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# Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 35 (2001) pp.

## Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

ZHANG Jie-Fang
Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, Zhejiang Province, China

Abstract We derive the generalized dromions of the new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by the arbitrary function presented in the bilinearized linear equations. The rich soliton and dromion structures for this system are released.
PACS numbers: 03.40.Kf, 02.90.+p

## Key words: (2 + 1) dimensions, nonlinear evolution equation, soliton, dromion

In the last decade there has been increasing great interest in study of soliton generating nonlinear evolution equations in dierent branches of science not only in (1 + 1)dimensional systems, but also in (2 + 1)-dimensional or higher-dimensional systems. Generally speaking, to nd exact analyzing coherent-type soliton structures of (2+1)dimensional systems is more complicated than that in (1 + 1)-dimensional systems. Since the pioneering work of Boiti et al.,[1] for some (2+1)-dimensional integrable models such as the DaveyStewartson (DS) equation,[2] the KadomtsevPetviashvilli (KP) equation,[3] the Nizhnik NovikovVeselov (NNV) equation,[4] the breaking soliton equation,[5] the long dispersive wave (LDW) equation,[6] the scalar nonlinear Schrdinger (NLS) equation[7,8] and o for some (3 + 1)-dimensional integrable models such as the KdV-type equation,[9] the JimboMiwaKadomtsev Petviaashvili (JMKP) equation,[10] some types of exponentially localized soliton solutions, called dromions, are found by using dierent approaches. Usually, dromion solutions are driven by two or more nonparallel straight line ghost solitons. Even more generalized dromion solutions which are driven by curved and straight line soliton solutions for the (1 + 1)-dimensional KdV equation,[11] the (2+1)-dimensional potential breaking soliton equation,[12] the (2 + 1)-dimensional LDW equation[13] and the (2 + 1)dimensional scalar NLS equation,[13] are also found. In this article we investigate the generalized dromion structures of new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation discussed by Maccari[14] by suitably utilizing the arbitrary functions presented in the system. The system is of the form i + = 0, = (||2 + ||2 ) , i + = 0 , (1)

where (, , ), (, , ) are complex and (, , ) is real. Equations (1) are derived from Nizhnik equations through the reduction method. Uthayakunar et al.[15] have established the integrability property of Eqs (1) by using singularity structure analysis. Equations (1) can be bilinearized by means of the following transformations = g , f = h , f = 2(ln f ) , (2)

where g, h are complex functions and f is a real function. Using Eq. (2) and the Hirotas bilinear operators,[16] equations (1) can be written as (iD + D2 )g f = 0 , (iD + D2 )h f = 0 , (D D )f f = (|g|2 + |h|2 ) . (3)

## We expand g, h and f in the form of a power series as g = g (1) + h= h

(1) 3 (3)

+ , + ,
4 (4)

+ f

3 (3)

f =1+

2 (2)

+ .

(4)

Substituting Eqs (4) into Eqs (3) and comparing various powers of , we get o( ) :
(1) ig + g = 0 , (1)

ih(1) + h = 0 ,

(1)

(5) (6)

## 1 o( 2 ) : f = (g (1) g (1) + h(1) h(1) ) , 2

(3) o( 3 ) : ig + g = (iD + D2 )g (1) f (2) , (3)

## ih(3) + h = (iD + D2 )h(1) f (2) ,

(3)

(7)

1 (4) o( 4 ) : f + D D f (2) f (2) = [ g (3) g (1) +g (1) g (3) 2 + (h(3) h(1) + h(1) h(3) )] , (8)

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ZHANG Jie-Fang

Vol. 35

N

## 2 + B1 exp(2k1R + 2l1R () + 21R )] .

(10)

Solving the above equation, we obtain Ai exp[ki + i + li ()] , (9a) f (2) = A2 exp(2k1R + 2G() + 21R + 21 ) 1
2 + B1 exp(2k1R + 2G () + 21R + 22 ) , (11)

g (1) =
i=1 N

h(1) =
i=1

Bi exp[ki + i + li ()] ,

(9b) where

where li (), li () are arbitrary complex functions of and ki , ki , i , i are complex constants,
2 2 iI = (kiR kiI ) ,

## exp[2G()] = exp[2G ()] =

e 2l1R () d, e 2l1R () d,

e 21 = e 22

## iR = 2kiR kiI , iR = 2kiR kiI .

iI =

2 (kiR

2 kiI ) ,

1 , 4k1R 1 = . 4k1R

(12)

To construct the soliton solution, we put N = 1 so that we have from Eq. (6), 1 (2) f = [A2 exp(2k1R + 2l1R () + 21R ) 2 1

Substituting g (1) , h(1) and f (2) into Eqs (7) and (8), it can be shown that g (j) = 0, h(j) = 0 for j 3 and f (j) = 0 for j 4. Now, using Eqs (9) and (11), we obtain the solution of Eqs (1) as follows:

= =

g (1) A1 exp[k1 + 1 + l1 ()] = , 2 exp[2k 2 (2) 1 + A1 1+f 1R + 2G() + 21R + 21 ] + B1 exp[2k1R + 2G () + 21R + 22 ] h(1) B1 exp[k1 + 1 + l1 ()] = . 2 (2) 1 + A2 exp[2k1R + 2G() + 21R + 21 ] + B1 exp[2k1R + 2G () + 21R + 22 ] 1+f 1 k1 = k1 , 1 = 1 , l1 () = l1 () ,

(13) (14)

If we choose (15)

then solution of Eqs (1) becomes = A1 M () sech (k1R + 1R + G() + 1 + ) exp i[k1I + 1I + l1I ()] , = B1 M () sech (k1R + 1R + G() + 1 + ) exp i[k1I + 1I + l1I ()] , where exp(2) = 1 2 , A2 + B1 1 M () = k1R exp l1R () . 2 A2 + B1 exp G() 1 (18) (16) (17)

In Eq. (18) because l1R () is an arbitrary function of , we can take M () as an arbitrary function of . To understand the meaning of solutions (16) and (17), we discuss some special cases. Case 1 Single Dromion Driven by One Line Soliton and One Curve Soliton If we set = = , A1 B1

then when M () is xed as a single line soliton which is parallel to the -axis and we combine the line soliton M () and curve soliton sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1R (0) + 1 ] together properly (multiplying them together simply in the case of solutions (17) or (18)), the original straight line and curved line solitons disappear (become ghost) and only a single peak localized in all directions, which is called a dromion, survives. The dromion is located at the interaction of the line and curve solitons. Because G() is an arbitrary function of , the single dromion still possesses rich structures. Here are ve concrete simple examples, 1 = sech n ( 0 ) sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] h1 () sech [k1R x + 1R t + g() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] , (19)

No. 3

## Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear

269

2 = sech n [cosh( 0 1)] sech [k1R x + 1R t + G(y) + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] h2 () sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] , 3 = 1 sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] [( 0 )2n + 1] h3 () sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] ,
N

(20)

(21)

ai i 4 =
i=1 M

## sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] bi

i

i=1

h4 () sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] , 5 = [A + sin B( + 0 ) + C]hj sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()] , j = 1, 2, , 4 .

(22)

(23)

The rst type of generalized dromion (19) decays exponentially in all directions. The second type of generalized dromion (20) decays much more quickly than the rst in the direction. The third type of generalized dromion (21) decays much slower than the rst in the direction. The fourth type of generalized dromion (22) does not decay quickly in the direction. While the fth type of generalized dromion (23) has an oscillatory structure in the direction. Case 2 Multi-dromion Bounded States If G() is selected to be N parallel line solitons (parallel to x-axis), then we get N -dromion bound state
N

N B =
j=1

## fj () sech [k1R x + 1R t + G() + 1 ] exp i[k1I x + 1I t + l1I ()]

(24)

driven by N straight line ghost solitons and curved line ghost soliton. In Eq. (24), fj () can be selected quite freely, say h1 (), h2 (), h3 (), h4 () in Eqs (19) (23). Because all N parallel line solitons are static in -direction, the N -dromion can only move with the same speed in the x direction as the curved line ghost soliton moves and they cannot pass through each other. In other words, the behaviors of this dromion looks like a bounded state. Case 3 Single Soliton From Eq. (9), by choosing ki = kiR ,
2 i = kiR ,

li () = liR ,

(25)

## we can obtain basic single soliton solution when taking N = 1, =

2 exp[k1R x + ik1R t + l1R ()] = 1 + exp[2k1R x + 2l1R + 21 ] 2 l1R k1R sech [k1R x + l1R + 1 ] exp ik1R t .

(26)

Case 4 Basic Dromion To generate a (1, 1) basic dromion solution, if we may put N = 2 in Eq. (9) and take
2 f (1) = exp(k1R x + ik1R t) + exp(l1R ) ,

(27)

we have
g (2) = M11 exp(1 + 1 ) + L11 x exp(21 ) + K11 exp(1 + 1 ) + K11 exp(1 + 1 ) ,

(28) (29)

where

1 1 1 , L11 = , K11 = , 2k1R 2l1R k1R llR thus a (1, 1) dromion solution is obtained as follows: M11 = = 1 + M11 y exp(1 +
1 )

2 1 = k1R x + ik1R t ,

1 = l1R ,

## exp(1 + 1 ) . + L11 x exp 21 + K11 exp(1 + 1 ) + K11 exp(1 + 1 )

(30)

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This expression describes an exponentially localized solution with one bound state in the x-direction and one bound state in the -direction. The above analysis can be further generalized to (M, N ) dromions
M N

exp(i + j ) u= 1+
i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1 M N [Mij exp(i + j ) + Lij x exp(i + j ) + Kij exp(i + j ) + Kij exp(i + j )]

(31)

where
2 i = kiR x + iki t,

the -direction. j = ljR , Kij = Mij = 1 , ki + kj (32) In summary, we can not only generate the basic localized solutions but also generate the generalized localized solutions of Eq. (1) by harnessing the dierent arbitrary functions of suitably. To look for the dromion of other (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations, further studies are worthy to be done.

Lij =

1 , li + lj

1 , kiR ljR

which represents an exponentially localized solution with M bound states in the x-direction and N bound states in

References
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