dilemma of cultural resistance: the impossibility to harmonize the economic and political dominance of a people with the preservation of their cultural personality o National liberation vs imperialist domination  Imperialist domination: distinct both in form and content from preceding types of foreign domination. Characteristic is negation of the historical process of the dominated people by means of violently usurping the free operation of the process of development of the productive forces.  National liberation: an act of culture. Culture is what is necessary to free oneself.

Culture varies from individual to individual, job to job, education level to education level Balante: people with horizontal social structure. Culture is more or less uniform. Fula: vertical structure. Important variations from the top to the bottom. Colonizers repress or inhibit the real cultural activity at the base, and allow the culturally insulated Fula to flourish. They are not really authorities, but are made to be authorities by the colonizers. o The greater the difference between the culture of the dominated people and the oppressor, the more possible a victory becomes. o As it progresses, the liberation struggle must bring diverse interests in to harmony. o No culture is a perfect, finished whole  What does this even mean? Al-Banna o Muslim Brotherhood o Appealing to common religious feelings the organization mobilized the Arab masses against foreign domination  Emphasized primacy of islam  Stressed theory and practice need for econ social and educational progress o Al Banna argues that the Brotherhood arose because of the West s failure to provide spiritual nourishment o Speaks of rising Islamization o Causes  Previously leaders regarded Islam as only lessons of fanaticism and inertia  Muslims were weak drudges  Easily exploitable o Movement is a result of following 3 factors  Failure of the West y Materialistic and market driven life has not given man a flicker of light for rest and tranquility y Man is just an instrument  Perfection of Islam y Islam is infinitely more pure blah blah y Islam is better than sociology, its better than everything.  Type of Development y Democracy leads to dictatorships y Rise of Nazis and fascists y Hitler and Mussolini gave their people real hope y Rise of communism y Colonizers try to stem that o o o

9/19/11 National Liberation and Nationalist Ideologies y Review o What was colonialism? What were its effects? o Both common and distinctive aspects become long-term legacies Common Dynamics Aiding Decolonization o Paradoxical elements. Some of the same things propelling colonization, propelled decolonization. 3 types.  Overextension and competition (resource strain) y Yikes! We gotta grow faster than THAT guy (says the colonizer) y Colonialism came out of the process of European powers trying to become more powerful vis a vis each other o Which lead to more battles with themselves  Which lead to colonial problems, hard to manage AND fight  Native elites nationalist leaders y Colonization was easy, even without sending large amounts of settlers, (French did, british and dutch didn t), but allies in the natives made it easier y Tapped in to respect of different groups (Sunni in Iraq, Hindu Brahman in India, etc) o These natives helped the colonizers get a grip and maintain control y Required educating the native elite. Sent a lot of them abroad. o Which meant these schools then churned out nationalist leaders. y Examples (Nehru, ho chi minh, nyerere, nkurmah) o Nehru went to Cambridge. Gandhi went to school in UK. Ho Chi Minh met most of his elite friends and whatnot in Paris where he went to school. Nkurmah met with precursor leaders to African American leaders in USA.  Socioeconomic change mobilized masses y Emerging working class in cities, factories o Along with elites coming back with new ideas, ordinary working people are forming a more coherent audience for them. Uprooted. Unhappy. MORAL ECONOMY of James Scott has been upset. Social horizons have been expanded. New audience for elites. y Rural peasants drawn into larger pol economy Historical Context: Distinctive Legacies Across Regions

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Latin America: Spain and Portugal in Latin America (late 1500s to early 1800s)  Preindustrial colonialism; early independence; primary exports continue  Distinctive legacy: wealth landowning settlers and regional competition  Power in legacy is mostly due to old land holding family  emerges from COLONIALISM poorly South and South East Asia: Britain and Holland (late 1700s mid 1900s)  Linked to European industrialization, semi peaceful decolonization y British simply left, etc.  Distinctive legacy religious territorial tensions but cross cutting cleavages y (Kashmir, East Timor but not threat to overall new NATION) y Religious, ethnic, cultural divisions don t neatly create little territories  EMERGES FROM COLONIALISM NOT IN A BAD SHAPE y Not homogenous but divisions aren t totally destructive y A lot of misdevelopment but not overtly excessive dependent on land, no small percentage of population controlling all land like LA. Africa: Britain, France, German, Belgium and Italy (1800s to 1950s, 60s)  Berlin Conference 1885, least infrastructure; late independence y Continues to effect African continent y Overlapping cleavages. A lot of people tied to same turf.  Distinctive legacy: reinforced ethno religious tribal territorial cleavages  EMERGED FROM COLONIALISM PRETTY CRUDDILY y Hard to have growth when there is identity based politics preventing growth. Uh oh. Cant have THEM in charge. Middle East: main players = Britain and France with SPOILS OF WAR  Ottoman empires decline and WW1 colonizing much of Middle East y Egypt was helped quote unquote by UK to break away from the Ottoman Empire  Distinctive legacy: religious sects, tribal divisions and role of religion in new state y Not ethnic so much, or even tribal as much as religious. Tribal is comparable to other areas. But religion is complicated. Shi ite, sunni, and levels dedication or how much it should be applied to politics. East Asia: Japan emulating Europe Manchuria; Korea; Taiwan (1890s-ww2)  Racial dynamics diff and more social econ infrastructure given timing  Distinctive legacy: high internal unity, human capital, US involvement y American occupation after WW2 engineers land reform y Japanese had tried to create an educated and exploited work force o They had to be trained, so they did not flinch when it came to setting up education institutions in colonies. CROSS CUTTING CLEAVAGES = no homogeneity in any area NOT COLONIZED, BUT still dominated by foreign powers: Iran, China, Thailand

 Typically: multiple colonial powers, no one power able to take control  Still, net effect similar foreign access to resources, markets w/ threat of force Even so, Common Dynamics of Early Independence Period o Common Effects of Colonialism with Enduring LEGACIES  Economic: initial dependence on cash crops, foreign tech (more next week)  Political: artificial boundaries, internal divisions, non authentic institutions y More lasting. Kashmir problem goes on in East Asia. East Timor barely resolved. Africa Eritrea separates from Ethiopia, South Sudan formally declare itself independent, but overall the map hasn t changed. All based on stuffing people with little in common in to one administrative boundary.  Social: ambivalence vs colonizer in development debates y West becomes this enviable power. We want to resuscitate our traditions but man they have some cool shit. o Similarly Contested Politics of Nationalism  After common enemy, diverse nationalist ideologies y While the enemy is there, its easy to have national cohesion. y All of that becomes a shell with no common enemy.  Very nationally specific points of reference in elite debates y At first glance they all look culturally and historically unique. y But if you step back, you notice similar debates.  But, structure of debate similar across TW nations! y In all: spectrum of MODERNIZERS SYNCRETISTS NATIVISTS o Modernizers: most aggressive about emulating the west. Progress. Past is past. History is history. Lets get respect be competitive. o Syncretists: middle ground. Lets find nativist traditions but emphasize universal aspects. Reconstruct elements for modern world. Selectively take modern world, tech, ideas, etc, and blend. o Nativists: want some of the tech to preserve independence, but much more fixated on recovering their past. Look to the past look to the past.  Not dissimilar from CATCH UP politices elsewhere (eg Meiji, Japan) y But more pronounced and enduring in post-colonial nationas  Readings from varied nationalist ideologues y Common myth of PURE native culture: o Cabral (Guinea-Bissau): return to source o Al banna (Egypt): Islamic purity vs Western Decadence y Whole spectrum in any one country, e.g. INDIA o Savarkar as nativist

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o Bose, Roy as variants of modernist o Gandhi as syncretist o Masses attitudes less profoundly influenced by West beyond economics  New awareness of a larger pol community (nation)  After independence elites and masses diverge y Masses more focused on immediate concerns y Albeit with differences in degree (depending on grassroots) Bana talks about western decadence VS this pure Islamic past that predates colonialism o Nativist, along with cabral Savarkar is nativist. Bose and Roy are modernists. Communists. Both modern along with capitalist. 9/21/2011

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Midterm o October 5th (2 weeks) o In class. Short answer, quick ID stuff, short essay for 30 mins. o Cheat sheet. One sheet of paper 8.5 / 11 boths ides. o Will have to refer to readings. Author names will have to be jotted in there. o After midterm, no recitations. Review sessions though. Rooms and times announced later on. PSCI 116 Lec 5 o The Challenge of Building the Post Colonial Nation State REVIEW: National Liberation and Nationalist Ideologies o 3 paradoxes: overextension, coopeted elites, mobilized masses o Different specific effects of colonial legacies across regions  Get down the basic timeline of when colonizing happened where (SA etc)  Infrastructure and economies were extraction based, not growth, and certainly not egrarian  Misdevelopment = specialized organ to do something it doesn t have to do any more o But all have some: economic misdev, political strife, and schizophrenic social psych  Political strife, so like, the south American land holders  Weird mixture of awe and admiriation of colonizers with a sense of being pissed o United front vs colonizer contested visions of nation  Yet comparable on axis of modernist syncretist nativist  After independence the united front fractures. Masses Experience of Early Independence o For most, little change in dialy challenges of immediate survival  Ideological debates and West s influence less relevant  Basically working on staying alive o Yet, social horizon now stretched beyond village and district

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Awareness of a larger political community called NATION Never really considered NATION before. Horizon had been village and colonial landlord.  Nation is a larger political entity where decisions were being made. Defining Key Terms: State, Society, Nation o STATE: Max Weber, all institutions and officials representing the organization claiming a monopoly of violence to back laws within a given territory  Monopoly of violence. We are the only legit organization that can use violence as a means of coercion to insist the laws of a state are upheld. Prison sentences, hanged, fines, etc. o SOCIETY: sum total of all PEOPLE, however grouped, residing in that territory  Everyone in a territory. Not all citizens necessarily. Just residing. Everyone affected by the state. o NATION: a society that claims enough of a common history to justify joint governance  Nation and state are not synonymous. Nation emphasizes the idea, outside of physical territory or monopoly of violence or laws, the idea that they have enough common history to deserve to be governed together. Challenge of Building a Nation (Infinitely greater in third world) TW Nations at BIRTH: Broad Contrast with Europe o Broad pattern, 4 distinct differences (broad broad broad)  Sudden emergence of single national government with common policies y Nothing gradual. Just instant centralization and assimilation. y Europe had lots of wars and contests. Worked to group people together. Catholic French speakers in France, etc. Third World way more division.  Simultaneous across economic, political and social realms. y No sequence of pol unity econ change social mobility y New leader comes to power in post colonial independent nation and they are simultaneously trying to catch up economical, set up a new political system, and manage social mobility. Villagers become working masses, etc. y Europe was more gradual. Urbanization was over 200 years. Industrial revolution was gradual. Etc.  Rapidly rising expectations outpace economic possibilities y New aspirations not spread out over generations y Conception of being part of the new nation goes along with the promise of a better life for ordinary folks. NOW we will have the good life. y Immediate expectation of payoff.  Compression of time pace/urgency of CATCHING UP y Only 1 or 2 decades to achieve what Europe did over 3-4 centuries

 

Not only is third world suddenly emerging as new nations and doing so in a world with already industrialized powerful western nations o There are also the leaders wanting, and promising, to catch up o We will do this under MY LEADERSHIP o Not 100 or 200 years. Now. o Outsized expectations. o We don t have to emulate everything in Europe but we do need to take some of it. Why Were Weak States More Prevalent and Persistent in TW o WHY STILL WARS? 3 broad reasons o No social revolution to popularize rational rule of law over traditions  Europe: Protestant Reformation + Industrial Revolution (Weber)  Rise of industrial capitalism was not just an economic phenomenon, it also was a social transformation in that underneath a lot of people came to grips with a new idea of right and wrong, lawful and not. y Not about traditional rules and beliefs but instead about law y This didn t take place in TW o No revolution away from old stuff. o Elites just layered on western ideals without a buy-in from below. o No respect for rules and laws a state would be claiming to implement. o Preexisting social structure survives, leads to patronage politics  Europe: wars/revolutions feudal aristocracy fades vs urban middle class  In Europe, most importantly, the landed gentry were pushed to the margins. By the end 19th century there was a middle class growing in size and power, working class growing in size, the aristocrats who controlled most of the land and were at the top of the feudal pyramid were losing their power.  There were hierarchical relationships in TW but they were never broken up during colonialism y Colonizers using that structure to keep order y Getting landlords to maintain order, etc y No real break down of that order of the feudal social structure y Colonialism brought no social revolution. o Marx saw colonialism as ending feudalism. WRONG. Didn t see that. o State mostly an arena of competition despite centralized government and laws  Local BIG MEN and groups with lingering anxiety over FIXED PIE  Europe: secular homogenized states emerge from wars and treaties (Westphalia) y

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Separate autonomous state, separated from the religious authority of the pope, etc. y Now everyone thinks of the individual as the locus of responsibility y But at crucial points there were homogenization in Europe y But you don t see that in the TW o So when the OTHER big man gets in power, he is not seen as YOUR leader.  State becomes arena of competition for local groups that are much more entrenched. No real radical transformation of who the citizens thought they were. y Continued fixation and magnification of most obvious lines of cleavage. y State never seen as obvious locus of loyalty. o Just an arena to compete in. y New government, leader and bureaucracy, all forming common laws affecting everyone at once o Prior everyone didn t share a leader and code of law.  Third world BIG Man = godfather o **Readings stress WEAKNESS of new states vs STRONG local groups and identities  GEERTZ: primordial identities quickly politicized in new state. y Blood status of identities. Conflictual and politicized post colonial.  MIGDAL: weak state in WEB LIKE relations with strong local gps and big men. y Strong societies and weak states. Severity of Challenges for Nation States: Highest 1 to Lowest 5 o AFRICA: most irrational states, thus least rationale for nationhood  Overlapping ethno religious tribal regional cleavages (unlike S. Asia) o MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA: somewhat better off  Tribal identities and divisions on Islam s role in state  Not always overlapping and coexist with common language (Arabic) o SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA: more diversity, languages, social divisions  But cleavages cross cutting, diffusing specific lines of conflict  Preexisting kingdoms and empires means some shared pre-colonial history o LATIN AMERICA: more homogeneity with marginalization of natives (killed off hetero)  Shared religion (Catholic) and language (Spanish, Port in Brazil)  Divisions more about regional and class inequalities o EAST ASIA: relatively more homogenous populations in post colonial nations  Shared Confucian and Buddhist heritage and long ruling dynasties Just an attempt to lay out INITIAL degrees of difficulty, it does not predict final outcomes Read RENO ON CONGOS MUBUTU to deal with extreme challenge left by Belgium y Recitation

Mondays readings: some Marxist ideals

Gandhi  Seems to be anti centralized government.  Syncretist. Gandhi wasn t appealing to people to behave somehow. A lot of British influence. o Savarkar  Very nativist. Oh man, we have the best everything! o Al Banna  Egyptian leader came to power, Nasser  There were leftover Nazis in Egypt.  After attempt on Nasser s life, they rounded up Muslim Brotherhood and tortured.  Nativist rhetoric is useful in struggle against colonizing power o Roy  Move forward, naturalistically.  He talks about SPECIFIC REALISTIC RESULTS  Cosmopolitanism: you are a citizen of the world, not the state or the nation.  Roy argues that humanism, or his pragmatic humanism, is a cosmopolitan movement y Not saying india is the best, or india can be the best etc y Identify yourself as a citizen of the world. o Bose  Critical of passifism  Critical of Gandhi and nativist propagandha  Basically says have to take up modern methods to fight o Geertz  Important to note usually groups are grouped with differing access to natural resources. Haynes 1-13 Notes o Modernization theory: domestic factors only. 1950s-60s  Criticisms y Overly simply traditional vs modern o Dependency theory: primarily external factors 1960s-1970s  Post imperialist  No concern for domestic factors  Waned post South Korea and Taiwain enjoying econ growth  Neodependency theory y New extended component of relations between rich West and poor developing world o

