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And Allah (God) sends down from the Qur‘an that which is healing and mercy to those

And Allah (God) sends down from the Qur‘an that which is healing and mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrong-doers nothing but loss. The Qur’an(17(: 82

The Qur’an in Practice Dr. Zaid Kasim Mohammad Ghazzawi Website: www.quran-miracle.com
The Qur’an in Practice
Dr. Zaid Kasim Mohammad Ghazzawi
Website: www.quran-miracle.com
Learning Diffusion from The Qur’an ةيويحلا ةمظنلا يف ةداملا لاقتنا
Learning Diffusion
from The Qur’an
ةيويحلا ةمظنلا يف ةداملا لاقتنا
 
Mass Transport    Diffusion     Capillary Kidney Lung O /CO Exchange
 
Mass Transport    Diffusion     Capillary Kidney Lung O /CO Exchange

Mass Transport

Diffusion

Capillary Kidney Lung O 2 /CO 2 Exchange

Cell Membrane

Active Transport

Cell Membrane Gastrointestinal Tract (Ville)

Osmosis

Hydrostatic Pressure

 
Diffusion mass transfer phenomenon Medium 1 Medium 2 Atoms comprising medium 1 Atoms comprising medium 2
 
Diffusion mass transfer phenomenon Medium 1 Medium 2 Atoms comprising medium 1 Atoms comprising medium 2

Diffusion mass transfer phenomenon

Medium 1

Medium 2

Atoms comprising medium 1 Atoms comprising medium 2 Added atoms Diffusion of added atoms from 1
Atoms comprising
medium 1
Atoms comprising
medium 2
Added atoms
Diffusion of added
atoms from 1 to 2
across a dividing
barrier

Diffusion from fluid surrounding cells to flowing blood:

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

Water (H 2 O)

Diffusion from blood to the fluid surrounding cells:

Oxygen (O 2 )

Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 )

Diffusion in human lungs from air to blood

Oxygen (O 2 )

Diffusion in human lungs from blood to air

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

Whatever you may be doing, and whatever portion you may be reciting from the Qur'ân, - and whatever deed you may be doing, Allah (God) is a Witness thereof, when you are doing it. And nothing is hidden from your Lord the weight of an atom on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that but is in a Clear Record

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful Whatever you may be

The Noble Qur’an (10: 61)

It can be deduced from this Qur’anic verse that the weight of an atom is the main parameter which dictates and explains all the behavior of matter and energy, thus it will be used to explain mass transport

Diffusion mass transfer in water

اباحس ريثتف – ةرذ لاقثم

NaCl

(Sodium

Chloride)

Membrane Diffusion flow
Membrane
Diffusion
flow

Medium 1

Medium 2

 
Diffusion phenomenon explained fully from the Noble Qur’an  The weight of the atom ( ةرذ
 
Diffusion phenomenon explained fully from the Noble Qur’an  The weight of the atom ( ةرذ

Diffusion phenomenon explained fully from the Noble Qur’an

The weight of the atom (ةرذ لاقثم(

Atomic gravity weaved ropes

Causes foreign atoms to link with the atoms comprising the medium

Pull of gravity weaved ropes of the atoms comprising the barrier

Brings the atoms of foreign material closer to the barrier and within the spaces of the pores of the barrier

The combined pull of the gravity field on the atom of the medium linked with foreign atom causes them to drop to a lower level

Causing another atom to be displaced from its location (i.e. causing turbulence in the medium) (diffusion fluid current)

Added atoms

Diffusion fluid current
Diffusion fluid
current
 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following
 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

The difference in the concentration of the suspended material in the two media

The rate of diffusion is proportional to the concentration gradient

  • 2. The thickness of the barrier

Case 1: The thickness of the barrier does not allow the atoms in medium 2 to see (i.e. attract) the atoms in medium 1. In this case diffusion won’t occur

Case 2: The thickness is such that atoms comprising medium 2 see the atoms of the suspended material in medium 1 which results in the flow of matter across the barrier. As the thickness of the barrier increases the rate of diffusion will decrease

Thus the rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dividing barrier between the two media

 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following
 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

The area of the barrier perpendicular to the direction of atom movement

The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2

Case 1: The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2 is the same. For this case 2 sub cases would result, which are:

The two media have heavy atoms: In this case diffusion rate would be high while taking into account the level of saturation of the medium into which the external material is added.

