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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ..............................................................................................................5 Glossary....6 INTRODUCTION...9 CHAPTER I- The collocation as a type of multiword unit 13
1.1.1. Idioms. .14 1.1.2. Phrasesiological units.. .

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1.1.3. Compound words. 21 1.1.4. Phrases..22

1.2. Defining the collocations.. 25 1.2.1. Defying the collocations 25 1.2.2. The problem of collocations 31 1.2.3. The use of collocations 35 1.2.4. Types of collocations38 1.2.5. The importance of collocations 40 CHAPTER II - Structural classification of collocations. 43 2.1.1Structural classification based on their types.43 2.1.2.Structural classification based on number of elements.. 45 2.1.3.Structural classification based on parts of speech...... 51 2.1.4.The analyze of translating techniques .. 54 CONCLUSION86 Summary .89

Bibliography 90 Appendices93

ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this research paper is to distinguish the collocation from other word groups like- phrases, idioms, compound words and phraseological units which make difficulties in learning the collocation as a single word group. In addition, in this research are made some analyses based on five types of collocations; these types of collocations will be analyzed according to: number of elements, parts of speech and translation techniques in order to have a better view of collocations. Altogether, it is hoped that the result of this research has not only produced a usable on line collocational aid, but also to demonstrate a simple and efficient way of understanding better the collocations.

GLOSSARY
1. Adverb- a word like tomorrow, once, badly, there, also to say, for

example, when, where, or how something happens .There are many kinds: adverb participle words like up, out, off, used as part of phrasal verb clean up, sold out, tell off. 2. Adjective a word like green, hungry, impossible, which is used to describe people, things, events, etc, adjectives are used in connection with nouns or pronouns a green apple, she is hungry.
3. Article a, an, and the, are called articles, a, an, are called the infinitive

article, the- is called the definite article. 4. Attribute adjective placed before nouns are in attributive position, a green shirt, and my noisy sun. 5. Compound words a noun, an adjective etc, composed of two or more words, or parts of words, written as one or more words or joined by a hyphen armchair, living-room, afternoon. 6. Conjunction a word like and, but, although, because, when, if, can be used to join clauses, together, example I rang because I was worried about you. 7. Idioms a) the language or a dialect of a group of people or a country. b) a phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual words and which must be learned as a whole unit ,e.g. give way, a change of heart. 8. Noun a word like, oil, memory, arm, which can be used with an article, nouns are most often names of people or things, personal names e.g. George, and place, e.g. Moldova, are called proper nouns, they are usually used without articles.
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9. Number the way in which differences between singular and plural are shown grammatically. The difference between nose and noses, house and houses, this and these are differences of number. 10.Phrases two or more words that function together as a group or more words that function together as a group, e.g. dead tired, the silly old woman, in the country. 11.Phrasal verb a verb that is made up of two parts; a base verb followed by an adverb particle e.g. fill up, run over, take in, go on.
12. Phraseology the choice or arrangement of words; the wording, e.g. tried

hard, could do better. 13.Preposition a word like, off, of, on, in, into, to, at, normally followed by a noun or pronoun.
14. Pronoun a word like it, yourself, their, my, his, her, which is used

instead of a more precise noun or noun phrase (like the cat, Peter, the family).The word pronoun can also be used for a determiner when this includes the meaning of a following noun which has been left out, which bottle would you like, I will take both, (both stands for both bottles, and we can say that it is used as pronoun).
15. Verb a word like ask, wake, play, be, can, draw, which can be used

with a subject o form the basis of clause; most verbs refer to actions or states.

Abbreviations used in this research

1. ADV.-Adverb 2. ADJ. Adjective 3. N Noun 4. V Verb 5. PREP Preposition 6. ART Article 7. CONJ Conjunction 8. PR Pronoun

INTRODUCTION
We scientists are fast learners but we are desperately short of time, we want from you language is advice, tell us what we need to learn Jonathan Lipjochn This research paper deals with: The problem of collocations in English language. Although many people consider that to know a language the most important is to learn words, there has recently been an increasing awareness that the way of combining the words is the important key of speaking, writing and understanding a language. Words are our tools of expressing our ideas, thoughts, feelings, and reactions. Sometimes it is difficult even in our mother language to find words that are precise enough to render our exact message across to others. When we use English we are faced with a language that deals with a lot of word-groups which can be hard distinguished among them and also hard to understand their meaning. It can be said that English is a language full of traps which are easy to fall into, for example word groups like phrases, idioms, phraseological units, compound words and collocations. Although there is a growing recognition of collocation in language teaching, there seems to be a lack of understanding of its true significance. Linguists and teachers have concentrated their attention on the extreme ends of the spectrum: free combinations and idioms, giving learners the impression that there are two distinct models of construction: the unfettered application of

generative rules to lexis in free combinations, on the one hand, and complete frozenness in idioms, on the other. Although the term collocation is increasingly used by writers in a number of languages related fields, it has perhaps not yet achieved wide recognition in applied linguistics, nor are the implications of research within the field fully understood or made available to language teachers. This is partly the result of interest in the phenomenon of word combination being developed independently in variety of disciplines, and few linguists have attempted an overview. It is not possible within a scope of a single article to give an account of whole field, and the focus of this paper is restricted to those aspects of the subject that have to define the collocations as a single word unit. That is why this research paper is based on the problem of collocations in order to define and distinguish it as a single unit from other word groups mentioned above, to analyze its classification structure and translation techniques. This research paper The problem of collocation in English language , consists of two chapters and subchapters. First chapter, The collocation as a type of multiword unit, is focused on defining the other word groups: idioms, compound words, phraseological units and phrases in order to understand better the collocation and not to have problems in distinguishing it from these word groups because they have a lot of peculiarities which make them to be wrong understood as a single unit. The second sub chapter is based on defying the collocation and distinguishing it, after briefly presentation of the word groups which mix up the understanding of collocation, here is presented largely the collocation as a single unit, its importance and its use in English language. After defying the collocation and its importance in learning a language, follows the second chapter: Structural classification of collocations based on structural classification of collocations. The examples of collocations were taken from Charlotte Bronte novels Jane Eire-230 examples, and were analyzed
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according to five types of collocations, adjective +noun, noun+verb, verb + noun, adverb + verb, adverb + adjective. According to these types, there were made the structural analysis based on: number of elements, (for example the collocation can be formed from two, three, four elements); parts of speech, and the last one is based on translations techniques (literal translation, enlargement, reduction, modulation, contextual synonym and word by word translation). For all types of classification were made up statistics and percentage in order to have a better view of collocations structure and analysis. The objectives of this research paper are: -

To define the collocation as a single unit. To distinguish it from other word groups. To classify the collocation. To translate 230 examples of collocations from English into Romanian To analyze the collocations according to: -five types of collocations, -number of its elements, -parts of speech, -translations techniques. To make percentage for all the classifications. - Investigation, based on 230 examples of collocations from

language -

The methods of investigation are: Jane Eire novel. - Analysis, based on five types of collocations, parts of speech, number of elements and translation techniques. - Comparison, based on translation of 230 examples from English into Romanian language

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This theme is an actual one and it is studied now by many linguists because it had been neglected in the past. Now, the problem of collocations is studied by linguists in order to be understood better, by translators in order to translate the words correctly, by teachers in order to teach others about this language feature, and also by lexicographers in making dictionaries. Studying the collocation it can be see its importance in learning English language in order to understand it and speak fluently like a native one.

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CHAPTER I - THE COLLOCATION AS A TYPE OF MULTIWORD UNIT


Words put together make phrases or word groups. It will be recalled that lexicology deals with words, word forming and word groups it can be said that the word is the basic lexical unit .The smallest two facet unit to be found the word is the morpheme. The largest two facet lexical unit comprising more than one word is the word group observed on the systematic level of analysis ,E.g. in the analysis of various the words are joined together to inseparable .such word groups are usually described as phrases ,idioms parasitological units ,compound words and collocations lexicological science . The component members in other word groups e.g. a week ago, man of wisdom, take place, take lessons kind to people, seem to posses greater semantic and structural independence .Word groups of this type make up single self contained lexical units. The degree of structural and semantic cohesion of words-groups may vary .Some word groups, e g. at least, point of view, by means, take place, seem to be functionally and semantically are defined as free word groups or phrases. Here, however, it can proceed from the assumption that before on the problem of collocation it is essential to briefly outline the features common and uncommon to various word groups. To get a better insight into the essentials of structure and meaning of word groups we must begin with a brief survey of the main factors active in uniting words into word groups as-phrases, idioms, phrasiological units compound words and our main pattern collocations. The two main linguistic factors to be considered in this connection are the lexical and grammatical valency of words. which are traditionally regarded as the branch of

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1.1.1

IDIOMS
In order to have a better understanding of collocation firstly it will

discussed its common and uncommon features with idioms. The definition from oxford dictionary says that an idiom is 1)
2)

The Language or dialect of a group of people or a country, e.g.: have an A phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its

ear for Irish idiom individual words and which must be learnt as a whole unit, e.g. give way, a change of heart, be hard to put it. When used in a broad sense, the term idiom will not denote the language peculiar to a people, community or district, as it is frequently done, because for this notion there is another term which is appropriate: Dialect. The wealth of idioms of English is a reflection of the many sources, cultural and linguistic that have fed into the mainstream of the language, e.g.: Military (spike someones guns), Naval (know the ropes), Sporting (saved by the bell), Musical (run the gamut) and many others technical vocabularies have all contributed vivid forms of words to the rich mix. By idiom in a broad sense is a form of expression, construction or phrase peculiar to a language and approved by the usage of that language and it often has a signification other than its grammatical or logical one. In practical terms this includes a wide range of expression that has become in a sense fossilized within the language and is used in a fixed or semi-fixed way without any reference to the literal meaning of their component word. Idioms are those elements in a language that are often the most difficult to translation thats way they cause most difficulty to foreign learners. Idiom in the narrow sense consist of proverbs and sayings that reflect the thought patterns of the English people and their folk wisdom, also idiom in a broad sense can also include collocations, phrases, e.g.: airbus industry, a man

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of letters, be a delicate procedure, etc., as these words also collocate, that is they can be put side by side.

1.1.2. PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS


For a better defying and understanding the collocations, Phraseological unit is the second pattern analyzed in this research paper. The definition of phrasiological units says thatThere are different combinations of words. Some of them are free, e. g. to read books (newspapers, a letter, etc.), others are fixed, limited in their combinative power, e. g. to go to bed, to make a report. The combinations of words which are fixed (s e t -e x p r e s s i o n s) are called phraseological units. A free combination is a syntactical unit, which consists of notional and form words, and in which notional words have the function of independent parts of the sentence. In a phraseological unit words are not independent. They form setexpressions, in which neither words nor the order of words can be changed. Free combinations are created by the speaker. Phraseological units are used by one speaker in a ready form, without any changes. The whole phraseological unit has a-meaning which may be quite different form the meanings of its components, and therefore the whole unit and not separate words, has the function of a part of the sentence. Phraseological units consist of separate words and therefore they are

different from words, even from compounds. Word's have several structural forms, but in phraseological units only one of the components has all the forms of the paradigm of the part of speech it belongs to, e. g. to go to bed, goes to bed, went to bed, gone to bed, going to bed etc., the rest of the components do not change their form. By the classification of V.Vinogradov some phraseological units are divided into three units logically for the combination of particular words. It
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can be explained only on the basis of tradition, e. g. to deliver a lecture (but not to read a lecture). In phraseological combinations words retain their full semantic independence although they are limited in their combinative, power, e. g. to wage war (but not to lead war), to render assistance, to render services (but not to render pleasure). Phraseological combination is the least idiomatic of all the kinds of phraseological units. In other words, in phraseological combinations the meaning of the whole can be inferred from the meaning of the components, e. g. To draw a conclusion To lend assistance To make money To pay attention to In phraseological combinations one of the components (generally the component which is used figuratively) can be combined with different words, e. g. to talk sports, politics, business (but to speak about life), leading worker, leading article (but the main problem), deadly enemy, deadly shot (but a mortal wound), keen interest, keen curiosity, keen sense of humour (but great surprise). Words of wide meaning, as to make, to take, to do, to give, etc. Form many phraseological units, e. g. to take an examination to take a trip, to take a chance, to take interest, to make fun of, to make inquiries, to make a statement, to make friends. Sometimes traditional combination are synonyms of words e. g. to make inquiries=to inquire, to make haste=to hurry. Some traditional combination is equivalents in propositions e. g. by means of, in connection with. Some phraseological combinations have nearly become compounds, e. g. brown bread
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Traditional combinations often have synonymous expressions, e. g. to make a report=to deliver a report. Phraseological combinations are not equivalents of words. Though the components of phraseological combinations are limited in their combinative power, that is, they can be combined only with certain words and cannot be combined with any other words, they preserve not only their meaning but all their structural forms, e. g. nice distinction is phraseological combination and it is possible to say nice distinctions, nicer distinction, etc., or to clench one's fist (clenched his fists, was clenching his fists, etc.). In prof. A. Smirnitsky opinion traditional combinations are not phraseological units, as he considered only those word combinations to be units which are equivalents of words. In phraseological unities the meaning of the whole word combination the is not sum of the meanings of its components, but it is based on them and the

meaning of the whole can be inferred from the image that underlies the whole expression, e. g. to get on one's nerves, to cut somebody short, to show one's teeth, to be at daggers drawn. Phraseological unities are often synonyms of words, e. g. to make a clean breast of=to confess; to get on one's nervesto-irritate. Phraseological unities are equivalents of words as 1) only one of the components of a phraseological unity has structural forms, e. g. to play (played, is playing, etc.) the first fiddle (but not played the first fiddles); to turn (turned, will turn, etc.), a new leaf but not to turn newer leaf, or new leaves); (2) the whole unity and not its components are parts of the sentence in syntactical analysis, e. g. in the sentence He took the bull by the horns (attached a problem boldly) there are only two parts: hethe subject, and took the bull by the hornsthe predicate. In phraseological fusions the meaning of the whole word combination cannot be derived from the meaning of its components, e. g. to pull one's leg
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(to deceive); at sixes and sevens un confusion;; a mare's nest (a discovery which turns out to be false or worthless); to show the white feather (to show cowardice); to rule the high horse (to put on airs). Phraseological fusions are the most idiomatic of all the kinds of phraseological units. Phraseological fusions are equivalents of words: fusions as well as unities form a syntactical whole in analysis. Phraseological units have some important peculiaritiesThe first feature is the incompleteness of the paradigm. In a phraseological unit al least one of the components has an incomplete paradigm, e.g. to go to the dogs (to be ruined). The verb to go may have different forms, but the noun dogs can be used only in this form. (He has gone, is going, went, will go, etc., the dogs). If the combination is considered a free combination, then all the words will acquire complete paradigms (he went to the (a) dog).
1) The second distinctive as compared with free word combinations is that

auxiliary words cannot be changed in phraseological units, e.g. at a glance, on the dot, to fall in love. In to go to the dogs only the definite article can be used. Generally in phraseological units there is only one form of the article that can be used.
2) The last morphological feature of phraseological units as distinguished

from free combinations is archaic word forms no longer in actual use, e.g. In olden days, in bouden duty, in bended knees. Also phrasiological units have two semantic peculiarities-. Phraseological units have non-motivated meaning as compared with free word combinations, e.g. at sixes and sevens (in confusion). 1) In phraseological units there occur unique meanings, that is the meanings of elements which they have only in a concrete given combination, e. g. the meaning of the word salt in the phraseological unit an old salt has a
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unique meaning. A unique meaning occurs only in one combination. It is a meaning which is not productive, i.e. no derivates or compounds are created from the word in the unique meaning. Free word combinations can never be polysynaptic, while there are polysemantic phraseological units, e. g. to be on the go, to be busy and active, to be leaving, to be tipsy, to be near one's end Have done with make an end of, give up, reach the end of Two types of synonymy are typical of phraseological units: 1. Synonymy of phraseological units that do not contain any synonymous words and are based on different images, e. g. to leave no stone unturned=to move, heaven and earth to haul down colors=to ground arms In free word combinations synonymy is based on the synonymy of particular words (an old manan elderly man}.
2.

