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ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY

BY

F.

KLUGE

AND F.

LUTZ

FROM -TH E- LIBRAR-Y OF


-

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2008

with funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/englishetymologyOOklug

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY.

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY.

A SELECT GLOSSARY
SERVING AS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY

OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

BY

F.

KLUGE

AND F.

LUTZ

KARL

STRASSBURG TK U BN ER
J.

i8g8.

Printed by G.

Otto,

Darmstadt.

/^ 7/

PREFACE.
Our primer of
an introduction
English.
to

Englisli

Etymology
of the

is

meant

to

serve as

the

study

historical

grammar of
it

However manifold
be denied that
it

the advantages which the student


Skeat's Etymological Dictionary,

may derive from Professor


cainiot

does
it

not
is

commend

itself

as

book

for beginners.

Though

a work of deep research,


linguistic

brilliant

sagacity,

_ laws underlying the ^ are not brought out Q ^ the uninitiated. We


"^

and admirable completeness, the various changes of form and


clearly

meaning

enough

to

be

easily

grasped by

therefore propose to furnish the student

and concise book enabling him to get an insight ^ into the main linguistic phenomena. We are greatly indebted o to Professor Skeat, of whose excellent work we have made ample use, drawing from it a great deal of material, which we
with a small

hereby thankfully acknowledge.

As our aim has of course not


and general completeness, all words the
at

been to produce a book


cessor's

in

any way comparable to our prede-

work

in

fulness of detail

we have confined
large.

ourselves to merely selecting

history of which bears on the

development of the language


first

We

have therefore,

in

the

place, traced back

to the

older
origin

periods

loanwords of Scandinavian, French and Latin


as

and such genuine English words


In this v?av

may

afford

matter

for linguistic investigation.

vided a basis for every historical

we hope to have programmar of English, e.g. for

Sweet's Historv of EnLrlish Sounds.

ai498'

VI
If

Preface.

we may be allowed to give a hint as our little book, we shoukl advise the teacher

to

the use of

to

make

it

point to always deal with a whole group of words at a time.

Special interest attaches for instance to words of early Christian


origin,

to the

names of

festivals

and the days of the week;

besides these the names of the various parts of the house and

of the materials used in building, the words for cattle and the
various kintls of meat, for eating and drinking, etc. might be

made

the subject of a suggestive discussion.


in

On
the

treating ety-

mology

this

way, the teacher

will

have

advantage of

converting a lesson on the growth of the English language into

an inquiry into the history of the Anglo-Saxon race, thus lending

charm and a deeper meaning. In conclusion, our best thanks are due to Professor 'W. Franz of Tubingen University, who has placed many words and etymologies at our disposal and assisted us in various
to a naturally dry subject a fresh

other ways.

Freiburg

i.

B.

F.

KLUGE

F.

LUTZ.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
ace.
adj.
-r^

accusative case
adjective

lit.

literally

adv.

^ =

LITH
ni.

=: Lithuanian

adverb

masculine

BKKT.
(KI,T.
c'Oiij.

=
=r

Breton
Celtic

iME.

=
"

Middle

Knj,'lish

MUG.
n.

Middle High (^.erman

=:

conjunction

(neiitr.)

neuter

COK-V.
cp.

=
z=

Cornish

nom.
old.

nominative

r=

compare

Cynir.
Daii.
rial.

Cymric (Welsh)

= Danish = dative case


=r derived, derivative

der(iv).
diniin.

diminutive

DU.

= Dutch E. = modern English (fern.) n t'eminine


f.

= oblique case = Old Dutch OKK. = Old French OHG. = Old High German OIK. = Old Lish ON. = Old Norse ONFR. Old North French orig. = original, originally OSAX. = Old Saxon
ODU.
osi.ov. rr
pi.

freijuent.
I'K.

'rcquentative

Old Slovenian

=r

French

p.

plural
rr
past

KKIP.S.
(;.

Friesic
(^lernian

p.

paiticiple

rz

modern

prob. : proliablv
pioii.
proji.

Gaelic genitive case GOTH. Cidthic


Gael.
gen.
(jK.

|)ronoun

propeily

I'Rov.
pit.

Provencal

Greek
Icelandic
infinitive

^z preteiile, past tense

Icel.
inf.
infl.

=
r=
=_

RUSS. =: Russian

mood

sb.

=r substantive

inHected

SKR.

interj.
IR.

interjection

SFAN.

Sanskrit = Spanish

superlative

Irish

superl.

ITAI,.

= Italian I.AT. Latin = Low Cieinian


l.Ci.

SWKD.
TKUT.
vb.

= Swedish = Teutonic
verb

Yl[[

List

of Syiiibols

in

Teutonic Wfirds.

LIST
?'

OK SYMBOLS

IN

TRUTONIC WORDS.
f.

(not
in in in

umlauted;

Kuiopeaii and Aiyan


(>.

<
/'

OK. MK. long closed


Ob;.

ME. long open


MHt;.

,'.

t-

OH(j.

osA\. closed

c'

(uinlauted).

:>

a
ill

reduced Aryan uml pre-'IVut. souel.


l_)e.

('

Me. lung closed


.MK.

c.

;/

in in in

OK.

r
^'

words long open OK. woriN jialataliztd /'.


.MK.

c.

words

as in
a

NK.

ff<,v

hrldge.
^',

^ in (Je.

Me. wolds

spirantic palatalized

ill

Tent,

words
()e.
is

-z.

K. th.

J k
*

in

On.

Usa.x.
//

words
7v.

rr E.

th.
,

in

(Jotli.

-j-

\^ ~

root.
a
is

indicates

word

or form not .actually

louiid,

lait

of which the

existence

inferred.

a\ an
a:me.

indef. article me. a an,


a: ident.

about ME.
onbiUan;
cp.
-ME.

aboutc

oe.

dbiitan

OE. an: ident. with one.

but

for

oe. biitan.

with on

(cp.

above

above earlier abufen

oho. obana 'from above'; cp. oner. abash short for me. abaisshe abridge me. abrigge abregge: (iba'ische (aba'isse): borrowed from adaj)t. (i{ OFR. abrigier abregier OFR. esbahiss- stem of ofk. csbahir (source lat. abbrez>iare'%\\ox\.&Xi). (fr. ebahir) 'astonish'. abroad :me. a brpd^tro-^. 'broadabate me. abate: adapt, of ofk. ly, widely'; cp. broad. abatre 'beat down'. abuse cp. use. abbess, abbey see abbot. accord vb. :me. acorde late oe. abbot me. ab'bot; older by-form (c. 1 1 40) dcordian borrowed from MK. OE. al)bod. Source lat. ab- OFR. acorder fr. accorder (cp.
OE. dbufan; akin to G. oben
:

back, abroad^. abase; cp. base.