9/26/2011 Manifestations and Sources of Political Disorder: Violence and Corruption y Review: Weakness of TW States and Challenge of Nation Building o Europe: neither harmonious, nor clear sequence, but had TIME (centuries)  Easier than TW but not simple by any means. Lots of conflict and wars.  Not harmony (Eur) vs disorder (TW) y But TIME gave more space to let idea of nation states settling before industrialization y Not all urbanization, industrialization AND state building y All within one generation. y (one source of overall TW more weak state) o TW: multi tasking in 2 decades with rising expectations in single generation o Also: no social revolution, old social hierarchies, state = arena for PRIORDIAL gps o Main goal of last lecture was to give the perspective of how difficult it was.  Europe dove in  TW did all sorts of flips and jumps and twirls Introduction: The Connection Between Violence and Corruption o Common: weak state and low legitimacy of formal rules/institutions  Corruption CAN happen as a means to gaining access to resources for shut out groups o Compare to West: normalcy (pervasiveness)  Overall deviating from NORMALCY is not unusual y Part of the psychological effects of working on nation building o Manifestations of Violence  COUP : some or all of the military vs weak or divided existing govt y Brazil 1964, Chile 1973, Libya 1969, Ghana 1983, Indonesia 1965 y Military steps in and says like, WE KNOW HOW TO DO THIS, regular citizens don t know shit. y Certain people benefit from, say, Qaddafi s coup. So they want him in. so overthrowing him is not a matter of chucking out a bad guy, its another tribe trying to move in. y Initially welcomed coup.  REVOLUTION: social gps overthrow old order, pursue new regime, new ideology y Class based: Mexico 1911, China 1949, Cuba 1958 o main driving force was economic grievances, hence class based. y Religious/ethnic: Iran 1979 (Khomeini > Shah) o Slightly less common than class, but still happens. y Revolutions are more cataclysmic and dramatic than COUPs. They involve some part of the military but a lot of the impetus comes from powerful leaders, outside the system, that push up from below.

o NOT TRADITIONAL POLITICAL LEADERS o Think of Havel. y Whole transformation of way of life. Coup s don t destabilize entire set of infrastructure. Still have bureaucracy and constitution, etc. o But in revolutions the whole concept is the culture and all else is illegitimate and must be overthrown. CIVIL WAR (ongoing militarized disputes over state control and secession) y Wars of secess: Nigeria and Biafra War o One group says we want out. We are not comfortable with this nation line. This happened in Sudan (South Sudan carved out) y Unfinished coup/revolution: Angola, Afghan under Tali o Military tries to hold a coup, runs in to a strong presidential guard and it takes longer than expected to take control. o Or revolution that never quite finishes. Instead of having the Shah run out of the country in 5 days, it takes longer.  Libya is this. Still looking for Qaddafi. Still hitting pockets of resistance.  In most situations this is a civil war.  Sometimes they end with countries splitting up, sometimes a new regime is formed.  Civil wars are LONG UNENDING THINGS. GENOCIDE and ETHNIC CONFLICT (most problematic in Africa but not limited to TW) y Not uncommon, but unique dynamic TW post colonial boundaries/policies o Elites rile up masses and trigger ethnic conflicts. o Basis would not be there if it wasn t for the fact you already had preexisting senses of betrayal.  One side favored by colonizers.  Other side hates them for that.  Radical transformation, lets get them! o This hate must tap in to something, you cant just layer it on whatever your economic grievances. You need some feeling of resentment.  Not good vs evil. More sophisticated. y EG Rwanda 1994 (Tutsi Hutus) but also Darfur and Sudan NOTE ON TERRORISM y Historically not always EVIL part of FREEDOM FIGHTING (FLN, IRA, Irgun) o FLN in Algeria basically negotiated then escalated to violence against French, and you had a spiral of violence. So FLA went

underground and launched attacks. Their pol party rules Algeria for years. o IRA fought England with terrorisms. o Irgun was Israel formation terrorists. o Global view of terror as evil is post 9/11 y MY definition: indiscriminate violence to trigger anxiety to advance political goals o Regardless of whether user is state or non state (Horishima?) o Need to separate normative judgment from the act o ME: proximity of target to source + endorsement of beneficiaries  How close is the attack to the place making the decisions that hurt you? y YOU know what your target is.  So al qaeda is acting on behalf of all Muslims, or so they say. y Did you check with the Muslims? y FLN had mass support, IRA had support. o Manifestations of Political Corruption  Definition: ILLEGAL or QUASI LEGAL blurring of PUBLIC roles and PRIVATE interests y Giving your people more bread. Blurs your job desc.  Everywhere but note gap between third world and US/W. Europe y http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/201 0/results  Takes many different forms y Direct theft by those in official positions using their public power y Patronage in elite politics: back-door deals that violate that law y Patronage for social / economic gains: top schools, government loans and contracts y Everyday life: GREASING THE PALMS (banks, services, utilities)  Note: gap in perception in ethics of corruption y Where illegal AND immoral, convergence between West and TW o Courts don t have a lot of legitimacy in TW so have to divorce yourself from that o Everyday ethics vs law o Reliance on everyday common sense ethics  Sometimes things are ok, its corrupt but we did ok y Where illegal act not seen as immoral corruption tolerated! Explaining both Violence and Corruption Theoretically o Modernization theory: linear model following western countries

o o

Quickly become obvious violence and corruption cropped up and people had to try to explain. y Ad hoc explanations: lack of rule of law respect, shortcomings, etc Huntington: violence/corruption a function of modernization process  Gap hypothesis Robert Price on Ghana: conflicting roles shaped by new laws, old norms corruption  Bureaucrats formal roles vs informal expectations of relatives/friends  Awareness of proper role, but obligations to traditional relats Mahmoud Mamdani on Rwanda: reaction to vicitimization under colonial rule  Leaves colonized with diff sense of normalcy of violence  And vengeance vs groups identifieid in colonial powers role 9/28/2011

Economic Growth, International Inequality, or Neocolonial Dependency o Introduction: Modernization and Economic Progress  TW Leaders: THIRD WAY mixture of East and West y Not really just emulating the west. y Involved taking SOME things, but was not just lets do that exactly. o Communist bloq offered a very compelling argument  They were nothing a few years ago, now look at em!  They were peasant, JUST LIKE US y KEY WAS RAPIDITY o Soviet union were having these 5 years plans that did great. Looked good in the 1950s y Third way o Varied within the mixture what the balance was between Comm and Capitalism o Most had some combination of planned economy and free trade.  East: model of rapid, catch-up industrialization  West: innovation/market competition  West still the main benchmark of technology/prosperity y West was still the benchmark to catch up. The goal. Don t do it the same way but get to the same place. o Western study of TW econ development  Classical economics: comparative advantage growth/development y Most classicial economists believed comparative advantage to be main principal. Play to your strength, keep exporting what you have, etc. eventually will be equilibrium.  Modernization theory (WW Rostow) consistent with this but sees econ progress as intertwined w/ political/social modernization

Some of the people who did step out of the narrower economic straining and tried to be more interdisciplinary y Rostow was heavily influenced by modernization theory o Anti-communist stage by stage argument o He was saying there will be stages, like Marx said, but its heading to American type of economy o All very linear in progress.  Difference between standard and modernization is not that relevant: BOTH DISCOUNT STARTING POINT OF POST COLONIAL y leave things along and all will be okay. o In all cases: expectation of progress  Expectation of steady progress y Eventually Bangladesh will look like US  NO accounting for effects of colonialism or its legacy The Problem: Widening, Not Lessoning, International Inequalities o 1900-1970: some progress (GDP growth), but little CATCHING UP o Compare per capita GDP over time in constant US dollars  TW as percentage of West declines from 15% (1900) to 8% (1970) o Basically people saw that TW were not catching up, so whats going on?  US from 1900 to 1970 goes up 411%  TW average goes up 219%  SO NO CATCHING UP: you have doubled your economy when they have quadrupuled. And as a ratio it has actually gone down. o Basis for frustration, disillusionment, and search for alternative theories o 1960s-1970s: TW leaders embrace new arguments on INEQUALITY UNDERDEVELOPMENT o Some ideas being recycle in anti-globalization arguments in different language  SEE WORLD BANK DATA ON TABLE 1 o Summary: comparative advantage is clearly not leading the TW to an equilibrium. Life may be getting better but still, we are NOT CATCHING UP. They had to find an alternative theory. What else is out there? Nobel Laureate Gunnar MYRDAL: Rich Lands, Poor Lands o Classical economics predicts equilibrium, but ignores:  Multiplying effects of initial differences: circular cumulative causation y Cumulative decrease or increase depending on where you are.  upward spiral for those ahead, downward for those behind o Backwash effects = 3 problems capital, trade, migration/brain-drain  Yes SPREAD EFFECTS (technology, jobs, managerial skills, new demands)  Normally balanced, but in TW economics, backwash effects have momentum  Poor countries must deal with y

Capital: lacking capital to invest. No flow inward, only outward. Poor to rich, never the reverse. New investment in northern countries because of less risk. Capital accumulates in the north. y Trade: comparative advantage sounds great in principal, but if your CA is bananas, they will not get you the expensive things you need to buy to be competitive. If bananas skyrocket in price, people will eat less. y Migration/brain drain: most talented people in TW leave. o Applies to regions and ethnic groups, but government policies as remedies (eg affirmative Action)  International inequality harder to remedy without global policy  Implies: more regulation and coordination across North/South  Myrdal argued that AFFIRMATIVE ACTION would be needed as well within states. Dependency Theory to Import Substitution Industrialization o Beyond Myrdal: (neo)Marxist theories with GLOBAL conflict  International bourgeoise with local bour exploiting international proletariat o Key: Not Marx, but LENIN S THEORY OF IMPERIALISM (popular in 3rd world)  Marx: colonialism can be beneficial (Break down feudalism) WRONG y Turned out not to be. Colonizers didn t break down, instead REINFORCED by saying hey, lets use these people and co-opt them.  Lenin: capitalisms growth produces worldwide exploitation via colonies y Burden of profit making is shifted from FW workers to TW workers (colonial workers). y Exploit foreign colonies and you can keep your people happy. y No reason to make revolution in colonizing countries any more. o NEO-colonialism: developed in 1960s to explain persistence of low development  Free market retains basic econ relations set up under colonialism y Colonialism ended. Why didn t it all get better? y Colonial apparatus isn t there any more, no more military force etc. now you just coopt and pull them in.  TW dependent on exports valued by colonizer y You are still dependent on what they valued. y Before they took it by force, now you are selling it to them. y You are still dependent. They buy it cheap. Basic resources.  TW dependent on imports from West for latest technology y Latest technology still comes from colonizing countries. y You have to buy them and they are way more expensive. y Third world economy is dependent on exports valued by colonizer and imports made by colonizer.  This theory appeals to TW policymakers (N.I.E.O) y Was not entirely true, but resonated. y

y New international economic order. y Idea being letting the free market handle will not work. Key proponent: CEPAL s Andre Gunder FRANK  Colonialism basically sets up two separate tracks y One leading up, one leading down. y Start off as better off, you go up. y Start off as worse off, you go down. y Argues that you rely on the UNDERDEVELOPMENT of the colonies to develp. o Not a blank slate. o Its bad development.  Metropole (core) develops fast b/c of flow of capital out of satellites (periphery) y Satellites to metropole  UNEVEN TERMS OF TRADE (Bananas/coffee vs autos/tvs)  Spurts of local dev just reinforce overall process of capital outflow (colonial)  Implies: more self-sufficiency better for development, leads to y IMPROT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION 1970s = decade of NIEO  Basic notion: can t trust markets to level the playing field  Some interventions necessary: technology, price bands, cartels  Note on (access to US markets with reciprocity) Recitation

y y y y

Gap hypothesis o Society s expectations lag behind what the society can provide in modernizing states  Through government inroads = only way to move up o Government isn t yet ready to allow tehse new intellectuals to change things around, thus: o So STABILITY is a side effect of some traditional societies  Basically without resources or literacy, its hard to notice the inequity. o Changing idea of what the STATE should be. Homogenous developing countries o You find large scale corruption at higher levels Hetergenous developing you see o Insurgency. Corruption o Lets people in that otherwise may have been shut off. Price o Even though civil servants see an obligation to serve society, they feel a stronger obligation to family o And will choose family over the society as a whole.

The survey found that they acknowledged that thtey shouldn t be doing that. Basically rule of law is understood. Clear understanding of premise of separation of public and private interests. o Price points to cost benefit analysis, not not understanding.  Helping out is beneficial (family)  Not helping out means losing family.  Negative family sanctions (informal) by family are more severe than (formal) state sanctions. o Discussion of compartmentalization  Some behaviors seen corrupt in one sphere but normal and commonplace in the other Mamdani o Distinguishes between cultural identities and political  Political is reified with available legal apparatus  Cultural is a bit more informal and less forced by legal apparatus o Races: were treated under different laws than the TRIBES (indigenous) o So a bunch of races living together didn t mean a separate legal system for each race o But tribes had separate legal systems. o Gave tribes distinct political identities. o Colonialism makes ethnic cleavages in to political cleavages o Rwanda, tribes were basically they grabbed a strongman and created a tribe under him. Hierarchical. Patriarchical. o Colonists focused on native elites and made them puppets of Western leaders  This implementation of direct rule created a desire for self rule  The group that the Belgians used for indirect rule (the coopted group) y Is the one that becomes hated. o Hutu political entrepreneurs use alienation or mass guilt as a political tool against the Tutsi  Motivated to retain colonial IDs in order to retain axe to grind and anger Rostow o Old school. Somewhat nave. Ignorant of external effects. o Sees the state as a contained unit, more or less. o Very little interaction theory or discussion on of exterior forces. o Outlines  Agricultural, to precond for takeoff. Precond may have SOME intervention from outside societies. Precond may have financial institutions arise. Industrialization and manufacturing.  o Pre Newtonian is interesting  As all he really did was translate arab sources. o Argues that everything will go towards an equilibrium. Nutty.

 

o y

 A dynamic theory of production. Argues that external states will help develop  But why would they? They extract.