Phraseological

units

have

word

synonym

to make up one's mind=to decide to haul down colorsto surrender There is a lot of dispute going on about the nature of such expressions as to take a look, to have a look, to have a fall, to get a glance, etc. Such expressions may form an intermediate group between phraseological units and free combinations. Another difficult question to decide is whether such combinations as to give up, to give in, to' take off, to come round are phraseological units or compound verbs. As there are two words in the combinations and they lack the unity or the inseparability of form which is characteristic of words, we prefer to regard them as a special group of phraseological units which for the absence of a better name we may call v e r b-a d v e r b (or v e r b-p o s t-position) combinations. Sometimes a phraseological verb-adverb combination can be distinguished from a free combination only by the context, e. g.
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He put on his coat (ph.) and went out (free). He put the book on the table (free). The difference between a phraseological verb-adverb combination and free verb-adverb combinations may be seen in the impossibility of inversion in phraseological units. It is possible to say the boy ran in or in ran the boy, the prices went up or up went the prices, but it is quite impossible to invert the order of words in the phraseological verb-adverb combination / gave it up (up gave I it is impossible). Phraseological units are formed from free word combinations. Word combinations become set expressions and come to be used with a figurative meaning. Their origin may be different. Some phraseological units are connected with some historical events, e. g. to burn one's boats (some commanders burned their ships after the landing of the troops, so that there should be no possibility of retreat), to bury the hatchet (Indians in America buried a hatchet when they made peace). Often phraseological units are units are professional expressions, e. expressions taken from some literary work, e. g. much ado about nothing" (Shakespeare). .Many phraseological g. to put the finishing touches (used by artists), to feel ones pulse (medical), to be in chancery (sport),to have all the trumps in one's hand (gambling), to see rocks units are ahead the last translated (used from foreign languages, e. g. the apple of by discord sailors), to die in (from Greek). Sometimes phraseological units are formed as a result of shortening proverbs, e. g. To catch at a straw (from a drowning man will catch at a straw); To cry over spilt milk (from there is no use crying over' spilt milk). P r o v e r b s is considered by some linguists to be a kind of phraseological units. Proverbs are not equivalents of words, but of sentences, e. g.
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ditch (used by soldiers). Many phraseological

All is not gold that glitters. A friend in need is a friend indeed. .

1.1.3. COMPOUND WORDS


.Another pattern studied here is compound word and its similarities and differences toward the collocations .The definition of compound word says that - compound word consist of two or even more units, as toothbrush ,upstairs .The most common compound word are two nouns combined to create a meaning which differs from that of each of its parts ,as in sleeping peel ,picture book ice cream ,etc. However, compounds can be quite lengthy, e.g. absolute money- back guarantee. One would think that there must be some cut off point where the length of the compound makes processing difficult. However, it is not uncommon to find three, four or five part compounds, e.g. Garbage can collector, map making geography class. Some linguists have tackled the problem of defining a compound in English. One test has been that if word stress falls on the first part of the compound, then it is truly a compound word. This would make armchair and working paper compounds whereas chocolate cake would be classified as phrases made up of nouns modified by adjectives. However, chocolate cake, cherry pie the stress falls on the final noun are recognized as meaningful objects, so for us , these will be considered compounds, too. While we have noted that many compounds are made up of pairs of nouns, all types of combination are possible eg. Kill joy- combines a verb and a noun, green house- combines an adjective and a noun, windbreak -combines a noun and a verb, make believe- combines two verbs downpour-combines a verb and an adverb, red hot-combines two adjectives. It appears that almost any combination is possible to make compound words, but they vary in ports of speech.

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Somebody might wander why we need to create compounds words when it is possible to say the some thing without the compound. We can say I like cakes that are chocolate We dont have to use chocolate cake to convey that information. Compounds are useful ways of condensing information and they add variation to the way we refer to concepts in discourse. Compounds provide us new ways to refer to the some information, as well as condense the information. They are for that reason often used for different types of writing

1.1.4. PHRASES
Other pattern which make us wrongly define and understanding the collocation are phrases. Its definition says that -From the strictly grammatical point of view, a phrase is a word combination standing for a part of speech those grammatical functions it discharges. It must necessarily contain a noun, a verb a modifying adjective or adverb in its structure e.g. One or more words of full lexical value, e.g. In the middle of (prepositional-phrase) to do ones utmost (verbal phrase), in the distance (adverbial phrase), no matter how (conjunctional phrase) etc. In lexicology there is no such category as complex words and the term phrase has another meaning than it has in grammar, including all the word combinations that are not compounds, which they, however, resemble in that they imply a more or less marked unity of meaning. Complex verbs are sometimes referred to us compound words and sometimes as phrases; though it seems more adequate to call compounds only complex verbs formed with the help of adverbial particles. Consequently a lexical phrase may be expressed even by a whole sentence, provided the latter is a phraseological unit enjoying structural stability, as are proverbs, conversational formulas, etc. e.g. No news is good news, how do you do? Etc. Phrases may be classified as stable (or fixed) and unstable.
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They are said to be stable when no change of the component elements is possible. Thus, in the proverb quoted above no news is good news, not one word can be changed in point of form e.g. (of case, tense,) or replaced by a synonym. On the contrary, an unstable phrase is liable to change of form or partial replacement. Thus, the verb in to play a trick on somebody can be used in various tenses (I played a trick on him, he thought he would play a trick on us ), The order of words can be changed (to play somebody a trick); at the some time to put and to serve are apt to be used as connotatational synonyms for to pay (to put a trick on somebody, to serve somebody a trick) in as toll as a maypole, only the replacement of maypole is possible, (as toll as a steeple). In to have all the time in the world, it is only the verb that is apt to change (in point of tense). (I have or had etc. all the time in the world). The interpretation of the term phrase in various works by English authors is far from unitary, e.g. An idiomatic expression, small group of words usually without predicate, especially preposition with the word it governs, equivalent a finite verb forming part of a sentence. Phrases have some important classificationSemantically, phrases may be roughly divided into two: A) those which are used in a direct meaning;
B) Those which, partly or whole express figurative meanings.

The phrase to have a rare fun time belongs to type:


a) For all the verbs of which it is made up are used in a direct meaning: to

have rare, fun time-with the connotation (of good excellent, merry etc.) As to the meaning of the phrase as a whole, it is the sum of the meanings of the component elements. Other examples: to set at liberty, in other words, to be of good cheer, safe and sound, to come in to view, silence gives consent.

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As to the meaning of the phrase as a whole, it is the sum of the meanings of the component elements. Other examples: to set at liberty, in other words, to be of good cheer, safe and sound to come into view, silence give consent. Phrases of the:
b) Type is, partly or wholly, based on figures of speech chiefly on

metaphors, whose role in the semantic development of a language is very active. In to give somebody a lesson all the words are used in the direct meaning, but the whole, meaning of the phrase is metaphorical. The same may be said about to carry coals to Newcastle, the cat in the gloves catches no mice, to put a spoke in somebodys wheel, make hay while the sun shines and strike the iron while it is hot, to give somebody the needle. On the other hand, in to break the silence as a result of its association with silence, to break assumes a figurative metaphorical meaning, though, owing to the frequent use of the phrase, the metaphor is of the fading or degraded, not of the live type. Other examples of metaphoric words in phrases: to pay in to pay ones addresses to, to lose ones temper, depth in the depth of the forest, to cut in to cut ones teeth stress in under the stress of circumstances. Many phrases are built on similes: Ex: - As red as a rose, to run like a deer, on hyperboles - A thousand thanks, to be o shadow on of ones former self. Sometimes it is difficult enough to establish whether this or that word in a phrase has a direct or a figurative meaning. Language is permanently on the run and what was new yesterday may be trite and today. The problem is all the more complicated as even big sized dictionaries do not clearly discriminate between direct and figurative meanings of words, to say nothing of words in phrases. There are phrases connected with trades -To bring grist to the mill, - To have too many irons in the fire,
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-Between hammer and anvil in, - Full blast a chip of the old block, -One nail drives another. Also there are phrases connected with medicine-To swallow the pill, -To take the temperature, -A dose of ones own medicine, -A fly in the ointment. Also there are phrases connected with rivers, etc -To shiver on the drink, -To go at the deep end, -To make a splash, -On thin ice, Phrases are also monosemantic and polysemantic. In full blast is a monsemantic phrase, but to be in abeyance is polysemantic for it has more meaning than one.

1.2. DEFINING THE COLLOCATION 1.2.1. DEFINING THE COLLOCATIONS


The word collocation appeared from the verb collocate which means place side by side ,e.g. beautiful girl ,handsome boy, (concise dictionary of English Etymology.) The oxford dictionary gives the following definition for the verb collocate-to be used regularly together in a language, to combine e.g. weak collocates with tea,-weak tea The following definitions of collocation will make understand better the term of Collocation:

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1 A combination of words in a language that happens very often and more frequently than would happen by change: e.g. of collocation: crying shame, resounding success. (from oxford dictionaries)
2

A term introduced in linguistic (though in much earlier use us a general word)

by J.K. Firth, to refer to the habitual co-occurrence of individual words .Thus tweedledum goes with tweedledee and spike with span. (The new followers, Modern English usage, R.W Burchfield.)
3

A relation within a syntactic unit between individual lexical elements ,e.g.

computers collocates with hate my computers hates me Used especially where words specifically collocate with other, e.g. blond collocates with hair the hair is blond, drunk collocate with lord as Drunk as a lord , Run with riot-Run riot (Concise Dictionary of linguistic, Ph, A. Matthews.)
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Collocations may be a set of expressions, they can not be divided, also its

elements can not be replaced by others elements without changing the meaning of the remaining elements.(Oxford dictionary of English collocations )
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The phenomenon whereby certain words co-occur with other words in natural

,in statistically significant ways .Collocations do not always occur as immediately adjacent ,e.g. He kept his money in his pocket.(Haria Hulban Syntheses in English lexicology and semantic)
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Collocations the actions of collocating regular combination of words ,e.g.

strong collocates with wind ,strong wind ,heavy rain.(Concise dictionary of English linguistic)
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Learning a new language students often learns lists of new words , but it is also