Hence abbess me. from FR. abbesse (but OE. abbudisse =


FK.
ablii,

hatem {abbas),

whence

it. abbdtc,

IT.

accordare).
accuse from fr. ac

OHG. abbat g.du.

abt.

accuse me.
accrue

abbcsse

cuscr (lat. accusare).


{accreici)

vb. from fr.

LAT. abbaiissa^ 'abbess' and abbey accrue sb. 'growth, increase' (orig. ME. abbcie from fr. abbaye (ofr. part, of FR. accroitre: lat, adha bete). ere tuin) cp increase. abide cp. bide and abode. ace ME. as dee: loanword from able :\IE. able: adapt, of ofr. FR. as (=rr SPAN. aS, G. aSS, DU. (h)ablc = SPAN. //ahV, rr. abi/e; aas^. Source lat. as (ace. asse7ti) source LAT. habilis. 'a unit, pound, foot'.
;
.

abode
al)i(UTii;';

.aif.

abgd prop,

cp. bide.

abound me. of FR. abonder abound'.

me. me. abounde: adapt, echt 'pain' under the influence lat. abimdare of the vb. OE. acan .mk. ake 'ache,
dke;

'delay,

ache

earlier

spelling ake
OE. cce

derived

from

feel pain'.
1

English Etymology.

achieve

aghast

achieve me.
KR.

acheve:

adapt, of

achcver

'accomplish'.

adjourn vb. me. ajurnc ajornc: Akin adapted from Y^.ajourner (deriv.
of FR. jour
;

to chief.

journic

'day').

me. acorti OE. cecerii ident. with goth. akran 'crop, fruit', ON. akarn, DU. aker, G. ecker.

acorn

ado ME. ado pro]), at dp: prop, infinit. 'to do' with at, orig. in Northern English.

The meaning 'acorn' being a later advance vb. for me. avaunce and special one as compared loanword from fr. avancer 'go
with GOT^i.akran
'fruit',

the group

before' (deriv.

of fr. avant
-(-

may be derived from teut. a/Jrc?-

advice sb. for me. avis: adopt, acquaint vb. i\ie. aqueinte aof fr. avis (= IT. avviso, LAT. adcointe: borrowed fr. ofr. aco'mter vismti). The vb. advise me. quaint.
'advise'

ITAL. avante, LAr. ab

ante).

acre.

cp.

acquire me. aquire aquere'. borLAT. rowed from OFR. aquerre (fr.
acquih-ir

avise is fr. aviser


'"adznsare').
:\IE.

{=

it. avvisar,

lat. acqinrere).

afford

aforthe 'provide^

oe.

acre :\ie. akcr oe. cecer 'a field, ic/ordia/i 'promote': deriv. of acre' := synon. goth. akrs, OSAX. forth. affray 'frighten' me. afraie from akkar, ohg. acchar G. acker, DU.
iikker,

on. akr

a
:

common Teut.

teut. *akra-z, skr. aj'ra-s, pre-TEur. agro-s GR. dypog, LAT. ager (stem agro-) 'acre' Aryan \/^ ag in lat. ago, GR. dyM, SKR. aj, ON. aka. The orig. meaning of acre (indoteut. agro-s) was 'place where the cattle are driven'; cp. G. trift

and Aryan word

Hence FR. effrayer 'frighten'. the part, afraid 'frightened' :\ik.


afraied.

after me. after oe. eefler adv. GOTH, aftra 'back, prep.

again',

ohg. osax. aftar


me.
agein

'back',

DU. aehter.

again
ongedn
gagn.
;

oe.

ongeyi

ident. with g. gegen ohg.

from

treibe7i.

adage from

fr. adage

gegin gagan,

lat.

osax. gegin ?, on. against 2\ie. ageincst

adagium 'proverb'. earlier agcines add :\IE. adde from lat. addere
add'.

OE. togeines.

adder

.mi-:,

OSAX. nadra, DU. OE. iuc(d)dre adder, ohg. nat{a)ra mhg. nater g.
natter (otter), ICEL.

adder

older /ladder

age ME. age: adoption of fr. Source age (oFR. a-age e-age).
a LAT. type *aetaticHJn a etas) 'time'.

(=

lat.

nadra f. nadr aghast part, of me. agaste vb. goth. nadrs: cogn. with ir. na- 'terrify' OE. gcestan 'terrify'; akin For the loss of to goth. tisgaisjan make afraid' thair, w. neidr. and peril, to ghost. initial // cp. auger and apron.
m.,

iglet

almond

ohg. alder j\ie. alder oe. dlor aglet 'spangle, pin' (Shakesp.) aiguilld diiuin. of ai- elira erila o. crlc, on. elr elre(r), Fi-!.. DU. LG. eller (goth. '^diliza is giiiile 'needle'. ago ME. ago agon: orig-. part, found in span, alisa fr. aliae 'wild sorb, wild service-berry). 'gone by, past' from go. agog adapt, of ofr. en gognes Akin to osi^ow jelie/ia, lat. alnus
from
,

'lusty, lively, in

a pleasant humor'

(for "^alsmis)

'alder'.
(inll.

FR. gogne 'mirth, glee'.

agree 'si's.. agree: adapt, of fr. dan. agrier (= it. aggradarc; source
LAT.^rd'//^;>'/'pleasing, agreeable').

ale ME. die oe. ealu ealo on. (alo(T) OSAX. alo

sw.

gl;

akin to oslov.
beer'.

olii

'cider',

LITH.

aliis

ague
'sharp,

-AIE.

alight 'alight from a horse' cp. agile: source ofr. agn light vb.

acute'

(=

fr.

aigii).

all yi..al{l)
eal(l)

Source lax. aetltns. aid vb. from fr. aider


ail

plur.

plur. ealle

= oSAX. ohg.
derivatives

alle

oe. al(l)

'help'.

Dr. LG.
alls.

vb.

ME.

aile

'trouble,

afflict'

eile

OE. eilan.

al, G. all, on. allr, goth. primary form ala- is found

goth.

iis-

in

compounds and

agljan 'trouble':
ei^le

deriv.

of OE.
cp.

cp. OSAX. ohg. alung :mhg. alenc


'entire, complete',
'all

("jOi'H.

ag/us 'loathsome,

goth. alamans
,

troublesome'.
a 7v e.