Myrdal o Basic idea is you don t get a chaotic system, you get a fairly stable system  With some oscillations it tends to return to a stable phase or a flat phaseless stable state. o Mydral is saying that is WRONG o We are dealing with a system that, when it enters a phase we can spiral downward, or spiral upward, depending on its initial direction. o Laissez faire non interventionist economists are just wrong  Affirmative action for international states. o Value laden terms  Purports to be a descriptive term but smuggles a value judgement in with int  Term BACKWARDS y Rostow uses the term backwards as presumably just a descriptive term to talk about diff societies o But of course it is not merely descriptive y Value judgment. o Developed/undeveloped: smuggling in colonialist agenda. Just calling it that. o Applies also to regional gaps, within a country  Poorer poorer and richer richer  The gaps are more prevalent in poorer countries  And they grow more rapidly in poored countries

Look up bbc brutal honest policy 10/03/2011 y y y 5:30 @ Stiteler Forum Tomorrow 5:30 @ Stiteler Forum The Evolving North-South Divide in a Global Economy o Overview: The Third World on a Global Stage  1950s-70s: East/West geopolitics despite non alignment y Econ/military aid tied to alliances and proxy wars y East in this context refers to Communist Bloc o Competing with US in Third World o Despite non-alignment and claims of third way y Lots of economic aid pouring in from US and Soviets o Not altruism, just for convincing. y Examples: throughout Mid East, Africa, South Asia, Latin America

India went soviet. Iraq and PLO and Egypt went Soviet. Ethiopia and Somalia had a border dispute, Soviets got Eth we got Somal.  1960s-1970s: New North/South track New International Economic Order (NIEO) y North South track becomes more pronounced after 1960s/70s. o More prominent and by late 60s it takes over the way in which TW elites think o They are talking more and more about NIEO despite still getting aid from US and USSR y ISI + South-South cooperation vs North o Came out of dependency theory o We will not be dependent on foreign imports, we will produce our own things. o But WE STILL WANT TO INDUSTRIALIZE we do NOT want to be farmers o So ISI + South/South cooperation meaning like, lets help each other, band together, change the rules o West becomes the North. They were the ones pushing free trade and lower trade barriers. They were the former colonizers.  We will resist them. y 3 roots: UN majority, Dtente, OPEC oil embargo o This is how you explain the timing of this. Not 50s or 60s. o By early 1970s the TW has the majority of seats for the first time. At the beginning there were very few UN TW members. By early 70s they are OVERWHELMING majority. o Dtente: US and Soviets went in to Dtente in 1970s. Breznev hugged Carter, good times. Serious cooperation. We have nukes, we are not going to blow each other up, so lets coexist.  We could keep fighting each other in the TW though! Yay!  But took away the intensity of East/West  This put the focus more squarely on TW dev issues o OPEC Oil Embargo: Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela. Early 70s launched an embargo over Arab/Israeli politics. Prices went soaring. Oil producing countries got very very rich.  Late 1980s: IMF/World Bank push structural adjustment (market reforms) y Push for NIEO fizzled out. Few reasons why. y 3 roots: oil boomerang, debt crisis, fall of communism The Rise and Fall of the NIEO o Ideological basis: from dependency to level playing field o

 Push for more fairness over unfettered free markets (GATT)  Unity/cooperation among SOUTH vs explotative NORTH Institutional manifestations via UN (growing TW majority)  1964 UNCTAD (UN Conf on Trade and Dev) y Free trade is great, as long as it contributes to development. y We must redesign trade in a way to help development. y Nothing major happened from this committee.  1974 NIEO Resolution: end dependency, North-South inequality y South has OVERWHELMING majority now. y So they push through UN resolution y Calculated to end dependency. This inequality is unacceptable. We must do what it takes. y We can raise our trade barriers against foreign countries.  More concrete: regional agreements and commodity cartels y Regional agreements for cooperation. Andean Pact in SA, etc. lets lower trade barriers amongst our selves, but collectively have higher against North. y Commodity cartels. Tin producers, etc. used OPEC as model. Some shifts b/c North prefers stable South (Fear of communism)  We don t want TOO much poverty down there in the South y Because they ll turn to communism y We don t want radical communists rising out of impoverished workers in Korea or whatever y No interest in radical instability.  US backs International Coffee Agreement in South America y Our especially important agreement. y We were key to key SA communist free. Communists were elected in Chile in 1973, yikes. We don t need this shit.  Europeans: fund to stabilize commodity prices (Common Fund) y Commodity exports is a very instable thing y Fluctuations can be the rule. Bananas or coffee can spike and plunge. y Scandinavian countries very attentive to TW economic stuff. y So they put in to funds to keep prices sane.  Establishment of BUFFER STOCKS (prevent over supply) y Sometimes you have over production, lets move that stuff off of the market, horde it. Grain. Stuff can be kept. Don t flood the market and push the price down. y All calculated to keep the TW econs in the game. But, in the end, South South cooperation short lived:  Over-ambitious goals: joint tax policies and trade barriers y Turned out to be way too over ambitious.

Different ideologies amongst countries, types of resources, levels of development, etc. y Hard to get them all to agree. y Became pretty clear that the idea of South/South cooperation was a pretty inconsistent pipe dream.  No international enforcement mechanism on agreements  Persistent different ideology, resources, level of development o Example difficulties:  International Tin Council: defection of Malaysia over profitability of mines y Tried to control prices and keep high y Benefit all TW countries that produce tin y Worked well for a couple of years and then Malaysia decided that it wasn t profitable enough and bailed y COMMODITY CARTEL  Andean Pact: Chile and Venezula bail on Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador y All signed agreements, lets have joint tax policies and everything itll be great! y Lets coordinate on trade barriers and tariffs, lower our internal barriers. y But eventually each country came up with its own list of exceptions. y We rely on this so we need this exception. You need that exception. Gah. y REGIONAL AGREEMENT Why Structural Adjustment (Market Reforms)? o SAP Structural Adjustment Program o Immediate Cause: DEBT CRISIS, starts with OIL BOOMERANG  Initially it seemed like the embargo helped. y Look at the rising prices! We brought the west to our knees. y So the initial interpretation in TW of embargo is that oh this is great! y Maybe the former TW oil countries will share their wealth.  Oil embargo HURTS most TW: higher cost of development y Instead, oil is expensive for them too. y Dictators come out of the army saying we will make life better. y But then, these dev projects, require a lot of money and OIL. y So rather than OIL being a new order for the TW it became an albatross around the TW neck y Democratic and despotic leaders, all need oil.  Oil revenues petro dollars floating loans to TW y Youre a rich oil country, you get mad rich from all this petrol. y So you want to invest your money, in something safe. You want to invest in the west. Citibank. Chase. Etc. y

All these petrodollar oil producers swimming in dollars set up accounts in commercial banks in the west. o And those banks have to pay a return o The only way to pay this return is to lend this money out to someone else o THE BANKS HAVE TO INVEST THIS MONEY y Who desperately needs our money? o OH TW GOVERNMENTS WITH STALLED OUT PROJECTS o So the banks lend their money out to TW loans. o Pact made in hell: commercial banks looking for new clients to lend their crazy money out in order to get interest. y Oil raises costs for TW and finances their projects which cost them interest. y Countries over borrow, commercial banks over lend. o All being done at COMMERCIAL rates. o Crazy high floating interest rates. o 0% for first 6 months. o Interest can become unwieldy.  1979-1982: international rates spike threats of default in Turkey, Mexico y When loans were borrowed, the interest rates were pretty low. y So the cost per month or per year were fine. y But then by 1979, 80, 81, 82, the interest rates begin climbing a lot o Now youre struggling just to make a payment o NEVERMIND THE PROJECTS you can t even afford to pay the extra interest coming due. y Mexico and Turkey are suddenly talking about defaulting y HUGE PROBLEM for West, bad for TW too. o All these banks suddenly have lenders defaulting. o Billions and billions of dollars that are apparently not coming back.  Banks, IMF and Western Governments: Reschedule debt, but structural adjustment y Think tanks go to work to try to sort this out. y They want to keep the TW in the game. o Meanwhile Castro is yelling for everyone to default. There will be chaos! y We went to work, got people together, and banks, US governments, IMF, etc. y Offered flexible deals for restructuring debt, extending over 30 years o In exchange for some market reforms Broader Factor: 1980s Geopolitical Shift as Communist Model Falters y

Oh shit here is a point in history where we can rewrite the worlds economic rules to be more in keeping with us.  Everyone freaks out, signs market reforms.  Reforms in USSR, China end of Cold War and socialist model y This commitment to being the THIRD WAY as opposed to First and Second world, is looking silly. y Communists are restructuring too. y So the center is moving right. (ideologically)  Balance of idea/policies shifts (at least temporarily): market > state y Massive shift in overall TW thinking from state to market. o THUS: 1980s-1990s: Worldwide shifts towards liberalization  Provides basis for GLOBALIZATION and WASHINGTON CONSENSUS y Washington becomes the center of all debates y How much market reform should we take? y Whole language of debate changes, nota bout state interventionism.  But, not automatic; involves crises, state elites decisions, conflicts What Had to be Reformed? State-Directed Development o State involvement had been part ideological, part PRACTICAL  Monopoly rents; unprofitable infrastructure; employment; currency stability y Monopolize, say, a resource mine and collect rents. y Revolution of rising expectations, need pol stability through employment.  BUT: also waste, inefficiency, inflexibility, corruption y Inefficiency as large bureaucratic infrastructures were built filled with people just collecting income. y State was not designed to be inefficient.  Still: India, China, Brazil all benefiting from this infrastructure y Often overlooked, but members of the new BRICKS, emerging TW powers, regionally influential, would likely not be where they are had they not had the state protection they did. y Something to be said about what the state involvement did for many states. y But be that as it may, the mid 80s on was a time of free marketization. Privatization. o Main elements = retreat from state intervention (liberalization and privatization)  International: free trade, more foreign investment, currency deregulation  National: fiscal austerity, government deregulation, privatization of state assets y Fiscal austerity: you can reschedule your debt but you have to be cutting back y Gov deregulation: let the private enterprises do their own thing y You don t need this many gov license reqs

Factors affecting strictness of conditions (note iron viz. colonialism!)  Size of markets (eg large populations with purchasing power India) y Those countries with sizable markets for leverage, even one with a 5% middle class, or one with a lot of resources, got a MUCH BETTER DEAL y India and S Africa, Venezuala dealt from a position of relative strength y Compared to Tanzania which was starving and had to take it as a whole y Those factors that shaped colonialism came back and explained how they could strike deals  Valued resources (eg oil, diamonds, minerals Venezual, S. Africa) Success of Economic Liberalization = 3 Separate Questions o Overall GNP growth, but not steeper than before for all!  Low income 4.7 to 4.3% 80s to 90s  Upper Middle 0.8 to 3.0% y Only BIG increase  High Income 3.3 to 2.5 o Rise of inequality both globally and domestically (READ ARRIGHI ET AL)  Basically say there may be no growth of inequality through 1990s, but certainly did not shrink y Not enough to change stuff  Globally: see Arrighi, Silver and Brewer on South s vulnerability  Domestic:no trickling down of benefits for majority (peasants and less skilled) y No trickling down to poorer within states. o Result: after 20 years, TW citizens doubting promises of reform  Note: return of left in Latin America, Zambia and other TW elections  Doubts about neoliberal model intensified now by West s recession o 10/12/2011 Brazil

Why Study Brazil? o Typically large TW country (like India): high GDP (#7), but  Low rank for per capita GDP (#76)  Low hdi ran literacy/life execptancy/living stds (#75) y Seems to be something going on here. y Despite relatively high GDP low HDI. o Reflects Latin American PATTERN of colonial and post colonial change  Europeanization of population and focus on control of land y Settled very early on. Native population is marginzalied. y But it gets changed from Euro style. Focus becomes on land. y Pre industrial land and resources  Evolves into persistent inequality: Brazil in 2005 in bottom 10

Most LA countries have this problem. Except for a few torn up African countries, LA generally occupy the bottom rungs of this. o Unique features of Brazil:  Diverse country (NE poverty, multi racial society w/ low conflict) y Regional variation. Terrain variation. Beaches, amazon jungle. y Environmental issues y Multiracial society. Large black population. Slave trade was huge. Not reigned in by Portugal, whereas other LA states of Spanish colonies reigned that in. y Complex multiracial society that is a bit different.  Recent: Brazil s left-ish social policies, reduced inequality since 2002 y Left turn in recent years. 3 straight elections went left. Colonialism o 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral lands in Brazil  Rapid settlement, conquest, disease kills native Indian population y Militarily more powerful than Indians. Bring disease which dwindles the population down. They are pushed out.  Slave trade until late 19th century so large # of Blacks o 1500-1800; complex population, but dominant Catholic Portuguese  Colony actually gets to bring its culture. Dominant religion AND language. Bam. Done. Imagine England going to India and all Indians dying. Its England.  Euro + Black + Nativ Indian y This sets Brazil apart. More intermarrying than other Las. All catholic. All speaking Portuguese.  But also: Mestizos (Euro/Indian), Mulattos (Euro/Black) y Afro Brazilians are a bit more impoverished. Not too bad. y A lot of openly mixed individuals. o Colonial economy under elites from preindistrual CORE  No need for fuel for industrial revolution, that has not come yet.  More focus on resources than markets y Colonialism is eventually about resources and then markets. y Now its more like resources.  Predominantly: control of land, agri primary exports (Sugar, cotton, etc) y Huge amounts of land owned by single families. y Land to wealth requires crops. y Brazil was not following US model of industrialization. o 300 years of this Independence Constitutional Monarchy (1822-1889) (LITTLE DIFF FROM COLONY ITSELF) o 1822 = independence, w/ Portuguese Prince Dom Pedro I (Napoleonic wars) (PRINCE OF PORTUGAL DECLARES BRAZIL INDIE) y

No real transformation of social relations or econ policy in movement to indie. Power really stays in the hands of those that had it in the colonial period.  Tensions: local caudillos (landowning barons) vs Portuguese monarch y Caudillos were trying to flex their muscles against Portugal and Brazil. y They start flexing and acting autonomously.  But no conflict; instead deal b/w Prince and caudillos (almost feudal structure) y No grassroots or revolution. An amicable divorce.  Constitutional monarchy under Emperor + regional governors o But: Little change in overall political power and nature of economy:  Legislature elected by 1% of population, landed elites control strong regions y Still really centralized power.  Economy even more colonial: slave labor, primary exports to industrializing core. Old Republic (1889-1930): more POST-colonial nation (CHANGE LIGHT, MINIMALIST) o 1880s pressures emperor isolated, momentum for change  Growing urban class + liberal ideals + debates on monarchy/slavery/church  1888: slavery abolished by Princess Isabel (Dom Pedro II s sister) y Once slavery was abolished in the US it became a lightning rod issue in Brazil y Monarchy feels this pressure. y DP2s sister abolishes slavery, which pisses off the group that had backed the monarchy, the landed elites. o They were the only ones sticking up for the monarchy. o So they joined up and kicked monarchy out.  Now landed elites also upset, join others in 1889 coup (bloodless) y Weird coliation. Conservative landed elites and smaller but growing urban center reformist movement. Weird! o 1889 more of a move from colonial past to new nation: (MINOR TURNING POINT)  No more descendents of monarchy being head of state.  Cities become more interesting. Real ideas.  US-style constitution: 3 branches, church/state, federalism y Brazilian constitution is US constitution-light. y Federalism: very important. Suggests there is a center. Not just various regions. There is a center and a question of balance of power between nstates and center/state relations.  BUT: elections still limited to literate citizens (3%), no grants to ex-slaves y Still low number to vote. y Slaves come out of slavery, but have no opportunity to rejoin society or get land. This is an interesting global pattern. Takes forever to get out of that peasant situation.  Landed elites (caudillos) manage to retain power and influence

While there was institutional change, the power resided in the same few individuals. y Eg Politics of Coffee And Milk: alternation of influence b/w Sao Paolo and Minas Gerais (still no 1 and no 3 in state gdp!!!) o There were very important regions and their exports became very important. So this period had SP and MG exporting coffee and milk. o Those regions remain important even today. o *How did the Old Republic survive for 40 years? Two factors:  Coronelismo: central elites got pol support of local coronels (oligarchs) y In exchange for local autonomy and control (corruption/clinetelism) y This is PATRON/CLIENT politicsl. y Leaders are PATRONS and they offer their clients the CORONELISMOs power y So it might be democratic, but what is making it work is coronelismos. y Corrupt informal system of patronage relationships.  Increasingly unified, professional military: order and stability y Basic order, peasants that are frustrated or workers that are getting out of line, you have an increasingly professional military. y The military is in the center. y The coronels should have seen this coming. They had power but centralized military in CAPITAL city. Getulio Vargas (1930-1945) and the NEW STATE (Estado Novo) o Why did the Old Republic ultimately fall apart?  Tensions between land based clientelism and city based modernization y Question old ideas. Modernize. Live in cities. Look for international ideas. New ways to do things.  Growing number and frustration of restive workers y People are moving to the cities. y Rising expectations. y Angry middle class that is more economically influential but not political.  Elite rivalry not just inter state but also state and center and urban and rural y state vs center y urban vs rural (industry vs agriculture) y region  Add to this mix: late 1920s depression, harder to BUY support y This is the final straw that broke Brazil s back. o 1930 = military coup by Vargas, launches a new era (comes from professional military) BIG CHANGE!)!*(@#@#(*  1930-37 provisional government + 1937-45 Estado Novo y

