Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

LABORATORY MANUAL

ECE -208
UNIFIED ELECTRONICS LABORATORY-II

COURSE CONTENTS
S.No. 1. Description Simulation using p-spice for zener diode used as a voltage regulator.

2.

Simulation using p-spice for operational amplifier as summer.

3.

Simulation of network theorem using p-spice.

4.

Design and analyse a differentiator circuit whose minimum frequency is 100KHz

5.

Design and analyse a integrator circuit whose maximum frequency is 100KHz.

6.

To analyze the characteristics of instrumentation amplifier using bread board and PSpice.

7. 8.

To analyze the functionality of triangular wave generator using IC -741 To determine frequency response of cascade amplifier Darlington pair. To determine the frequency response of two stage RC coupled amplifier using complementary symmetry push-pull amplifier

9.

10.

To analyze the functionality of Colpitt oscillator on output frequency using bread board and PSPICE

11. Implement phase shift oscillator using bread board and Pspice. 12. To analyze the functionality of Hartley oscillator on output frequency using bread board and PSPICE

EXPERIMENT 1 Title:- Simulation using P-Spice for Zener diode used as voltage regulator. Software Used- P-Spice Learning Objective: Through this experiment the working of zener diode will be proved. Procedure: The circuit of fig. 1 will be drawn on schematic editor of the software. 1. Use the circuit elements from the components option in P-Spice software. 2. For making the connections between components use the wire option from the tool bar. 3. Use the power supply from the power supply option. 4. Use the zener diode from circuit components.

Observation: Sr. No. Input Voltage Resistance Output Voltage

As the input voltage increases the current through the Zener diode increases but the voltage drop remains constant - a feature of zener diodes. Therefore since the current in the circuit has increased the voltage drop across the resistor increases by an amount equal to the difference between the input voltage and the zener voltage of the diode A Zener Diode is an electronic component which can be used to make a very simple voltage regulator circuit. This circuit enables a fixed stable voltage to be taken from an unstable voltage source such as the battery bank of a renewable energy system which will fluctuate depending on the state of charge of the bank.

THEORY Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. It has a particular voltage known as break down voltage, at which the diode break downs while reverse biased. In the case of normal diodes the diode damages at the break down voltage. But Zener diode is specially designed to operate in the reverse breakdown region. The basic principle of Zener diode is the Zener breakdown. When a diode is heavily doped, its depletion region will be narrow. When a high reverse voltage is applied across the junction, there will be very strong electric field at the junction. And the electron hole pair generation takes place. Thus heavy current flows. This is known as Zener break down. So a Zener diode, in a forward biased condition acts as a normal diode. In reverse biased mode, after the break down of junction current through diode increases sharply. But the voltage across it remains constant. This principle is used in voltage regulator using Zener diodes.

Result: The voltage across the resistance R2 will be kept constant at the voltage of 5V through the use of zener diode. Cautions: 1. All connection between the circuit elements must be proper.

EXPERIMENT 2 Title- Simulation using PSpice for operational amplifier used as summer. Software Used:- PSpice Software Learning Objective: - How a operational amplifier can be used as a summer of different signals. Procedure: 1. Use the IC-741 . Pin number 3 is grounded . 2. Pin number 3 of IC-741 is connected through three voltage sources through three resistances. 3. For making connection use the wire on the tool bar. 4. Connect a resistance of value R between pin 2 and pin 6. 5. Connect the CRO at the output pin 6 of IC-741 to see the result. Circuit Diagram:

Draw the above circuit in schematic and run the program. Results: The result of the above experiment will be the summation of the three input voltages. Vout = - (V1+V2+V3) Cautions : 1) Make proper connections between all the circuit elements.