For

\^^/^''

men', ohg. ala-wdri 'all true ala-nimvi 'all new'. Cogn. w. oir.
uile

(base olio-~). allay yui. alaie aleie alegge "la\" aer\ air- from fr. air 'ex- aside, give up'; from lay"^. Perh. ternal appearance' is considered mixed with ofr. aleyer (fr. ident. with air^. aloycj-) ? aisel (Shakesp.); cp. eisel. allege :\ie. alegge 'give testiajar yn'..aeher oncher (oe. on mony adajited from OFR. alegier cerr on eyrr~) 'ajar' cp. char. alegger ?

word from

air^ ME. aire older eir: loanFK. air (source lat.

kcnbihi'e (in

kembmoc a alley mk. the phrase his hand, FR. allic 'a his armes a kemb^we setten) allow vb. for ME. hmve cp. bow and elbow. FR. alloucr
me. a

akimbo

aley:

loanword from

going, passage ME. aloue: adapt, of 'grant' (lat. type ad-

The

ft. st element represents an locarc) adapted on. kengr 'crook the allure y\Y. alUre: from ofr. shape of a horse-shoe' (cp. on. aliirer, deriv. of lure 'bait'. ke?igbogifiti 'crooked'). Another almond :me. almaunde: from suggestion proceeds from an OE. OFR. almande (=- fr. amande, ^cyneboga formed as OE. eync- whence DU. amandel). Source

widde.

LAT. amygdala (gr. auvyid'kr^ 'an


*
1

alms

angel

almond', whence a vulgar lat.


iunendla
(it.

inandola

amaze
sian.

vb. me. amdse oe. d-vidcp. middle.

ohg.

!nandala G. inandel).

amid, amidst;
OE.
cvhnesse

alms

ME.

ahnes
:

amiss me. on

misse; cp. miss.

borrowed from Akin to the synon. OSAX. alamosna, odu. aelmoese aelvtocsene DU. aalmoes, ohg. alamuosan alamosan G. almosen. Source
(infl. cslmessaii)

prop, oncrowd'; oe. lerna/ig 'crowd' see under mingle. Ident. with lg. mang 'among'. i,AT.-GR. eleemosyiia (cp. it. /?>//^amount me. amounte adapt, i7) with a vulgar pronunciation of FR. amonter 'amount to' (fr. almosna ^= provenz. almosna, ofr. amoni'vL^hiW lat. ad monteni)\ almosne fr. aumbne. cp. 7?iount. alone me. alone late oe. eallancestor :\ie. auncestre: loan<hia prop, 'all singly synon. word from VK.ancrtre older ancestre G. allcin, i)U. alleen. Cp. one. (:me. auncesson?- from ofr. ancesalong :\[E. along oe. ondlong sour) source lat. antecessoriem) andlong; cp. long. The prefix anchor me. anker oe. ancor pnfor OE. and is ^^ to G. ent- cor; cp. on. akkeri, dlt. g. anker E. \n cntlang along' (ofris. ond- late ohg. anchar'. a loanword linga) from LAT. ancora (it. ancora, fr. aloof adapt, of DU. te locf 'to ancre^ the windward'; ident. with luff. older ancient me. auncient already orig. 'quite ready'; cp. auncien (for the secondary / cp. > e a dy. also prop, 'quite so' pageant, parch7nent): adapt, ME. also OE. ealsit'd 'quite so' =:= of FK. aneien (= IT. anciano; lat. G. also. Ident. with as. al- type antednus). though .ME. although altheigh; and ME. OE. and =r osax. endi, in OE. we find iheah -]- eal (e. g. DU. en, OHG. anti enti inii unti ic eal mcege* 'although MHG. unde G. und. '>f)eaVi The cogn. I may); cp. though. SKR. dtha 'also, further, and' alum ME. alu?n from OFR. alum points to ARYAN .7/;/Az 'and, also'. =r FR. alun; source lat. aliimen, andiron me. aundire loanword whence G. alaun, du. aluin. from OFR. andier (fr. landier') alway me. alway ahvey oe. eal- 'fire-dog'. Source unknown, perh.
OIR. almscm.

among

mang

on

me. atnong;

"^etnang 'in the

(^z

orig. ace. sing, (some- fr. a T-AT. type aniitdrins (lat. times contr. to ealnei) prop, 'all ames)'^ Cp. imed.-lat. andaia the way, all the time' the com- 'fire-dog'. moner form is ahcays :\[e. al- angel me. aungel: borrowed waies, being an adv. gen. sing, from OFR. angcle (fr. ange'). The all the time, always'. fr. word supplanted the orig. new'ey.
;

ape

anon immediately' .me. anon OSAX. engii, GOTH, aggilus early earlier andn OE. on an 'in one' church-loanwords from lat. au- (moment) cp. o n e. geiiis GR. dyyi-Xo^ 'angel. another; see other. anger UE.cruga- 'affliction, sore, answer sb. me. answare OE. trouble': Scand. loanword from andiwaru; corresp. to the synon. ON. (7Mgr 'grief, sorrow' (dan. OSAX. ant-suwr ofris. ondser, anger 'penitence', sw. anger 're- ON. andsvar? Thereto the akin to lat. (2^(?r 'bodily deriv. vb. answer :me. answere gret') OE. a/nlsivarian. Source theTEUT. or mental torture'. angle ^ me. angel oe. angol \/^swar swear; hence answer giigiil synon. ohg. angid G. was orig. a solemn charge made angel, on. gngull. Akin to lat. to rebut a charge'; and- means
OE, ME. ctigel ^= G. DU. engel ohg.
:

uncus a hook', GR. oyy.og a hook',


ay/.toToov
'hook', fish-hook',

'against'.

skr. ankd

ant ME.
met':

am(e)ie OE, <27nete

emcp.

on<. i'cad 'hook'.

TEUT. base dniaitjon;


amei'T^a

angle ^ (corner) me. angle from OHG.


FR. angle

= lat. angulus 'corner'.


inie

mhg.

atneiye G. ameise.

yiDV. emte eeinpte.


G.
enisig

Perh. akin to
emizzi
in-

anguish

anguisse: from ofr.

OHG.

emi".^i

anguisse fk. a/igolsse.


plexity'.

Source lat. dustrious'.