important to learn words that go together ,For e.g. when you learn a word like effort it is useful to know that the verb that goes with it is make and not do, make an effort . Words that go together are called collocations, e.g. By the way.(English language ,Life and culture, Anne Fraemal, Richard Haill.) Most of the researchers who defined the collocation agree that it is a lexical unit consisting of a cluster of two or more words formed from different parts of speech.
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Most of the definitions are perhaps based on Firths definition that collocations are words in habitual company .For the purpose of this study the collocations can be defined as- two words that combining with each other and its elements cannot be replaced because the meaning of other elements can change and also their elements cannot be divided . It must be learned as a single unit, also the collocation is the way of combine the words in a language in order to sound more natural. It is an indisputable fact that words are connected according to the collocation hey share .Words are used in certain lexical contexts, e.g. in combination with other words .The noun question is often combined with such adjectives- vital ,pressing ,urgent, disputable, delicate, etc. This noun is a component of a number of other word groups, e.g. question at issue, to raise a question, a question of great importance, a question on the agenda of the day, and many others. The aptness of a word to appear in various combinations is described as its lexical valency or collocability. The range of the lexical valency is linguistically delimited by the inner structure of the English word stock .This can be easily observed in the choice of synonyms found in different word groups .Though the verbs lift and rise ,e.g. are usually treated as synonyms ,it is only the latter that is collocated with the noun question .The verb take may be synonymically interpreted as- grasp, seize , catch, lay, hold of,etc.,but it is only take that is found in collocation with nouns examination ,measures, precautions, etc., only catch in catch somebody napping and grasp in grasp the truth. There is a certain norm of lexical valency of each word and any departure from this norm is left as a literary or rather stylistic device. Such word group as for example bitter and sweet, shove question and the like are illustrative of the point under discussion. It is because we recognize that bitter and sweet are not normally collocable that the junction of them can be effective. Words habitually collocated in speech tend to constitute a clich .It can be observed ,for example ,that the verb put forward and the noun question are habitually collocated and when we hear the verb put forward or see it written on paper it is natural
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that we should anticipate the word question. So we may conclude that put forward a question constitutes a habitual word-group, a kind of clich. This is also true of a number of other word-groups, e.g. to win (or gain) a victory, keen sight (or hearing), etc. Some linguists hold tat most of the English in ordinary use is thoroughly saturated with clichs. The lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is not identical. This is only natural since the inner structure of the language. Both the English word flower and its Russian counterparts floare, for example, may be combined with a number of other words all of which denote the place where the flowers are grown, e.g. garden flowers, hot-house flowers, etc. The English word, however, cannot enter into combination with the word room to denote flowers growing in the rooms (e.g. pot flowers-flori de camer) One more point of importance should be discussed in connection with the problem of lexical valency-the interrelation of lexical valency and polysemy as found in wordgroups. Firstly, the restriction of lexical valency of words may manifest themselves in the choice of the lexical meaning of the polysemantic members of word-groups. The adjective heavy, e.g., is combined with words food, meals, supper, etc. in the meaning rich and difficult to digest. But not all the words with more or less the same denominator of meaning can be combined with this adjective. One cannot say, for instance, heavy cheese or heavy sausage implying that cheese or sausage is difficult to digest. Secondly, it is observed that different meanings of a word may be described through the possible types of lexical context, through the lexical valency of the word, for example the different meanings of the adjective heavy may be described through the word-groups heavy, weight (book, table), heavy snow (storm, rain, etc.) heavy drinker (eater, etc.). Collocation is basic to language, its subtleties must be learned, and failure to get the collocation of English right is a major indicator of foreignness: e.g. toll king about
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rotten rather than rancid butter. The British linguist J.R.Firth encouraged the use of the term as one of a constructive pair: collocations for semantic association, collation for syntactic association. In current usage, however, collocation generally covers both types of association. Cohesiveness in semantics and syntax is a matter of degree. Idioms are usually fixed in form and used without recourse to the meaning of their elements: it can rain cats and dogs, but never dogs and cats or cats and cows .Even with idioms , however, there can be some free way: for example, at least the three verbs banging, hitting, and knocking can occupy the slot in the idiomatic sentence, its like ---- your head against a (brick) wall. Collocations are more loosely associated than idioms, contiguously (as with tortoise and shelin tortoiseshell or proximately (as with cats and purr in the cat was purring ).When the elements of compound word collocate they form new lexical items: house and boat , coming together in both houseboat and boat house , each with a distctinct meaning and use. An item that collocates with another is its collocations. Collocations have some important types, reading the type of collocations and, there are open collocations and restricted which can be identified three basic types of restrictions .In open collocation the words can combine with a wide range of other words e.g. keep the promise ,speak softly ,great pain ,heavy book. Restrictions of use can be opposed to the process of synonymy; there are three types of restrictions: 1) Systematic collocational restrictions that is restrictions which are typical for certain criterion, e.g. a non human subject in the case of the phrase an apple pie order, or a human subject in the case of the phrase bitter tongue. 2).semi systematic collocation restriction, that is restrictions are topical for certain words, e.g. wages are paid for manual or mechanic work, while fees are paid either for professional men or for school, colleges and public bodies.
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3) Idiosyncratic collocational restrictions which are imposed only by idiom, e.g. a hand some man but a pretty woman. These are the restrictions of collocations. Attempts have been made to approach the problem of collocations in different ways .Up till now; however, there is certain divergence of opinion as to the essential features of collocations as distinguished from other word groups and the nature of nature of phrases that can be properly termed phraseological units. The habitual terms phrases, idioms, compound words, and phraseological units , are even treated differently by different linguists. The complexity of the problem may be largely accounted for by the fact that the borderline between word groups and collocations is not clearly defined. This word groups are relatively free as collocability of member words is fundamentally delimited by their lexical and grammatical valency which makes at least some of them very close to set phrases. Collocations are but comparatively stable and semantically inseparable. Between the extremes of complete motivation and variability of member words and lack of motivation combined with complete stability of lexical components and grammatical structure there are innumerable borderline cases. However, the existing terms, e.g. phraseological units, idioms, phrases, compound words, phrases, reflect to a certain extent the main debatable issues of phraseology which centre in the divergent vies concerning the nature and essential features of collocations as distinguished from the so called free word groups. The term phrase implies that the basic criterion of differention is stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word groups. The term idiom generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units under consideration is idiomaticity which defies word by word translation. The term compound words implies a certain combination with certain words, they have an aptness to function in speech as a single word. The term phraseological unit implies that it can not be freely made up in speech.

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Thus difference in terminology reflects certain differences in the main criteria used to distinguish between these word groups and collocations. Collocations are habitually defined as non-motivated word groups that can not be freely made up in speech but are produced as ready made units. This definition proceeds from the assumption that the essential features of collocations are stability of the lexical components. It is consequently assumed that unlike components of free word groups which may vary according to the needs of communication, member words of collocation are always reproduced as single unchangeable combinations. For example, bear a grudge may be changed into bear malice, but not into bar a fancy or liking. We can say take a liking (fancy) but not take hatred (disgust). These habitual collocations tend to become kind of where the meaning of member word is to some extent dominated by the meaning of the whole group. Due to this, it can be said that collocations are felt as possessing a certain degree of semantic inseparability. The current definition of collocation is that it can not be freely made up in speech, but has to be reproduced as ready made units and also to be learned as wholes.

1.2.2. THE PROBLEM OF COLLOCATIONS


Collocation is an expression consisting of two or more words that correspond to some conventional way of saying things. Or in the words of Firth: Collocations of a given word are statements of the habitual or customary places of that word. Collocations include noun phrases like strong tea and weapons of mass destruction, phrasal verbs like to make up, and other stock phrases like the rich and powerful. Particularly interesting are the subtle and not-easily-explainable patterns of word usage that native speakers all know: why they say a stiff breeze but not a stiff wind (while either a strong breeze or a strong wind is okay), or why they speak of broad daylight (but not bright daylight or Narrow darkness).
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Collocations are characterized by limited compositionality. It can be called a natural language expression compositional if the meaning of the expression can be predicted from the meaning of the parts. Collocations are not fully compositional in that there is usually an element of meaning added to the combination. In the case of tea strong, strong has acquired the meaning rich in some active agent who is closely related, but slightly different from the basic sense having great physical strength. Idioms are the most extreme examples of non-compositionality. Idioms like to kick the bucket or to hear it through the grapevine only have an indirect historical relationship to the meanings of the parts of the expression. There are not talking about buckets or grapevines literally when it is used these idioms. Most collocations exhibit milder forms of non-compositionality, it is very nearly a systematic composition of its parts, but still has an element of added meaning. It usually refers to administrative efficiency and would, for example, not be used to describe a cooking technique although that meaning would be compatible with its literal meaning. There is much interest in collocations partly because this is an area that has been neglected in structural linguistic traditions that follow Saussure and Chomsky. There is, however, a tradition in British linguistics, associated with the names of Firth, Holliday, and Sinclair, which pays close attention to phenomena like collocations. Structural linguistics concentrates on general abstractions about the properties of phrases and sentences. In contrast, Firths Contextual Theory of Meaning emphasizes the importance of context: the context of the social setting (as opposed to the idealized speaker), the context of spoken and textual discourse (as opposed to the isolated sentence), and, important for collocations, the context of surrounding words. These contextual features easily get lost in the abstract treatment that is typical of structural linguistics. A good example of the type of problem that is seen as important in this contextual view of language is Hollidays example of strong vs. powerful tea it
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is a convention in English to talk about strong tea, not powerful tea, although any speaker of English would also understand the latter unconventional expression. Arguably, there are no interesting structural properties of English that can be gleaned from this contrast. However, the contrast may tell us something interesting about attitudes towards different types of substances in English culture (why do they use powerful for drugs like heroin, but not for cigarettes, tea and coffee?) and it is obviously important to teach this contrast to students who want to learn idiomatically correct English. Frequency-based search works well for fixed phrases. But many collocations consist of two words that stand in a more flexible relationship to one another. Consider the verb knock and one of its most frequent arguments, door. Here are some examples of knocking on or at a door: a. she knocked on his door b. they knocked at the door c. 100 women knocked on Donaldsons door d. a man knocked on the metal front door The words that appear between knocked and door vary and the distance between the two words is not constant so a fixed phrase approach would not work here. But there is enough regularity in the patterns to allow us to determine that knock is the right verb to use in English for this situation, not hit, beat or rap. A short note is in order here on collocations that occur as a fixed phrase versus those that are more variable. Verbs with little semantic content like make, take and do are called light verbs in collocations like make a decision or do a favour. There is hardly anything about the meaning of make, take or do that would explain why it have to say make a decision instead of take a decision and do a favour instead of make a favour, but for many linguists purposes the correct light verb for combination with a particular noun must be determined.
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Verb particle constructions or phrasal verbs are an especially important part of the lexicon of English. Many verbs in English like to tell off and to go down consist of a combination of a main verb and a particle. These verbs often correspond to a single lexeme in other languages (reprimanded, descended in France. for two approaches that use this type of information for finding phrases and collocations. Proper nouns (also called proper names) are usually included in the category of collocations although they are quite different from lexical collocations. They are most amenable to approaches that look for fixed phrases that reappear in exactly the same form throughout a text. Collocation is applied to; let us point to the many different degrees of invariability that a collocation can show. At one extreme of the spectrum we have usage notes in dictionaries that describe subtle differences in usage between near synonyms like answer and reply (diplomatic answer vs. stinging reply). This type of collocation is important for generating text that sounds natural, but getting a collocation wrong here is less likely to lead to a fatal error. The other extreme are completely frozen expressions like proper names and idioms. Here there is just one way of saying things and any deviation will completely change the meaning of what is said. An important area that we havent been able to cover is the discovery of proper nouns, which can be regarded as a kind of collocation. Proper nouns cannot be exhaustively covered in dictionaries since new people, places, and other entities come into existence and are named all the time. Yet another approach to discovering collocations is to search for points in the word stream with either low or high uncertainty as to what the next (or previous) word will be. Points with high uncertainty are likely to be phrase boundaries, which in turn are candidates for points where a collocation may start or end, whereas points with low uncertainty are likely to be located within a collocation.
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1.2.3. THE USE OF COLLOCATIONS


The meaning of the verb to collocate is to put aside. Collocations are thus combinations f words. In: He kept his money in his pocket. The meaning of the verb is to preserve for future use, have in ones possession, but in He kept in his neighbors The meaning is entirely different from the former, being to remain on good terms with in such collocation it is difficult or impossible to identify the meaning of the parts of collocation. He On can climbed on to the window seat to window seat he an climbed Climbed he can on to the window seat There are linguists who consider this type of collocation as being equally word like, and phrase like, considering phrasal verbs semi-compounds. Collocations may be set expressions and three combinations. Set expressions are successions of words that must be learned as if they were a single word. They can not be divided in to their constituent elements destroying their meaning. Between the parts of a set expression there is on intrinsic connectionits elements can not be replaced by other elements without changing the meaning of the remaining elements. The meaning of the collocation is usually expressed by a single word. From a grammatical point of view, collocations are complex parts of speech. The largest group of collocations is formed by complex verbs. Some linguists also call them phrasal verbs. They are made of a verb, usually of Germanic origin, and belonging to the basic word stock, such as to get, to
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The order of the elements is

also extremely important, being a fixed order. One can say:

give, to take, to bring, to carry, to hold, to keep, to sit, to drive, to fly , to turned. And an adverbial particle which functions as an adverb and modifies the verb with which it is associated .the most commonly used adverbial particles in such combinations are about ,above ,across ,after ,along, around, away ,back, backward , before, behind , between ,beyond, by ,down ,forth ,in, inside, off, on, out ,outside, over, round. as can be noticed, most of the originate prepositions. Examples of both set expressions and free combinations may be offered by the verb to get, In combination with various adverbial particles, it may form set expressions, as to get in to get up- meaning , to be elected, to get through- to pass an examination ,to arrange , to prepare, to be friendly- agree with . In these expressions the meaning is not easily understood from the meaning of the component words. These constructions have an evident idiomatic character. Other collocations, built on the same patter, have a meaning which can be easily derived from that of the components, having the character of free combinations. In such cases, the complex verb acquires are subsidiary meaning of the verb which stands as base, as in to get ahead- to advance, to get away- to escape, to get back to return, to get by- to pass. In such examples as-, to fall down climb up, to blow up etc, the meaning of the verb is intensified. It is important to notice that some verbs and particles have a high combinatory potential, being often used together, while others are un likely to occur together. Knowing in advance the combinatory possibilities offered by both elements contributes to the correct decoding of the text in which they are used. The constituent structure of collocations may be represented by diagrams called tree diagrams . The tree diagrams is made of branches and a node (where all branches meet) The set expression to climb up may be represented

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by the following tree diagram in which VP is the label for the verb phrase, V for the verb Part for particle. Diagramme V.P. PART V PART

To

climb

up

Though most phrasal verbs may be replaced by one word synonyms , e.g. to get out-meaning to leave , to give up to surrender, to ring up to telephone. Not all of them have an adequate substitute. They are not always interchangeable with a synonym: e.g. to put out to begin a voyage, to put up provide lodgings. This is to a great extent a matter of idiomatic usage. If compound words can not be separated, complex verbs often can. Of course, only a pan of them is separable. Phrasal verbs may be both transitive and intransitive. E.g. take in the wash Take the wash in In such cases, the pattern is verb + particle + noun or verb + noun + particle. One may say that in the former pattern the emphasis falls on the noun, while in the latter the emphases is put on the action. When personal pronouns are introduced in the pattern, they are usually placed between the verb and the adverbial particle, according to the pattern verb + pronoun + adverbial particle. E.g. put it on To blow up Collocations may be met in other parts of speech too.
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Examples of complex adverbs are all alone not in the company of others, all along for the whole length of. Examples of complex conjunctions are as if, as for, as to, so as to. Such collocation constitutes lexical and grammatical clichs provided by language. Though their use is not a proof of originality in speech, they are extremely important in communication. They have an important part in language structure. Their idiomatic character makes sometimes life difficult for translators, who must find other language equivalents which have sometimes nothing to do with the words of the translated, or have very little in common with it. In e.g. Jane has been often asked out during this summer holiday. The Romanian translation is not a fost adesea invitata sa iasa afara , but a fost adesea invitata in oras . One can also talk about collocation range, which implies certain restrictions concerning the verbs which are used and the particles respectively. Thus we can expect verbs of movement to be used approximately with the same set of particles, though sometimes the equivalence is not perfect. for example to go ,to come ,to walk ,to run ,to get , are usually followed by the adverbial particles, ahead ,along, away, back , in ,off, out, up, round, but we would not expect some other verbs to be accompanied by the some adverbial particles , e.g. to beat to die ,to laugh ,etc.