EXPERIMENT 3 Title- Simulation of network theorems using PSpice Software Used:- PSpice Software Learning Objective: - Learning of superposition theorem through the use of PSpice software Procedure:

For getting the voltage across the R2 first we will find the voltage across the R2 due to only supply voltage B1 . for this the circuit of fig.2 will be drawn. In this circuit except the B1 supply voltage all other supply voltage will be short circuited. 2) Then find the voltage across R2 due to only the B2 supply and draw the circuit of fig.3 .In this circuit all supply voltages except the B2 will be short circuited. 3) After finding the separate voltages due to supply voltage B1 and B2 we will use the superposition theorem and add the two voltages. That will be the final voltage across the R2.
1)

Fig.2

Fig. 3 Observation:Sr. No. Resistance Resistance Resistance Voltage Voltage Total R1 R2 R3 due to B1 due to B2 Voltage

The result: - The resulting voltage across R2 will be the total summation of the voltages due to B1 and B2. Cautions: 1. All connection must be proper.
Used to find the solution to networks with two or more sources that are not in series or parallel. The current through, or voltage across, an element in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source. Since the effect of each source will be determined independently, the number of networks to be analyzed will equal the number of sources. The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined using the total current through or the total voltage across the element and cannot be determined by a simple sum of the power levels established by each source.

EXPERIMENT 4 Title: Design and analyse a differentiator circuit whose minimum frequency is 100Hz. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Operational amplifier LM348 Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires Specification Quantity 01 02 03 01 01 As per requirement Tolerence

1K, 2K 0.1F

5%

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Rin= 1K, RF= 2K

Procedure 1. Using power supply voltages of 15 VDC for the op-amp, construct an inverting amplifier circuit with a gain of -3.9 using an input resistor of 1 K Ohms. Install the 0.1 F capacitor in parallel with the feedback resistor as seen in Fig. 1. Calculate the cutoff frequency (fc) for the circuit using the measured values of the components. It should be around 400 Hz. Add two extra 0.1 F capacitors to the circuit. One should be connected between the + DC supply(pin 4) and ground the other should be connected between the - DC supply(pin 11) and ground. These capacitors are to help prevent oscillation in the amplifier circuit due to interaction between the circuit and the power supply. They should be placed as close to the Op-Amp itself as physically possible. Make sure that the circuit is correctly connected before turning on the power supply voltages. Failure to do so may cause the op-amp to saturate and in some cases cause permanent damage to the op-amp.

Set the signal input, vin, to zero. That is replace the signal source, vin, with a short circuit to ground. Carefully measure the DC output voltage. Make sure you record the proper sign, It should be between +50 mV and -50 mV, usually very small. This output with no input is called the output offset voltage. It is an error in the output of the circuit. It can be treated as an equivalent input offset voltage applied to the non-inverting input of the op-amp. The equivalent input offset is calculated by dividing the measured output offset by the gain of the amplifier from the non-inverting input, Av = (1 + Rf /Rin). This offset has no effect on the ac operation of the circuit, but can cause errors in dc measurements of small voltages.
2.

Use a signal input voltage, vin, of 0.1 VDC and connect it to the amplifier signal input as Vin. Using a digital Multi-meter, measure and record both Vin and Vout as accurately as possible. Calculate the DC voltage gain both with and without correcting the output voltage by subtracting the output offset voltage measured in step 2 from the measured output voltage. Be sure to use the correct sign on the offset voltage. Repeat this measurement and calculation with Vin = 1.0 VDC.
3.

4. With an oscilloscope connected to both the signal input and the output, apply an A.C. signal such that the output voltage has amplitude between 5V and 10V. Then measure Vin, Vout, T, and t(for phase measurement) at your calculated cutoff frequency and at each of the following frequencies: 20Hz, 50Hz, 100Hz, 200Hz, 500Hz, 1kHz, 2kHz, 5kHz and 10kHz, 20kHz, 50kHz. Print a copy of the waveforms at 20 Hz and 10 kHz, and at your calculated cutoff frequency. As the gain starts to drop increase the input voltage trying to keep the output voltage amplitude between 5V and 10V until you reach the maximum output of the signal generator. Also take these measurements at your calculated cutoff frequency. If the output waveform starts to look like a triangular wave instead of a sine wave your amplifier has reached the slew rate limit and you will have to reduce the input voltage until this effect is eliminated to get accurate gain measurements 5. Calculate the AC voltage gain and phase shift of the circuit at each frequency. 6. Set your signal generator to square wave output at 100 Hz with amplitude of 1 V. With this input observe and record the output waveform. Repeat at a frequency of 500 Hz. CALCULATIONS / GRAPHS: Gain(dB) = 20 log (Vo/Vi) OBSERVATION TABLE S.No. Frequency(Hz) Vi(V) Vo(V) Gain(dB)