See emtncL

angustia 'straitncss, poverty, per-

ankel orig. ankle OE. anclanv 'ankle' DU. anklaauw, OHG. anchlao, ox. gkkla (prop.
:me.

ankle

antler me. auntelere: loanword from OFR. antoilUer {andoillier

FR.

andouiller^;
'tine

lat.
eyes'.

tyi)e

an-

(ocularis

of a stag's

horn

in front of the

"^ankuldtv'f);

akin

to

du. enkel,

anvil sliort for me. anvelt anOHG. anchal enchil G. enkel 'ankle'. OHG. anafalz, Source and formation of the felt OE. atifilt DU. aaiibeeld ODU. atibclt: TEUT. group are doubtful; perh. akin base anafalti- and ana-halii-; cp. to SKR. aiiguU afigusiha 'thumb, the synon. ohg. ana-bb'i^ cogn. toe', AVEST. angusta toe'?

announce me. anounce: adapt, w. beat. any me. any {eiiy any') oe. of FR. annoncer (= lat. annun(hiii^ OSAX. enig enag , du. tiarc) c\>. pr o n oun c e. annoy .^^i. anoye anuy{e) 'weari- eenig, ohg. einag g. einig only, deriv. of teu r. aifia ness': from OFR. enoi anui fr. sole' ennui (source lat. in odio 'in E. one. hatred'). du. ape ME. dpc OE, apa anoint mi:, anointc: adapt, of aap, ON. api, OHG. affo mhg. g. OFR. enoint 'anointed' part, of affc: a common teut. word, enoindre 'anoint' cp. o i n t m e n t. whence ORUSS. SLOV. t'/m?, obo;

appal (1)

arni^

HEM. opice 'ape' Source of teut.

are
apaii-

borrowed. unknown.
:

{inaluni
.

praecoqimm'i^

lit.

'pre-

ed from OFK.

appal(l) vb. ME. appalle adaptapallir 'grow pale', akin to pale. apparel me. aparaile apparcile: adapted from ofr. aparaillcr apa'dress'

reiller

fr.

appareillcr

cocious April ME. dpril{l)e: adapt, ot LAI. aprilis-^ the earlier me. byform averil points to ofr. avrill. Cp. G. DU. April. :me. ndapron orig. napron pron ndproun adapt, of fr. nap-

(it . apparrechiare) .

peroii

'a

appeal me.
FK. appeler

a{p)p^'k:

adapt, from

of iidppe
napkin';
loss

(=lat.

ri.appellare).

appear

vb. :me. a{p)pcre'. adapt,

of

LAT. mdppd 'table, For the cp. tidpkin. see adder initial n
drch{e-)

large

cloth',

dimin.

from OFR. aperer aparir apareir aparoir (= it. apparire; source


LAT. apparerc).

and auger. arch ME.


[drcebiscop):
drch-.

oe.

arce-

borrowed from

fr.

appease
apaisc:

vb.

iiE.

apcse

earlier

Cp. the synon. DU.


erzi-

darts,

loanwcjrd from fr. apaiser 'pacify'; akin to peace.

OHG.

{-aggilus).

goth. ^drk G. erz-, Source the LAT.

apple :me. appel oe. (Vppel DU. LG. appel, MHG. G. apfcl OHG.
apful:

Gr. prefix archi-

[dg/t-).

Perh.
influ-

OFR.

arcPi

(in

drchaiiget)

WESTTEUT.
uball,

base
lith.

applu-,
obfilas,

allied to ir.

enced the E. word. archer me. drcher adapt, of FR. archer 'bowman' (lat. type
:

hloko.

OSLOV. abluko 'apple', RUSS. ja- arcarius, deriv. of drcus 'bow'). are (we, you, they are) jme. apply vb. ME. aplk: adapted are oe. (Northumbr.) dron\ plur. from OFR. aplicr (fr. appliquer, it. to the second person sing, art applicare, LAT. applicarc 'apply') An aryax. dr ^lE. drt OE. edit. cp. ply vb. 'be' is prob. in lith. yrci 'is'. apprentice mi:, apreutice aprenark IMF. drke oe. care (infl. tis: loanwcjrd fr. OFR. dprentis and earce^ ohg. arahha archa 'chest' api-eiitif vi<.appienti{^o\\Yco lat. MHG. arche 'chest, money-chest' jppreuderc 1 c arn') G. arche Noah's ark', DU. ark approach vb. me. aprgche: 'Noah's ark', on. grk "chest, coadapt, from fr. approchcr: lat. venant, ark, box', goth. arka f. type adpropiarc 'draw near'. 'money-box, Noah's ark': a Teut. apricot borrowed from fr. loanword from lat. (also ROM.) dbriiOi; corresp. to DU. abrikoos, drcd. G. aprikosc; akin to span, albariarm ^ mi;, drm oe. earm coque, IT. alba-cocco (mod. GR. OSAX. DU. arm, on. armr, goth. Ti Qaiy.QY.Y.ia) from lat. praecociuvi arms, ohg. ar(a)m G. arm. Akin

'

arm'
to LAT.

ass

annus

'tlie

topmost part
,

arrow

:\ie.

arwe

late oe. ar7C'e

of the upper arm, fore-quarter', adapt, of ox. or (plur. pi'var'). arm', The native oe. word was earh OSLOV. rajne 'shoulder PRUSS, irmo 'arm', skr. innd-s ident. with on. or (cp. goth. 'fore-quarter, arm avest. arema arhwazna 'dart' and lat. arciis
,

arm', ar.mex.

plur.

as me. as{e) als{e) also alswg synon. OSAX, hg. armes := LAT. OE. ealswa also, DU. als, :mhg. also als dlse. ai-ma 'weapons'. armor ilE. armour(e) anniire: The compound means prop, 'en-

arm-

'a

annukn elbow'. weapon' me. armes

'bow').

from okr.

borrowed from ofr.

artjttire

ar-

tirely

so';

cp.

all and

so.

me-iire (lat. annatiird)

'armor'.

ash^
:me.

sb. 'the

name
cesc

army

:me.

armie arme: adop-

asch
sb.

oe.

of a tree'

ohg. asc
'ash'.
(infl.

tion of FR.

annh (=
borrowed

it.

artnata

',

G. esehe,

DU.
:siE.

esch,

ox. askr
E.
is

base LAT. arviare).

ashfrom
/-(i';/^

asche OE. cesce

arrange
file'

fr.

ascan

axati);

mod.
in

com-

arrair^cr (dcriv. of FR.

'rank,
'a

monly used
(me. asches^.

the

plur. ashes

from ohg. hrinc


or circle

G.

ring
;

ring

DU. asch, azgo 'ashes'. ask vb. older by-form ax me. arrant ident. with errant. aske axe (kext. oxi) oe. dscian arras :me. arras; oris^. cloth dcsian Teut. base aiskbjan =rz of Arras* Arras is the name OSAX. escon, ohg. eiskbn (g. hei~ of a town in Artois (France) Akin to lii'H. jcskoti, scheii). famous for its manufacture. See oslo\". iskati, SKR. icch 'seek'. cambric and la^vn'^. aspl 'a venomous serpent from array :mr. araie adapt, of ofr. LAT. aspis.
of people'
cp.