1.2.4. TYPES OF COLLOCATION


A collocation is an expression consisting of two or more words that correspond to some conventional way of saying things. Collocations can be defined in numerous ways but the most common are those of two or more clusters which occur with a more than chance regularity through spoken and written English. Bellow there are shown the most easily distinguishable types of collocations which contains the following elements (parts of speech).
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Verb +noun: Throw a party, accept responsibility, drew the curtains, rushed the door, break Code, lift a blockade. Verb + noun : Cold winter, somber clouds, strong tea, best wishes, square meal, grim determination, huge profit. Noun+verb: Water freezing, clock ticks, blood running down, arms waving, legs Kicking, rain beating, light moving. Verb+adverb: Affect deeply, appreciate sincerely, resisting wildly, looking kindly, live Dangerously, hold tightly, scream loudly, speak softly, and speak heavily Adverb + adjective: Completely hidden, nervously entered, deeply absorbed, closely related, Completely related, completely soaked, totally unacceptable behavior. These are the most used and practical types of collocations, also there are others types of collocations but for this analyze will be studied only these types of collocations. Acquisition and correct production of such word combination is mark of an advanced of proficiency in a language, as Lewis (1997 pg 15) puts it that its fluency is based on the acquisition of a large state or fixed or semi fixed prefabricated items, Sonya (1988) goes ever further to say that lexical errors are more serious because affective communication depends on the choice of words,
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also James (1998pg 152) agrees that the correct usage of collocation contributes greatly to ones ieomatcity and native likeness . .

1.2.5. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLOCATIONS


Collocations run through the whole of the English language. No piece of natural spoken or written English is totally free of collocations. For the student choosing the right collocation will make his speech and writing sound much more natural, more native speaker like, even when basic intelligibility does not seem to be at issue. A student who talks about strong rain may make himself understood, but possibly not without provoking smile or correction, which may or not matter. He will certainly be marked down for it an exam. But perhaps even more importantly than this, language that is collocation is also more precise. This is because most single words in the English language especially the more common words embrace a whole range of meanings, some quite distinct, and some that shade into each other by degrees. The precise meaning in any context is determined by that context: by the word that surround and combine with the best collocation. A student who choose the best collocation will express himself much more clearly and to be able to convey not just general meaning, but something quite precise. Compare, for example, the following two sentences: This is a good book and contains a lot of interesting details, This is a fascinated book, and contains a wealth of historical detail. Both sentences are perfectly correct in terms of grammar and the vocabulary, but which communicates more (both spoke about the book under discussion and the person discussing it) Students with good ideas often lose marks because they dont know the four or five most important collocations of a key word that is central to what they are writing about. As a result, they create longer, wordier ways of defining or

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discussing the issue, increasing the chance of further errors, examples: His disability will continue until he dies, rather than He has a permanent disability. There is no magic formula for correcting these mistakes. Collocations have to be acquired both through direct study and large amount of quality impute. The very concept of collocations is often not easy for learners. The essentially simple idea that word choice is seriously limited by what comes before and after it perhaps the single most elusive aspect of the lexical system and the hardest, therefore, for learners to acquire. Learning collocations apart from increasing the mental , leads to an increase in written and spoken fluency ( the brain has more time to focus on its message, if many of the nuts and bolts are already in place ). In the form of collocations of varying length as Lewis says: Fluency is based on the acquisition of a large store of fixed or semi fixed prefabricated items, which are available as the foundation for any linguistic novelty or creativity. Moreover, stress and intonation also improve if language is met, learnt and acquired in chunks, quality input should lead to quality output.

References:
1 2 3

Bauer Laurie, English word formation ,Cambridge 1984 ,pg 115-120. Levitchi Leon, Limba engleza contemporan, Lexicology, 1970, pg 25-37 Olga Achmanava, Linguistic terminology , Moscow university press ,1977,pg 161Galina Salapina, Limba engleza contemporana, Lexicologie, editia II-a, Timisoara,

165.
4

pg 14-21. 5.Olga Achmanova, The chair of English ,Lexicology, Theory and Method, edited by Moscow state university,1972, pg 76-85. 6.English for advanced students ,with a special chapter in English lexicology, Institutul Europei ,Iasi,1993, pg 190-195. 7.R.S.Girbuz,A course in modern English lexicology, Higher School Published House, Moscow 1996,pg 86-105.
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8.Seminars in Modern English Lexicology, Part II, Chisinau ,Moldova State University,2000, pg 161-163 . 9. N .Raevska, English lexicology, second edition revised, edited by , 1961, pg 25-37. 10. N.M.Raenska, English lexicology, Kiev, 1971, pg 86-90. 11.Peter Roach, Third Edition, English Phonetics and Phonology, A practical course, Cambridge, University Press,1999, pg 63-65. 12. James. R. Natting, S. Dacerio, Oxford Applied Linguistic, Lexical Phrases and Language Technique, Oxford University Press,1992, pg 23-53. 13.A.P Cowie, Oxford Linguistic Phraseology, Theory and Analyses, 1998, pg 21-23, 145-153. 14.Oxford Collocations Dictionary For Students, Oxford University Press. 15.Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. 16.Johnatan Orauther,Catherym Cavanaugh, Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press,1999, pg 58-73.

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CHAPTER II - STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF COLLOCATIONS 2.1.1. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF COLLOCATION BASED ON THEIR TYPES.
There are more criteria of classifying the collocations but for this research paper the classification will be done according to collocations structure. For the purpose of the investigation, this chapter is focused on five types of collocation: Verb +noun e.g. accept responsibility, to follow the instructions,

Adjective +noun e.g. sad place, strong chest, narrow corridors, Noun +verb e.g. to took the opportunity, fall asleep, blood running down,. Verb +adverb e.g. looking kindly, scream loudly, speak softly, and hold tightly. Adverb+ adjective e.g. deeply absorbed, nervously entered, completely hidden. The examples of collocations analyzed in this research paper were taken from Charlotte Bronte novels-Jane Eire. There are 230 examples of collocations taken from this book. On the background these examples will be made the statistics and percentage on basis of the: number of elements, structural analysis of parts of speech. Also in this chapter will be translated 60 collocations from English into Romanian language, and will be analyzed the problem of translating the collocation and the techniques used in translating this collocations. According to the 230 examples of collocations analyzed here, it can be said that adjective +noun types has 121 examples from all 230 e.g. good child, large building, charity school, angry word, long story, dirty habits, soft smile,
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wide schoolrooms, empty stomachs, large school, long way, simple clothes, good health, plain food. The second type which has the smallest number of collocations is verb +adverb which has 49 examples e.g. behave better thought bitterly, look around, resisting wildly, shouted wildly, moved slowly, speak hardly, go silently, swear furiously, look carefully, whispered kindly, answered quickly, listened carefully. Verb+noun types is the following type of collocation analyzed according to the number of its elements -35 examples of collocations, e.g. keep the promise, broke of a conversation, put out the flames, calmly mending the curtains, obey the orders, to post a letter, improve the character, smacking the face, lie down, make no mistakes, left without a word, trembling of fear, starve to death, follow the instructions. The noun+verb type has 21 examples of collocations e.g. light moving, rin pouring down, blood running down, body trembled, heart beating fast, bell rang, sun shone, fog lying, people kept coming, coach rolled off, anger boiled up, rain beating, the sun go down. The last type adverb +adjective has the smallest number of collocations 4 e.g. completely hidden, deeply absorbed closely related, totally unacceptable, nervously entered. Table 1 N= 1 2 3 4 5 TYPE OF PATTERN Adjective + noun Verb + adverb Verb + noun Noun + verb Adverb + adjective NUMBER 121 49 35 21 4 PERCENTAGE 52.6% 21.3% 15.2% 9.3% 1.7%

As can be observed the first type adjective +noun has the big number of collocations -52.6% from all the collocations studied in this research. The second type verb +adverb has 21.3% this means that it do not constitute even a half of the first type. Verb +noun type has 15.2% from all the collocations. The noun +verb type has 9.3 %collocations, and the less number has adverb
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+adjective type 1.7%, this can be understood that adverb +adjective collocations are not so used like other types. Analyzing all the types of collocations it can be concluded that adjective +noun type constitute the largest number of collocations and the adverb +adjective type constitute the smallest number of collocations used in a language and in communication.

2.1.2.

STRUCTURAL

CLASSIFICATION

BASED

ON

NUMBER OF ELEMENTS
Another principle on the basis of which collocations are analyzed is the classification according to number of elements (parts of speech) which form the collocations. The collocations can be formed from two, three or even more elements, at the end of this analyze it could be observed the frequent number of collocations. For this cause the classification is made according to the first classification- adjective +noun sad place ,verb + adverb looking kindly, verb + noun rushed the door ,noun +verb light moving, adverb + adjective nervously entered. The number of elements con be classified in: Collocations formed from two elements, e.g. long walks, great pain, naughty girl, angry Voice, dirty habits, stern look. Collocations formed from three elements, e.g. cold winter wind, wicked cruel boy, hard Ice Cold fingers, Collocations formed from four or more elements, e.g. beautiful long curly hair. The numbers of collocations under analyses are 230 but they are shared according to their type analyzed before.

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The collocations formed from two elements are the most frequent having 131 examples, those with three have 67 examples and those with four elements have 32 examples, the smallest number. N= 1 2 3 TYPE OF PATTERN TWO ELEMENTS THREE ELEMENTS FOUR ELEMENTS NUBER 230 131 67 32 PERCENTAGE 100% 56.9% 29.1%. 13.4%

Analyzing the whole label it can be observed that the big number of percentage has collocations with two elements - 56.9%, and the smallest number has those with for elements - 13.4%. For a better view of this analyze the structure will be according to all types of collocations. The first type analyzed is adjective + noun, the total number of its elements is 121 from 230. The collocations created from two elements constitute 81 examples of collocations e.g. chilly afternoons, delicate health, young master, death bed, terrible experience, beautiful house, hard work, angry voice, strange idea, wicked heart, narrow corridors, dirty habits, wide shoulders, exciting life, evil influence, kind word, heavy sleeper, right path, wrong way, ordinary child. The collocations produced from three elements have 23 examples of collocations e.g. cold winter wind, sad lonely existence, freezing cold rooms, pretty cheerful child, narrow front door, strange inhuman sound, pure young thing, small piece of biscuit, strange ghostly laugh, hard physical conditions . The collocations formed from four or more elements have 4 examples e.g. dark hair and eyes, ice cold fingers and toes, beautiful long curly hair, fair master to his servants. Table 1

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N= TYPE OF PATTERN 1 2 3 ADJECTIVE + NOUN Two elements Three elements Four elements

NUMBER PERCENTAGE 121 81 23 4 100% 66.9% 19.% 3.3%

As can be observed the large numbers of collocations are those with two elements consisting 66.9% from the total percentage, the type of three elements has 29%, and the last type with four elements constitute the smallest percentage 3.3%. Analyzing the obtained results it can be said that, adjective +noun collocations formed from two elements constitute the largest number of this type and the smallest number are those with four elements. The second type analyzed is verb +adverb The collocations formed from two elements have 31 examples, e.g. behave better thought bitterly, looking kindly, listened carefully, swear furiously, looked carefully, shouted desperately, examine carefully, go silently, cry bitterly, speak heavily. The collocations formed from three elements have 9 examples, e.g. all complained bitterly, speak hardly English, hold tightly on hands. And the collocations formed from four elements have 10 examples e.g. held tightly to her, all went quietly upstairs, felt brave enough to speak. The table 2 N= 1 2 3 TYPE OF PATTERN VERB +ADVERB Two elements Three elements Four elements NUMBER 49. 31 9 10 PERCENTAGE 100% 63% 18.35% 20.4%

The first type has the largest number of collocations, this means that collocations formed from two elements constitutes 63.3% from all number of
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collocations, the type of three elements have 18.35, and the last one has 20.4%. As can be observed the type with four elements has one more element than those with three and also a big number than collocations from adjective +noun type of four elements. Analyzing the obtained results it can be said that collocations formed from two elements have the largest number of examples, this means that it is more used group than others. The third type analyzed is verb +noun. It is has 35 examples of collocations, the collocations with two elements has 3 examples e.g. feel wicked, flowing streams, the collocations with three elements have 16examples e.g. drew the curtains, cutting the head, make no mistakes, rushed the door, keep the promise, improve the character, post a letter, obey the orders follow the instructions, the collocation formed from four elements have 13 examples e.g. lack the door carefully, fetch the supper trays, calmly mending the curtains, bringing down its rider, tidy the drawer immediately, broke off a conversation, enjoy the beautiful summer weather . The table 3 The total number analyzed is 35 The percentage is a function from the total number 35 N= 1 2 3 TYPE OF PATERN VERB + NOUN Two elements Three elements Four elements NUMBER 35 3 16 13 PERCENTAGE 100% 8.57% 45.7% 37.1%

As can be observed the second type has the largest number of collocations 45.7%from all the number, the third type has 37.1 % of collocations and the first type has the smallest number of collocations 8.57%. Analyzing this table it can be said that here the big number of collocations has the type with four elements although before in others tables it has the smallest number of collocation. It can

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be said that in verb +noun type the most frequent collocations are those with three elements and the smallest number used are those with two elements. The forth type analyzed is- noun + verb It has 21 examples of collocations, the collocation with two elements has 5 examples e.g. arms waving, legs kicking, light moving, bell rang, spring approached, the collocation with three elements have 7 examples e.g. rain pouring down, blood running down, pain gave strength, eyes wide open, heart beating fast, and the collocations formed from four elements have 9 examples, e.g. rain beating on the window, hair must be arranged, shame and anger boiled up, sun shone on the flowers. The table 4 N= 1 2 3 TYPE OF PATTERN Two elements Three elements Four elements NUMBER PERCENTAGE 21 5 7 9 100% 14.2% 33.3% 42.8%

As can be observed the big number of collocations have the third type of collocations - 42.8%, the second type have 33.3%, and the first type have 23%. Analyzing this table it can be said that more useful collocations from this type are those with four elements and less used are those with two elements. The fifth type under analyses is adverb +adjective It has the smallest number of collocations -4 examples, the collocations with two elements has 3 examples, e.g. completely hidden, nervously entered, slightly open, and those with three elements has only one example, e.g. hardly spoke English. The table 5
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N= 1 2

TYPE OF PATTERN ADVERB + ADJECTIVE Two elements Three elements

NUMBER 4 3 4

PERCENTAGE 100% 75% 25%

It can be observed that the first type has 75% this means that it is more used than the second who has only one example. Analyzing the whole types it can be said that the most used collocations are those with two and three elements but also depends on the type of collocation for example the adjective +noun type has more examples with two elements but verb +noun type has more examples with three elements, this means that the structure of collocation depends on its type.