The two media have light atoms: The rate of diffusion would be generally low. Also taking into account the level of saturation of the two media.

 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following
 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

  • 4. The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2

Case 2: The weight of the atoms comprising the two media is different. Two cases can occur in this case:

The weight of the atoms in medium 2 is larger: In this case the attraction of the atoms in medium 2 to the suspended material in medium 1 will be high and thus this will increase the rate of diffusion .

The weight of the atoms in medium 1 is larger: The attraction of the atoms comprising medium 1 would be high and in the same time the attraction of the atoms of medium 2 would be small. This will result in a reduced rate of diffusion.

 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following
 
The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

Density of the two media

Case 1: The density of medium 1 is larger than 2 which results in the binding of more atoms of the external material with medium 1 and thus the rate of diffusion decreases

Case 2: The density of medium 2 is larger than 1 which results in an increased rate of diffusion

  • 2. The state of the fluid in media 1 and 2

Turbulent or laminar

Derivation of the law that governs diffusion phenomenon from the Noble Qur’an
Derivation of the law that
governs diffusion phenomenon
from the Noble Qur’an
Diffusion rate (atoms/s) = weights A 2 mat Diffusion rate = D t 1 b
Diffusion rate (atoms/s)
=
weights
A
2
mat
Diffusion rate =
D
t
1
b
concentration gradient of input matter ( C )
concentration gradient of input matter
(
C
)
 

Where :

A

t

 

1

,

2

b

,

mat

C

 
 

D

 

Area of barrier perpendicular to mass transfer Thickness of barrier Density of medium 1 and 2, respectively. Density of the atoms comprising the barrier and external material, respectively.

Concentration gradient in x, y, and z direction

 

C

C

C

=

+

+

 

x

y

z

Experimental parameter describing the speed of the travel of added atoms

Diffusion Mass Transfer

Mass transfer is mass in transit as the result of a species concentration difference in a mixture. (Incropera)

How to derive diffusion law?

Diffusion

J

1

=

D

12

Where :

1 = f( ,D , C , ) 12 t barrier C A x barrier
1
=
f(
,D
,
C
,
)
12
t
barrier
C
A
x
barrier

Fick’s law of diffusion

=

1

+

2

(Mixture mass density

kg

  • 3 )

m

  • D 12

(Mass diffusivity

m

2

)

s

  • C (Concentration difference

kmol

  • 3 )

m

  • x barrier

(Thickness of barrier m)

 
Diffusion depends on the membrane between the two media  Types of membranes: 1. Not-permeable: Does
 
Diffusion depends on the membrane between the two media  Types of membranes: 1. Not-permeable: Does

Diffusion depends on the membrane between the two media

Types of membranes:

  • 1. Not-permeable: Does not contain pores of adequate size for any atoms to diffuse.

  • 2. Semi-permeable: The size of the pores allow some atoms to diffuse through.

  • 3. Permeable: The size of the pores allows all atoms to diffuse through.

Diffusion in the human body Capillary network ةيريعشلا ةيومدلا ةيعولا ةكبش
Diffusion in the human
body
Capillary network
ةيريعشلا ةيومدلا ةيعولا ةكبش
 
Blood capillary http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/skin/skin4.html
 
Blood capillary http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/skin/skin4.html

Blood capillary

Blood capillary http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/skin/skin4.html

http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/skin/skin4.html

 
Typical characteristics of a blood capillary          
 
Typical characteristics of a blood capillary          

Typical characteristics of a blood capillary

Inside Diameter = 10 m Length = 0.1 cm Wall thickness = 0.5 m Average blood velocity = 0.05 cm/sec Pore fraction = 0.001 Wall pore diameter = 6-7 nm Inlet pressure = 30 mmHg Outlet pressure = 10 mmHg Mean pressure = 17.3 mmHg Colloid osmotic pressure = 28 mmHg Interstitial fluid pressure = -3 mmHg Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure = 8 mmHg