Cogn. w. ox. aska, ono.aska g. asche, goth.

ranii).

arraicr

arcier

'arrange'

{=

IT.

arredarc): of Teut. origin;

cp.

GOTH, gar aids under ready.


arrest me. a{r)reste\ adapt, of OFR. ar ester fr. arreter (= it. ar re stare, LAi'. restare''',\.di\' back').
arrival y\v.. arivaile prop, 'landadapt, of OFR. arrivaillc landing'. arrive :NrE. arive prop, 'bring to shore, come to shore': adapt, of fr. ar river IT. arrij'are; \..\v. type adripare

ing';

ohg. aspa MHG. aspe G. espc, DU. esp: perh. connected with lat. arbor (if from *azbos by rhotacism) 'tree'. ass ME. asse oe. assa (infl. sing. assan) loanword from OIR. assan 'ass' cp. ox. asne from ofr. asne Source lat. asinus, fr. d/ie. whence also GOTH, asiliis, oe. csol, OHG. csil G. esel 'ass', DU. czel and further osLOV. osilii, russ.
synon.
ox.
gsp
, :

asp2

'a

tree' :me.

aspe oe. cespe

(^rl/a

'shore').

oselii

'ass'.

assail

avenge

assail vb. me. asaile: adapt, of ^= OSAX. OE.


FK. assaiHir\ see

tir

'glory,

honor

assault.
adaptassalto,

(g.

zierde).

assault vb.

ME..a(s)saut:
assatii

attorney
aturnc
atorne

me.

atourney
'agent,

ed from FR.
MED. LAT.

(=IT.

atourni

assaltus).

assay me.

assay assai

FR. essai appoint'. from OFR. assai assay auburn orig. 'whitish or flaxenfrom lat. exagiiun (it, assag/o reddish- brown' me. colored 'weighing'). assemble me. a(s)semble a(s)- auburne awburne 'citron-colored semlf. adapt, of FR. assetnhler {xi. from OFR. auborne alborne {= it.
, :

borrowed

commissioner'?: part, of atorner

older deputy, adapt, of fr.


'direct,

assemblare
'together').

deriv.

of lat. shuul alburno')


'whitish'
:

]med.

lat. albiirnus

(albus 'white').

a(s)sudge quger orig. nauger (like adder ofk. asoager asuagiv, for 7iadder, apron for naproJi with LAT. ty[)e ad-suaviare deriv. of loss of an initial n) me. nangcr older ndve-ggr oe. nafo-gdf' 'an suavis 'sweet assure vb. me. a(s)sure borrowed auger' prop, 'borer, piercer of from FR. assurer {=1^ asseciirarc) naves' (see nave^ and gore-^] astonish transformed after vbs. cp. the synon. ohg. nabug'cr an earlier astony iiHG. nabeger g. (dial.) nabcr, in -is/i from ICEL. nafarr. astoiie Mi<;. astonie asiuiic astottuc aught a whit, anything' me. borrowed from OFR. cstoncr FR. //6'//w;- LAT. type ex\to?iare aught older aivight oe. dwiht dnwiht 'aught'; OE. an is otic But cp. stun. 'thunder'. osax. at, and for wiht see 7v/iit and /lot. at ME. at oe. a-t August from LAT. augustus me. OHG. a-, ON. GOTH, at: akin w. fr. aout't aust from ofr. aoust LAT. ad 'to', OIR. ad-. atone vb. from atone adv. 'at or from late oe. august changed

assyage me. aswdge


fr .

loanword

one, agreed'
one';

ME. at on

into

to ^auii'cst

?
:

adapt, of ofr. Source lat. term) ante (fr. iante^. 'take prisoner, arrest': adapt, of amita aunt'. avail INIE. availe: source fr. FR. attacher (= span, atacar, it.
cp. one.
:me. aunt(e)

aunt

attach

vh.isi^.attacchc (law

attaccare)

vaille

attain

vb. jie. attalnc

atteine

avalanche:
synon.
fr.

from valoir 'be worth'. adoption of

tlie

borrowed

from

fr.

atteindre

(=

LAT. attingere touch upon). 'downward'

avalanche (fr. aval ofr. a val is la r.

attire vb. me. atire:

OFR. atirer 'adorn'. Teut. sb. //;' 'ornament,

adapted fr. ad vallevi 'valleyward'). Source a avenge me. avenge: adapt, of


honor' OFR. avengier
'avenge'

(source

avoid

aye^

ohg. agana mhg. age/ie goth. ahana chaff; avoide: adapted from prob. related, to gr. axvt] a/vgov FK. avoidcr 'empty out'; cp. void. 'chaff', EiTH. akutas opruss. avouch 'declare, confess' from ackons 'awn'. OFK. avoch(i)er', cp. vonch. awry me. a7i.<ry{c) onwiy; cp. avow :me. avmve avoue from fr. 7C' ; avoucr; cp. vow. ax(e) mi:, ax oe. eax =: the await -AIR. aivaiU- from onfr. synon. oE. eax cex, ohg. ahsa ai(.'aii{i)cr\ cp. wait. MHG. a/ise G. ac/isc, i)U. as and award me. luvardc from oxfr. with formative -/ the synon. ox. swardc{i)r 'examine'. For the gxitll, whence Ijorrowed jme. axel Teut. source see under guard. E. axle-(lrec). For a pre-i'EUT.
LAT. vindicare
'vindicate);
cp.
eegne,
g.

vengeance. avoid ME.

ahne,

)'.

aware
,

me.

iwarc

oe.

icivara
g.

icxvcer =--

ohg. osax. girvar


DU. gewaar

gewa/w
wary';

cp. SKR. dksa, gr. a'^oiV, LAT. axis, osLov. osi, LiTH. aszis
a/isa
'axle'.

'watchful,

cp. 7c>ary.
iiE. a7c>a)'

away

awcy oe.
the

o/nc'cj^
;

'away' prop, 'on

way

cp.

way and alway. awe ME. aive older


of ox. agi 'awe
to OE.
,

ax(e) .MK. ax{c) OK. ax orig. acas '^acces -- synon. osAX. ohg. accus :mhg. ackes g. ax(t), dl'.
aaks,

age: adapt,

ox. ox,

goth.
(-^^--s/

Uifizi 'axe'.

terror'. 'fear,

Akin
terror'

Pre- TEUT. i'?^'-/j7

{aksT)

appears

ej^e

ME.
agis

cic

GOTH,
;

'anguisli'
lesting',

cp.

and gr. dyoi^ rowed go th. aglus 'mo'1

also in gr. a^ivrj 'axe'. axle ME. axel in axel-tre: bor-

from
'yes'

ox.

gxultri;

akin

OIR. agar

to
fear'.