2.1.3. STRCUTURAL CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PARTS OF SPEECH


For a better view of collocations and its structure were studied the structural combination based on parts of speech for example the collocation formed from adjective +noun in death bed the first part of speech can be also noun but was conversed in adjective, that is why must be analyzed its structural combination. Also it can be observed not only the outside structure but also its inside structure. This analyze will be made also according to five types of collocations. The first type studied will be adjective + noun -121 examples, e.g. strange idea, somber clouds, poor child, naughty tricks. The result of analyze is following: adjective + noun + noun -7 examples, e.g. cold winter wind, kind ladies and gentleman, dark hair and eyes, adjective + noun+ noun -15 examples, e.g. strange inhuman sound, noisy rushing water, secret hiding place, large pale
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forehead, little old lady, noun +adjective + noun -3 ex., several small doors, noun + noun -10 ex., e.g. death bed, boarding school, worm fire, candle light, number + adjective +noun -3 ex., first full day, past participle + noun -5 ex., e.g. wicked boy, wicked heart, adjective + noun -78 ex., terrible fear, heavy book, young master. Table 1. N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPE OF PATTERN Adjective +noun Noun + noun Adjective + adjective + noun Noun +adjective + noun Adjective + noun + noun Past part. + noun Number + adjective + noun NUMBER 121 78 10 15 3 7 5 2 PERCENTGE 100% 64.4% 8.26% 12.3% 2.4% 5.7% 4.13% 2.4%

Analyzing the whole chart it can be observed that adjective can change in other parts of speech, and vice versa, other parts of speech can change in adjectives, for example in collocation-window seat the first part of speech is noun but was conversed into adjective. Also it can be observed that most examples remain unchangeable. The second type studied is: verb + adverb - 49 e.g. The verb + adverb type has the following structure: verb + adverb -36 ex., looked straight, speak heavily, scream loudly, and cry bitterly, verb + adverb + prep. + noun -3 ex., hold tightly on hands, verb + adverb + adverb -3 ex., lay fast asleep, verb + adverb + noun -2 ex., speak hardly English, pronoun + verb + adverb -2 ex., I feel asleep, verb + prep + verb + adverb -2 ex., laugh and speak freely, Table 2 N= TYPE OF PATTERN
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NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

1 2 3 4 5

Verb + adverb Verb + adverb + prep + noun. Verb + adverb + adverb. Verb + adverb +noun Verb + prep + verb + adverb

49 36 3 3 3 2

100% 73.4% 6.1% 6.1% 6.1% 4.0%

Looking carefully at this table it can be observed that there are not big changes like the first table The third type analyzed is: verb + noun -35 ex. The verb + noun type has the following structure verb + article +noun -15 ex., drew the curtains cutting the head, and rushed the door, verb + prep. + noun 5 ex., bringing down its rider, catch my look, verb + pronoun + adjective -3 ex., knocked it down, verb + artic. + adj.+ noun + noun -2 ex., floating along a quiet river, verb +adverb + prep + pronoun -2 ex., lie down with me, verb + prep. + art. + noun -4 ex., left without a word, verb + art. + Noun + prep + art + noun -1 ex., to play a tune on the piano. Table 3 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPE OF PATTERN Verb + article + noun Verb + prep + noun Verb + prep + art + noun Verb + pronoun + adjective Verb + art + adj. + noun + noun Verb + adverb + prep + pronoun Verb +art. + noun + NUMBER 35 15 5 4 3 2 2 1 PERCENTAGE 100% 42.8% 14.25 11.4% 8.57% 5.75 5.7% 2.855

Studying this label it can be observed that collocations of this type are formed from more parts of speech.

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The forth type analyzed is: noun + verb -21 ex. This type has the following structure: noun + verb + adverb -9 ex., blood pouring down, sun go down, noun + verb -3 ex., bell rang, legs kicking, noun + past simple -3 ex., coach rolled off, adj + noun +verb -2 ex., sweet madness seized, noun + verb+ prep + art + noun -2 ex., sun shone on the flowers, art + noun +verb + adverb -2 ex., the sun go down, noun + verb + prep + verb +pron -1 ex., people kept coming to visit him.

Table 4. N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPE OF PATTERN NOUN + VERB Noun + verb + advreb Noun + verb Noun + past simple Adj. + noun + verb Noun + verb + prep + art. + noun Art. + noun + verb + adverb Noun + verb + prep. + verb + pron. Analyzing this label it can be observed that noun + verb type is formed from more parts of speech. The last type analyzed is adverb + adjective, this type has no changes at all, its structure remains the same: adverb + adjective, e.g. completely hidden, closely related. NUMBER 21 9 3 3 2 2 2 1 PRCENTAGE 100% 42.8% 14.25 14.2% 9.52% 9.52% 9.52% 4.76%

2.1.4. THE ANALYZE OF TRANSLATING TECHNIQUES

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In favour of a better understanding of collocations we decided to include in this research paper their translating form from English into Romanian according to those 230 examples, which we worked in previous chapter. Translating the collocations from English into Romanian language, it was impossible to translate them without any changes, that why we were obligated to use translation techniques. The translation techniques used here are: Transposition change of grammatical level, the category of parts of speech, e.g. in death bed, the first part of speech is noun but in this example it is conversed in adjective. Enlargement it is linked to quantity of words, e.g. speak softly- spuse pe un ton rugator, in translating this collocation were enlarged the parts of speech. Reduction it is linked also to quantity of words, e.g. boarding school orfelinat ,translating this collocation were reduced one word. Modulation finding the equivalent which respect the norms of the target language, a change of form, but not of the concept, e.g. poor vicar pastor sarac, translating this collocation were hanged the form but not the concept. Contextual synonym translating through synonyms, e.g. keep her promise a se tine de cuvint. Word by word translation translating word by word, e.g. long walksplimbari lungi, this example was translated word by word. Literal translation terrible fear spaima grozava. Translating all the collocations according to translations techniques it can be observed that the most collocations are translated according to literal translation 77 examples, enlargement 38examples,contextual synonym -36 examples, modulation -22 examples, reduction -13 examples, word for word -12 examples, the smallest number has transposition -10 examples. Table 1
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N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TYPE OF TECHNIQUES Literal translation Enlargement Contextual synonym Modulation Reduction Word for word Transposition

NUMBER 230 77 38 36 22 13 12 10

PERCENTAGE 100% 33.4% 16.5% 15.6% 9.5% 5.6% 5.2% 4.3%

Analyzing the whole label it can be noticed that literal translation has -33.4%, enlargement 16.5%, contextual synonym -15.6%, modulation 9.5%, reduction 5.65, word for word -5.2% and transposition 4.3 For a better view of translation process of collocation, they were translated according to their number of elements. For this purpose the investigation will be based on five types of collocations, adjective + noun, adverb + verb, verb +noun, noun +verb and adverb + adjective and their number elements: two elements, three elements and four elements The first type analyzed is adjective + noun type. The large numbers of collocations here were translated according to literal translation, for a good observation the example is analyzed together with its sentence, for example: e.g. What a strange feeling to be leaving Ggatehead, my home for the whole of my childhood. The collocation under analyses is strange feeling- simtamint straniu it has two parts of speech -adjective + noun.In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective. Here the noun is placed before the adjective and the adjective after the noun.

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e.g. Sometimes he hit me, sometimes, he just threatened me, and I lived in terrible fear of him. In this sentence the collocation under analysis is terrible fear spaima grozava . This collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it is formed also from noun + adjective, here is used the conversion, the noun was changed with the adjective and vice versa, the adjective was changed with the verb. e.g. I really sow him as a wicked murderer. The collocation under analysis is wicked murderer tiran ucigas. This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from two parts of speech noun + adjective, here is used the changed of the word order. the noun was changed with the adjective and the adjective with the noun. e.g. Hes your young master The collocation under analysis is young master. tinarul domnisor. This collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective. Here was used a conversion, the adjective in initial form was conversed in noun and vice versa. e.g. Strange ideas come to me. In this sentence the collocation analyzed is strange idea gind ciudat. This collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from two parts noun+ adjective

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In this translation was changed the word order, the noun in place of adjective and vice versa, the adjective in place of noun. e.g. Lost in the world of imagination, I forgot my sad lonely existence, for a while, and was happy. The collocation under analysis issad lonely existence trairea trista si singuratica . This example of collocation is formed from three parts of speech- adjective + adjective + noun .In Romanian it has the same structure but the parts of speech are changed noun + adjective + adjective. e.g. What a strange feeling to be leaving gateshead , my home for the whole of my childhood. The collocation under analyses is strange feeling- simtamint straniu. It has two parts of speech -adjective + noun. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective. Here the noun is placed before the adjective and the adjective after the noun. e.g. Well I hope you will be a good child at school, she said toughing my cheeks gently with her fingers. The collocations are: Good child Toughing my cheeks gently The first example good child- fetita cuminte . It has two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective; here are the same changes as in the example before. The second example is toughing my cheeks gently m-a netezit blind pe obraji. It has four parts of speech- verb + pronoun + noun + adverb.
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In Romanian it has five parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb +preposition +noun. Transposition technique, examples: e.g. I was good to be back to my familiar bedroom, with a warm fire and a candle light. In this sentence there are three collocations Familiar bedroom Warm fire Candle light The first example of collocations is familiar bed room - odaia copiilor . It is formed from two parts of speech- noun + noun, but the first noun suffered a conversion changing into an adjective. And now it is adjective + noun In Romanian it is also formed from two parts of speech- noun + noun, but here the noun remains unchanged. The second collocation from this sentence is warm fire- foc din simeneu It is formed from two parts of speech- noun + noun, where the noun suffered a conversion like the example before. In Romanian it has three parts of speech- noun + preposition + noun. The third example of collocations is candle light-luminare aprinsa. It is formed from two parts of speech noun + noun where the one noun suffered a conversion like the examples before. In Romanian it has also two parts of speech- noun + adjective. Here is used transposition technique, because the noun was changed in adjectives, in order to give the appropriate meaning of the context into Romanian. e.g. I wanted to join the family circle, but Mrs. Reed, my out, refused.
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The collocation under analysis is- family circle-.cerc familial. This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective +noun-but here was used a conversion the noun family was changed in adjective and formed this example of collocation adjective +noun. In Romanian it has two parts of speech and they also were changed by conversion, the noun familie was changed in adjective familial. e.g. On his death bed he had made his wife , aunt reed promise to look after me like her own children. In this sentence the collocation analyzed is death bed cu limba de moarte. This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech noun + noun, but the noun was changed in an adjective and now the collocation is formed from adjective + noun. In Romanian it has four parts of speech preposition + noun + preposition + noun. Contextual synonym technique e.g. They pulled us a part and I heard the say, what a wicked girl. The collocation under analysis is -wicked girl- fiinta disperata. This example of collocation is formed two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also is formed from two parts of speech- noun + adjective and has the same structure like the example before. e.g. Wicked cruel You boy I cried In this sentence the collocation analyzed is wicked cruel boy-uriciosule baiat indracit-.
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This collocation is formed from three parts of speech adjective + adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from three parts of speech- adjective + noun + adjective. e.g. They pulled us a part and I heard the say, what a wicked girl. The collocation under analysis is -wicked girl- fiinta disperata. This example of collocation is formed two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also is formed from two parts of speech- noun + adjective and has the same structure like the example before. e.g. It was also a great relief to recognize Dr Lloyd, who Mrs. Reed called in for her servants (she always called a specialist for her self and the children). In this sentence the collocation analyzed is great reliefneinchipuita . This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from two parts of speech noun + adjective, but here the noun stands before the noun, e.g. What is all this? Demanded an angry voice. The collocation under analysis is angry voice-voce autoritara. This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech noun + adjective. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective. The difference from these examples is that in English the noun stands before the adjective, but in Romanian the adjectives stands before noun.
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usurare

