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CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................... 1 SITE LOCATION ........................................................................................ 2 SEISMIC CLASSIFICATION ....................................................................... 2 PROPOSED STRUCTURES .......................................................................... 2 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................ 3 FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES ........................................................... 4 7.1 7.2 7.3 Ground Investigation ............................................................................ 4 Laboratory Test ................................................................................... 5 Information processing ......................................................................... 5

8. 9. 10.

GEOLOGY .................................................................................................. 6 GROUND CONDITIONS ............................................................................. 6 SOIL AND ROCK PARAMETERS .................................................................. 8 10.1 Mills, floatation tanks, floatation tanks and mills warehouse and substation 8 10.2 Slopes (mills and substation area) ......................................................... 9

11. 12.

GROUND WATER LEVEL .......................................................................... 10 BEARING RESISTANCE ........................................................................... 10 12.1 Mills area (SAG and BALL)................................................................... 10 12.2 Floatation Tanks and Warehouse (Mills and Floatation Tanks) .................. 11 12.3 Substation ........................................................................................ 12

13.

slope stability analysis ........................................................................... 13 13.1 Stability Analysis methodology ............................................................ 13 13.2 Results ............................................................................................. 14

14.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................... 15 14.1 Conclusions ....................................................................................... 15 14.2 Recommendations.............................................................................. 18

15.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................... 19

TABLES

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Table 1 Structures loading information ..................................................................... 2 Table 2 Equipment estimated weight ....................................................................... 3 Table 3 Soil design parameters ............................................................................... 9 Table 4 Soil design parameters for slope stability analysis ........................................ 10 Table 5 Allowable Bearing Resistance..................................................................... 13 Table 6 Factor of safety for undrained conditions (short term) .................................. 14 Table 7 Factor of safety for drained conditions (long term) ....................................... 14 Table 8 Ground Water level .................................................................................. 17

Annexes: Annex 1: Annex 2: Annex 3: Annex 4: Annex 5: Annex 6: Annex 7: Annex 8: Annex 9: Annex 10:

Project Location Borehole Location Borehole Coordinates Borehole Logs Stratigraphy Bearing Capacity Calculation Slope Stability Analysis Laboratory Tests Photos Seismic Distribution of Ecuador NEC 2011

ii

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

1.

INTRODUCTION

Ecuacorriente S.A. (ECSA) has commissioned Laboratorio de Materiales de Construccin (LMC), de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador (PUCE) to carry out the Geological Geotechnical studies for the Mirador Project foundations. Mirador is an open mine project for copper extraction. In order to facilitate the extraction and processing of the material, a number of structures and facilities need to be constructed such as: y y y y y y Open pit excavation Primary crusher Processing plant which includes two production lines with an approximate capacity of 30.000 tons a day Mine facilities Water dam Access

2.

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES

The scope of this study is to identify the existing soil conditions and characterise the soil strata. Soil parameters will be determined in order to provide with sufficient information to estimate the bearing capacity of the existing strata on the locations where the Mills, Floatation Tanks and Substation, will be placed, according to the latest location of the structures. This study also includes the slope stability analysis of the cutting slopes that will be generated in this area, which geometry has been proposed by ECSA. This study has been based on the General Arrangement Drawing provided by ECSA, which can be observed in the Annex No. 1. This report has the following objectives: y y y y y y Describe the project geology Determine existing stratigraphy Determine soil and rock parameters Determine allowable bearing capacity Recommend foundation type and depth Determine the slope safety factors of the proposed geometry

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

3.

SITE LOCATION

The mining concession of Mirador is located at the South West of Ecuador, in the Zamora Chinchipe province, El Pangui borough in the locality known as Tundayme. The mineral processing plant, floatation tanks and substation, in accordance to the provided information on the National Grid Reference, are located in the following coordinates horizontal datum PSAD 56, zone 17S:

783 783 783 783

120 120 415 415

E; E; E; E;

9 9 9 9

605 605 605 605

976N 765 N 765 N 976 N

A map showing this location is attached in Annex 1 of this document.

4.

SEISMIC CLASSIFICATION

According to the Ecuadorian Construction Code, the project is located in a Seismic Zone III, which represents a maximum effective acceleration value Z of 0.30 in bedrock. This zone is considered as a high seismic hazard zone. Annex No. 10.

5.