 For us: single period but with sharper break with the past  Some call it REVOLUTION (Lamounier): break power of landed elites o Economics: attach on neocolonial economy (long before Frank)  ISI (import sub industrialization) with state-led development  Less focus on primary exports, more protection for native industry o Politics: toward AUTHORITARIAN POPULISM (influence of Italy, Germany, Ussr?)  Strong central government vis a vis regions, under dictator  Repress opposition in name of nationalism, patriotism Recitation o Arrighi: builds on Frank. Developing world never gets to front of the curve. Meta industry remains in first world. o Skidmore: anecdotal evi. No universities before 1932. Banned printing presses. o Bohn: anecdotal evi. Why did his support change. Initial base was in regionally located I nthe SE. young. Educated. In the cities. In the southeast. Were not poor. Upper middle class. A lot of critics of Lula s party say it was because of Bolsa Familia (program for poor) that bought the votes of the poor. Which refers to tiers of corruption. Implies that this social policy that interests of public and gov are misaligned. The author Bohn argues that statistically you can t argue that this change was due to this one program, nor that the change occurred JUST by looking at aggregate data. Recipient of Bolster Familia is not the demographic that you ese suddenly voting. Its just ONE group that grew. Gets a big jump from old and disabled. That s what gets him elected.  Educated people slowly transition to not supporting him.  Educated and rich slowly stop supporting him  But compensated by jump in support from poor, illiterate  Electoral politics of brazil are changing o Lamounier:  History of Brazil.  Hobbesian style representation y Increasing less Hobbesian in that there is less of a compliance to rule y More of a democratic and liberal  Main thesis: the formal democratic institutions came ahead of this substantive democracy which is still in the process of fleshing itself out. Formal institutions existed but there was no liberalism at the time. Formal inst ns were a way to test the level of adherence. In democracy the voters were still regional heads.  1822: elections but lemonier wrote that they were subject to police interference. Marginalized minority parties. Prior to 1930 was cadillos based system. 1930 transition that coincided with quasi-labor organization (As sanctioned by the state).  1945-1965:  Economically 1950s consumers take over. Emphasis on consumer goods.  Vargas = charismatic

GET NOTES FOR 10/17 FROM EMAIL BRAZIL LAND HOLDING OLIGARCHS NOT CHOPPING UP LAND IS IMPORTANT IMPROANT 10/19/2011 y y India Intro: Why Study India? o Typical large TW country: resources/population but low standard of living (all typical features)  4th highest total GDP-ppp (almost caught up with Japan) y US, China, japan, India  But 1 billion population also means: per capita GDP rank in #130s, HDI rank #122 y Just like in Brazil, if you do per capita it falls way below. y HDI rank is really bad in HDI. Ranked 160 in soccer. Brazil is 5.  Worse than Brazil, but much less inequality (#79 from bottom vs #10 brazil) y Inequality is much better than brazil. y In many other respects Brazil is doing much better but in inequality Brazil is still in the bottom ten and India is number 80 from the bottom.  A lot of resources. A lot of people. A vibrant market, and yet colonial legacy. o Model of British colonialism, nationalism, and third way  Classic features of colonization under an industrializing empire y British was most rapidly growing economy in 19th century y Most powerful navy and most influential power globally y Their needs were geared towards a much more powerfully industrializing empire o CONTRAST WITH BRAZIL IN TERMS OF HAVING PORTUGAL COME IN PRE INDUSTRY REV y Grass roots nationalism o Native populations find elites, fin da party, organize and push for independence  VERY DIFFERENT FROM BRAZIL AND IS WELL COMPARED WITH ALGERIA  Classic strategy of balancing state and market, left and right o Distinctive paradoxes in story of nation building and democracy  There are some limits as to how much you can extrapolate out from this, India is pretty unique in these senses:  200 + languages, yet some prior history makes new nation less artificial  Deep social cleavages, but cross-cutting mostly stable democracy y All kinds of deep divisions but overall the cleavages end up cutting across each other so this gets in the way of strong sustained local

movements that go against the state. There are some, but not sustained. The Indian Subcontinent Before Colonialism o Four sources of diversity: MUST KNOW THIS  Race (northern Aryan / souths Dravidian) overstated by British but there y There is something there. Some say obvious appearance diffs others not so much.  Language: region each with distinct language (some Sanskritic roots) y This is main distinctive ethnic core in India.  Religion: Hindu majority and Muslims (After 1200) and Buddhists, Sikhs, Christians y Hindu was probably 65 or 70% in English India. Now its about 85% without Pakistan.  Caste/jati: Brahmins, warriors, merchants, artisans/peasants, untouchables y THIS IS UNIQUE TO INDIA y Brahmins are priests. Warriors are court administrators, people of the state. The merchants are in trade. Artisans and peasants produce small scale things, grains, etc. Untouchables are those involved in impure work. y Caste = purity continuum. y Jati = much more relevant term within india generally o Brahmins can be land owner in one part but just priests in another where Warriors own all land. y Caste used to be the sole thing for who you could marry. Now its more language. o Yet SOME common civilization forged (unlike most of Africa)  Ancient dynasties across much of subcontinent y Never all the way south. y Would take over, shrink back, etc.  Hindu beliefs and practices spread with them y Remained majority everywhere.  1526-1750s Moghul Empire federal system of tribute y Last of the empires was actually Muslim (Moghul) y Last major empire. The Taj Mahal was built by a Moghul empire. y Local princes had tons of land and palaces, but were subservient to the emperor in Delhi o British coloniaiism somewhat just layered on to this o Pre colonial history provides some basis for poli boundaries Colonialism: The British Raj o Origins: 1612 East India Company and search for trading concessions (Calcutta)  Not looking for a colony. Looking for trade.

1750s effort to revise deals 1757 Battle of Plassey y Marks the beginning of actual active colonialism by the British. y Still indirect. Win the battle, start rolling across the continent. Locally powerful leaders made choices to concede, no unity or cohesion. India was tech. behind and disorganized. British rolled south, west, and established a gigantic colony with almost no trouble.  Late 1700s: end of Moghul empire further conquest and spread of control  1757-1857: INDIRECT RULE native authorities (princes + landlords) y Basically British didn t kill the princes, they kept them in place y Easier y o 1857 Sepoy Mutiny: leads to DIRECT rule for most  They used lard on the guards guns. The guards freaked out and protested. All princes that backed lost their land.  Single british administration over most of India. Which means there was a target for nationalists to hit. By late 1800s early 1900s there was plenty of evidence of nationalism. So divide and rule became helpful to undermine nationalsm.  British Viceroy + Governors of states  divide and rule tactic: highlight cleaves, diffuse united nationalism y Played up Hindu and Muslim diffs th By Early 20 Century mani CONSEQUENCES evident o Economy: some infrastructure but misdevelopment (Exclusion of native textiles!)  push for cash crops means more famines y Scott s subsistence ethic is undermined.  note Gandhi scene on indigo y Indigo is used to die cloth y Amertey Sen became famous pointing out how these famines were due to cash crop pushing, not drought weather or overflooded soil o politics: new institutions but exploit divisions (eg 1905 Bengal partition)  Bangladesh and the current West Bengal of India used to be one place  Too much nationalism there y So the English divided what would one day become Bangladesh (more muslim)  elevation of Hindu Brahmins to key admin posts y the English needed workers. People to trust. Brahmins were the only people that could read and write so lets simultaneously drive a caste wedge and rely on those that hav e askill. o society: education of elites exposure to new ideans (eg self determination)  Exposure to British education meant reading political texts about liberty y Self determination, sovereignty, etc  working class/cities/communication links spread of ideas

y y y y y y y y y y y y y

The Indian National Congress (Inc) and Independence o Key paradox: educated elites form INC in 1885 to debate soc reforms  1910s: Mahandas (Mahatma) Gandhi grassroots mobilization/organization y Gets his start in South Africa, civil disobedience. y Syncretism: universal enlightenment and Hindu spiritualism o Not a pure traditionalist, happy to reform key aspects o Hated caste system. Was a crusader against caste. y Nonviolent civil disobedience (fill jails, salt march, cloth boycott) o Drew upon Thoreau and influenced MLK  1920 Muslim League (Jinnah + 1925 RSS (national Volunteer Corps = Hinduttva) y RSS said Hindu beliefs, philosophy and culture MUST BE AT THE CORE OF INDIA! y Before that, Muslim League was formed with Pakistan s first leader Jinnah y BOTH cooperate with INC vs commony enemy (colonialism) o Only vie with each other once Britain is gone  1946: internal pressure + WW2 independence plan, but y Jinnah s 2 nation view secular India + Muslim Pakistan (1947) y East Pakistan = East Bengal, secedes to form Bangladesh (1971) The Making of a Nation: Jawaharlal Nehru, 1947-1964 Nehru got to be PM for a long time and craft the initial vision of modern india. Nehru was a modernist. Not interested in trying to find elements of Hinduism to salvage. Broad terms he was very much socialist. He saw the soviet union as a good way to catch up. But at his core he was a liberal. Economically he was a socialist influence. India became very concerned about becoming the leader of the non alignment Mau fancied himself as the leader of the third world. India put a lot of stock in the fact that the non align movement. Nehru accepts primordial linguistic states but expects modern future o Compromise for linguistically defeined states India is probably most fixated on maintaining perfect 50/50 balance between state and private 10/19/2011

Skidmore o Inequality persists due to education issues influencing upper mobility o High number of slaves imported in to Brazil, higher than any other state in Americas  May not necessarily cause problems but testifies to fact that there were landed elites with gigantic farms

Regional inequality  Certain regions better off  North east is mostly agrarian with higher percentage of African descedents.  South east is more urbanized, more money there. o Georgraphic speperation o Race based stuff o Education gap maps on to geographic separation o Vargas  Important because he affects all of these institutional changes but none really redress class inequities.  Voting was still restricted to literate votes  Did not organize unions in rural areas o In rural settings language is separated by geography. In the city it is typically separated by class. o Period of instability between 45 and 64  A lot of political tension  Started to introduce party pluralism o Tension was alleviated by just giving the pissed off jobs o Continuing problems with pension system to the day  Left had problem in Brazil THE FINAL SOLUTION o Rakesh Sharma o Google video o 10/24/2011

y y

1950 Const: ratified. Liberal party elites vs local party bosses Nehru accepts (primordial) linguistic states but expects modern future o Remains PM (first PM) until he dies o Nehru dynasty is successful o Nehru is socialist econ, but THIRD WAY in economy: 50/50 balance of state and private sectors o State owned heavy industry (Soviet model: 5 year plans) o Private firms kept small, but dominates consumer sector o But, agriculture with little investment (shortages/famine) Politics: Federalism + Westminster system (winner-take-all) o Candidates run by party, but not party list. Winner take all system. First past the post. The one who wins the plurality wins. So you can convert 51% national electoral vote in to a 75% majority. You just have to win each district. o DOMINANT PARTY SYSTEM: Congress controls national government, but other parties gain in state and local elections from 1960s

Still democratic, but congress party was only party organized enough to run candidates.  Regional parties, can t get traction outside. Communist parties, not enough following. o Strong states rights being entrenched o VOTE BANK: patronage via local caste/village leaders  Important. Way of politicking.  Leader of a caste in a village might be a local big man that bargains with a political leader.  Still within the framework of democracy.  No campaigning for individual hearts and minds, but instead BANKS OF VOTES via the leaders o Federalism: strong center with right to intervene, but variation because state budgets and autonomy on key social/econ policies Variations on a Model: Indira Gandhi, 1966-77, 1979-1984) o Nehru s daughter (not M. Gandhi s) figurehead leader of INC 1967  1970s: more independent of party bosses affects politics/policy y Congress party thought they could just use her name. y Needed that as other parties were beginning to get power.  Some variation in all dimensions, but within overall NEHRU MODEL y She appealed to masses. She didn t have the support that her father had by being connected to regular Gandhi. o International: still non-aligned but 1971 war vs Pakistan = 2 KEY SHIFTS  Strategic ties with USSR + strong nationlist rhetoric y Pakistan was getting support from US, so India figured ahh what the hell y Nationalist rhetoric is a change from Nehru s pacifism o Indira Gandhi was much more realpolitik (Kissinger) o Economy: more populist appeal to masses  green revolution and anti-poverty campaigns y Didn t change economic model too much, but did focus on stopping famines. y Green revolution! Irrigation! We gotta be self sufficient. y Moved away from colonial agriculture back to subsistence y Anti-poverty campaigns was partly rhetoric perhaps, but was helpful o Get votes of the bottom in order to not rely on party elites  Also: more clear ISI + larger LICENSE RAJ y Many foreign companies left because it become harder to profit there y State retained control, was not pro capitalist countries o As soon as company went above a certain threshold in terms of total assets, you had to get a LICENSE from the government (license raj)

 Slows down growth  Built a site of corruption and clientelism around licenses o Politics driven by split with old party bosses (Congo O vs Cong I)  Focus on: personal loyalty + populist/nationalist rhetoric y Key to Cong I (Indira) becomes a personal loyalty program y Sanjay Gandhi was his son, who died in a plane crash later, kept a file of who was and was not trustworthy lists  Old bosses + opponenets challenge IG s 1976 win y The bosses didn t go away. Opponents accused her of campaigning improprieties etc. tried to trump up issues to get a new election.  15 month EMERGENCY RULE IG defeated in 1977 by coalition y This was in response to opponents protesting etc. y They were locked up media was muzzled etc y Held new election as promised o Lost horribly. Entirely a reaction to her tactics.  But coalition JANATA too unwieldy to govern (left, right, Hindu, etc) y Dominant congress party lost, but there was still no other real party of any significant percentage. y So everyone banded together to beat her, under JANATA. y Policy could not be made because they had to internal unity. o 1980: Big win for IG players to Hindu nationalism, but tensions with minorities (Sikhs)  Indira Gandhi comes back hugely in 1980.  Still secular but plays to Hindu culturalism.  Minorities get nervous with this new Indira Gandhi. Sikhs get really alienated.  Khalistan (Punjab) Golden Temple attack assassination (1984) y Sikhs are 51% majority in the state of Punjab y Started pushing for a separate, autonomous state (Khalistan) o Or some just wanted more respect y Radical movement. y Electoral strategies. Political strategies. Terrorist strategies (Montreal plane blowup)  Golden Temple Attack y Indian army attacked Sikhs in GT o Most holy shrine y Indian army was nervous about going in to a holy place y Indira orders army to go in and bombard y Gets the militants out, but this does not pacify the Sikhs y NOW YOU ATTACKED OUR SHRINE y Assassinate her own bodyguards, who are Sikh. o Woops. Transition, 1984-2004: Coalitions, Liberalization, Hinduttva