e.g. Mr. Brocklepurst, interrupted Mrs. Reed, I mentioned to you in my letter that this little girl has in fact a very bad character. In this sentence the collocation under analyses is- a very bad charactertrasaturi de character rele. This collocation is formed from four parts of speech- article + adverb + adjective + noun. In Romanian it has noun + preposition+noun +adjective. As can be observed the number of parts of speech is the same but their grammatical structure is not the same Reduction technique e.g. The red room was a cold, silent room, hardly ever used, although it was one of the largest bedroom in the house. The collocation under analysis is cold silent room- camera nelocuita. This example of collocation is formed from three parts of speech- adjective + adjective + noun. In Romanian it has two parts of speech noun + adjective. Translating this collocation was reduced one part of speech one adjective. e.g. He should have been at boarding school, but his mother, who loved him very much had ought hibrom home for a month or two, because she though his health was delicate. In these sentences the collocation is: Boarding school -orfelinat The first example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun, but in Romanian language it is formed from one part of speech noun, here was used again the reduction technique and this collocation was translated orfelinat, because in Romanian one word is used to name this object.
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Modulation technique The collocation under analyses is poor vicar pastor sarac .It is formed from two parts of speech adjective +noun. In Romanian it also has the some structure, but the noun is placed before the adjective .and the adjective after the noun noun +adjective. In translation of this collocation it can be observed that between vicar and astor it has no any link ,vicar means priest, while pastor means shepherd .this means that in translation was used the modulation technique the word vicar was translated in pastor . Was used this translation technique in order to respect the norms of the target language. e.g. He lifted the heavy book and threw it hard at me. The collocation analyzed is heavy book carte groasa. It is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun .In Romanian it is formed also from same parts of speech noun + adjective, but translating it into Romanian was used the modulation technique because in Romania it is not saing carte grea thats why was used the modulation technique in order to sound more natural in Romanian language E.g. Each child could have a drink of water out of the shared cup and could take a small piece of biscuit. The collocations from this sentence are: Shared cup Small piece of biscuit The first example of collocation is shared cup cana ce servea tuturor .It is formed from tow parts of speech-verb +noun ,but here is an conversion the verb shere was changed in adjective shared and now it is adjective +noun. In Romanian it has four parts of speech=noun +preposition +verb +adverb.
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In this collocation was used the explanation technique because the shared cup was explained as cana ce servea tuturor . The second example is small piece of biscuit-o bucata de prajitura . It is formed from four parts of speech adjective +noun +pre position +noun. In Romanian it has also four parts of speech article +noun + preposition +noun. e.g. But the only y food served to us was porridge, which

was burnt ,it was so disgusting that we could not eat it so we left the dining room with empty stomachs . The collocation under analyses is empty stomachs flaminde de moarte . It is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it has three parts of speech adjective + preposition +noun. Although it was translated with this technique the equivalent respect the norms of the Romanian language, it was changed the form but the concept re main the same. Word for word technique e.g. I never liked long walks, especially in winter. The collocation under analysis is Long walks plimbari lungiThis example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech adjective +noun, in Romanian it has this structure: vice versa. e.g. We believe in hard work, plain food, simple clothes and no luxury of any kind. The collocations in these sentences are: Hard work
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noun +adjective here was used

conversion. The parts of speech were changed, adjective in place of noun and

Plain food Simple clothes The first collocation from this sentences hard work munca grea It is formed from two parts of speech - adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from tow parts of speech noun + adjective, but here the noun is placed before the adjective, and the adjective in place of noun, because in Romanian language the adjective stands after the noun. Thats why there is need the change of place of the parts of speech. The second example of collocation plain food- translated cumpatata. It is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from two parts of speech noun+ adjective. Here is the same change as in the example before. The third example is simple clothes- imbracaminte modesta. It is formed from two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective. Here is the same change as in the examples before.. e.g. I was put in the bottom class. The collocation under analyses is-the bottom class-capatul sirului . It is formed from three parts of speech article +noun +noun, here was used a conversion the noun bottom was changed in adjective and now is adjective + noun. In Romanian it has two parts of speech noun +noun ,where the noun capatul was changed in adjective .as can be observed here this example was the same structure Enlargement technique e.g. He was a tall, thin man dressed all in black, with a cold stony face at the top of the column. The collocations from these sentences are
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Tall, thin man Cold stony face. The first example of collocation from this sentence tall, thin man cu o infatisare de adevarata prajina uscativa It is formed from threee parts of speech- adjective + adjective + noun. In Romanian it has a large number of parts of speech, seven preposition + article + noun + preposition + adjective + noun + adjective. In translation this collocation in Romanian it was used more words, in order to give an original meaning to the Romanian context. Although it has more parts of speech the meaning remain the same.. The second example of collocation from this sentence with a cold stony face chipul lui aducea a masca taiata din piatra This collocation is formed from five parts of speech preposition + article + adjective + adjective + noun. In Romanian it has more parts of speech noun + pronoun + verb + noun + verb + preposition + noun. As can be observed in Romanian translation there are more words because was used the enlargement technique, in order to give an appropriate translation of Romanian language .Although there was used more words in translation the meaning was kept e.g. Well I hope you will be a good child at school, she said toughing my cheeks gently with her fingers. The collocations are: Good child Toughing my cheeks gently The first example good child- fetita cuminte . It has two parts of speech adjective + noun. In Romanian it also has two parts of speech noun + adjective; here are the same changes as in the example before.
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The second example is toughing my cheeks gently m-a netezit blind pe obraji. It has four parts of speech- verb + pronoun + noun + adverb. In Romanian it has five parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb +preposition +noun. Analyzing all the collocation of this type it can be observed that: literal translation technique has the large number of collocations -30 examples, contextual synonym -24 examples, enlargement 20examples, reduction -10examples, transposition -10examples, modulation -9examples and word for word -18 examples. Table 2 N= TYPE OF PATTER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation NUMBER 121 30 24 20 18 10 10 9 PERCENTAGE 100 24.7% 19.8% 16.5% 14.8% 8.2% 8.2% 7.4%

As can be observed the literal translation has 24.7%, contextual synonym has 19.8%, enlargement has 16.5%,Word for word 14.8%,Reduction 8.2%,Transposition 8.2% Modulation 7.4%. For being able to have a complete view of translation analyze it is better to have also a label with translation technique according to the number of elements. Table 3 N= TYPE TECHNIQUE OF TWO ELEMENTS
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THREE ELEMENTS

FOUR ELEMENTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ADJECTIVE + NOUN Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation

15 -18.5% 13 -16.4% 14 -17.2% 18 -22.5% 6 -7.4% 10 -12.3% 6 -7.4%

4 -17.3% 7 -33.3% 5 -21.7% 4 -17.3% 2 -8.6%

2 -50% 1 -25% 1 -25%

The most frequent translation techniques in collocations with two elements is literal translation having 18.5%, and for three elements is contextual synonym -33.3%, the less used technique is modulation and reduction for both. Word for word and transposition technique are missing from collocations with three elements, the collocations with four elements were translated only through literal, context syn., and enlargement. The next type analyzed is adverb +verb, also like adjective + noun type, the large number of collocations were translated through literal translation, for example: Literal translation e.g. Bessie kissed me for the last time as I held tightly to her. The collocation under analyses is I held tightly to her- am cuprins-o strins. It is formed from five parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb + preposition + pronoun. In Romanian it has three parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb As can be observed the two parts of speech was reduced. Although was reduced two elements the meaning remain unchanged. e.g. She screamed so loudly maam said Bessie softly . The collocation under analysis is screamed so loudly racnea foarte tare .

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This example of collocation is formed from three parts of speech verb + conjunction + adverb. In Romanian it has also the some structure of three parts of speech verb + adverb + adverb. There is no need of any changes only the English conjunction was translated in Romanian as adverb . Enlargement technique e.g. speak softly spuse pe un ton rugatorThis collocation is formed from two parts of speech verb + adverb. In Romanian the same collocation has five parts of speech verb + preposition + article noun + adjective. Here it can be observed that is a big difference in the grammatical structure, because in the translation was used the enlargement technique in order to emphases the filings of the reader and to give an appropriate meaning in Romanian language . e.g. Until I hear from Bessie, or see for myself, that you are a really trying to behave better, you can not be treated as a good, happy child, like my children. The collocation under analysis is - traing to behave better stradania de a fi mai prietenoasa si mai blinda . This example of collocation is formed from four parts of speech- verb +preposition +verb+ adverb. But in Romanian translation the same pattern has nine parts of speech, which are noun +preposition+ verb + adjective +noun + conjunction+ adjective + noun. The difference in translation is that the same pattern in English needs few words but translating in Romanian it needs more words, in order to give the same meaning. The techniques used here are enlargement and contextual synonyms translation.

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Reduction technique e.g. Goodbye to Goteshead, I shouted wildly as we walked together out of the front door to wait for the coach in the road. The collocation under analyses is I shouted wildly- am exclamat eu. It is formed from three parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb. In Romanian it has two parts of speech- verb + pronoun. Although here was used a reduction the meaning remain the same. e.g .In fact she was so kind to me that I become brave enough to ask a question. The collocation under analyses is become brave enough a capata curaj . This collocation is formed from three parts of speech verb + adverb +adverb .In Romanian it has two parts of speech verb + adverb. In Romanian one adverb was reduced in order to give the originality and importance of the Romanian equivalent translation. Word for word technique e.g. I had to share Miss Miller s ,but I was so tired that I fell asleep Immediately . The collocation under analyses is I fell asleep immediately am adormit imediat . It is formed from three parts of speech pronoun +verb +adverb. In Romanian it is formed from three parts of speech pronoun +verb +adverb .as can be observed this collocation has the same parts of speech pronoun +verb +adverb, which mean that there are no changes. e.g. I sow a light and I thought it was a ghost, I cried holding tightly on to Bessie hand.
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The collocation under analysis is holding tightly on hand a tine strins de mina. This collocation is formed from four parts of speech verb + adverb +preposition +noun. In Romanian it has also four parts of speech- verb + adverb + preposition + noun. As can be observed this collocation has the same grammatical structure. e.g. The collocation under analysis is stared fascinated- admira incintata. This example of collocation is formed from two parts of speech verb + adverb. In Romanian it has two parts of speech also verb + adverb. Here in translation is not any changes the technique used here is word by word translation, because the meaning neednt any changes. Modulation technique e.g. Then we all went quietly upstairs to the long crowded bedroom, where two children shared every bed. The collocation under analyses is all went quietly upstairs in perecche ne urcam sus . It is formed from four parts of speech adverb +verb +adverb +noun. In Romanian it has five parts of speech - preposition + noun +pronoun +verb +adverb. As can be observed there is no link in their grammatical structure because the technique used here is modulation, it was used an equivalent in order to translate this collocation, an equivalent which respect the norms of the target language. Contextual synonym technique

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e.g. As I wondered ,I sow a girl near me reading a book ,I felt brave enough to speak to her ,since I liked reading too. The collocation under the analyses is-I felt brave enough to speak am avut indrazneala sa vorbesc . It is formed from three parts of speech pronoun +verb +adverb +adverb +preposition +verb. In Romanian it has five parts of speech verb +adverb + verb. Between their grammatical structures is no link at all but the meaning is kept. It was translated so because using the synonyms the meaning is more related to the context. Studding the translation according to their techniques, it can be observed that from the total number of collocations, the majority were translated through literal translation -21 examples, contextual synonym -5 examples, enlargement 8 examples, modulation -7 examples, word for word -3 examples, reduction -1 example, and through transposition technique nothing were translated. It can be understand batter through next two labels, the first represents the whole type translation and the second show translations according to their number of elements. Table 4 N= TYPE OF TECHNIQUE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ADVERB+ VERB Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation NUMBER 49 21 5 7 3 1 7 PERCENTAGE 100% 42.8% 10.2% 14.2% 6.12% 2.0% 14.2%

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As has been pointed out literal translation is the most frequent technique having -42.8%, and the less used here is reduction -2.0%. In translating this type the transposition wasnt used at all. The second label is according to their number of elements: Table 5 N= TYPE TECHNIQUE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation OF TWO ELEMENTS 16 -51.6% 3 -9.6% 5 -10.2% 3 -9.6% 1 -2.0% THREE FOUR ELEMENTS ELEMENTS 6 -66.6% 1 -22.0% 1 -22.0% 5 -83.3% 1 -16.6%

Analyzing the techniques it can be observed that literal and enlargement are more frequent in this type 16.51%, 66.6% for literal and 10.2%, 22.0% for enlargement, in the collocation with two elements the transposition and modulation, and in collocation with three elements the word for word, reduction, transposition and modulation techniques were not used at all, in translating the collocation with four elements only literal and enlargement techniques were used. The third type analyzed is verb + noun here the large number also was translated through literal translation, for example: e.g. I climbed on to the window seat and drew the curtains, so that I was completely hidden. The collocations under analysis are: Climbed on to the window seat,
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Drew the curtains, The first example of collocation from this sentence- climbed on to the window seat- cocotat pe prichiciul lat .This collocation is formed from six parts of speech-verb +preposition +preposition + article + noun +noun . In Romanian it has only four parts of speech verb + preposition +noun + adjective. The second example of collocation from this sentence is drew the curtains, tragind draperiile. This collocation is formed from three parts of speech verb+article +noun , in Romanian it has two parts of speech verb +noun. e.g. put away the lesson book and fetch the super trays ,called Miss Miller . In this sentence the collocation under analyses is fetch the super trays a cara tava cu mincare. This example is formed from four parts of speech verb +article +noun +noun. In Romanian it has also four parts of speech verb +noun +preposition +noun. e.g. will madam, I hope she will be grateful for this opportunity to improve her character. The collocation under nalyses is a- improve her character erfectiona caracterul . It is formed from three parts of speech verb + pronoun + noun. In Romanian it has also three and the same parts of speech pronoun + verb + noun, but the word order is not the same. Contextual synonym technique e.g.It hit me and I fell, cutting my head on the door. The collocation under analysis is cutting my head a-mi sparge capul.
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This collocation is formed from three parts of speech- verb + pronoun + noun. In Romanian it also has three parts of speech pronoun + verb + noun, their word order is changed in order to emphases the filings of the reader and to sound more natural in Romanian language.. . e.g.The rain was still beating on the windows, and I could hear the wind in the street. The collocation under analysis is the rain was still beating on the window ploaia rapaia in fereastra . The collocation is formed from eight parts of speech article + noun +verb + conjunction + verb + preposition + article + noun. In Romanian it has four parts of speech noun + verb + preposition + noun. Translating this collocation was reduced four parts of speech. The Romanian word rapaia with an old connotation was used here in order to give an appropriate meaning of the context and also to correspond with the vocabulary of that time. e.g.I began to fear that his ghost ,light come back to punish his wife for not keeping the promise . The collocation under analysis is keep her promise a se tine de cuvint. This example of collocation is formed from three parts of speech- verb + pronoun + noun. In Romanian it is also formed from three parts of speech verb + preposition + noun. Here was used the contextual synonym translation technique in order to emphases the filings of the reader and to give a more natural meaning in Romanian language Enlargement
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e.g. I treed to make no mistake but they colled naughty every moment of the day. The collocation under analyisis is make no mistake a face fata tuturor indatoririlor. The collocation is formed from three parts of speech verb + conjunction + noun. In Romanian it is formed from four parts of speech verb + noun + adverb + noun. In this translation of collocation was used the enlargement and, in order to remain the same meaning of the context. E.g. Mrs Reed smacked my face and left me without a word. The collocation under analyses is smacked my face a trage palme pe fata. This example of collocation has three parts of speech verb +pronoun + noun. In Romanian the some example has four parts of speech verb +noun +preposition +noun. Translating this collocation it can be observed that one word was added in Romanian translationpalme .this means that the technique used here is enlargement because was added parts of speech ,in order to give more understandable meaning of the collocations . Word for word translation e.g. Screaming wildly, I rushed to the door and shook it. In this sentence the collocatins under analysis is rushed to the door- a se repezi la usa . In this example of collocations is formed from four parts of speech verb + preposition + article + noun. In Romanian it has three parts of speech verb + preposition + noun. As can be observed that here is the same grammatical structure without any changes.
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Analyzing this type and its translations techniques it can be observed that literal translation is more used having 20 examples form the total number 35, and the less used modulation, word for word, reduction all having 2 examples. Reduction technique e.g.The rain was still beating on the windows, and I could hear the wind in the street. The collocation under analysis is the rain was still beating on the window ploaia rapaia in fereastra . The collocation is formed from eight parts of speech article + noun +verb + conjunction + verb + preposition + article + noun. In Romanian it has four parts of speech noun + verb + preposition + noun. Translating this collocation was reduced four parts of speech. The Romanian word rapaia with an old connotation was used here, in order to give an appropriate meaning of the context and also to correspond with the vocabulary of that time. e.g. Sometimes I looked out of the window at the grey