PROPOSED STRUCTURES

As part of the construction project, two mineral processing lines have been proposed to build. In the Mills Area, two mills type SAG and two Ball Mills have been planned. In the Floatation Tanks area, material processing tanks will be located per each production line. The study area also includes the substation warehouse. Based on the provided information, the below table summarises the additional load of the different structures to the ground.

Table 1 Structures loading information Foundation of Building and Structures

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Building and Structures Main Plant Building

Type of Structure Steel bent frame

Total load (KN)

1750

Substation

Reinforced concrete frame

200

Table 2 Equipment estimated weight Main Equipment Equipment Foundation Type Unit load Total load (KN) 40.000 Reinforced concrete Ball Mill 22.000

SAG Mill

It is important to highlight that no information has been provided for the floatation tanks. The design of these structures will be based on standard loads assumed adequate and approved by the overseeing organization.

6.

METHODOLOGY

A walkover survey was carried out by Diego Aguirre Burneo and Jimmy Suing in August 2011 to familiarize the designers with the scheme, to examine the location of the structures and to plan the borehole location. Additionally, a Geological survey of the site was undertaken. This information has been included in the Geological Report. The design of the Site Investigation was designed based on the ECSA Tender Documents, in accordance to the location of the structures and following the company representative recommendations. It is important to mention that the originally proposed number of boreholes and depths was changed and reduced by ECSA.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

The borehole locations were referenced topographically on site. Once the boreholes and in situ tests are completed, the samples were properly registered, identified and packaged. The samples were sent to the Laboratory of Materials of the PUCE in Quito to be tested. Based on the type of structure, the specific conditions of each site and the allowable bearing resistance, the most suitable foundation type will be recommended. At the same time, in the office, selected slope models were produced based on the geometry given by ECSA and the obtained soil and rock parameters. Slope stability analyses were carried out on the agreed cross sections in order to obtain the minimum factor of safety.

7.

FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES

In order to comply with the proposed objectives the following activities were undertaken: 7.1 Ground Investigation

The ground investigation carried out by PUCE and AOC Ingeniera on behalf of ECSA in August 2011 has comprised a series of boreholes distributed along the site according to the location of the structures. A brief description of the boreholes location and depth can be found below. A total of twelve boreholes with depths varying from 25 to 33 m have been located at the mill area (three per mill). For the warehouse of the mill area and floatation tanks, a total of eleven boreholes have been carried out at the likely foundation location. The depth of the boreholes varies between 20 and 41 m. In this area, six trial pits were carried out in order to get undisturbed samples. For the substation, a total of six boreholes have been carried out, with depths varying between 15 to 27 m. In this area, five trial pits were carried out in order to obtain undisturbed samples. For the slopes of the mills area and substation, a total of eleven boreholes have been located and also six trial pits were carried out to get disturbed and undisturbed samples. The obtained information has been utilised for the slope stability analysis. The boreholes have been carried out with a rotary drill, recovering samples of NQ and HWT diameters. Additionally, SPT in situ test where undertaken were the conditions were adequate in accordance to ASTM D-1586. At locations, due to special ground conditions a Cone Penetration Test CPT (Dynamic Penetration Test) was carried out. The borehole location drawing is shown in the Annex 2.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Disturbed samples have been recovered in several locations. Due to soil characteristics undisturbed samples were difficult to obtain, therefore only a few undisturbed sample thin wall type were recovered. This information alongside with soil description and NSPT values have been included in the Boreholes Logs which are located in the Annex 4 of this report. All samples have been identified and classified in situ by the Site Engineer in accordance to Visual Manual Classification Method. 7.2 Laboratory Test

In order to complement the in situ information a characterisation of the soil has been carried out based on the below laboratory tests. These tests have been undertaken in accordance to the correspondent ASTM standard. y y y y y y y Natural moisture content Particle size distribution Atterberg limits Uncofined compressive strength UU Triaxial Test Direct Shear Test Consolidation Test ASTM D-2216 ASTM D-422 ASTM D-4318 ASTM D-2166 ASTM D-2850-95 ASTM D-3080-03 ASTM D-2435-96

Based on the laboratory test results, the different soils have been classified following ASTM D2487 Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System USCS). The laboratory test records and results have been attached in the Annex 8 of this document. Based on the laboratory test results of triaxial compression, direct shear, and unconfined compressive strength, the mechanic parameters of soils and rocks (cohesion and friction angle), while with the unidirectional consolidation results, the consolidation parameters were defined. The laboratory test records and results have been attached in the Annex 8 of this document.