OBSERVATION TABLE CONSIDERING ERRORS DUE TO MEASURING EQUIPMENTS: (CRO) S.No Freq.(Hz Freq.(Hz Vo( . )+2% ) -2% V) +2% Vo( Vi(V Gain(dB)m V) - ) in 2% Gain(dB)m ax

Calculations considering component errors:


2) 3)

Calculate RFmax=RF10%, R1min= R110%. Calculate Vo Vo Vo


min max

min

and Vo

max

= - (RFmin / R1min)Vi min = (1+ RFmax / R1max) V i max

4)

Find theoretical avg. gain and practical average gain.

5) Then find %age error = (theoretical gain practical gain)/theoretical gain. Plot the graph between 1) 2) 3) 4) Min. frequency and min gain Min. frequency and max. gain Max. frequency and min. gain Max. frequency and max. gain

Conclusion:-Drawn from the results of the experiment. Cautions: 1. 2. 3. All connection must be proper. All connections must be tight. Use the correct IC.

EXPERIMENT NO 5 Title: Design and analyse a integrator circuit whose maximum frequency is 100KHz. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Operational amplifier LM348 Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires Specification Quantity 01 02 03 01 01 As per requirement Tolerence

1K, 2K 0.1F

5%

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Rin= 1K, RF= 2K

Procedure: 1. Using power supply voltages of 15 VDC for the op-amp, construct an inverting amplifier circuit with a gain of -3.9 using an input resistor of 1 K Ohms. Install the 0.1 F capacitor in parallel with the feedback resistor as seen in Fig. 1. Calculate the cutoff frequency (fc) for the circuit using the measured values of the components. It should be around 400 Hz. Add two extra 0.1 F capacitors to the circuit. One should be connected between the + DC supply(pin 4) and ground the other should be connected between the - DC supply(pin 11) and ground. These capacitors are to help prevent oscillation in the amplifier circuit due to interaction between the circuit and the power supply. They should be placed as close to the Op-Amp itself as physically possible. Make sure that the circuit is correctly connected before turning on the

power supply voltages. Failure to do so may cause the op-amp to saturate and in some cases cause permanent damage to the op-amp. Set the signal input, vin, to zero. That is replace the signal source, vin, with a short circuit to ground. Carefully measure the DC output voltage. Make sure you record the proper sign, It should be between +50 mV and -50 mV, usually very small. This output with no input is called the output offset voltage. It is an error in the output of the circuit. It can be treated as an equivalent input offset voltage applied to the non-inverting input of the op-amp. The equivalent input offset is calculated by dividing the measured output offset by the gain of the amplifier from the non-inverting input, Av = (1 + Rf /Rin). This offset has no effect on the ac operation of the circuit, but can cause errors in dc measurements of small voltages.
2.

Use a signal input voltage, vin, of 0.1 VDC and connect it to the amplifier signal input as Vin. Using a digital Multi-meter, measure and record both Vin and Vout as accurately as possible. Calculate the DC voltage gain both with and without correcting the output voltage by subtracting the output offset voltage measured in step 2 from the measured output voltage. Be sure to use the correct sign on the offset voltage. Repeat this measurement and calculation with Vin = 1.0 VDC.
3.