Model for a blood capillary

Model for a blood capillary

Model for a blood capillary

Model for a blood capillary

 
ميظعلا لا قدص ( نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو ) , ( ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ
 
ميظعلا لا قدص ( نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو ) , ( ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ

ميظعلا لا قدص (نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو) , (ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ دقل) The optimal piping network for maximum diffusion can be found from the optimal design of blood capillary

The optimal length to diameter ratio = 100

Maximizing diffusion surface area

The optimal thickness to diameter ratio = 1/20

Minimizing the thickness of the barrier

Fluid velocity inside the capillary = 0.05 cm/sec = 0.5 mm/sec

Allowing adequate time for diffusion to occur

Pore diameter = 6-7 nm

Does not allow blood to escape Selectively permeable membrane

 
ميظعلا لا قدص ( نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو ) , ( ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ
 
ميظعلا لا قدص ( نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو ) , ( ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ

ميظعلا لا قدص (نورصبت لفأ مكسفنأ يفو) , (ميوقت نسحأ يف ناسنلا انقلخ دقل) The optimal piping network for maximum diffusion can be found from the optimal design of blood capillary

Barrier is light (Collagen, elastin, endothelial cells) (atoms of low weight)

Minimum resistance to diffusing atoms (due to atomic gravity weaved ropes)

Blood capillaries are located near to cells, alveoli, etc. (i.e. regions that need substances)

Reduces the distance the atoms have to travel (i.e. faster diffusion)

Capillary form fold (like water waves)

Maximum number can be packed in a given space (Maximum diffusion rate)

 
Diffusion in and out of the cell  Substances need to enter the cell:  
 
Diffusion in and out of the cell  Substances need to enter the cell:  

Diffusion in and out of the cell

Substances need to enter the cell:

Glucose (energy source) Oxygen Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na)

Substances need to leave the cell:

Carbon dioxide Water

 
Mass diffusivity of various substances Diffusivity of selected substances: 2 2 Glucose ( D = 0.91
 
Mass diffusivity of various substances Diffusivity of selected substances: 2 2 Glucose ( D = 0.91

Mass diffusivity of various substances

Diffusivity of selected substances:

 
  • 2 2

 

Glucose (

D =

0.91

10

 

cm

  • 5

  • 9 m

)

 

=

0.91

10

 

sec Glucose molecular weight

=

sec 180 (1 mole of glucose weighs 180 g)

 
  • 2 2

 

Oxygen (

D =

2.11

10

 

cm

  • 5

  • 9 m

)

 

=

2.11

10

 
 

sec

sec

 

2

Vitamin B

 

10

  • 9 m

)

 

(

D =

0.5

  • 12

 
 

sec

Vitamin B

  • 12 molecular weight

=

1300

 
Example on diffusion in blood capillary
Example on diffusion in
blood capillary
 
Example  Calculate the rate of diffusion of glucose, knowing that its molecular radius = 0.36
 
Example  Calculate the rate of diffusion of glucose, knowing that its molecular radius = 0.36

Example

Calculate the rate of diffusion of glucose, knowing that its molecular radius = 0.36 nm. The average concentration of glucose in plasma = 5 mole/ml and it is assumed that all glucose transported to the extracapillary space is consumed instantly by the cell.

Assume that all of the plasma proteins are retained by the capillary wall.