1984-1996: Congress wins election in 1984 after Indira assassination, leads gov for 10 of 12 years. Seems like continuity BUT fundamental shifts.  Coalitional politics with smaller, regionally focused parties  Serious national party (BJP) with Hinduttva-focus  Econ liberalization and integration into global economy  Regional parties rise (small parties partner with small parties, NOT CONGRESS) y After 1984 the 50/50 shift moved in favor of regionals o Rajiv Gandhi: (elder son of IG, grandson of Nehru) asked to run in 1984  wins landslide, riding sympathy vote after mothers death  move to start loosening up state regulation of econ y eg raise asset level at which licenses are required  attack on corruption: separation of public and private interests  BUT: corruption accusations vs government by both Left and Right  1989-1991: government falls, another loose coalition formed for 2 years y Another unwieldy election  Turning point administration in the third world. India specifically of course. o 1991-1996: Rajiv assassinated 1991 during new campaign (Tamil Tigers)  Helps Congress take back power (under PM Rao, NOT related to Nehru)  Liberalization gradual but steady (Finance Min: Manmohan Singh) y Current PM Manmohan Singh (Architect of serious econ reforms)  Fewer limits on trade, private sector growth, high tech development y Easier for foreigners to trade etc  But, union pressure in democracy Slowdown on y Trade unions are indie in India so they can slow things y Privatizing big firms o Hard due to unions y Allowing bankruptcies o Difficult to get through The Emergence of the BJP: Does Hinduttva Matter? o 1990s Rise of BJP: Bharatiya Janata Party = political arm of RSS (Hinduttva)  Political wing of hindu nationalist organization RSS y Committed to the Savarkar-esque hinduist vision of india  Theme: secular Congress cut off from Hindu core of India  1993: leaders support destruction of Mosque in Ayodhya (Ram) y Ram s birthplace mosque taken down without gov support y BJP was responsible y Gave them a platform with the news coverage  1996: wins plurality, but can t form govt (secular United Front)  1998: again plurality, forms coalition government) y Not better campaign, but more deals with local parties  None of this really made a difference vis a vis role of Hinduism in Indian politics. o

1998-2004 BJP Government: Hinduttva as base of India , but not big policy shifts (CONTINUITY)  First year: successful nuclear tests (But set up earlier in 90s) y Made people nervous. Oh god. Hindu fundamentalists oh god oh god no!  Economy: same basic direction of liberalizing reform y Now more results: 8% GDP growth, global hub for R and D y Growth was actually being seen.  No change in Const to do anything about rights of Hindus y Occasional Hindu-Muslim violence/riots (eg 2002 Gujarat)  Foreign policy: still pragmatic, no big shift vs Pakistan or China The 2004 Elections and Beyond o 2004 elections: BJP loses during era of 8% growth?!  HInduttva/secularism not key. Poor seek gains from SHINING India  India Shining India Shining India Shining  Notice significance of voting poor (as in Brazil under Lula)  Congress pushes focus on poverty, forms coalition ith LEFT o 2004-present: Congress rule again pragmatic no serious leftward tilt  Attempts to push some pro poor rural focused policies  Also: Indo US nuclear treaty signed (Left parties defect, lose popularity) y Communists were like US IS BAD OMG  2009 elections reaffirms Congress gov with new coalition y Regional parties from south replace left as key partners o Rise and Fall of the Left: The Case of West Bengal  33 yrs of communist rule repeatedly reelected, 1977-2010 y But china model: integrate business, special econ zones  But, 2010 elections bring more rightist coalition to power  However, not use of leftist themes (pro poor pro rural) o General lesson: democracy and distribution = politicsl of poor (again: Lula!)  Bad: can put breaks on tough choices that hurt large groups of poor  Good: forces more consensus with less inequality and more redistribution  Main trade off when comparing China and India o 10/26/2011

Algeria: French Colonialism, TERRORIST resistance, and status of islam o Why study Algeria?  General TW dilemma: unmet expectations and social unrest (poster child for Huntington s gap hypothesis) y GDP rank is 38th, per capita GDP falls to 126; hdi rank is 86  Case of French colonialism and challenge to indie y Note intensity of violence (Compare to Indochina)

Violence is needed for independence so it becomes common place. o Not your suave kind of foreign educated people.  Distinctive intersection of two dynamics y Place of Islam PLUS Berber/Arab identity (Tribal identity matters! o Most of Algeria is islam (99%) y Oil, demography and development (Esp in 1970s-1980s) French Colonialism in Algeria: 1830-1960  Weakened Ottoman empire European interest in N Africa y British in Egypt; French in Algeria, Morocco, etc  1830-70: trade agreements show core economic motive, but y 100k French settle by 1850 (peasants, working class, convicts) y 1897 direct colonial rule more French settlements y Pieds noir (black feet): French born in Algeria o Ethnic French born in Algeria as second generation but still Euro in look identity culture and behavior y By 1940: 1 million French plus 9 million natives (10%) o Note: British settlers in India: less than 0.1 percent  French view: cultural ASSIMILATION and political INTEGRATION of Algeria y France even sets up Ministry of Algerial Affairs y A civilized Algerian is French y Pieds-noir black feet  Native view (recall Fanon, Memmi): natives = 2nd class citizens y Bifurcated citites (Euro vs casbah) + French control of best rural areas o French descendents had best rural lands for farming etc. y Politically: fewer rights for native citizens of French Algeria o Vision as a separate entity. A French territory. Like PR for US. French assemblies and parliaments, reps in Paris, etc. o Algerian parliament would be stacked with French sympathizers Movement for Algerian Independence, 1930s-1962  1930s: First nationalist stirrings 1937 formation of PEOPLES PARTY OF ALGERIA y initially reformist (like INC), not violent, not pushing full independence y but, lack of progress in talks more militant strands within PPA  1945 turning point: militant attacks at V-day parade kill 100 French settlers, y Small minority of Algeria is militant y Retaliation = indiscriminate bombing of villages, killing 6000 (est)  1945-54: growing calls for autonomy vs more French settlement y 1947: two assemblies, one French, one Algeria, but unequal y But even Algerian assembly favors Algerians sympathetic to French y 1954: formation of militant National Liberation Front (FLN) y FLN members = less literate, lower status (contrast INC) o

o o

y Underground self-administration + terrorism vs military/official targets  1955: Local unit of FLN goes crazy, massacres civilians, and opens the door to the Battle of ALgiers The Battle of Algiers to Independence  1955: local FLN cell attacks pied-noir civilians all out war y Basically cellular structure. You recruit 2 people. They recruit 2. At most any one person can reveal 3 others.  1958-1960: battles move right into capital Algiers y FLN: innovative pyramidal cell structure for secrecy o Al Qaeda built around this y OAS: Secret Army Organization: counter-insurgency/interrogation o Carte blanch. Do whatever you need guys. Old military people etc. o French Parisians would not have liked this, so it was secret.  OAS tactics lead to BEHEADING of top FLN commanders y Those tactics worked. They got the highest leaders exiled. y Rest of the top commanders were id d, killed, or imprisoned for life.  But, grassroots support regeneration of FLN, resurgent violence  DeGaulle calls referendum (seen as traitor by Algeria s French) y Turned out it wasn t a minority. A lot of people were like lets gtfo. y DeGaulle was seen as a traitor by some French. y This was RUOGH on the former French-Algerian. This is where Fanon and Memmi shine. Official Date of independence: July 5, 1962 (1 million dead contrast to India) Algeria 1962-1999: Promising Growth to Civil War  1962-65: President Ahmed Ben Balla, key exiled founder/leader of FLN (top leader kicked out to Tunisia or Morocco) y Cosmo elites, Islamic clerics kept out of politics y But 1965 bloodless coup (intra-FLN power struggles)  1965-78 Pres Houari Boumediene: compare to 1970s elsewhere (KNOW ABOUT THIS GUY) y State focus on heavy industry, large public sectory, protectionism y Socialist redistribution (generaous welfare) facilitated by OIL o New airports. Refineries, etc. oil is funding a lot. y Millions of young Algerians w/ growing aspirations (Huntington!) o There is actual evidence of money coming in, so they have reason to be happy. o No vision of it ending. Always be more work. Always more everything. Yay! y Key problem: oil dependence (resource curse) + corruption

Problem was if you rely on oil wealth, you are subject tto a resource curse. o You don t develop other aspects of your econ. You may be inefficient. You may have corruption. Late 70s you see this in Algeria. y Oil prices decline more debt to sustain big state projects o Decline in oil prices means they have to borrow money now. o Not swimming in petro dollars now. Had laid out way more plans than they could afford. 1979-1992, President Chadli (Benjedid) and REFORMS y Massive spending cuts drastic cut in jobs/welfare o Welfare and jobs are shriveling up. No oil money. y Gap hypothesis unfolding, but also multiplied by POPULATION growth o 10 million at WW2 to 35 million today o Sharp rise after 1962 (2.5-3.3% PA til 1995) o Compare India (max was 2.3%, currently 1.3%) o MASSIVE POPULATION GROWTH IN ADDITION TO AL L THE PRICE ISSUES. o Invested In new generation but unfortunately did not have the resources. y Millions of frustrated young Algerians return to villages o i.e. families, Islamic clerics and traditional welfare o this is the traditional social safety net o Islamic clerics that were pushed out of politics were there with open arms. Come to us! They can t help you!  Grand story of modernization in 70s turns in to Islamic surge in visibility of Islamics in 80s.  Not militant islamics, just plain ole Islamic parties. y 1988: new Const and multi party elections but o Most powerful force = Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) o Would have been great if it wasn t for the FIS having the most backing y 1990: FIS takes 31/48 local assemblies, and about to capture 80% of seats in national assembly o Within a decade came out of nowhere. Algeria in 1980, not so much. By 1990 its like wow. o 1990 FIS takes most of the assembly. o Election managed by government, if there had been cheating it would have been in the other direction. o FIS promised new, more prosperous, wonderful Algeria y Army suspends elections, removes Chadli in coup o

Army puts its own power brokers in to the leadership Squashes the legit party, FIS, that was about to win Takes over gov US supported, was way more worried bout FIS in office. Zomg. Told islamists you can t play by the rules of the game and expect to win.  So as Huntington says, when rule playing doesn t work, you go outside the system.  CIVIL WAR AND INDIE WAR YAYYYY 1992-1999: new Algerian civil war violence/terrorism  Chadli s replacement (Boudiaf) assassinated (maybe by Islamists)  1995: Pres Zeroual tries to bring order, but .  160k deaths as army fights Islamic militants  Note: US supports mil regime s suspension of election  Also: Algerians recruited into al-Qaeda, 9/11 plot y Not surprising. Disenfranchised political people. Islamists. Etc 1999-: Abdelaziz Bouteflika (former FLN operative)  Credited with nding civil war by creating more space for moderate Islamists y National reconciliation : amnesty for militants laying down arms y Also post 9/11 cooperation with US on counter terrorism y Less violence now, but still ongoing bombings, local attacks o May not have ARAB SPRING uprising because the 1990s civil war may have outlet some of the pressure  Case of ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY? More parties and challengers, BUT y Parties must be approved by MINISTRY OF INTERIOR o Fundamentalist Islamist parties disallowed  The kind of party, FIS, that almost won in 1990s wouldn t even be allowed  Parties must be moderate. y More importantly: super presidential system parliament very weak y Pres elections stacked in favor of incumbent o Landslide victory in 2004, but vs own chief of staff o 2004: ran against own chief of staff  Kind of shaky y Constitutional reform : remove 2 term limit o Only real const reform undertaken o Ensures another landslide victory in 2009. Allow reelection 2009. Another strand of ethnic conflict: Berber separatism  Berbers: dom race in NW Africa, most ARABIZED (culturally)  Some claim discrim, but Arabized Berbers rise (Zeroual) o o o o o

 Mountain based spurred rebellions vs Gaddafi Yet, no full blown Arab spring or civil war as in Egypt, Libya,S yra and Yemen  Most likely due to 1990s civil war (INTENSE)  Authority of top leaders linked to FLN glory years  Reform strategy essentially serves to divide and conq y Allow moderate islamists to form parties y Promote arabized berbers, recognize berber as national language  NO BIG PISSED GROUP

Recitation y y y y y India Brazil vs India: substantive demo in india prior to demo. In Brazil it was more like demo and indie before there was a cultural acceptance. The party with the majority chooses the PM Allies versus coalition partners: allies share your platform. Coalition parties offer you support to join coalition and pick a PM but may or may not have any attachment to your platform. Congress or affiliates control exec from 194710/31/2011 y y y Movie notes Gandhi thrown from train no colored lawyers in South Africa Gandhi speaking about not carrying pass any more o Other guy speaks, more eloquently. o Burning passes  The passes are government property  Other guy burns it despite police saying he lla rrest first one to burn o Gandhi burns everyone s o Keeps burning as he is beaten for doing so Decries focusing on elites and liberal magazines of England o Have to go in to the rural areas and speak to the people unreached o India is 700k villages, not a few hundred lawyers in Delhi and Bombay o Until they speak to the rural people, they will not represent India o And will not be unified Gandhi visits dying farmer that was forced to grow Indigo o They cannot pay rent because Indigo is worthless Gandhi ordered out of the province by English court on the grounds of disturbing the peace o Gandhi refuses to go o Gets sentenced to pay 100 rupees until judge decide sentences o Refuses to pay o Judge grants release without payment until he reaches a decision

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Lt Governor o Afraid of what is going on in the country o Beatings, indigo seizures, refusing them water  What do you expect? o Indians  Want a part Indian commission  Freedom to grow crops of their choice  And no beatings Passed laws prohibiting sedition o Arrest on sight for possessing anything seditious o Nehru  Lets not be terrorists, it will only justify them  Who will show up as a leader? Shitty people, that s who. o A day of prayer and fasting  Meaning a general strike  When the law goes in to affect Argues for change within India o Have to remove untouchable caste o Defy the british  Non violent March to sea for salt o Royal monopoly on manufacture of salt o So lets not abide by that Bengal attack o Attacked Sikhs occupying a shrine 11/2/2011

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The Battle of Algiers (with English subtitles) Alger 1957 o It would have gone easier for you o Tortured guy in to revealing hiding place  Put uniform on him  You re inducted! Gang on street trip Algerian guy as he runs by o Animosity between white French and Algerian natives Muslim guy escorted through prison to be executed o Long live Algeria o Allah Ackbar Moorish caf in Casbah, owner is a police informant, kid tells main guy o Note says kill the policeman o Next to the caf theres a girl with a basket, follow the cop, she will hand you a revolver

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Gun doesn t work so he beats the cop Girl runs off with the gun and basket Wtf was that?  Making sure he wasn t an informant o To join the FLN  You had to do a job, prove you were loyal April 1956 o FLN is giving communiqus saying we need to fight against the colonialists o FLN is leading a campaign toe eradicate them  Need population help  First step towards independence o Frenchman are having a hard time in Algeria, kids following and attacking, people hitting and yelling  Wino! Wino! o FLN drugs are forbidden Ali is look for Hassan El Blidi o Work for the FLN or die o Ali shoots the guy for not working for the FLN June 1956 o FLN marriage, guy has gun in bag while he performs wedding ceremony o Against French authorities FLN stops people from fighting French o FLN will fight back for you Women cut hair and get ready o Men come and give them bombs to place them. Air france. Caf. Etc o Woman goes to plant bomb at cafe  French guy helps her sit down  Blows up place anyway  Caf too  Airport  Chaos January 1957 o The paratroopers are here! Yay! o They bring in paratroopers to stop attacks o o o Recitation

Algeria Films o Edited for you, look at the edits. Forward time information (?) o Terrorism Algeria Readings o Terrorism

 Definition. Who is and is not a terrorist. Etc. Mortimer  Has a bias. Wants to see democracy function in Algeria UNLESS there is a result which is counterproductive to democracy as Mortimer construes it.  Premises of the Islamist pol platform against democracy itself  Argues islamicists are intolerant and limiting citizens  Reminiscent of Hassan Al-Bana  Fundamental tesntion between Islamic leadership in limiting freedom of consciousness  Take Syria y Muslim Brotherhood OFFICIALLY outlawed y Egypt too. y Secular Islamic states. Bands MB because it is fundamental but pursues a nationalist secularist platform. Not one that the west is typically enthralled with. BP French Reading  French Colonial period y Administrative positions are occupied by colonizers NOT COOPTED ELITES y Elite Algerians went to paris and got educated and came back and agitated y A lot more French moved to Algeria than Spanish to SA. y 50s and 60s transition from 10% Euro population to 1% population. y Similar problem in Brazil after Indie o Very large issues with illiteracy and lack of education o Lack of experts Lowi Reading  Calls it a period of LATENT Islamism during period of FLN  Idea is fleshed out by Mortimer  Responding to structuralists who are kean to talk about oil-exporting LDCS y Describe certain political fallout as stemming entirely from institutional structures, being an LDC, and being a giant oil exporter  Yes there are some things that are explained by that (Lowi says)  But there are also some other causal factors  OPPOSING structural (agency based) explanation  Lowi says it s the agency o the leaders in Algeria combined with SOME of the things the other groups are telling us that aexplain Algeria  LDC (one of these countries who, because they export oil, have money) likely have a federal government investing in industry y Probably doing some sort of ISI or state sponsored industry development in an effort to catch up and develop.