4. With an oscilloscope connected to both the signal input and the output, apply an A.C. signal such that the output voltage has amplitude between 5V and 10V. Then measure Vin, Vout, T, and t(for phase measurement) at your calculated cutoff frequency and at each of the following frequencies: 20Hz, 50Hz, 100Hz, 200Hz, 500Hz, 1kHz, 2kHz, 5kHz and 10kHz, 20kHz, 50kHz. Print a copy of the waveforms at 20 Hz and 10 kHz, and at your calculated cutoff frequency. As the gain starts to drop increase the input voltage trying to keep the output voltage amplitude between 5V and 10V until you reach the maximum output of the signal generator. Also take these measurements at your calculated cutoff frequency. If the output waveform starts to look like a triangular wave instead of a sine wave your amplifier has reached the slew rate limit and you will have to reduce the input voltage until this effect is eliminated to get accurate gain measurements 5. Calculate the AC voltage gain and phase shift of the circuit at each frequency. 6. Set your signal generator to square wave output at 100 Hz with amplitude of 1 V. With this input observe and record the output waveform. Repeat at a frequency of 500 Hz. CALCULATIONS / GRAPHS: Gain(dB) = 20 log (Vo/Vi) OBSERVATION TABLE S.No. Frequency(Hz) Vi(V) Vo(V) Gain(dB)

OBSERVATION TABLE CONSIDERING ERRORS DUE TO MEASURING EQUIPMENTS: (CRO) S.No Freq.(Hz Freq.(Hz Vo( . )+2% ) -2% V) +2% Vo( Vi(V Gain(dB)m V) - ) in 2% Gain(dB)m ax

Calculations considering component errors:


6) 7)

Calculate RFmax=RF10%, R1min= R110%. Calculate Vo Vo Vo


min max

min

and Vo

max

= - (RFmin / R1min)Vi min = (1+ RFmax / R1max) V i max

8)

Find theoretical avg. gain and practical average gain.

9) Then find %age error = (theoretical gain practical gain)/theoretical gain. Plot the graph between 5) 6) 7) 8) Min. frequency and min gain Min. frequency and max. gain Max. frequency and min. gain Max. frequency and max. gain

Conclusion:-Drawn from the results of the experiment. Cautions: 1. 2. 3. All connection must be proper. All connections must be tight. Use the correct IC.

Experiment 6 Title: To analyze the characteristics of instrumentation amplifier using bread board and PSpice.. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Theory:
An instrumentation (or instrumentational) amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffers, which eliminate the need for input impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment. Additional characteristics include very low DC offset, low drift, low noise, very high open-loop gain, very high common-mode rejection ratio, and very high input impedances. Instrumentation amplifiers are used where great accuracy and stability of the circuit both short- and long-term are required.

Apparatus Op amps Resistor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires

Specification 741 100 K

Quantity 02 04 01 01 As per requirement

Tolerence 5%

Circuit Diagram

Frequency Input voltage Input (v1) 1 K Hz voltage

(v2 )

Ooutput 20log(vo/vi ) voltage Vo

EXPERIMENT 7 Title- To analyse the functionality of triangular wave generator using IC 741 Equipments Used : S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Operational amplifier LM348 Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires Specification Quantity 02 03 01 01 01 As per requirement Tolerence

1K, 2K 0.1F

5%

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure: 1) connect the pin 2 of the operational amplifier IC 741 (i) with a resistance r1 and pin 6 of the operational amplifier IC 2nd . st. 2) Connect a capacitor C1 between pin 2 and pin 6 of the op-amp IC 1 st nd 3) Connect the pin 6 of op-amp 1 to the oin 2 of op-amp 2 through a resistance R2. st nd 4) Connect a resistance R3 between pin 2 of op-amp 1 and pin 6 of op-amp 2 . st 5) Connect the pin 3 of op-amp IC 1 to ground. nd 6) Connect the pin 3 of op-amp IC 2 to ground. st 7) The output pin 6 of op-amp 1 will generate the triangular wave. Observation: Sr. No. R1 C1 Time Constant

Result: - The output of the first op-amp will be triangular wave .

Precautions: 4. 5.

All connections must be correct. Use correct IC .

Experiment 8 Title: To determine the frequency response of cascade amplifier Darlington pair using bread board and PSPICE APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Theory:
In electronics, the Darlington transistor (often called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one. This configuration gives a much higher current gain than each transistor taken separately and, in the case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual transistors because they can use a shared collector. Integrated Darlington pairs come packaged singly in transistor-like packages or as an array of devices (usually eight) in an integrated circuit.