^^.v.

awkward mk. awirwardauluvard beside late me. aukc 'contrary, wrong'; auk- contr. of ai^ekOX. ofngr 'turned the wrong way'. Cogn. w. osAX. ahuh^ ohg. abiih and srr. apak 'turned away'. awl -Mi;, aid aw el oic. aw el cawol 'awl': if traceable to a Teut. 'base aivola (for ag-iooia-),

aye^
1

6'*^

cent,
in
ic)

as

occurring in the / and not found


ident.

earlier;

pcrh.
oe.
'no'

with

/ =;

OE. nc

ic;
-\-

we
(in

find nic (for

The orthography
nay).
aye'.mi:,

answering). of aye was

influenced perhaps by aye^ (cp.


ay ey: borrowed from ever akin to goth. aijc
;

akin

to

i,\ r.

aciis

'needle'

OX.

ei

acu/cus

sting'.

'ever',

ohg. osax.

io

g. Je;

cp.

aune older aicene ever. In the Aryan langs. a sb. agc/ie Scand. loanword from ai7C'a- 'age, time' exists in goth. OX. pgn which is ident. with OE. ai7C's, LAT. aeviwi, gr. utcJi-.
MK.
:

aw^n

lO

babe

bait

B
babe me,
babe fuller form babdii:
IR.

part, of the vb. d-bckdan 'compel,


restrain'.

badge late me. baggc: of fr. origin, cp. ofr. bage, med.-lat. bdbwin baboin baboon me. loanword from the synon. fr. bagia 'signum, a ring'. badger orig. ident. with an babouin. Akin to DU. baviaan, Source OFR. babwii obsolete Inidger 'one who buys G. paviaii.
:

from w. GAEL. 'a babe, child',

CORN,

bahait

'.L^rimacc?

corn';
luibl:

cp. FR. blaireau 'badger'

baby

:^ii:.

dimin. of babe.

orig. little corn-merchant'.

The

bachelor :\[e. Imchelcr: borrow- source is a med.-lat. bladdriuSy fr. OFR. blaycr 'corn-merchant' (fr. ed from OER. bacJiclcr Source med.-la r. I'ac- bli 'corn ) E. badger for bladger? bachcUer. bag ME. bagge: loanword from caldrhis.

ON. b>agg/ 'bag, bundle'. t)aggage :me. baggdge according to hinder part of the FR. baggage points to ofr. bague OSAX. body' mi:, bak ok. b(cc ON. baggi. DU. (in comp.), icel. sav. bak bail 'a hoop' me. beil: perh. back'. back adv. for almck traceable to an oe. '^'I>e~^cl "^i'yiei on ba^x 'backward' :\ie. abak (je. ON. bygill; \^bhg G. bilge/, prop, 'on the back'. backin bow. DU. Lc;. board OE. bu'cbord bail vb. borrowed from OFR. bakboord (whence c;. backbord, bailer 'secure, keep in custody'. FR. babcnuf), icel. bakbord 'larAkin to bailiff me. bailif baili: board'. from OFR. bailif (wlience also backgammon prop, 'back- DU. baljimi) later baili bailli ^=game', because the men when 'i,TE.v>.-\.xi.baillizius balliviis. Source taken are put back. See LAT. bajulns 'burdenbearer gammon. bairn child' (Sc.) me, bcrn bacon me. bacon bdcoiin: bor- OE. beam 'child' OHG. goth. rowed from OFR. bacon 'flitch of barn, on. barn (whence also bacon'. Source a teut. base me. bani): deriv. of the teut. bakon MDU. :\ILG. bake, ohg. \f ber 'produce', prop, partic. ba/i/io MWG. liache 'side of bacon, with the meaning that which is ham'; akin to l>ack sb. born'.

backl cp. basin.


'tlie

back''

bad ME. bad{de) 'worthless, wicked'; p)rob. ident. with OE. dbchled 'forced, compelled': orig.

bait

vl).

ME.

Ihxite

beite

'feed':

borrowed from ON. beita 'cause MHG. beizen 'bait', OE. to bite'

1:

bake
hcetan:
'bite';

bark^

causative of teut. lutan


cp. bite.
:me.

ball- a dance'

(= DU.
FR. bal

G. bait)

borrowed from

'a

dance'

(=r SPAN, bade, rr. balld) 'a str. vb. OHG. bahhan 'bake'. dance', fr. bailer (it. ballare) The G. forms partly show teut. is traced to gr. ^aXXiLSti' 'dance'. loanword from sw. ballast: kk for TEUT. k\ G. backen, DU. DAN. ballast orig. bag last for barbakken (osAX. bakkeri 'baker') the kk is also shown in batch. lass prop, 'bare last' i. e. 'mere DU. LG. G. ballast. The TEUT. \fbak from pre-TEUT. load' balm ME. baum {Jiaip/ie bavie bhog is peril, connected with

= ON. baka,

bake

hake OE. hacan

=
:

GR. (fidyfiv

'roast'.
ba/Zeti (oe. '^bcalledef)
;

basf/ie)

adapt,

of

fr.

baiiine.

bald
scnirce

:\IE.

Source lat.
G.

balsa?nii?/i,

whence

and

history

unknown.

balsam, du. balsem.

baldrick me. baudrik bmiderik;


akin to ox. baldreh', :mhg. balderic/i, FR. baudroy (ofr. baldrei,

bane means

'harm' :me. bd7je; OE.ba^ia

'murderer';
'death'.

cp. on. bane,

OHG. bano

Akin to GR.
oe. banea
''banki)
:

whence
under

^nj.

baudry)

med.-lat.