If you rely on ONE resource you are particularly vulnerable to price fluxuations unless you plan very well y In Algeria there was not necessarily that much planning y Social redist really didn t address in a substantive manner the inequalities present in Algeria o Variety of social measures just enough to placate the populous o When oil prices decrease after west picks themselves up, shit hits the fan in Algeria  When the masses were placated by free bus fares etc y Capital was not accruing at the level of the masses. y State was accruing infrastructure y Leaders were accruing personal wealth y For all intents and purposes masses were just getting an education free bus ride but not earning or saving.  Rich people got free import shit  80s had to go through austerity measures, had been spending like crazy, hit a wall y Oil prices dropped programs couldn t be afforded, debt was taken out y As the institution of the state waned, the free Mosques and more radical religious stepped in ESPECIALLY IN RURAL AREAS Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria  One FLN leader was a disciple of al-Banna  Pursued a more secular approach  Teachers were being sent from countries banning Muslim Brotherhood TO Algeria  These countries took their religious firebrands and sent them to Algeria. Multiparty system  Riots break out in 1988 are pegged to a large population of unemployed youth y Presumably similar demographics to ones discussed with large influx of people from rural areas to cities y Looking for work and not finding it Consitutional Revision in 1989  Freedom of association all of a sudden  Comes in feb 1989  Qualified only by the fact that the people you associate with cannot be against the independence revolution Earthquake in Nov 1989  After party pluralism and freedom of association and after the FIS is officially recognized as a party  Able to exploit the religious institutions in place

Garner a lot of favor bringing aid to the victims of the EQ (new islamist pol party) y PR coup! Algeria general  Procedural democracy without substantive, possibly y Depends on how you analyze it  FLN was secular, but was islamist secularism y First announcement on film, Islamic state, respects rights of all people regardless of religion and race y Secular in so far as it does not discriminate  Tension between democracy and fundamental islam y 2006 elections in Palestine, hamas won with like 56% of the vote y Not very many people of the camp that Israel/US occupy was happy with this o What ended up happening in the aftermath was Iran/Contra 2 or mini rehash o Condi Rice worked with uprisers against election. Hamas put it down. Interesting quick series of events after that elections that lead the west to question the result. y Question of what happens when the people vote for a political party that is not interested in protecting human rights o Middle east this happens. y Tension between western view of substantive democracy which has this host of things that go with it and the results you might get if you let these people choose for themselves

GET MISSED NOTES HERE


11/14/2011 y LOOK AT THE LAST PAGE OF OUTLINE ON IRAN o To a lot of people, the Arab Spring is the Eastern Europe of THIS century o Arab spring evokes prague spring which started velvet revolution o Notion that regime changes will bring cooperative western liberal minded people to the front  There are DEFINITELY some Havels in Yemen and Libya, etc  There is a definite similarity to eastern Europe, too y Strong men. Regime anger. Cronyism. Genuine public desire to change. y But where does It come from? Is it simply political?

In E Europe it mostly was. No hyperinflation or unemployment, etc. people were actually pretty steady or rising at the end of communism. It was only after the revolution it got bad. In the middle east now, a lot of motivations do not have to do with a new political order (no reading of Jefferson or Madison) theyre more concerned about basic things. Bread prices.  But is also a thing regarding islam versions being suppressed.  i.e. Egypt, muslim brotherhood, not liberals. They were Islamic fundies. Some groups want a more synergistic link between gov and relig. y Military just handed over Mubarak to keep up same relationship between military and civilians

Nigeria o Africa Nation Building in the Midst of Ethno Religious Conflict o Why study Nigeria?  Worst example of TW econ paradox: ranked #44 in GDP (partly oil drive) y BUT: per capita GDP rank #141 HDI #156 (life exp at 47 DECLINING) y Below: small African countries (+ Haiti and Nepal), none w/ oil o Poorest roughest place with any money o Money is not getting around to serve the population  Case of heightened African challenge of development + nation-building y Artificial colonial boundaries plus reinforced cleavages y Recurrent coups, ethno-religious conflicts, even with democracy y The Nigeria problem is, to some extent, Africa-wide y It s a great example of the issues (Berlin Conference (?))  More distinction: pattern where northern region is Muslim dominated y Just under the northern African band, you have this band of countries where there is a fairly concentrated Northern population of Muslims, the rest south is non-Muslim (Christian or Tribal) o Pattern is not unique to Nigeria, but makes it interesting when you mix in oil and put the oil in the south o Just like sudan y Compare to pre partition Sudan, to some extent, BUT o Not necessarily a failure that they split o There was a time where that would have been thought of a secular failure y Oil deposits in southern regions partition much less likely o Nigerian norths don t want southern non-Muslims to secede o They ll lose the oil o Colonialism

 

1885 BERLIN conference 2 adjacent British protectorates (North and South) Ethnic make up: 248 tribal groups: 3 major ones concentrated in 3 regions y OVERLAPPING CLEAVAGES y N: Hausa Faulani (30% mostly Moslem, traditional commun) y W: Yoruba (20% part tribal and part Christian, const monarchy) y E: Ibo (17% mostly tribal, organized by councils of elders) 1914: Formal AMALGAMATION into one colony, but 2 systems: y Very important for understanding current legal system o North STILL has different concentration of communites with Sharia low, and south has way more secular communities y N: Native authorities (Hausa-Faulani landlords) y S: Direct rule with new institutions combined with some tribal councils o Note: IBO Women s War vs British for ignoring women s councils  Basically Ibo Women said hey, what about us?  British were just dealing with men, thinking that was the case  But there was a long Ibo tradition of separate male and female councils, equal.  Not a serious military challenge but important symbolic challenge. 1923-1950s: Series of administrative reforms y Reorganization 3 regions corresponding to N, W and E o Here is where the ethnic diversity gets codified in the state craft y Focus on south (e/w): new schools, civil service recruits, legislative bodies o South east and west. British want to create a community here that is cooperative. S E and W are more maliable and amenable. So you start seeing the dynamic of new elites being created. English speakers,. o Local, regional, and eventually national parliament y 1954 federal system: regions with more autonomy, control of resources o Individual states had more power and importance as places where money would be managed and resources allocated y But, w/ new parliament and elections, result is ETHNIC mobilization o The national parliament had an interesting effect o It did NOT CREATE secularism, it created ethnic mobilization  Every region starts thinking if there is a parliament we have to make sure WE are represented  Politicizes the ethnicities by creating a common center

Suddenly PRIMORDIAL IDENTITIES Of GEERTZ are activated y Ethnic conflicts bust out y UNINTENDED BY BRITISH o They were not dividing and conquer, they were getting uot and trying to set up a strong state just to be nice y Northern People s Congress (H-F), Action Group (Y) and Nat l Council (Ibo)  1957 NPC leader (Bello) declines PM role to become Premier of Northern Region y He declines role of PM of south to be governor of norther region y Governor of PA remains mayor of Philly rather than be governor of PA y Message: means he sees himself as having more power there than as PM y India had CROSS CUTTING cleavagers where Nigeria has OVERLAPPING First Republic (1960-1966) and COUPS of 1966  Peaceful transition of power, Western-style constitution, parliamentary government (like india) y But legacies: 3 ethno regional parties + 2 models of suffrage (N no women voting, S everyone votes)  Three crises immediately undermine first republic: most important = first 2 y Power struggle in West (Yoruba) army intervenes y 1962 Census Crisis: inflation of populations by regions (resources!) o One region inflates its numbers to have more power. o Guh. o Everyone recounts. All come back with inflated numbers that time. o Guh!!! o They say ok lets just accept that number. We doubled. Okay. Great. y Workers unrest: wages low + prices up waves of strikes o Wages down, prices up, lots of strikes o No working class movement as ethnic cleavages get in the way  >>Combination Pair of Coups in 1966 y Jan 1966 coup welcomed by most groups (though West most supportive) o Widespread anger at corruption and heavy-handedness at center o But Ibo control of coup leadership leads to distrust, accusations  Ibo, despite not being a large percentage, represents a lot of the coup leaders y

They start disproportionately holding other ethnic groups responsible for corruption y Jul 1966 coup organized by Northerners to recapture influence o > New Leader: Gen Yakuba GOWON ( Northern Chrstian = minority)  he is made the new president  note the pattern o Pattern: given BIG 3 compromises focus on smaller tribes  Basically they will settle on candidates that are not big 3  That way its like okay, at least yo uarent any of the realstrong guys  Immediately after he takes over, the HF goes on a rampage on Ibo in the north. Military Rule, Civil War and Reconciliation (1966-1975)  New Consitution: more centralization, 12 SEPARATE STATES, with some autonomy y Intended to help small gps but also risk of less ibo influence in east y But, also carryover of anti-Ibo anger leads to massacres of Ibo in North  July 1967: Ibo leaders announce secession of Republic of Biafra y Most Ibo military personnel defect from Nigeria! y Biafra Wars: 1967-70 major, traumatic, bloody civil war with destruction, chaos y Human cost : 3 million dead (War, hunger, disease), mostly Ibo 11/16/2011

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More states were continually added to try to solve the ethnic problem in nigeria From Civil War to Reconciliation, 1966-175 o New constitution, more centralized federalism, 12 sep states with some autonomy  Intended to help small groups but also risk of less Ibo influence in East  But also carryover of anti-ibo anger leads to massacres of Ibo in North o July 1967: Ibo leaders announce secession of REPUBLIC OF BIAFRA  Most ibo military personnel defect from Nigeria!  Biafra Wars: 1967-1970 major, traumatic, bloody civil war with destruction, chaos  Human cost: 3 m dead (War, hunger, disease, mostly ibo o After Ibo defeated, Gowon promotes reconciliation (Lincoln style)  Oil revenues help promote reconstruction, subdues tensions  Focus shifts to intitiatiion of major projects o But 1975: econ difficulties new tensions new coup!  Another census crisis + news of officials diverting oil/profits for own gain  July 1975: bloodless coup vs Gowon new military leadership

Rise and Fall of the Second Republic: 1975-1983 o General Olesegun OBASANJO (Yoruba) becomes President  Military dictator leader guys are actually committed to democracy  Plans transition to democracy = 2nd republic  New 19-state Federal System (4 HF, 4 Y, 2 ibo, 9 combo) y Designed to dilute ethno-regional cleavage, promote broader coalitions  President: (a) plurality and (b) 25% of votes in 2/3 of the states y Because majority is impossible, plurality must be had y Getting of the votes in 2/3 of the states o MEANS THAT YOU HAVE BROAD APPEAL y So in 2/3 of the states you have to not be hated o 1979 elections: results lead to the 12 and 2/3 Crisis  Winner = SHAGARI, of Nigeration People s Party (formerly NPC, mostly H-F) y 5 rounds of voting to get plurality, plus 25% of vote in 12 states o NPC = from the north, mostly supported by muslim people y 2/3 of 19 = 12 2/3 (i.e. 13) opponents demand MORE voting o He had the 25% in 12 of the states, not the last 2/3 o So some people are PISSED y Election commission: 2/3 of state = o 12 + 2/3 of districts in another state y Its given to SHAGARI, and some felt that was corrupt, but in reality that s probably the only sensible thing to do o Stop voting round after round o No one else was even CLOSE to the 12 2/3 o 1979-1983: unresolved tensions + econ deadline riots, disruption of local elections  1983, new elections: Shargi reelected by same rules, BUT:  New opposition party had been banned + charges of tribal favoritism  Continuing rioting and eroding legitimacy of elections/civilian government  Obasanjo had GENUINLY tried to create a civilian democratic government y But the supports were behind it, the opponents were pissed y No losers willing to walk away y Gangs roaming around shutting down election booths y Its all illegitimate! Don t vote! y Shagari was fro mthe south and people were pissed from the north 1985-1999: A New Authoritarianism and Simultaenous Transitions o first half genuinely tried to transition to democracy o second half, probably not o 1985: new military coup brings to power: Gen Ibrahim BABANGIDA  Promises democracy, but first initiaties major econ reforms  Impress IMF offers loan in response, but declined (Fear of corruption) o Cyclical dynamic of SIMULTAENOUS TRANSITIONS (econ and pol liberalization)

Econ liberalization LOSERS who protest and challenge govt y Large group of people that are feeling angry and frustrated y Take to the street and protest  Govt delays democratic transition to subdue protests y Open challenges to government are scary when protests are going on y Upset govt opponents are the ones at the street, people who are okay with things are staying home y Difficult to push liberalism and openness and liberalism and see a backlash  Govt gets near elections, but pressures to slow econ reforms y Has to buy off certain supporters by buying off political coalitions 1990 New Constitution 1992 Elections annulled when army s candidate loses  Winner = Yoruba businessman Abyola, put under house arrest  Babangida steps down but appoints successor: Gen Sani Abacha y Army says NO to Abyola and he is arrested, Abacha is appointed instead y Abacha is the NEW DICTATOR y Banbangida had some positives perhaps, trying to push democracy, Abacha there was no attempt y Abacha gave up and decided to take advantage of things Nigera under Abacha, 1992-1998: case of PREDATORY STATE  Economy parly open, but corruption rises Abacha and wife get rich  Level of oppression rises, crackdown on protesters  Ogoniland dispute (hanging of Nobel laureate Ken Saro-Wiwa) y One of the most important issues that got international attention y Ogoni are one of the smaller tribes (not big 3) y Basically the Ogoni were in an area with a lot of oil, had no control over it, foreign companies in conjunction with the gov took profits y Ogoni organized a major movement social movement y Western community responded to this y Smaller tribes rallied behind and started saying yeah where is our due?! y The movement ultimately become more organized under a guy named Ken Saro-Wiwa o HANGED. He and 8 colleagues were tried and accused of a murder that he probably didn t commit and were killed. 1998 Abacha dies Feb 1999 elections May 29 1999 civilian govt  Pres: former general OBASANJO (Yoruba Christian, lead coup of 1975)  Same plurality rule with 12 2/3 and the number of states has been increased in to something that is a multiple of 3  So 24 states 25% and yep, OBASANJO