Apparatus Transistor Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires

Specification
Bc 547(q1), bc557(q2)

40F 20V

Quantity 02/2 Ckt Reqt 02 01 01

Tolerence 5%

Circuit Diagram:

OBSERVATION TABLE Frequency Output voltage (f) kHz (vo) Input voltage
(vi )

Gain
(vo/vi )

20log(vo/vi )

Result and Conclusion:-Draw the frequency response.

EXPERIMENT NO. 9 Title: To determine the frequency response of two stage RC coupled amplifier using complementary symmetry push pull amplifier APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Apparatus Transistor Diodes Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires Specification 1K, 2K 0.1F Quantity 05 02 08 02 01 01 As per requirement Tolerance 5%

Circuit Diagram:

OBSERVATION TABLE Frequency Output voltage (f) (vo) Input voltage


(vi )

Gain
(vo/vi )

20log(vo/vi )

Result and Conclusion:-Draw the frequency response.

The expected frequency response will be

Cautions: 1. 2. 3. All connection must be proper. All connections must be tight. Use the correct IC.

Experiment 10 Title: To implement phase shift oscillator using bread board and PSPICE APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Theory:
A phase-shift oscillator is a simple electronic oscillator. It contains an inverting amplifier, and a feedback filter which 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by 180 degrees at a specific oscillation frequency.The filter produces a phase shift that increases with frequency. It must have a maximum phase shift of considerably greater than 180 at high frequencies, so that the phase shift at the desired oscillation frequency is 180.The most common way of achieving this kind of filter is using three identical cascaded resistor-capacitor filters, which together produce a phase shift of zero at low frequencies, and 270 degrees at high frequencies. At the oscillation frequency each filter produces a phase shift of 60 degrees and the whole filter circuit produces a phase shift of 180 degrees.

Apparatus Transistor Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires

Specification
Bc547

1K, 2K 0.1F

Quantity 01 07 04 01 01 As per requirement

Tolerence 5%

Circuit Diagram:

OBSERVATION TABLE
Change the value of R Value of C is constant Frequency Calculated Frequency Observed % error in frequenfy

Change the value of C

Value of R is constant

Frequency Calculated

Frequency Observed

% error in frequenfy

Experiment 11 Title: To analyze the functionality of Hartley oscillator on output frequency using bread board and PSPICE APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Theory:
The Hartley oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses an inductor and a capacitor in parallel to determine the frequency. Invented in 1915 by American engineer Ralph Hartley, the distinguishing feature of the Hartley circuit is that the feedback needed for oscillation is taken from a tap on the coil, or the junction of two coils in series. A Hartley oscillator is essentially any configuration that uses two series-connected coils and a single capacitor. Although there is no requirement for there to be mutual coupling between the two coil segments

Apparatus Transistor Inductance Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires

Specification 1K, 2K 0.1F

Quantity 01 02 03 04 01 01 As per requirement

Tolerence 5%

Circuit Diagram:

OBSERVATION TABLE
Change the value
of L1

Value of L2 is constant

Frequency Calculated

Frequency Observed

% error in frequenfy

Change the value


of L2

Value of L1 is constant

Frequency Calculated

Frequency Observed

% error in frequenfy

Experiment 12 Title: To analyze the functionality of Colpitt oscillator on output frequency using bread board and PSPICE APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Theory:
A Colpitts oscillator, invented in 1920 by American engineer Edwin H. Colpitts, is one of a number of designs for electronic oscillator circuits using the combination of an inductance (L) with a capacitor (C) for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator. The distinguishing feature of the Colpitts circuit is that the feedback signal is taken from a voltage divider made by two capacitors in series. One of the advantages of this circuit is its simplicity; it needs only a single inductor.

Apparatus Transistor Diodes Resistor Capacitor Bread Board Power Supply Connecting wires

Specification 1K, 2K 0.1F

Quantity 05 02 08 02 01 01 As per requirement

Tolerence 5%

Circuit Diagram

OBSERVATION TABLE
Change the value
of C1

Value of C2 is constant

Frequency Calculated

Frequency Observed

% error in frequenfy

Change the value


of C2

Value of C1 is constant

Frequency Calculated

Frequency Observed

% error in frequenfy