7.3

Information processing

All the information collected from site, during the in situ testing and from laboratory testing have been processed, tabulated and interpreted by experienced engineers in order to build the necessary knowledge of the site, to characterise the existing ground, to estimate the bearing capacity and finally, based on the requirements, to recommend the most suitable foundation.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Slope stability analyses have been carried out on agreed cross sections in order to determine the stability of the proposed geometry for the existing ground conditions.

8.

GEOLOGY

The total study area comprises approximately 45 Ha located between 815 and 945 metres above sea level. The area covered by native vegetation has proven difficult to identify any rock outcrop. The morphology can be described as flat and could be the result of an early flooding area. However, during site investigation works, anthropic slopes were created for the drilling platforms showing the exiting ground material. On the surface, boulders with diameters up to 5 m were found dispersed in the site. The superficial geology comprises colluvium deposits including sub angular to rounded boulders mainly composed of quartz sandstones and lutitas within silty sand matrix with low plasticity from the formation known as Holln. Occasionally, the colluvium has been found overlying alluvial deposits composed of round clasts within sandy silt matrix. At deeper depths, fractured granodiorites of Batolito de Zamora formation was encountered. The detailed information about the geology of the area can be found in the Geology Report.

9.

GROUND CONDITIONS

Mills and floatation tanks area including warehouse In this areas twelve boreholes were undertaken (PL11-68 to PL11-90), with a maximum depth of 41 mBGL. The borehole logs are in Annex 4. The ground stratigraphy is consistent in this area and comprises a 20 to 27 m thick layer of colluvium material which includes pebbles and round boulders of quartz sandstones with diameters varying from 0.3 to 3 m. The material colour was described as reddish yellow, yellowish white and oxidized material. In this colluvium we also have found boulders of granodiorite and sub rounded porphyry blocks, which are slightly weathered and alternating with sandstones blocks. The diameters vary between a few centimetres to 3 to 4 m. The colluvium matrix could be described as a mixture of very moist low plasticity silty Sand, SM in accordance to USCS, and very moist low plasticity sandy Silt classified as ML. The matrix is also includes some gravels and cobbles. Within the colluvium, the quartz sandstone and the granodiorite boulders, represent approximately, 35 to 50% of the material, while the matrix is 65% to 50%.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

The colluvium overlies a stratum composed of saprolite and residual soil, as result of the completely weathering of the granodiorite rock. This layer has a thickness that varies from 0 to 6 m. In some boreholes no saprolite material has been found. Residual soil can be described as very moist, medium plasticity sandy silt, ML in accordance to USCS. Finally, a third layer composed of an intrusive granodiorite rock was found. The rock is described between fracture and very fracture and slightly weathered. In this rock there are epidote, chlorite, and oxides filling the fractures. All this information can be found in the Borehole Logs in Annex No.4 and in the geological and geotechnical cross sections in the Annex No 5 Stratigraphy. Substation area In this area eleven boreholes were undertaken, where most of the boreholes reached a maximum depth of 20 mBGL. The borehole logs are included in Annex 4 of this report. The ground description in these 20 m is described as colluvium material which includes boulders, cobbles and gravel of quartz sandstones and Granodiorite, with diameters varying from 0.3 to 3 m. The material colour was described as reddish yellow, yellowish white and oxidized material. These boulders in some cases are slightly weathered to moderately weathered. The sandstones boulders present sericite and argillite alterations and the Granodiorite boulders and cobbles present quartz sericite, argillite and propylitic alterations. The colluvium matrix is mainly described as sandy silt, with low to medium plasticity and very moist, ML according to a USCS. The percentage of matrix in the total colluvium may vary from 60% to 90 %. In the matrix there are also pebbles and gravel in some areas. In this area, there is no borehole entering the bedrock. All this information can be found in the borehole logs Annex No.4 and in the geological and geotechnical cross section in the Annex No 5 Stratigraphy. Slopes Area In this area eleven boreholes were undertaken, where maximum depths between 19 and 30,5 mBGL. The borehole logs are included in Annex 4 of this report. The ground stratigraphy in this area is mainly formed of colluvium layer with cobbles, pebbles and gravel. The matrix vary between a sandy silt , medium to low plasticity, very moist, ML according to USCS and a silty sand, low plasticity, very moist, SM according to USCS. In this area no large boulders were found and the percentage of matrix in this colluvium is much higher varying between 70% and 90%.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

All these information are in the borehole logs Annex No.4 and in the geological and geotechnical cross sections in the Annex No 5 Stratigraphy.