Not necessarily a done deal with a general makes a coup and takes over govt, though in 1975 had tried to set up for democracy and had done that y So now he is returned y He was a Christian Yoruba, which made people feel better about Abyola who was house arrested. He was Yoruba, which had a lot of members in the military. The Fourth Republic (1999-Present): Trends and Turmoil o Obasanjo govt upgrades image: symbol is new capital (Abuja)  Similar to Brazilia, the center shining beacon of hope, which was created in Brazil  Image of serious commitment to democracy, human rights  Slightly better perception of corruption more foreign investment y PERCEPTION. Capital city. New offices. No nonsense president etc.  But still ranked #134 (tied with Sierra Leone, Bangladesh, Phillipines) y Perception of improvement.  Charges of govt elites squandering resources on themselves y It did seem like the urban cities were concentrating resources y Elite was living it up? Squandering resources? y There were people who questioned o Even so, TWO key moves to push national harmony (backfiring?)  Gentleman s agreement: rotate presidency every 2 terms b/w N and S y Current problem is ethnic clashes between N and EVERYONE ELSE y Its not modernization in action, PRIMORDIAL IDENTITIES are not disappearing y Under Obasanjo the VP would be from the north, etc. sounds like not a bad innovation, right?  Sharia allowed in Muslim dominated districts (mostly north) y Islamic schools, fewer women s rights, stoning for adultery y Hoping to calm them down. Olive branch to Muslims. y Tried to be a social engineer but really created problems here. More extremism. More orthodox practices. Moderate muslims stuck dealing with fundamentalist practices. o Obasanjo steps down 2007 (2 term limit) Growing instability and tensions  BIG DEAL HE ACTUALLY DOES STEP DOWN AND HONORS THE 2 TERM LIMIT  New Muslim Norther Pres = UARU YAR ADUA (Faulani tribe) y Brother was Obasanjo s VP during late 1975-1983 y Very sick for most of first term, then dies in 2010  Vice President GOODLUCK JONATHAN named interim President y But runs and wins in 2011 with 59% of popular vote y Northern muslims angry cheated out of THEIR 2 terms y

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o Our guy got sick but hey, shouldn t we get our term? o VP was from other side all the time remember? Most visible act: 2010 disbanding of soccer team (Reversed) But REAL PROBLEMS ARE: o Local tribes more visible, active, -- esp in conflicts over oil  Like Ogoni: environment degraded yet no share of revenue  Attacks on oil pipelines hike in global prices y Real problem, itll rise gas 30 or 40 cents here  Predictable from past history but new in the way manifested.  Ogoni model is more apparent. Local tribes look outside. Partly Geertz and partly Huntington y Primordial and GO OUTSIDE INSTITUTIONS a la Huntington to get involvement o Recurrent (growing?) religious violence  Sharp rise in Muslim extremism (Boko Haram)  Violent attacks on Christians in north massacres of civilians  Throughout country it is spreading  Extreme muslims formed Boko Haram y Might be connected to al qaeda y Massacred Christian families, churches, bombings all kinds of shit 11/16/2011

Sovereignty o Iran. o How democratic do we want a country to be o How does that interplay with giving loans? o Taking out a loan without the mandate from the people is sort of not .good o Alarming when you can take control of a coup and then take out loans on behalf of that state  Without its populations consent o IMF thinks well this strong man is keeping state running so the outlook looks good  So lets strike a business deal with him now o Nigeria has all varities of corruption  Strongmen at top  Corruption at local level  Street vendors take protection fees o Indirect rule is relevant in Nigeria

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One of those situations where part of the population is subject to indirect during colonial and part direct South was decentralized traditionally so it made it harder for colonial rule to get a hold Similarly to Algeria you have centralizing cities with census for population for oil wealth = rural more screwed 11/21/2011

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TAs have office hours all week. Take advantage if need be. East Asia o Economic Miracle  Not necessarily the first miracle witnessed in the history of economic development  Germany after WW2 econ miracle  Italy ww2 also experienced a boom  It is in the context of the DEVELOPING WORLD, high growth juxtaposed with good levels of socioeconomic distribution o South Korea: typifies, the last 3 decades per capita of the region and locally has increased by almost 8 fold  SIGNIFICANT INCREASE  More remarkable than sheer economic growth = equitable distribution  GDP ranking today: 13 (in terms of HDI ranking it is 26) life expectancy is 75 (literacy is 98%) o Theory  Dependency theory: east asian success story disproves dependency theory in many ways. y DT came out of Marxist theory through Latin America, Argentinians, Gundar Frank, etc Cardoso y The whole idea was that underdevelopment in the third world was essentially connected to the way in which the economies were inserted in the context of the global economy o ISI was the way out (import substitution) o ISI gave the green light and the necessary tools for Latin America to engage in autonomous econ development y Which country in Latin America experienced the highest level of economic growth in the 70s? o Chile. Why Chile? Well, it had little to do with Pinochet but was instead the policies. Policies similar to East Asia. o East Asian Model  Capture the essence by thinking about: VISIBLE HAND y VISIBLE HAND

The state playing an ACTIVE role in promoting development, positioning itself in a strategic position between key groups, including certain bureaucracies, banks, etc y Triangulation that the states in East Asia performed in a successful way Four points which capture the essence of the developmentalist model of East Asia: y 1. Stable rule by political bureaucratic elite, not succumbing to political demands, that would undermine economic growth. y 2. Cooperation between public and private sectors under the overall guidance of a pilot planning agency y 3. Heavy and continuing investment in education for the masses combined with politics to ensure the equitable distribution of wealth y 4. Respect for (the government) methods of economic intervention based on price mechanisms . o Governments are allowing companies to operate within market structures and depending on your performance, governments will then incentivize you to promote that good practice. Reward. Another Miracle precedes the economic one y Educational Miracle o If you compare what happened in Southeast Asia, with what happened in South Asia (India), these countries did not invest heavily in education o South korea did, Hong Kong did, Singapore did o So they structured the economy in an increasingly high value added fashion by moving up the economic ladder and by being able to develop particular industries while allowing the masses to engage in basic manufacturing o Value of education is huge because you need to give factory workers instructions, etc. Additional features of developmental model y Land reform has been implemented successfully y Financial structure, banks more than shareholders. o Banks have played a stronger role in the developing world (like in Germany) y Little labor hostility or pressures. Certainly not militant. Few strikes. No climate of labor hostility. y Political dynamics: strong states. Authoritarianism (SOFT AUTHORITARIANISM) point remains that all of these countries had a pretty strong state o Active in terms of economic and social policies y

Politically not particularly open to development of opposition parties or to the kind of plural democratic process that many other third world countries embraced  Pluralism was in a way compromised or sacrificed for the sake of stability o Opposition was undermined by the state providing economic growth and extending econ and educ the state enjoyed high approval rates by citizens. Remained in power not simply on the basis of their fist but also like support.  Competing explanations against DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH and ROLE OF THE STATE y Some emphasize more that these countries were capitalist o Meaning visible hand was less integral y Some argue culture o Singapore guy (LEE KUAN YEW) theorized that Asian values were particularly adaptive and favorable to an economic growth that Singapore and most of east asia would experience  Here you can hear the voice of Max Weber and his protestant work ethic theory o According to Lee Kuan Yew it was Confuscianism and other asian values o Lee Kuan Yew  Looking for first world oasis in third world  Social Darwinist  Critical of US agenda to push democracy y Cant be done o The possibility of an authoritarian leader to be benevolent  Not malevolent o Think about it  Lee Kuan Yew had a DEVELOPMENTAL AUTHORITARISM y Sensitive to cultural differences. Everyone speaks English as working language but linguistic diffs are allowed. Take Home Points to reflect on  Nature of colonialism: some of these countries were colonized bu thte colonial experience was very different. No racial or overt color difference that you see happening in Africa and latin America. y Colonizers looked different. y Relative homogeneity of most of east asia y South korea, hong kong, Taiwan, these countries are predominantly homogenous o

Role of US and US help in South Korea y Great levels of foreign aid y Used to be third largest recipient of US foreign aid through 60s (not anymore) Why did things unravel? y Crisis. Before you start thinking that this is the ultimate model of success, ask yourself what enabled part of asia to experience the financial criss and what were the repercussions? o Does that disprove the model completely? o Just an opportunity to reflect on relative strengths of model? y Why did some other states not do this model? o By focusing on Lee Huan we are focusing ona n AGENCY explanation o How could we juxtapose this explanation with structural factors? 11/28/2011

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Democratization (and Human Rights) in the South: Prospects and Limits Introduction: Democracy Liberal and illiberal o Democracy must be separated in its definition from LIBERAL democracies o Democracy: system where eligible citizens cast votes in periodic elections to choose between meaningful alternatives for officials who make and implement laws  Who is eligible? Literacy/wealth/gender limits (19th c. Brzil, N. Nigeria) y You have regions where only the land holders can vote, or only those that can read, etc. y Also gender based inequalities, like N. and S. Nigeria.  Meaningful alternatives: parties or just candidates? What kinds of parties? (Iran) y Iran doesn t have a democracy? Well in the last election there were meaningful differences between two candidates o So I d say they do. o Both candidates had to be committed to the Islamic republic, but other questions were debated and competed for. o Liberal: (Western style) democracy: add 4 points to above  If you think about western democracies that have remained democracies for a long time, they almost all also have these 4 things:  Checks and balances, with indie courts y So real power lies in hands of people that are elected y Not like Russia where president is most powerful and PM is just appointed y Also need indie court system otherwise you don t have a system of checking the laws against the const

Stable set of 2+ recognizable distinct parties y Without stable parties its hard to capture meaningful alternatives  Freedom of speech/association (criticism/lobbying protected)  Political culture that values democratic process y THIS MIGHT BE MOST IMPORTANT y You need values in the people that say democratic processes are good in and of themselves y Vast majority must have otherwise military general sweeps in and that s that o Third World: yes, more democracy than before, BUT not irreversible (note previous waves) and most are not all that LIBERAL (read Zakaria) not a criticism.  More now than there were 30 years ago.  50s and 60s were heyday of authoritarianism. Even states like Brazil that were democratic before became authoritarian for a period in the 60s. Theories on Pre-requisites for Democracy: West vs 3Rd World o Four distinct logics that can be mixed and matched: o Modernization: wealth, literacy, urbanization (mass communication)  True for most of West (Stat correlation: GDP to democracy)  TW: still more agrarian, less literate (eg worlds largest democracy ) y Even india, the worlds largest democracy, is most agrarian. China is more rural. Most tw countries are less literate than even india and china. Modernization is not going to provide a glorious outcome anytime soon. There are spurts of growth in the TW but no overall upspike in wealth. o Rise of middle-class: undermine feudal aristocracy, push for rule of law  US UK and France all had 2 things in common, they dem d first, and had a strong middle class y Brazil, for example, did not get the land upset by its colonial period y Middle class in Europe did a better job wrestling power away from the power holders of the conservative landed elites.  True for UK, US and France (post WW2 Germany, Italy, E Asia)  TW: small ration of MIDDLE CLASS< many preferring strong state (eg China) y Not clear that middle class in TW would even want democracy y Might just want stability. Is true in many areas. y China for example, growing middle class there may very well want the Chinese state around. Property rights protected, etc. o Econ shift with less inequality less extremism, more bargaining  True for most of northern Europe, also post-WW2 E. Asia  TW: most with high inequality growing w/ globalization pressures y Very few TW nations are trending towards equality y Most are trending towards inequality

This is due a t least in part to globalization push Is there a threshold that is past where inequality becomes so great that people lose faith in the system? o It seems so. o Here yo use the rise of extremist politics. o Its not clear in the TW we will see this, but at least some of the Arab spring movements were this more than liberal minded elites rising in the west. o Prior nation-building resolved identity conflicts that make demo challenging  True for UK, France, US after Civil War, after WW2 for rest of Europe y The west had lots of wars and treaties and redrawing of boundaries so that by the time you get to the 19th century you have a certain amount of herding y Centuries of ethnic relocation that allowed them to have reasonable treaties due to homogenous demographics (where it counts) o No ethnic competition in France o Germany came together around mostly protestant german speaking roots o No conflicting primordial identities, generally  TW: more inter-ethnic competition, so more at stake in elections y Does not really exist in Europe, was mostly pounded out in US by Civil War y (note: electoral violence in Kenya, Ivory Coast, DR Congo) o Election is actually just another way to wipe out more of the other guy. o **note all four partially tied to distinct historical pathways set via colonialism!! Human Rights: Universalism vs Western Hegemony (read Rana 2007) o Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): Basis for western human rights discourse  Liberal processualism: obvious standards, applicable to all individuals  Focus: civil and political freedoms, inc. womens rts, religious freedoms  But shaped by Cold War (vs communist focus on econ rts jobs food homes) y Many TW feel like it s a thing being imposed by west. And it is, to an extent. o Post-Cold War: more interventionist/protectionist (esp after Rwanda genocide)  US (Bush doctrine): use civil/political rights to identify/transform BAD regimes y Focus on BAD regimes. Regimes are the problems!  Europe: holistic view on HUMAN SECURITY (less focus on regimes) y Targeted measures for refugees, food, medicine (Red Cross) y Europe has had more time and has seen rights as more about PROTECTING people. y y

Less focus on states rights, sovereignty, etc. more on individual rights.  Latter as a case of LIBERAL SUBSTANTIVISM (Rana) y Despite Western origin, all individuals have rt. To protection y Liberal substantivism is basically saying yes we realize this is western, but this is reality. We have to protect people. o For many in South: Western hegemony (Echoes of Fanon? Memmi?)  Many feel it is more of the same. Elites started this and now theyre providing a solution.  Wester-educated natives brought discourse on reforms to TW  But this minority reaffirmed PSYCHOLOGY of inequality/domination  No one favors repression, but issue is one of status in int l discourse y Equal participation in molding views of human rights in contexts  Rana argues that we need to, long term, reverse the feeling of us speaking down to them. y Colonial tutelage. Conclusion: Developmental Relativism? o Political Culture of Liberalism: How Well Does it Travel?  Western history: secularization + liberal (individualistic) citizenship y UK, US, Holland (Protest Reform) diffuses across west  TW: different history for most = lack of large sociocultural revolution y Collective identities > individual (recall Geertz) y Core values: transcent public-private divide (Islam, Confucianism) o But, not a justificiation for cultural relativism  Western style lib not needed for demo and human rights  Non west conceptions of dem particip and rights do exist y No spec culture reqd for elections, courts, protections y Islam, Confucianism: key elements of particip and consult o Real challenge is DEVELOPMETNAL RELATIVISM goes back to part one  Later development of nation states in TW y Scarcity, short time horizons, expansive global environ  Creates new, more intense pressures for legit laws and insts y Need to link pol rts to basic econ needs of all indivs/gps y Need to accept reality of distinct collective identities o 11/30/2011

Women in the South: Different Challenges, Different Prospects o Introduction: Empowerment in TW societies  Basically the TW is stuck trying to become more egalitarian WHILE undertaking statecraft  Preliminary definitions:

Gender: socialized roles differentiated by biological sex o Basically an understanding that there are to be roles for each gender y Patriarchy: system where gendered roles are maintained/enforced by males o This is the challenge when dealing with gender in the TW o There is a distinct division of labor, the maintaining and construction of that is under the control of male leaders of the community  Women s empowerment: not just better protection & living standards, but more y Political: rights and voice y Economic: control mobility o Chance to move up in the world, ec y Social: respect and status y All 3 would work to roll back patriarchy and help womens empowerment Effects of Colonial and Post-Colonial Development in Africa  Pre-colonial patriarchy: some realms for exercising indie, power y Africa was not monolithically patriarchical prior to colonialism y Colonialism did NOT make things better, really o Some small stuff, like Indian wife funeral pyre thing was wiped out y Sierra Leone female tribal chiefs pre col y Ibo villages: parallel women s tribal councils pre col  Colonialism intensifies patriarchy: 3 avenues y 19th century western values (pre suffrage, pre UDHR) o Lots of enlightenment, but not in womens rights in west yet y Native authorities male tribal elders (recall Ibo women s war) o There may have been female native authorities out there, but the colonizers saw only the male o So they focused on the male, empowered them, pushed it on y Colonial policies: recruit male workers, managers o The people that had mobility opportunities there, were male o It was not a GREAT life, but there was more mobility o Grow crash crops, market them, come on man!  Post-colonial: new laws and rights, more education, econ development y Lots of stuff that allowed for development and whatnot y But the men inherited the state almost ALWAYS o Gandhi was Nehru s daughter, etc o It was MALE and then female sometimes inherited y But: male bias in development programs/outcomes y

o Men as main initiators and beneficiaries of dev y Example: Zimbabwe s rural dev manager by: o Min of Agri production/marketing by male farmers  Charged the min of agri with focusing on things that have to do with rural production etc  They go out and talk to male farmers. Lets get to work come on guys. o Min of Comm Dev and Women s Affairs handicrafts  Women s are managed under this, instead of the other  Designed to perpetuate the fact that they are playing subordinate roles in the economy IRONY: encounter with west helps to reform worst traditions (funeral pyre)  But then ends up expanding patriarchal structures (males inherit the state)  Better record in socialist regimes (Tanzania, Mozampbique) y More attention to literacy and jobs for females y View of patriarchy as tied to BOURGEOIS capitalism y So females were more focused on by the socialists. Comrade! Religion/culture and Patriarchy: Islam in the Middle East  Strong view of APPROPRIATE behavior of men and women in public y But not single model of how to adapt this to current context y Anti-colonial struggle: major roles for women (Algeria/FLN) o Remember battle of Algiers  Few secular regimes: women s rights to challenge Islamic tradition y Most aggressive: Ataturk s turkey, Shah s white revolution o Ataturk s turkey  Big push to get women to act more universally western, no veil, etc o White Revolution (top heavy, single heavy handed trying to create a single generation revolution discussion)  Clearcut example of a heavily Islamic society being subjected to a society where women s rights are pushed up y Baathist parties (Syria, Iraq) curtail Islam in public domains o Not just rogue nations, they were initially formed under Baathist parties o Socialist nationalist parties o Oriented more towards secularism. Not trying to eliminate Islam but they see the future political agenda as a new social order.  For others, two issues: Role of Islamic law? How to interpret Koran? y Lack of public/private divide means this is even more salient

y More fundamental: S. Arabia, Taliban, Khomeini s Iran y Less so: Jordan, Egypt, Kuwait, Tunisia  Arab Spring comment: does not resolve issue one way or other: y Fundamentalist states: some reforms and protest (Saudi women) o Movement towards more womens rights in more fundamental states y Elsewhere: appeal of islamists (Egypt, Tunisia) o Sometimes they actually want a rollback TO islam o Secularists backing off and islamists coming in o Dictators were western allies, military secularists Women in the Workforce: Ambiguous Results in Asia  Confucianism: obedience to household head (usually male) y Rigid structure of roles and expectations  Since 1970s: rapid econ dev more jobs for women!! y Regional trends better than most TW o Women at 50% and rising (men at 67% and falling)  Due to more opportunities in general o South Koreans women at 59% (close to west)  Danger: workin daughters syndrome (less in SE Asia) y Daughters are sent to work to increase family earnings o Does not help If they do not have those 3 things spoken of earlier, the econ mobility, better jobs,e ducation, etc y Big chunk of earnings diverted to son s education! o So son gets mobility, not women working y Marriage effect: married women 10% less likely to hold jobs o They get married and a large number exit the workforce never taking advantage of upward mobility (not there) y >>Result: little sustained mobility (empowerment)  Globalization effects: more negative towards bottom y Moves to TW and hires women because they are more docile, you can pay them less, and they wont unionize o Malaysia may have low wages but women s wages there are EVEN LOWER y Rarely unionized, no sense of legal rts more malleable! y Low wages and abuse of female labor (esp migrants) Protest and Women s Mobilization: Latin America  Culture of MARIANISMO: women as domestic nurturers y Major women pol figures (Eva Peron) don t alter image o Peron was a charitable celeb. Softer side of econ dev. Not about key things like industry. Important, but softer. th y 20 century in workforce participation, but little empowerment

o So more working, no guarantee for empowerment inherent  Real shifts come in 1970s under authoritarian regimes (Brazil dict, Chile, Argent, etc) y Women seeking info on DISAPPEARED husbands, sons y Middle-class women into community politics (soup kitchens) y Some countries introduce parliamentary quotas (Argentina) o Parties can run but a certain percentage of the party list is reserved for women o HAVE to have a certain number of women in parliament  Currently most visible feminist movement in TW in Latin America y Still small by Western standards, but steady growth y Partly geographic: most international engagement w/ US, West Conclusion: Western Feminism and the Third World  General problem: Western feminist discourse echoes human rights discourse y Sense of tutelage, less attention o local contexts/history y Golley: even among Arab feministrs, tremendous diversity of interests y Also, issue of class: lower class MEN have very little power y Biggest success: TW womens OWN organization, NGOs, etc (S. Asia)  Broader context: return to developmental relativismy Any culture evolves no hard obstacles, even with Islam y Key is context: western feminism had time, grew in simpler world (post WW2) y TW women starting to be more active, but with off-setting global influences: o Positive: ideas/movements across boarders o Negative: pressures of race to the bottom (cheap labor!) Recitation

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Readings are biased towards relativism Neocolonial dint within use Rana: these are culturally idiosyncratic values and it is through one cutures ability to force them on another that we end up with this problem To some extent people advancing a discourse of universal human rights lack the reflective awareness to realize that they are themselves culturally relative o They are still foisting their views on the world o Its just the viewpoint that won Universal human rights is not separate from other practices going on To bring it off you have to believe in formalisms You have to understand these areas as separatable and analyzable Special rights for individual groups are wrong because theyre not universalizable o It runs against other rights we hold dearer

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Individualism wanes as the british colonial legacy wanes Perhaps to accept the facts of the west (universal human rts) you have to accept the opinion Turkish HS o No head scarves o Problem in rural, not problem in city where its more liberal o Lots of families move to city with daughter so daughter can attend secondary school away from the inlufence of the small community that would ostracize her for not wearing Reading Notes

Zakaria o For most of modern history it has been consti liberalism that differentiated the North American and European model, not democracy  The western model therefore is best symbolized not by the mass plebiscite but the impartial judge o After ww2 most east asian regimes turned authoritarian  Most then moved towards liberalized autocracy and semi democracy o East asia today resembles western govs in 1900  Combo of liberalism, capitalism, oligarchy and corruption o The simple fact is democracy does not necessarily = liberal constitutionalism o Many places would be less liberal if they held elections today o There are some common threads through the const d liberal world  British rule as a history  The legacy of law and admin by British empire has proved more beneficial than France s policy of enfranchising colonial populations o JS Mill opined that democratic states frequently see checks on power as not necessary after they have democratized  Echoed by Lukashenko in Belarus o Much ink is spilled over parliamentary or presidential systems as best managing  But reality is, without checks, both usurp power o Historically unchecked centralization has been the enemy of liberal democracy o 12/5/2011

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The Global Environment: A Southern View of Sustainable Development Introduction: the Global Environment as a North-South Issue o Problems global, but analysis of causes and effects reflects rich/poor divide o Williams 3rd world category relevant, even for relatively NEW issue (WILLIAMS READ. GIVES BROADER ISSUE AND MORE DETAIL)  TW more severely affected, with sense that west more responsible  Yet: more diversity of TW views depending on resources/growth

 Review and see how it plays in to issues with the environment Environmental Degradation: Resource Depletion, Pollution and Population o Resource Depletion  Commercial activities soil erosion and deforestation y Arable land lost at 39000 square miles per year (10% gone in 1945-95) y Deforestation reduces biodiversity, increases CO in atmosphere o Lack of biodiversity is a big problem o Concrete level is like large chunks of CO in atmosphere, less trees that use it, oh shit we be dead  More severe effect on TW (more dependent on land, climate!) y There is a heavy need for food with little supply to feed that demand y Less control over the amount of food you can grow on your own (JAMES SCOTT SUBSISTENCE ETHIC) food prices go up and you can t grow moer to help yourself o Pollution of basic elements  WATER: toxic dumping affects marine life, plus y Less clear separation of irrigation/fertilization/sewage o Green revolution, rust to develop, lead to all sorts of shortcuts without consideration for polluting y Need more and more water for places that are high growth  AIR: co2 was 280 ppb in 1750, now 360 ppb y Poor quality air rise of asthma, etc y Also: at 560 ppb, global temps to rise 2-7 degrees F y You had that whole CFC problem back in the day y So micro = sick kids with asthma, lung problems etc y Macro = rise in global temp o If even 10% of the citizens in china have cars, that s a whole new world of automobile use  Again, more severe effect on TW: y Climate shifts most hurt those near subsistence y Here we may lose the ski season but there they lose arable land and can t grow enough to subsist o Population: 1930 (2 bil) to current (6.7 bil), projected for 2040 (9 billion plus!1)  Note: heavily concentrated in TW regions, esp mega cities y Top 10 have: Mumbai, Karachi, Delhi, Sao Paulo, Beinjing, Mexico City  Add to this: spread of consumption-oriented lifestyle emulating west y In China, India: more wealth means more automobiles on road! Origins of TW Environmental Degradation 4 stages (note parallel to Women) o Early Western industrialization: low-level effects  No direct TW impact, but indirect model of dev for future o Colonialism: more widespread and direct effect

Direct resource extraction, production methods affect land-use, water y Mining (gold, diamonds) boxite (metals) y Lots of things take off in terms of importance for the world economy.  Process begins with the slow march to factory dominance, etc. o Post-colonial development: vision of rapid, unconstrained growth  Also: deployment of 1940s-50s technologies on widespread basis o Globalization effect econ competitiveness at expense of environment  Cutting corners in manufacturing; lax enforcement of regulations y All these countries liberalized y Import substitutions etc go away y Reduce borders, increase FDI, push for currency acceptance etc  Rapid growth in TW means increased pollution (read article on China!) y Condensed time of industrialization y All in one quick generation Global Efforts to Address the Problems: Key Moments o United Nations as the initial forum  1972 UN Conf on Environ and Dev (Stockholm)  -15 years go by before there is a serious attempt to really engage Conferences go on, stuff goes on, no impact  1987 Brudtland Report (1987) offers sustainable development y KEY TERM: ABILITY of FUTURE GENERATION to SATISFY NEEDS y Push for development without compromising ability of future generations to satisfy their needs o But eveyr one of those terms is controversial o How far in future? What does it mean to have ability? What is a need? o But does create SOME discussion on the concept of SUSTAINABILITY o FIRST DISCUSSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY o 1990s: More TW participation, more NGOs  You start seeing elites from TW rising up, reading about the issue, becoming involved  1992 RIO Conference More TW Participation, more NGOs, more urgency y MORE TECHNICAL DIALOG y There was a parallel conference there with NGOs interestingly y Huge documents on climate change, biodiversity y BUT, no specific limits, enforcement or penalties on emissions y US: 5% cut needed by 2000, but has 13% increase!!!!!! o Trying to get concrete: Kyoto and Beyond  1997 kyoto round sees movement toward South s position

Souths position: for the TW to catch up it can t be held to the same standards. South has to have more gradual and prolonged set of indicators kicking in over time, and the West/North would immediately be subjected to new standards. y Different standards for OECD and TW countries y US backs out: Bush rejects higher standards for west o Just as Russia ratifies Kyoto  2006, continue in Naiorobi (still called Kyoto round ) y Japan/EU push US to accept tougher standards than TW o Main push is for carbon emissions y Tropical countries pushed to check deforestation y SOME TW govts, NGOs and social movements with more role Conclusion: Too Little, Too Late? o Basic issue remains: North (global problem, global solution) vs South (North bears more responsibility has more wealth!)  No DEVELOPMENTAL RELATIVISM y (not a cultural issue, it s a developmental issue)  The South says we d love to help climate change, give us the tech to do it for very cheap o Global negotiations more intense and widespread  But, challenge now even greater (2050 emissions need to be 50% less than 1990) y 12/07/2011

Final Lecture o Final Exam: Wednesday December 14th at 200 college hall o It will have 2 sections:  first will be 30/40 mins. Not worth more than 20 pts. Will be several short IDs. Short paragraphs 150-250 words. Choices. Parts 2 and 3 of the course. Even those from part 2 won t be at extreme detail. Its not numbers and stuff. It should seem familiar. Significance.  Second will be an essay. 70-75 minutes. Essay that will have 1 choice or 1 broadly framed essay with a choice. Either way the framing will be set in part 3. The framing will be there. A good answer will harken back to standard concepts. James Scott subsistence ethic. Etc. go over all of lecture notes. 2 sheets of notes. Turn it in. make 1 first midterm sheet. Second sheet can be a few facts from your essays. Draw examples from that and link it up with current issues. Draw on Huntington, Price, and Scott. Goal: not to provide with a sophisticated deep knowledge of any specific country. Didn t necessarily want to go over every single aspect of every debate. Broader comparative, broader historical.

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Getting beyond first impressions What is happening in terms of the LONGER term process? Be able to extrapolate out. Tried to develop historical and comparative concepts Common difficulties  Like colonialism  Entire rational for this course is not the term Third World y He is not wedded to that y But he is wedded to the category Urgency of development and time compression Latin America being colonized by pre industrial Spain and Portugal made for a specific outcome Africa had random boundaries that created a SPECIAL kind of challenge The environment is a new idea for TW and emerging markets  Non issues in 1980  Then sea change of fall of communism and fall of regimes y Global pendulum swings away from mixed left/right economy to a more liberal center point y More pushes for democratization. Formal organizations. Informal NGOs. Cross border discussions and practices diffused.  Southern bias in class, perhaps y Intended as a corrective y Not intentional y Just trying to be fair since we live here Part 1  All about understanding how colonialism and early post colonial impacted regions  Started with a stylized, simplified vision of communities dealing with basic life needs.  Not homogenous but in contrast ot the more industrialized colonial apparatus that came in later on, it stands out that there was a subsistence ethic.  Colonial impact: ECONOMIC (misdevelopment. The growth was intended to extract) all colonials were basically there for exploiting. POLITICAL IMPACT the divide and conquer, the cooption of one group by others.  Nationalist movements: paradoxical. Leaders trained in west. Sometimes educated in west. Western. Once the main bad guys are out, the unified nationalism gets fragmented. y Guinea-Bissou guy tried to argue there was this historical core to US  Regardless of democracy/authoritarian, there is an argument as to how much they want to learn from the west.  How much do we modernize?

 

How much mixed economy do we want? Private enterprise? Command economy? Mainly a thing about class differences y Regional interests y Competition by regions

Part II  Set of countries, not chosen for any specific reason. Not a glorification of any specific country at the expense of any other. Just present good examples.  Illustrates the dynamics that we spoke about in general terms.  Some countries work well for some issues, others work better for others.  Challenges of building a nation: Nigeria, versus Brazil or India  Variations in terms of nature of regime: India vs Nigeria/Brazil  Shifts in economic policies and bargainings where certain countries were better able to manage that others. o Part III  Colonial legacies are not the whole story, they are the initial part  They drive a lot of the story in the 20th century  But now in the 21st there are new issues  DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BANGLADESH y You subject perps to a community penalization and shaming y Not what we expect Recitation o Ibid o o