Diffusion rate (atoms/s) = weights concentration gradient of input matter A 2 mat Diffusion rate Where
Diffusion rate (atoms/s)
=
weights
concentration gradient of input matter
A
2
mat
Diffusion rate
Where :
=
D
(
C
)
t
1
b
6
2
8
Diffusion area of capillary
=
DL
=
10
10
0.1
10
=
3.14
10
m
2
6
t
=
0.5
10
m
2
= 1
1
1150
mat
glu
cos
e
=
=
= 2.875
400
b
capillary
2
m
9
D =
0.91
10
s
7
4
3
C
=
9
10
kg
/
ml
=
9
10
kg
/
m
-8
3.14
10
9
4
Glucose diffusion rate =
1
2.875
0.91
10
9
10
=
1.48
6
0.5
10

10

13

kg

s

Diffusion resistance maps
Diffusion resistance maps

Medium 1

Medium 2

Atoms comprising medium 1 Atoms comprising medium 2 Added atoms Diffusion of added atoms from 1
Atoms comprising
medium 1
Atoms comprising
medium 2
Added atoms
Diffusion of added atoms from
1 to 2 across a dividing barrier
Medium 1 Medium 2 Atoms comprising medium 1 Atoms comprising medium 2 Added atoms Diffusion of

Resistance of medium 1

L

1

D A

1

1

Depends on:

Resistance of barrier

L

b

Resistance of medium 2

L

2

D A

b

b

D A

2

2

-Atomic weight of atoms comprising medium 1 and added material (D) -Area of medium - Thickness of medium -Motion of the atom in the medium

 
Diffusion in human lungs Derive the diffusion map for the human lung
 
Diffusion in human lungs Derive the diffusion map for the human lung

Diffusion in human lungs

Diffusion in human lungs Derive the diffusion map for the human lung

Derive the diffusion map for the human lung

Blood Oxygenator A device to oxygenate blood in the case of partial or full lung failure
Blood Oxygenator
A device to oxygenate blood in the case of
partial or full lung failure (or in the case of heart
surgery)
Designed fully based on the Noble Qur’an

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

And in the earth there are signs for those who have certainty in faith * and in your own self will you not then see

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful And in the earth

The Noble Qur’an (51: 20-

21)

The optimal design for mass and heat exchanger can be learnt from the design of human lungs, the human body is a textbook in optimal engineering

Studying the Design of Human Lungs

Studying the Design of Human Lungs
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 1. Two fluids involved in
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 1. Two fluids involved in

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs

  • 1. Two fluids involved in the exchange

Air (Oxygen + Nitrogen) Deoxygenated Blood

How to make an engineering design?

Pumping air and blood into the system

 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 2. The two fluids involved
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 2. The two fluids involved

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs

2. The two fluids involved in the exchange are in a cross flow configuration:

Maximizing mass transfer by not allowing boundary layer to form

How to make an engineering design?

Pumping air and blood in a cross flow fashion

 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 3. Blood flows in small
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 3. Blood flows in small

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs

3. Blood flows in small branches (capillaries)

Maximizing surface area Minimizing film thickness

How to make an engineering design?

Branching the blood taken from the body into many small membrane tubes

 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 4. There exist many back
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 4. There exist many back

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs

4. There exist many back up units (alveloi)

Mercy requirement in the case of damage to some alveoli the others can compensate

How to make an engineering design?

Making additional tubes in the membrane design (more than needed) in the case that some might be blocked

 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 5. All membranes in the
 
Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs 5. All membranes in the

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs

5. All membranes in the human lung have pre- tension and hardening spring behavior

Mercy mechanism to protect the membrane from rupture due to increased pressure

How to make an engineering design?

Using natural fibers for the membranes (like cellulose) that has these phenomena

Composition of Membranes within the Human Body

Elastin

Composition of Membranes within the Human Body Elastin Pre-Tension Collagen Phenomena
Composition of Membranes within the Human Body Elastin Pre-Tension Collagen Phenomena
Composition of Membranes within the Human Body Elastin Pre-Tension Collagen Phenomena

Pre-Tension

Collagen

Phenomena

Elastin Blood flow Collagen
Elastin Blood flow Collagen

Elastin

Elastin Blood flow Collagen

Blood flow

Elastin Blood flow Collagen
Elastin Blood flow Collagen
Elastin Blood flow Collagen