November afternoon, and sow the rain pouring down on the leafless garden. In this sentence the collocation under analysis is rain pouring down ploaie cadea incet. In this example of collocation there are four parts of speech article + noun +verb + adverb. In Romanian translation is formed from three parts of speech noun+ verb+ adverb. As it can be observed there are the some construction but without the article. In this example the translation technique is reduction, it was reduced the word down, In order to give a more meaningful connotation to the context.
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Table 6 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPE OF TECHNIQUE VERB +NOUN Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation NUMBER 35 20 5 4 2 2 2 PERCENTAGE 100% 57.1% 14.2% 11/4% 5.7% 5.7% 5.7%

The big percentage has literal translation -57.1%, contextual synonym -14.2%, enlargement -11.4% and word for word, modulation, reduction all has 5.7% The next label is according to their umber of elements: Analyzing this label according to number of elements, it is also observed that literal translation is more used in all three types. Table 7 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPEOF TRANSLATION Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation TWOELEMENTS THREE 1 -33.3% ELEMENTS 12 -75% 1 -6.2% 1 -6.2% 2-13.2% 2 -13.3% FOUR ELEMENTS 5 -38.4% 2 -15.3% 4-25.5% 2 15.3% 2 -15.3%

2 -66.6%

As can be observed in translating the collocation with two elements only the literal translation and reduction were used. In collocation with three and four elements the reduction and transposition were not used. It means that in translation the collocation different techniques are used.
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The next type analyzed is noun + verb, in spite of those types which the large number were literal translation, in this type enlargement technique constitute the large number,7 examples, literal translation 5 examples, modulation 3 examples word for word 1example, contextual synonym 3 examples. Examples of translations of collocations and their analysis: Modulation technique e.g. My whole body trembled when he come near. The collocation analyzed is - body trembled-ingheta single in vine. This collocation is formed from three parts of speech adjective + noun + verb. In Romanian it is formed from four parts of speech verb + noun + preposition + noun. technique in order to emphases the filings of the reader and also to give an appropriate meaning of the English context. e.g. And so I was carried upstairs, arms waving and legs kicking . The collocation under analysis is arms waving and legs kicking m-am impotrivit din rasputeri. This collocation is formed from five parts of speech- noun + verb + conjunction + noun + verb. In Romanian it has four parts of speech pronoun + verb + preposition + noun. Here was used the modulation technique because in Romanian it has no the direct equivalent of such collocation, e.g. The door was closed and the coach rolled off. The collocation under analyses is the coach rolled off- diligenta se urni greoi din loc.
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It has five parts of speech article + noun + verb + preposition. In Romanian it has five parts of speech noun + verb + adverb + preposition + noun. Although it has the same number of parts of speech they has no the same in grammatical structure. In this example there is a phrase- rolled off a se urni . Contextual synonym technique e.g. My head was hot, my heart beat fast. The collocations under analysis are my heart beat fast inima-mi zvicnea spasmodic. This example of collocations is formed from four parts of speech pronoun + noun +verb + adverb. In Romanian is also four parts of speech, but here is a small change in grammatical structure noun + pronoun + verb + adverb. The word fastwas translated in Romanian as spasmodic, because the old vocabulary of that time was used. e.g. Is your book interesting, I asked, Here, have a look at it, I glanced quickly at it but find difficult to understand ,so I gave it back. The collocation under analyses is-I glanced quickly at it- am rasfoit cartea . It is formed from five parts of speech pronoun +verb +adverb +preposition + pronoun. In Romanian it has three parts speech pronoun + verb +noun Enlargement technique e.g. When he left, I felt very lonely again The collocation under analyses is felt very lonely again, - gera amaraciune aizbito.
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This example of collocation is formed from four parts of speech verb +adverb + adverb +adverb. In the Romanian it is formed from five parts of speech adjective + noun + article + verb + pronoun. As it can be observed there is a big difference between the English and Romanian patterns in their grammatical structure. In Romanian translation appeared one more part of speech, in order to give the most appropriate translation of the context.

Word for word technique e.g. So two servants slept in my room, while I lay awake all night trembling with fear and eyes wide open in horror imaging ghosts in every corner. The collocations from this sentence are trembling with fear -eyes wide open. The first collocation trembled with fear tremurind de frica . This collocation is formed from three parts of speech verb +preposition + noun. In Romanian also it has three parts of speech verb+ preposition + noun .AS it can be observed this example has the some structure verb+ preposition + noun, which means that here was used the word by word translation technique. The second example of collocation is formed from three parts of speech noun+ adjective + verb. In Romanian it also has three parts of speech and also has the some structure noun +adjective + verb.

Literal translation technique

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e.g. Goodbye to Goteshead, I shouted wildly as we walked together out of the front door to wait for the coach in the road. The collocation under analyses is I shouted wildly- am exclamat eu. It is formed from three parts of speech pronoun + verb + adverb. In Romanian it has one less word, two parts of speech- verb + pronoun. e.g. put away the lesson book and fetch the super trays ,called Miss Miller . In this sentence the collocation under analyses is fetch the super trays a cara tava cu mincare. This example is formed from four parts of speech verb +article +noun +noun. In Romanian it has also four parts of speech verb +noun +preposition +noun. In this example the English article the was translated with preposition cu in Romanian .although the number of parts of speech is the same the grammatical structure is different According to this type the more frequent technique is enlargement 7 ex, literal translation 5 examples, contextual synonym 3 examples, word for word only one example. Reduction and transposition was not used at all.

Table 8 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 TYPES OF TECHNIQUE NOUN +VERB Literal translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition
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NUMBER 21 5 3 7 1

PERCENTAGE 100% 23.8% 14.2% 33.3% 4.7%

Label according to number of elements. In spite of all labels which the most frequent translation was literal, here the most used technique is enlargement and the less is reduction and transposition.

Table 9 N= TYPE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 OF TOW THREE FOUR FIVE TRANSLATION ELEMENTS ELEMENTS ELEMENTS ELEMENTS Literal 1 -20% 2 -28.5% 2 -50% translation Contextual synonym Enlargement Word for word Reduction Transposition Modulation 1 -20% 1 -20% 1 -20% 2 -28.5% 1 -4.28% 4 - 1OO% 1 -25%

2 -28.5%

1 -25%

As have been pointed out the most used technique is enlargement for all types, having the big percentage 33.3%, the reduction, transposition, modulation in translation of collocation with two and three elements were not used and the collocation formed from four elements was translated only through enlargement technique, The last type analyzed is adverb + adjective translation. This type has the less number of collocations -4 and are translated though contextual syn.-1-25% and literal translation 3 -75%. Table 10
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N= 1 2

TYPE OF TECHNIQUE ADVERB + ADJECTIVE Contextual synonym Literal translation

TWO ELEMENTS 1 -25% 3 75%

Translating this collocation were used only contextual synonym and literal translation techniques Examine the whole translations it can be said that, literal translation is more used in all types of collocations and the less used are reduction, modulation, and word for word translation. The transposition technique was used only in adjective + noun type.

CONCLUSION
This research paper The problem of collocations in English language adds to the few studies so far conducted in the area of defying and understanding it as a single unit.
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Investigating this topic it can be concluded that collocations constitute an area of difficulty in learning English because it is misunderstood with other word groups, which have in common some peculiarities. That is why in the first chapter we tired to distinguish the collocations from word groups like: phrases, idioms, compound words and phraseologic units. Firstly we defined these word groups in order to understand and defining better the collocations and their importance in learning how to speak, write, and think like a native speaker of English language. The second chapter is based only on the practice of analyses of collocations according to their five types: Adjective + noun, verb + noun, adverb + verb, noun + verb, and adverb + adjective. On the basis of these types was made analysis and statistics according to: types of collocations, number of elements, parts of speech. Studying this language feature it can be said that the most frequent type of collocations is adjective + noun and the smallest number of collocations are adverb + adjective type, this means that the most used collocations are those formed from adjective + noun type. The same can be said bout the number of elements but here are some differences according to the type of collocations, for example in adjective +noun type the collocation with two elements constitute the biggest number and with four elements constitutes the smallest number, but in verb + adverb type the collocations with three elements constitute the biggest number and those with two elements constitutes the smallest number of collocations. In noun +verb type the biggest number constitutes collocations with four elements and the smallest number constitutes collocations with two elements this means that collocations are not the same for the all types or have not the same structure for all types. Studying these language elements based on parts of speech it can be said that their structure based on parts of speech is not the same, for example in adjective + noun type almost all collocations are formed from adjective + noun, but in
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verb + noun type almost all collocations are formed from verb + article (prepositions) + noun, as it is observed this type needs one more part of speech. An important aspect from this paper is the translation of collocations from English into Romanian language, using 230 examples from Charlotte Bronte novels Jane Eyre. In translating these collocations were used some translation techniques like: word for word, literal translation, enlargement, reduction, modulation, transposition and contextual synonym. Analyzing the translations it can be said that the most used technique is literal translation and the less used technique is transposition. This can be said that in all types of collocations the literal translation is the most used, this being followed by the contextual synonym and enlargement then word for word, reduction, modulation and transposition. Although there was used a great number of techniques, the meaning and the context was kept. Analyzing and studying the whole research paper it can be observed that collocations can be learnt, understood and spoken without any problems and difficulties if we will keep their basic features. This is an actual theme and it is studied by linguists, lexicographers in making dictionaries, in translation problems, and terminology. To finish on a more cheerful note, it can be said that collocations are the way in which the words are combined and spoken by us in every day life. In order to understand, speak, think and write as a native English person, we must study the collocations.

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SUMMARY
This research paper, The problem of collocations in English language , is focused on defining the other word groups: idioms, compound words, phraseological units and phrases in order to understand better the collocation and not to have problems in distinguishing it from these word groups because

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they have a lot of peculiarities which make them to be wrong understood as a single unit. Distinguishing it from these word groups the following aspect of this research is to define the collocations and their importance in learning how to think, speak and write in English as a native one using collocations as the base of learning . Another important aspect in this article is the analyze of collocation structure based on five types of collocations: adjective +noun, noun + verb ,verb +noun, adverb + verb, adverb + adjective. These types of collocations were analyzed according to: number of elements, parts of speech and translation techniques. Translation techniques used in this research paper are: literal translation, contextual synonym, word by word, enlargement, transposition, reduction and modulation. For these analyze, examples were taken from Charlotte Bronte novels-Jane Ere, the numbers of investigated collocations are 230, and for the translation investigation also these collocations were analyzed. On these analyze were made statistics and percentage according to each type of investigation in order to have a better view of collocations and their structure. Understanding the collocations and their importance in English language will make the language easier to speak and understand.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. A.P Cowie, Oxford Linguistic Phraseology, Theory and Analyses, 1998, pg 21-23, 145-153
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2. A.P. Cowie. The treatment of collocations and idioms in learners dictionaries. Applied Linguistics, 1981. 2. Bauer Laurie, English word formation ,Cambridge 1984 ,pg 115-120. 3. English for advanced students ,with a special chapter in English lexicology, Institutul Europei ,Iasi,1993, pg 190-195. 4. Ido Dagan and Kenneth Church.: Identifying and translating technical terminology. In Proceedings of the Fourth ACL Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, Stuttgart, Germany, October 1994. 5. Interim Report on English Collocations, Tokio, 1933 6. Levitchi Leon, Limba engleza contemporan, Lexicology, 1970, pg 25-37 7. L. P. Smith, Wrds and Idioms, London,1925. 8. Galina Salapina, Limba engleza contemporana, Lexicologie, editia II-a, Timisoara, pg 14-21. 9. Olga Achmanava, Linguistic terminology , Moscow university press ,1977,pg 161165. 10. Olga Achmanova, The chair of English ,Lexicology, Theory and Method, edited by Moscow state university,1972, pg 76-85. in 11. James. R. Natting, S. Dacerio, Oxford Applied Linguistic, Lexical Phrases and Language Technique, Oxford University Press,1992, pg 23-53. 12. J. R. Firth. The technique of semantics. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1935. J. M Dixon, English Idioms, London, 1927. 13. Johnatan Orauther,Catherym Cavanaugh, Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press,1999, pg 58-73. 14. M. Benson, E. Benson, and R. Ilson. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English: A Guide to Word Combinations. John Benjamins, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 1986.

