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# HOMEWORK -1 CSE403T: Network Security & Cryptography Allocation week -5 Each question carries 5 marks Autumn Term 2012

Submission Week-6 MM 20

Q2 : Let X' be the bitwise complement of X. Prove that if the complement of the plaintext block is taken and the complement of an encryption key is taken, then the result of DES encryption with these values is the complement of the original ciphertext. That is, If Y = E(K, X) Then Y' = E(K', X') Hint: Begin by showing that for any two bit strings of equal length, A and B, (A @B)' = A@ B. It has been said that a brute-force attack on DES requires searching a key space of 256keys. Does the result of part (a) change that? ( Where @= XOR operation) Q:3 a). Suppose the DES F function mapped every 32-bit input R, regardless of the value of the input K, to a 32 bits strings of zero. 1. What function would DES then compute? 2. What would the decryption look like? 3. What function would DES compute if it is used 15 instead of 16 rounds ? (A @B)@ C = A@ (B@C) A@A = 0 A @0 = A A @1 = bitwise complement of A Where @ =(is the XOR operation) A, B, C are n-bit strings of bits 0 is an n-bit string of zeros 1 is an n-bit string of one 1

Q2) For each of the following assets, assign a low, moderate, or high impact level for the loss of confidentiality, availability, and integrity, respectively. Justify your answers. a. An organization managing public information on its Web server. b. A law enforcement organization managing extremely sensitive investigative information. c. A financial organization managing routine administrative information (not privacy related information). d. An information system used for large acquisitions in a contracting organization contains both sensitive, pre-solicitation phase contract information and routine administrative information. Assess the impact for the two data sets separately and the information system as a whole. e. A power plant contains a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system controlling the distribution of electric power for a large military installation. The SCADA system contains both real-time sensor data and routine administrative information. Assess the impact for the two data sets separately and the information system as a whole. Q: 4 This problem provides a numerical example of encryption using a one-round version of DES. We start with the same bit pattern for the key K and the plaintext, namely: in hexadecimal notation: AB0987CD1234EF56 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Derive K1, the first-round subkey. Derive L0, R0. Expand R0 to get E[R0], where E[] is the expansion function of Figure 3.8. Calculate A = E[R0] @K1. Group the 48-bit result of (d) into sets of 6 bits and evaluate the corresponding S-box substitutions. Concatenate the results of (e) to get a 32-bit result, B. Apply the permutation to get P(B). Calculate R1 = P(B) @L0. Write down the ciphertext.

## Where @= XOR operation

Answers Q3.For each of the following assets, assign a low, moderate, or high impact level for the loss of confidentiality, availability, and integrity, respectively. Justify your answers. a. An organization managing public information on its Web server. b. A law enforcement organization managing extremely sensitive investigative information. c. A financial organization managing routine administrative information (not privacy related information). d. An information system used for large acquisitions in a contracting organization contains both sensitive, pre-solicitation phase contract information and routine administrative information. Assess the impact for the two data sets separately and the information system as a whole. e. A power plant contains a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system controlling the distribution of electric power for a large military installation. The SCADA system contains both real-time sensor data and routine administrative information. Assess the impact for the two data sets separately and the information system as a whole.
ANS (a):First, pass the 64-bit input produce a 56-bit result. Then perform a left circular shift separately on the two 28-bit halves. Finally, pass the 56-bit result to produce the 48-bit K1.: in binary notation: 0001 1101 in hexadecimal notation: 1 5 5 4 0101 0101 1000 0100 0110 6 0100 1011 B 1011 0111 7

0010 4 B

D 2 8

## (B) L0, R0 are derived by passing the 64-plaintext through IP :-

L0 = 1100

1000

1011

0000

1110

1100

0100

1111

R0 = 0100

1101

0110

0001

0100

1011

0100

1111

(C) The E table expands R0 to 48 bits: E(R0) = 101001 (D) 011010 101100 000010 101001 010110 101001 011110

(E) S1