10.

SOIL AND ROCK PARAMETERS

Soil and rock parameters have been estimated based on the results obtained from in situ and laboratory testing as well as the description given by the site engineer. The stratigraphy is consistent in the area studied. Mainly, three different layers have been found: the colluvium, the residual soil (saprolite) and the granodiorite rock. According to the ground utilisation, given loads and anticipated type of foundation; the soil characterisation has been divided in facilities area and slopes.

10.1 Mills, floatation tanks, floatation tanks and mills warehouse and substation In the mills area, according to the percentage of matrix material (between 50% and 65%) the behaviour of the layer is going to be more like the matrix than the combination of boulders, cobbles and gravel. The parameters for the colluvium have been estimated based on the percentage of the matrix, triaxial tests results, SPT N values, and using the oedometer consolidation test, while the parameters of the rock have been estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test, and the RQD parameter. Mechanical properties for rock has been derived mainly from unconfined compressive strength test (UCS) and cohesion based on Mohr Coulomb criteria. For design purposes, the rock angle of friction has been assumed as 45 based on similar values used for this type of material (Bowles). Based on the Mohr-Coulomb criteria, it has been assumed the worst case scenario where the failure surface is 45+J/2, the lateral support is neglected W1 = Wm = UCS and W3 = 0. The lineal criteria of Mohr-Coulomb have been adopted following these two recommendations: y y To assume a cohesion value close to a 10% of the UCS value To adopt a friction angle in accordance to the working confined stress of the rock

Table 3 summarizes the estimated soil and rock parameters to be used for bearing resistance calculations.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Table 3 Soil design parameters Area Mills Ball) Mills Ball) (SAG and Material description Colluvium Level
masl

J
()

c
(MPa)

(kN/m3)

Knat

Cc

885

(SAG

and

Granodiorite Rock

865

45

26

Floatation Tanks, warehouse (mills and tanks) Substation

Colluvium

885 880

10

60

17

0,15

Colluvium

883

12

55

17

0,20

10.2 Slopes (mills and substation area) In the slopes area, we have also found the same colluvium, but with a higher percentage of matrix material (between 70% and 90%) therefore the behaviour is definitely similar to the matrix soil. The parameters for the colluvium have been estimated based on the percentage of the matrix, triaxial tests results, SPT N values, and using the oedometer consolidation test, while the parameters of the rock have been estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test, and the RQD parameter. Additional to the information obtained from the laboratory tests, some correlations have been used to estimate soil parameters, using SPT N values and plasticity index.

Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Table 4 Soil design parameters for slope stability analysis Material description Colluvium Saprolite Granodiorite rock cu
(KPa)

J
()

c
(KN/m2)

UCS
(kPa)

(kN/m3)

Knat

60 70 -

30 0 -

6 70 -

27000

18 18 26

11.

GROUND WATER LEVEL

Ground water level has been recorded in the majority of boreholes and summarised below. y y y y Mills area, 893 masl average Flotation tanks, 883 masl average Substation, 885 masl Slopes vary between, 877 masl and 885 masl

12.

BEARING RESISTANCE

Bearing resistance has been calculated in accordance to the existing ground conditions per each structure location and the given loads. For bearing capacity analysis of shallow foundations two different methodologies have been used, the first methodology is based on the adjusted Meyerhof equation considering the corrected N SPT value obtaining the allowable bearing capacity for a maximum settlement of 25 mm (Bowles, 1996); and, the second methodology is based on the Terzaghi equation for strip foundations that utilises the shear strength parameters to determine the bearing capacity (Das, 1999).