(povo^ 'murder'.

haldringus: related ioi.XT. balteus


belt.

bank
ON.

me. bdnke

^
in

bakki

to be7tch.

bale sb. a large bundle of meradapt, of FR. banque chandise ready for transportasource teut. ult. tion': loanword from okr. ba(l)le bench. {= SPAN, bala, xx.balld) of Teut.
;

bank

(orig.

akin

(for

money)
banea

it.

bank(i)

bar ME. bane: adapt, of ofr.

origin,

ident. with ball.

barrc.

bale vb. 'empty water out of bare me. bare oe. beer ohg. a ship', also spelled bail: bor- G. bar, on. berr: teut.-goth. rowed from DU. balien 'bale out'; base bazapre-TEUT. bhasoDU. balie {^ :mlg. ballige balge, in osLov. bosu 'bare-foot', lith. LG. balje, IT. bagl/a) 'tub' fr. fr. basas. bail/e represents aLat. type bacula bargain sb. :\ij;. bargain: adapt, (cogn. w. basiii). of OFR. bargainc 'traftic'.

bale -ME. bale oe. bealn\ cp. barge me. barge: adapt, of ofr. OSAX. balu, OHG. baluy ox. bgl barge. Source a :\iED.i.Ar. barica,
evil,
'evil'

calamity';
in

comp.
a

bahveins balwjaii
ball'
ball(e):

Gorw. ''balws whence also bark"^. and deriv. as bark 'the rind of a tree' me. barke: possibly a loanword from 'torment'.
'

spherical

body'

ME. the equiv. on. bgrkr


balle

cp. g. lg.

= OHG. balla ballo


ON. bollr
'ball'.

borrowed from OFR.


'a ball,

sphere',

borke, NORTHFRis. buark, goth. * barhis: prob. akin to birch on

account of skr. bhurja m.

'bircli'

12

bark^

basket

n,

'birchbark*.

Bark

orig.

'mercenary', which oftentimes

is

'birchbark*? cp. birch.

bark- adapt,
ident.

found in the Teut. Leges Barof fr. barque; barorum for baron'.
barrel me.
bdrel prop,
baril:

with barge.
vb. ^m. berke oe. beorcan;

bark
cp.

OE.

borcian
:

'bark'

borrowed fr. FR. baril. and on. barren me. barrein a


:

fr. loan-

teut. v"" berk, not word, cp. ofr. brahain barhain recorded elsewhere. (fr. hrihaigne 'sterile'). Source barley me. barli older barlich unknown. late OE. bcerlic; how the word barrow 'a wheel -barrow' me. is connected with the synon. bcirwc (oe. '^hcartue) derived OE. bcre (cp. barii), is uncertain. from the teut. \f ber in bear; Source a teut. base baraz {bariz as for the zc-suffix cp. also oe. ox. barr, cp. goth. barizeins tneox-byrwc westphal. bierwe 'made of barley'), akin to lat. 'a bier, stretcher'. barter Engl, dcriv. of ofr. far 'corn' (ARYAN base bharos-). barm 'yeast' me. berme oe. beorma barate 'deceit, fraud' (ofA. ba:=: DU. berni, j^ilg. berme Teut. rater 'beguile'), whence aie. barcit base bcrmaii- from an Aryan base bari't, ODU. baraet fraud', mhg. bhermen- in lat. fcrmentum. bar at. barn me. berne oe. bern short base ^ 'low' from fr. basse f.
berkja 'bark
:

for orig. /v/Y'-r;v^ 'barlev-house';

{Ihts

m.).
?

Source vulg.-lat.

cp. barley,

'^rceiui) base^ sb. 'foundation' me. base GOTH. raz7i 'house', ON. rami. {bas) loanword from fr. base barnacle 'a fish' me. bernake; (lat. basis). transformed l)y suffix-exchange bashful see a bask. from OE. byrnete 'loUigo'. basin ME.bdsfn: loanword from barnacle'- a kind of goose FR. bassin. vSource lat. baccinum ME. bernake; an anglo-lai'. ber- (akin w. i^x^.baeardiwdbicdrium}) naca of the 1 2 cent, is the first whence DU. bekken, ohg. (osax.) record of the obscure word. bekliin G. becken 'basin'; cp. DU. barnacles 3 'spectacles' orig. lg. bak 'bowl, tub, trough', fr. 'irons put cm tlie noses of horses /^^r 'trough, basin' =:- LAT. bacca). to keep them quiet' dimin. to bask vb. ME. baskc: a Scand. from oer. bernac loanword, from ON.badask 'l)athc ME. beniac 'camus, a barnacle'. oneself. Source see under balk. baron iiE. bdrou/i: loanword basket me. basket; commonly from ER. baron, whence also ODU. considered ident. with BRrrANN.baroen, mho. barini G. DU. baron. LAT. bascauda 'dish-pan' (=^- ofr. Source a military word LAT. baro bascJioe 'bucket'); an OK.*bascod
:
'

-em (for ecru house' corresponds to


oe.

bass us

^'^

bass

*l>axod
-ot

batch JiE. bacche OE. was supplanted hy */>ascof, being an Y.. diniin. suffix. deriv. from the teut. primit. LAT.-GALL. Anv(i' appears (ibaky, see bake.
tilt,

*bcccc'e;

\'"

bakk

in FR. bachc

vat'.

bath ME.
bat/i,

bat//

OE. bcrd

= OSAX.

DU. G. OHG. bad, ON. bad. bars DU. baars, v,. barsc/i; cp. The dental being suffix, the word SWED. abborrc, ]jan. oborre {ir rests on a teut. y~ ba (be) in

bass

'a fish'

me. base barse OE.

from

ri).

OHG.
me.
bastard
:

bac7i

G.

biihen.

badon G. baden, on. bada: deriv. from the teut. sb. baj>a- 'bath'. from OFR. bastard (fr. batard batten vb. 'grow fat' me. *batne: SPAN. IT. bastardd). Source ofr. a Scand. loanword from o^.batna bast .SPAN. IT. basto 'pack'grow better' (= GOTH, gabatnan saddle'; cp. OFR. fils de bast 'a 'profit'). Akin to better and bastard', lit. 'a son of a packboot'^. saddle' (not of a bed, cp. G. batter vb. 'beat^NtE. /v^Z/v: from liankert proj). 'son of a bench). FR. battre. Source lat. battuere. baste ^ vb. 'beat witli a stick, Hence batter 'a compound of strike': a Scand. loanword from eggs, fiour and milk' me. Imtiire: sw. bosta ON. beysta 'beat' from OFR. bate-ure 'a beating'. 'thump', DAN. bbstc strike'. battle i\iE. bdtaile: loanword baste 2 vb. 'pour fat over meat'; from FR. bataille, whence ODU.
bastard, DU. bastaarct)

bastard

{=

g.

vb. ME. bathe OE. bad/an

bathe = ohg.

borrowed

unknown. bataelghe mhg. bateilc 'battle'. baste^ vb. 'sew slightly' me. Source lat. battuere 'beat'. l>dste\ borrowed from ofr. bastir bay adj. 'reddish' me. bay. from
origin
,

imbastare)

= span, Source a teut. bastjan = OHG. bcstan 'patch'


(fr.
batir
bastear,
it.