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15. N .Raevska, English lexicology, second edition revised, edited by , 1961, pg 2516. N.M.Raenska, English lexicology, Kiev, 1971, pg 86-90. 17. R.S.Girbuz, A course in modern English lexicology, Higher School Published House, Moscow 1996,pg 86-105. 18. Morton Benson. The structure of the collocational dictionary. International 19. Peter Roach, Third Edition, English Phonetics and Phonology, A practical course, Cambridge, University Press,1999, pg 63-65. 20. Peter F. Brown, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, and 21Robert L. Mercer. Word-sense disambiguation using statistical methods. 22. Seminars in Modern English Lexicology, Part II, Chisinau ,Moldova State University,2000, pg 161-163 23. Y. Choueka, T. Klein, and E. Neuwitz. Automatic retrieval of frequent idiomatic and collocational expressions in a large corpus. Journal for Literary and Linguistic computing, 1983. 24. V. H. Collins, A Book of English idioms with Explanation, London New York Toronto, 1958. 25. V. V. Vinogradov, ,, 1946. 26. Williem L. Graff,language and Language, New York London, 1932

Dictionaries
1. Oxford Collocations, dictionary for students of English, Oxford University

Press University Press, 2002.


2.

Oxford dictionary of idioms, Oxford University Press, 1999.

3. English Idioms, second edition, Oxford University Press, 2001. 4. Oxford Quide To Warld, Oxford University Press, 2002. 89

5. Oxford, Phrasal Verbs Dictionary for learners of English. Oxford

University Press,2001.
6. Oxford,Word power dictionary for learners of English, Oxford University

Press,1998.
7. Oxford dictionary for advanced learners, fifth edition, Oxford University

Press

APPENDICES
ANEXE 1- ADJECTIVE + NOUN TYPE N= ADJECTIVE EXA90

NOUN, TRANSLATION

TECHNIQUE

MPLES, ELEMENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Somber clouds Long walks Leafless shrubbery Family circle Window seat Boarding school Delicate health Terrible fear Heavy book Greait pain Wicked murder Angry voice Strange idea Young master Painful reminders Wicked heart Red room Large bedroom Naughty girl Stony face Long hours Familiar bedroom Worm fire Candle light Great relief

TWO

Nouri sumbri plimbari lungi cararuile gradinii scuturate Cerc familial Prichici lat internat Sanatate subreda Spaima grozava Carte groasa Durere infioratoare tiran Voce autoritara Gind ciudat Tinarul domnisor Amintiri dureroase Inima slaba Camera rosie Odaie samptuasa Fata neascultatoare Masca taiata din piatra Mai multe ore Odaia copiilor Foc din simeneu Luminare aprinsa Usurare nainchipuita
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Word for word Word for word enlargement transpozition transpoziton transpozition Literal translation Literal translation Context synonym Context synonym reduction Context synonym Context synonym Context synonym Literal translation Context synonym Word for word modulation Literal translation enlargement enlargement Transposition Transposition Transposition enlargement

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Poor child Terrible experience Beautiful house Delicate child Poor vicar Ungrateful child Death bed Good health Bad character Hard work Plain food Simple clothes Long way Young child Strange feeling Large building Good child Silent corridors Large school Empty stomachs Uneatable breakfast Charity school Charity children Financial matters Wide schoolrooms

Sarmana fetita Experienta grea Cada atit de frumoasa prostuta Pastor sarac Fata nerecunoscatoare Cu limba de moarte sanatoasa Character rau Munca grea Miacare cumpatata Imbracaminte modesta Cale lunga copilta Simtamint straniu Cladire lunga Fetita cuminte Aripa de casa

Context synonym Context synonym enlargement reduction modulation modulation Transposition reduction Word for word Word for word Context synonym Context synonym Word for word enlargement Context synonym Context synonym Literal translation unde enlargement Context synonym Context synonym Context

stapinea o liniste adinca Cladire imensa Flaminde de moarte Mincare oribila

synonym Azil de caritate enlargement Copii orfani modulation administratie reduction Sala cu dimensiuni enlargement uluitoare
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51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Afternoon lessons Next morning Dirty habits Soft smile Long story Angry word Careless girl Ordinary child Surrounding countryside Healthy place Few questions Narrow corridors Wide shoulders Strong chest Lonely road Beating heart Exciting life Cheerful atmosphere Stern look Sad place Wrong way Right path

Lectii de dupa masa Yiua urmatoare Obiceiuri rele Zimbet placut povestire Cuvint minios Fata nepasatoare Copil ca toti ceilalti Imprejurimi pitoresti Loc sigur Citeva intrebari Coridoare intunecate Lat in pete inguste

enlargement Literal translation Context synonym Word for word reduction Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Context synonym Literal translation si Literal translation Literal

translation Piept puternic Word for word Drum pustiu Word for word Inima batu cu graba si un Enlargement val de singe ma navali Viata agitata Atmosfera placuta Privire aspra mohorit Cale gresita Calea cea dreapta
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Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation reduction Word for word Enlargement

73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Evil influence Kind word Heavy sleeper Slight noice Great rocks Disturbed emotions Foolish dream Good idea Powerful voice THREE ELEMENTS Cold winter wind Long heavy rain Sad lonely existence Secret hiding place Wicked cruel boy Whole long afternoon Dark hair and eyes Large pale forehead Small piece of biscuit Piece of brown bread Freezing cold rooms

Influenta rea Cuvint bun Doarme adinc Bolborosi straiu si sinistru Tancuri de stinca Suflet ravasit Vis prostesc Buna ideie Voce puternica TRANSLATION Vintul vrajmas al iernii O ploaie atit de naprasnica Trairea trista si singuratica Ascunzisul secret Baiat indracit Toata dupa amiaza Ochi caprui si par negru Frunnte inalta alba O bucata de prajitura

Word for word Word for word Context synonym Enlargement Context synonym modulation Word for word Literal translation Literal translation TECHNIQUE Context synonym Context synonym Literal translation reduction reduction Literal translation Enlargement Literal translation Context

synonym O felioara de pine integrala Context Vint rece suera synonym prin en largement

crapaturile ferestrelor din 12 Hard physical conditions camera Indatoriri grele


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reduction

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 N= 1

Some little luxory Pretty, cheerful child Strange ghostly laugh Middle aged woman Angry looking eyes Pure young thing Noisy rushing water Strange inhuman sound Narrow front door Extremely hard work Dark stormy night FOUR ELEMENTS Ice cold fingers and toes

putin reduction O copilita gingasa si palida Context Ris hohotitor,ciudat synonym Context

synonym Femeie intr 30-40 modulation Ochii sclipeau de o apriga en largement incapatinare Fiinta inocenta Valuri ce clocotesc Hohot de ris diabolesc Usa ingusta de la intrare Lucru tare greu Noapte intunecata reduction Context synonym modulation enlargement Literal translation din enlargement TECHNIQUE

cauza furtunii TRANSLATION

Degetele de la mini si enlargement picioare intepenite de o raceala ca gheata Un par frumos lung si cret O multime de usi micute

2 3

Beautiful long curly hair Several small block doors

Literal translation Literal translation

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ANEXE 2- VERB + ADVREB TYPE N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 VERB + ADVERB, TWO ELEMENTS Glanced sharply Stared fascinated Worked hard Turn against Look around Scream loudly Speak softly Resisting wildly Lisfting carefully Looking thoughtfully Looking kindly Feel wicked Uitindu-se patrunzator Admiram incintata Lucram din greu Intors impotriva A privi Racnea foarte tare Spuse pe un ton rugator A impinge cu violenta A se apleca ingrijrat Privea nedumerit Privind blind A se simti neputincios
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TRANSLATION

TECHNIQUE Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Iteral tranlation Word for word enlargement enlargement Contextual syn. Contextual syn. Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N= 1 2 3

Bell rang Speak heavily Shouted wildly Feel asleep Felt hungry Answered quickly Sing switly Listened carefully Whispered kindly Cry bitterly Answered firmly Feel asleep Go silently Swear furiously Look puzzled Look carefully Speak slowly Examine carefully Shouted desperately THREE ELEMENTS Became brave enough All complained bitterly I kept expecting Watch her carefully Speak hardly English Went quietly upstairs Both stayed silent Lay fast asleep Felt strong or calm FOUR ELEMENTS Hold tightly on hands Held tightly to her Glanced quickly at it

Clopotul suna Voce grava de bas A exclama A adormi As fi mincat de doua ori pe atit A raspuns calm Cinta dragut Asculta uluita Sopti incurajator a plinge sfisietor A raspuns hotarit A adormi A merge incetifor Injurind furios Aprivi incurcat, nedumerit Aprivi atant A vorbi incet A examina atent, grijuliu A striga dissperat TRANSLATION

Word for word enlargemant reduction Literal translation enlargement Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation contextual syn. Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation contextual syn. Word for word enlargement Literal translation Literal translation enlargement Literal translation TECHNIQUE

A capata curaj Literal translation Toate s-au plins de acea Enlargement mincare Ma asteptam Pazitio bine Vorbeste mai engleza In pereche urcau sus Stateam in liniste A adormi imediat TRANSLATION O tinea strins de miini Am cuprins-o strins Am rasfoit puti cartea
97

Literal translation Literal translation greu Literal translation contextual syn. Literal translation Literal translation TECHNIQUE Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation

4 5 6

Felt brave enough to speak Am avut indrazneala sa Literal translation Laugh and speak freely Lay down with me vorbesc Vorbea sir idea in toata enlargement inima Culcate cu mine Literal translation

98

ANEXE 3- VERB + NOUN TYPE N= VERB + NOUN, TWO ELEMENTS 1 2 3 N= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 N= 1 2 3 4 Feel wicked Flowing streams Lie down THREE ELEMENTS Drew the curtains Cutting the head Make no mistake Starve to death Keep the promise Rushed the door Trembling of fear Fetch another servant Smacking the face Knocked it down Left without a word Improve the character To pass a letter To obey the orders Put out the flames Follow the instruction FOUR ELEMENTS neputincios Riuri curgatoare Culca-te TRANSLATION reduction Literal translation reduction TECHNIQUE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUE

Tragind draperiile Literal translation A sparge capul Literal translation A face fata tuturor modulation indatoririlor A muri de foame A se tine de cuvint A se repezi la usa Tremurind de frica A chema alta sluga A trage palme peste fata A trinti jos Fara sa scoata o vorba A perfectiona caracterul A trimite o scrisoare A se supune ordinelor A stinge focul Indicatiile vor fi indeplinite TRANSLATION Literal translation contextual syn. Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation modulation Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation

TECHNIQUE

Lack the door careffully Inchide usa bine Literal translation Fetch the supper trays A cara tava cu bucate Literal translation Tidy the drawer Aranjeaza sertarul sin u enlargement immediately Enjoyed the summer weather stinjeni lucrul beautiful Ne bucuram din plin de enlargement frumusetea
99

imprejurimilor 5 6 7 8 8 10 11 I took the opportunity To enjoy the fresh air Bringing down its rider He jumped on horse back

si

primaverii stralucitoare Am avut ocazia Literal translation Ma bucuram de enlargement prospetimea aerului curat Isi prabusira calaretul la modulation pamint Sari pe saua de pe spatele contextual syn.

calului Staring up at the moon Admirind luna Literal translation Play a tune on the piano A cinta o strofa la clavii modulation Suddenly he catch my look Neasteptat imi prinse enlargement cautatura scurtatoare pironita asupra lui Plutesti de/a lungul unei contextual syn. ape A intrerupe conversatia Literal translation

12 13

Floating a long a river Broke off a conversation

ANEXE 4- NOUN + VERB TYPE N= 1 2 3 4 5 N= 1 NOUN + VERB TWO ELEMENTS Arms waving Legs kicking Light moving Bell rang Spring approached THREE ELEMENTS Rain pouring down TRANSLATION m-am imprtrivit TECHNIQUE din enlargement din enlargement contextual syn. Word for word Literal translation TECHNIQUE Literal translation

rasputeri m-am imprtrivit rasputeri Lumina searbada Clopotul suna Primavera se apropie TRANSLATION Ploaia cadea incet
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2 3 4 5 6 7 N= 1 2 3 4 N= 1 2 3

Whole body trembled Blood running down Pain gave strength Heart beating fast Eyes wide open Coach rolled off FOUR ELEMENTS Rain beating on

Ingheta single in vine modulation Picaturi de singe se enlargement prelingeau Durere groaznica Inima zvicnea spasmodic Ochii larg deschisi Diligenta se porni greoi din loc TRANSLATION the Ploaia rapaia in fereastra modulation contextual syn. Literal translation contextual syn. TECHNIQUE contextual syn.

window Shame and anger boiled up Minia si rusinea clocotea enlargement The sun go down Sweet madness seized me FIVE ELEMENTS in mine Soarele rosu aprins enlargement ma enlargement TECHNIQUE aranjat Literal translation

scapata in vale Nebunia dulce stapinea TRANSLATION trebuia

The hair must be arranged Parul

modestly and plainly modest si lins Fog lying constantly in the Leaganul acelor neguri modulation valley rele The sun shone on the Razele soarelui dulce se enlargement flowers revarsau asupra vizitau Literal translation pamintului People kept coming to Oamenii il visit him necontenit

101

ANEXE 5- ADVERB + ADJECTIVE TYPE N= 1 2 3 4 ADVERB + ADJECTIVE TWO ELEMENTS Completely hidden Nervously entered Slightly obeyed Quietly answered TRANSLATION Complet izolata Nervos intrara Se supunea nevrind raspuns blind TECHNIQUE contextual syn. Literal translation Literal translation Literal translation

102

ANEXE 6 - TYPES OF COLLOCATIONS

3.02824 98, 3% 16.0235 29, 15% 15.2, 14% 21.3, 20% 52.6, 48%

A+N V + AD V+N N +V AD +ADJ

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-Adj adjective -Ad adverb -V verb -N noun

ANEXE 7 NUMBER OF ELEMENTS

104

32, 21% 56, 36% 2 elem 3elem 4elem

67, 43%

105

32, 21% 56, 36% 2 elem 3elem 4elem

67, 43%

ANEXE 8 TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

106

10, 5% 12, 6% 13, 6% 22, 11% 36, 17% 38, 18% 77, 37% literal enlarg cont.syn modulat reduct w for w transp

107