12.1 Mills area (SAG and BALL)

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

For both mills, SAG and BALL, deep foundations are recommended, this is due to the nature of these structures, which transmit large loads to the ground and are sensitive to differential settlements; and, because of the existing ground conditions. The deep foundations are defined as rock socket piles, comprising a bored pile embedded in the rock head at least three diameters. For the pile bearing resistance, only base capacity has been considered, which has been estimated based on the lowest value of the following methodology proposed by Bowles (1996). The first calculation is based on the shear strength of the rock and the square value of RQD (see equation below).

qult = qult (RQD)2


The second value has been estimated based on the unconfined compressive strength test UCS carried out in 14 samples of rock. The values obtained vary from 28 to 129 MPa. The allowable rock bearing pressure is the range from 1/3 to 1/10 of the unconfined compression strength obtained from intact rock samples. For bigger RQD, 1/3 and for smaller RQD, 1/10 of the UCS test. Taking the above in consideration and applying an overall recommended factor of safety of 6, the proposed bored pile diameter could be in the range of 500 mm, 600 mm, 700mm, 800mm (depending on the geometry of the pile cap), and the allowable bearing capacity of 10 MPa at 865 masl elevation. The bearing capacity analysis for the mills area, can be found in the Annex No. 6.1

12.2 Floatation Tanks and Warehouse (Mills and Floatation Tanks) According to the type of structures of this area and the soil mechanic behaviour, a shallow foundation will be needed.

Bearing Capacity from SPT The recorded information for NSPT (70) values, varies from 2 to 25. Higher values have been ignored since those could be produced due to cobbles and boulders presence. After correcting N field value to get a NSPT (70), the bearing capacity analysis has been made for B= 1 m and a Df=1 m, for each borehole at the depth, where we have SPT information. Taking into account the available information and based on the bearing capacity calculated following modified Meyerhof equation (Bowles); it has been estimated that the soil allowable bearing resistance is 1265 kN/m2.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Additionally, the subgrade modulus k has been calculated based on the equation recommended by Scott. A value K30 = 35 MN/m3 has been estimated. This value shall be confirmed on site with a plate load test for detailed design stage.

Bearing Capacity from Shear Strength For floatation tanks and warehouse area, according to the loads and type of foundation material, the bearing capacity for local shear case, has been carried out using undrained unconsolidated parameters of the soil from the triaxial tests. The parameters used for this calculation are in Table No. 3 Soils Design Parameters. Applying a FS= 3, the allowable shear bearing, for the floatation tanks and warehouse area is 124 kN/m2. The bearing capacity analysis for the floatation tanks and warehouse area are located in the Annex No. 6.2

12.3 Substation According to the type of structures of this area and the soil mechanic behavior, a shallow foundation will be needed.

Bearing Capacity from SPT The recorded information for NSPT (70) values, varies from 3 to 32. Higher values have been ignored since those could be produced due to cobbles and boulders presence. After correcting N field value to get a NSPT (70), the bearing capacity analysis has been made for B= 1 m and a Df= 1 m, for each borehole at the depth, where we have SPT information. Taking into account the available information and based on the bearing capacity calculated following modified Meyerhof equation (Bowles) it has been estimated that the soil allowable bearing resistance is 1200 kN/m2. Additionally, the subgrade modulus k has been calculated based on the equation recommended by Scott (1981). A value K30 = 35 MN/m3 has been estimated. This value shall be confirmed on site with a plate load test for detailed design stage.

Bearing Capacity from Shear Strength For substation area, according to the loads and type of foundation material, the bearing capacity for local shear case, has been carried out using undrained unconsolidated parameters of the soil from the triaxial tests. The parameters used for this calculation are in Table No. 3 Soils Design Parameters.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Applying a 125 kN/m2.

FS=

3,

the

allowable

shear

bearing,

for

the

substation

area

is

Table 5 Allowable Bearing Resistance

Area Floatation Tanks and warehouse (mills and Floatation Tanks) Substation

Material description Coluvium

Level
masl

Qu
(KN/m2)

Qa
(KN/m2)

885 880

372

124

Coluvium

883

376

125

The bearing capacity analysis and calculations for the substation area are located in Annex No. 6.3

13.

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS

Based on the general arrangement and the topography provided by ECSA, nine cross sections have been produced. The cross sections are considered the most representative of the proposed geometry and have been attached in the Annex No. 7. The proposed geometry of the cutting slopes comprises a 45 degree gradient with a maximum height of 10 m. These 10 m slopes are separated for a 2 m bench. The maximum expected height for the cutting slope is 50 m, however, at some locations, the cutting slope alignment will follow the existing slope gradient forming greater high slopes (see cross section 3-3 and 7-7, Annex No. 5).