Collagen

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane

Linear spring

Non-linear spring

Softening spring

Non-linear spring

Hardening spring

F

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane  Linear spring  Non-linear spring  Softening spring  Non-linear

Slope = k (Stiffness)

= Constant

x

F

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane  Linear spring  Non-linear spring  Softening spring  Non-linear
Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane  Linear spring  Non-linear spring  Softening spring  Non-linear

F

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane  Linear spring  Non-linear spring  Softening spring  Non-linear

Slope = k

(Stiffness) =

decreasing

x

Slope = k

(Stiffness) =

increasing

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane  Linear spring  Non-linear spring  Softening spring  Non-linear

x

 
Sample Calculation for Membrane Section  (100 mmol) of Oxygen needs to be added to the
 
Sample Calculation for Membrane Section  (100 mmol) of Oxygen needs to be added to the

Sample Calculation for Membrane Section

(100 mmol) of Oxygen needs to be added to the blood in 1 hour, calculate the area to thickness ratio of a single membrane to be used in the membrane section?

Design Calculations

C N = DA t 2 m 9 D = 2.11 10 sec 3 100 10
C
N
=
DA
t
2
m
9
D =
2.11
10
sec
3
100
10
mol
5
N =
=
2.8
10
mol
/sec
60
60sec
3
100
10
mol
3
C
=
=
20
10
mol
/
L
O
2
5 L
5
2.8
10
A
9
=
2.11
10
3
20
10
t
A
7
6
=
0.2
10
=
2
10
t
6
2
DL
300
10
30
10
6
=
2
10
=
t
t
1
11
11
t
=
10
m
=
0.1
10
m

Can use multiple tubes to achieve the required

mass transfer rate

 
Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an 6. Capillaries are not straight they
 
Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an 6. Capillaries are not straight they

Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an

  • 6. Capillaries are not straight they are folded (packing maximum material in a given space – maximizes surface area)

The tubes of the oxgenator need to be folded, however, this is not possible due to damage to red blood cells

Blood in Gas out Gas in Blood out

Blood in

Blood in Gas out Gas in Blood out

Gas out

Gas in

Blood in Gas out Gas in Blood out

Blood out

 
Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an  Air in the human lungs
 
Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an  Air in the human lungs

Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an

Air in the human lungs is in a turbulent state (no formation of diffusion boundary layer)

Need to cause diffusion to the gas flowing on the tubes (fan, pressure gradients, etc.)

In the lungs gas flows in a pulsating fashion (like the flow of water waves)

Need to have a pulsating pump in the blood oxygenator

Operational characteristics of lung and blood pump oxygenator

Characteristic

Lung

Blood Oxygenator

Blood flow rate

  • 5 L/min

5 L/min

Pressure head Blood volume Blood film thickness Length of blood flow channel Blood contact time Surface area for mass transfer

12 mmHg 1 Liter 5-10 microns 100 microns 0.7 sec 70 m 2

0-200 mmHg 1-4 Liters 100-300 microns 2-30 cm 3-30 sec 2-10 m 2

Gas flow rate

  • 7 L/min

2-10 L/min

pO 2 and pCO 2 blood in pO 2 and pCO 2 blood out pO 2 and pCO 2 Gas in pO 2 and pCO 2 Gas out

40 and 45 mmHg 95 and 40 mmHg 149 and 0.3 mmHg 120 and 27 mmHg

40 and 45 mmHg 100-300 and 30-40 mmHg 250-713 and 0-20 mmHg 150-675 and 10-30 mmHg

 
Different types of blood oxygenator
 
Different types of blood oxygenator

Different types of blood oxygenator

Bubble oxygenator

Damage to blood cells Low efficiency

Flat bed oxygenator (film oxygenator)

Damage to blood cells Low efficiency

Membrane oxygenator (best available choice)

Reduced damage to blood cells Moderate efficiency

Dr. Zaid Kasim Ghazzawi

For detailed information please visit my Website at: www.quran- miracle.com
For detailed information please visit my
Website at:
www.quran-
miracle.com

E-mail:

zaidquran@yahoo.co

m