13.1 Stability Analysis methodology A ground model has been created for each of the proposed cross section based on the ground investigation carried out by PUCE. Additionally, historical ground information (GI, 2006 by Higgeco and others) has been analysed in order to complete the model needed for the stability analysis. The slope stability has been analysed for cross sections 1, 2, 3, 7 and 8 which have been considered the worst case. The chosen cross sections have been analysed using specialised software based on the limit equilibrium and applying Bishop methodology. A minimum Factor of Safety and the location of the expected slip surface of the analysed cross sections have been found considering the two different conditions described below.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Undrained Conditions (short term) Due to the natural apparent cohesion of the soil, it is expected that the material will have very low permeability, therefore the dissipation of pore water pressures would be retarded by the size of the particles. This special feature could maintain its micro particles together due to suction forces for a short period of time, allowing steep cutting slopes to remain stable in the short term. The short term analysis can be applied to predict the behaviour of the temporary cutting slope that will be carried out during the construction period. The undrained analysis is based on the undrained shear strength cu of the soil obtained from the available triaxial test data. Drained Conditions (long term) For cutting slopes, effective stress (drained or long term conditions) is normally more critical than total stress conditions (undrained). This condition is reached when the pore water pressure has been dissipated and the suction forces (cohesion) no longer keep its particles together, making the soil behave as granular material where effective parameters will be used for analysis. A list of the drained shear strength parameters were summarised in Table 4. 13.2 Results Five different cross sections have been analysed 1, 2, 3, 7 and 8. These cross sections are considered as the worst case due to the height of the slope, soil configuration or difficult geometry. The obtained results were summarised in the below table of factor of safety.
Table 6 Factor of safety for undrained conditions (short term) Cross section Seismic Load FOS

1-1 2-2 3-3 7-7 8-8

----------------

0.56 0.42 0.61 0.58 0.78

Table 7 Factor of safety for drained conditions (long term) Cross section Seismic Load FOS

1-1 2-2

-------

0.71 0.42

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

3-3 7-7 8-8

----------

0.87 0.78 0.80

At this stage no seismic analysis has been considered since the preliminary results show potential slope instability.

14.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

14.1 Conclusions 1. Generally, the ground description is consistent through the site comprising colluvium occasionally overlying alluvial deposits. The colluvium is overlying the Batolito de Zamora formation, composed of Granodiorita. Before the intact rock a layer of highly weathered rock has been identified. 2. The proposed borehole grid, location and depth have been decided based on the preliminary site walkover, structures location and importance. This proposed Ground Investigation was submitted to ECSA for approval. Some boreholes were eliminated and some exploration depths were reduced by ECSA. The final proposed borehole location is included in Annex No. 2 Borehole Location. 3. A total of forty boreholes (40) have been undertaken with depths varying from 15 mGBL to 41,30 mGBL. Information of six (6) boreholes of earlier investigation of PUCE, and seven (7) boreholes of other companies have also been used. Annex 2 and Annex 4. 4. A total of sixteen (16) trial pits have been undertaken with an excavator, with depths varying from 2 and 2,50 m. The trial pit logs are located in the Annex No. 2. Information of two (2) trial pits from earlier investigations of other companies has also been used (see Annex 2 and Annex 4). 5. Thirty one (31) geotechnical cross sections showing the stratigraphy have been produced based on the information compiled during this site investigation and previous investigations. These profiles have been attached in Annex 5. 6. For better understanding the ground configuration the soil description has been divided in two sections below; one describing the ground conditions at the structures area, and another description for the cutting slopes.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

a. MILLS, FLOATATION TANKS, SUBSTATION STRATIGRAPHY The ground stratigraphy has been consistent in this area and comprises a 20 to 27 m thick layer of colluvium which includes pebbles and round boulders of quartz sandstones and Granodiorita, with diameters varying from 0.03 to 3 m. The material colour was described as reddish yellow, yellowish white and oxidized material. The matrix is a mixture of very moist low plasticity silty Sand, SM in accordance to USCS, and very moist low plasticity sandy Silt classified as ML. The matrix also includes gravels and cobbles. The matrix is approximately the 60% of the colluvium. Underlying the colluvium a residual material has been identified, this material can be described as saprolite which is the Granodiorite rock weathering process result. The thickness of this stratum varies from 0 to 6 m. Finally a third layer was founded, composed of an intrusive rock Granodiorite that is described as fracture and very fracture. In this rock it has been identified epidote, chlorite, and oxides filling the fractures. The borehole logs on which this ground model has been based are located in the Annex No. 4 and 5.

b. SLOPES AREA STRATIGRAPHY In this area eleven boreholes were undertaken, with depths varying between 19 mBGL and 30,5 mBGL. The borehole logs are located in Annex No. 4 of this report. The ground stratigraphy in this area comprises colluvium in the first layer, with cobbles, pebbles and gravel. The matrix varies between a sandy silt , medium to low plasticity, very moist, ML according to USCS and a silty sand, low plasticity, very moist, SM according to USCS. In this area no large boulders have been found and the percentage of matrix in this colluvium is much higher varying between 70% and 90%.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

7. Ground water levels registered during the site investigation are shown in the following Table.
Table 8 Ground Water level Area of study Minimum GWT (masl) Maximum GWT (masl)

Mills Floatation tanks and warehouse (mills, tanks) Substation Slopes

890 875 877 883

897 898 885 904

8. The bearing capacity has been checked for elastic settlements from SPT values (see Annex No.6) 9. The bearing capacity based on the shear strength has been calculated considering the UU triaxial results. 10. Warehouse and floatation tanks can be founded on shallow foundations, whereas SAG and BALL mills should be founded using bored piles. 11. Based on the general arrangement and the topography provided by ECSA, nine cross sections have been produced in the slopes area. The cross sections are considered the most representative of the geometry proposed by ECSA, and have been attached in the Annex No. 7. 12. The geometry of the cutting slopes comprises a 45 degree gradient, and a maximum height of 50 m. 13. The slope stability has been analysed for cross sections 1, 2, 3, 7 and 8 which have been considered the worst case. The chosen cross sections have been analysed using specialised software based on the limit equilibrium and applying Bishop methodology. 14. A minimum Factor of Safety of the slopes has been found considering the two different conditions: Undrained conditions for short term analysis and drained conditions for long term analysis. 15. The Factor of Safety for all cross sections analysed are less than one, without considering the seismic load. Therefore it can be said that the proposed slope geometry is unstable.

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

14.2

Recommendations

1. The foundation recommended for mills area (SAG and BALL mills) should follow the below recommendations: Deep Foundation (Rock socket bored pile) 600 mm 865 masl (at least 3 diam into rock head) 10 MPa

Type of foundation: Pile diameter: Foundation level: Bearing resistance:

2. The foundation recommended for floatation tanks and warehouse (mills and floatation tanks) has been summarized below: Shallow foundation (Continuous spread footing) Variable (at least 1m below platform level) 0,50m of sub-base class 3 120 KPa 35 MN/m3

Type of foundation:

Foundation level: Soil replacement: Bearing resistance: Subgrade reaction modulus K30:

3. The foundation recommended for substation has been summarized below:

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

Type of foundation: Foundation level: Soil replacement: Bearing resistance: Subgrade reaction modulus K30:

Shallow foundation (Continuous spread footing) 882 masl 0,50m of sub-base class 3 120 KPa 35 MN/m3

4. It is recommended to carry out plate load test in order to confirm the estimated subgrade reaction modulus. 5. It is recommended to carry out a pile load test on at least 2% of the proposed piles in order to confirm the estimated pile capacity. 6. Any soft spots should be removed and replaced with granular material sub base type class III, according to MTOP -001 F Standards. 7. For shallow foundations, a 500 mm thickness layer of compacted granular material type Base III, according to MTOP-001 F Standards, shall be placed underneath the foundation. This layer should have 300 mm more of the proposed width of the foundation (B). 8. Prior foundation and platform construction, ground water level shall be lowered to at least two times the foundation width from the proposed formation level. 9. Due to the instability of the proposed cutting slopes, during detailed design stage, stability measures should be taken such as change in the proposed geometry, retaining walls, soil nails, etc. 10. It is recommended the presence of a Geotechnical Engineer during excavation works and foundation construction in order to ensure that expected soil conditions are confirmed.

15.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bowles, Joseph. 2001. Foundation Analysis And Design 5th Edition

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Geological Geotechnical Report, Mirador Project Mills, Flotation T. and Substation Area, Final Location

y y y y

Gonzales de Vallejo, Luis et al. 2004 Ingeniera Geolgica Barnes, Graham. 2005 Soil Mechanics 2nd Edition Das, Braja M. 1999. Principles of Foundation Engineering 4th Edition Blockley, David. 2005. New Dictionary of Civil Engineering

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