FR. bai.

Source lat. badius 'bay-

'baste'.

colored'.

MHG.
bat
'

besten 'bind'.
'a

bay^ 'inlet of the sea' me. bale: borrowed from FR. bale (= span.
bahia,
rr.

short cudgel' me. late OE.

baja^.

bat{ti):

gael. bat 'staff, cudgel' or more prob. fr. FR. battc 'a rammer, wand',
ir.

loanword from

bay'- sb. 'a kind of laurel-tree,

bat^ ". winged mammal'; Scotch by-form ba{c)k points to bacca baca 'berry'. ME. bakke DAN. bakkc (only in bay vb. 'bark as a dog' me. comp. aftenbakke 'evening-bat'). baye shortened from abayc: loanPeril, connected with back and word from OFR. abater fr. aboyer. bacon made prob. by G. (dial.) bay3 'berry' (in bay-riwi) tsie. .s/<'('X"wr7i'('jr'liat']irop.'llitch-mouse'. bai bei OE. bd-^ northfris. bet.

sweet-bay me. bay bate 'a berry': borrowed from ofr. baic baye the FR. baie a berry. Source lat.

14

he

beaver *

DiTMARSCH bcic, DU. bei 'berry': Teut. base baijiz hajjiz; not ident. LAT. bacca. with OFR. bate be 'exist' ME. be oe. bcon fr. a Teut. base '^bijan; cp. ohg. Ntn r= OSAX. biu-m 'I am', which answers to LAT. fio: Aryan base bhio {bhijo) traceable to bhwto

<^i?<?//,

o^.baun: teut. base bauno-

'bean'.

The

early

existence of

the word (goth. '^bauna) is attested by the name of the Fris. island Bannonia (island of

beans?).

bear
b'eran
,

vb. 'carry'
^rz

me. bcre

oe.

bhiiid; cp.

\^bhti in 'LAi'./ui

'I

was'.

Cp. booth and build. be- prefix me. oe. be-:


with by.

ident.

beacon me.

bekeu

oe.

bcacen

^= OHG. bouhhan, osAX. bokan (du.


baak, G. bake fr. ofris. bakeri): TEUT. base baukna-. See beck. bead :me. /'tv/^' 'a bead, a prayer' Deriv. from OE. i^ebed 'prayer'. the teut. \^bcd\ cp. bid. beadle me. bedel bedel: loanfr. word from OFR. bedel Source a bideau (it. bidelld).

osAX. ohg. beran, ox. bera du. bar en, goth. bairan. Akin to LAT. ferre, gr. (pfofiv, SKR. \fbhar 'bear, carry': aryax Cp. bier and birth. sfbher. bear sb. 'ursus' me. <^(rd? oe. bera ohg. ^t'?-<? MHG. ber G. <5/-, du. The teut. b'eron- (on. bjgrii) /^i?^;-. is based on an Aryan adj. bhcro'brown' preserved in lAlYiU'bcras

'brown'.

beard me. bcrd oe. beard DU. baard, ofris. berd, ohg. g. aryan bart: TEUT. base bar dabhardha- in lat. barba, OSLOV. brada, lith. barzda, pruss. borTeut. bidil r= ohg. bitil. beaker me. biker cp. the sy- dus 'beard'. beast ME. best: loanword from non. DU. beker, osAX. bikcri, ohg. behhari G. bccher. Perh. the E. OFR. beste (fr. bete), whence also word is borrowed from the sy- LG. DU. beest 'beast'. Source LAT. Source lat. bestia (in a vulgar form besta). non. ON. bikarr. biecariiif/i (it. bicehie re^ with the beat vb. ME. bete oe. beatan OHG. bo-i-fin JNIHG. boT^en, icel. hy-^onTy piccariwn (see pitcher). Further connections under basin. bauta 'beat. Cp. beetle. beam 'a piece of timber' me. beaver^ 'an animal' me. bevcr

be'm

oe. bcatn
boufu
G.

'a

tree'

OHG. OE. beofor


du.

ohg. bibar

G. biber,

MHG.
hootn,

baum,
'a

lg.

OSAX. bom

tree'.

The

corresp. synon. GOTH, bagnts (ON. badmr}) 'tree' seems to point to

a TEUT. bagwma- with a by-form

DU. bever, o^.bjorr: teut. bebriiz (whence are borrowed it. bevero, fr. bievre) points to pre-teut." bhcbhrus lat. fiber, coKS.befer, osLOV. bebrii, lith. bebriis, lett.

bawnm-

bainua-.
:NrE.

bean

bnie ben oe.


G.

bean

svnon. OHG. bona

bohne, du.

In russ. bobrti 'beaver'. SKR. there is an adj. babhnis 'brown', which is perh. a redupl.
bebris,

beavei-2

begin

15
beche

form

^= LG. beeke 'beech'): forof a med with vowel mutation from helmet' borrowed from the synon. *'bdc in OE. bpc-treim' cp. ohg. FR. baviere, whence also the sy- biiohha MHG. buoche G. buche,
bd:ck
;

pointing to lith. 'brown' under bear. beaver- 'the lower part

her-as

beech me.

oe. bece (orig.

non. DU.

beve7-.

ON. bok.
be-,
-|-

The name

of this tree

because me.
bi-,

because bicause by-

cause (also separately written


by- cause)
:

(whence book) is a pre-teut. bkagos^^'LXT.fdgus 'beech', gr.


(payoc
(prjyoc.

cause.

The gr. word perh. originally 'tree beck^ 'a stream' me. bek: loan- with edible fruit, food-tree' (yrew'ord from ON. bekkr (= sw. ysTv 'eat'). biicJi); cp. OS AX. beki, du. beck, beef me. l^ef older bdf {beof): OHG. bah(hh) G. bach from a teut. borrowed from ofr. boef fr.
by the prep.
signifies
haki-.

boeuf.

beckshort

nod or

sign' me. bek


beaceii
;

Source lat. bovetn i^bos). beer me. ber oe. beor == ohg.
G.

perh. derived fr. oe. osax. b^o, bcii betti ON. bygg 'barley hence beer MHG. bette bete G, bctt, du. bed. prop, 'barley-juicq'? The cogn. cvmr. bedd 'grave' beet ME. OE. bete. Source lat. (celt, base bcdo-) points to the beta {= FR. bette, rr. bieta^, ARYAN \'^bhedh bhodh (in lat. whence also G. beete. fodio 'I dig', LiTH. bedu 'I dig), beetle' me. betel oe. bytcl betel as is evident in G. beet (blumen- ^= the synon. LG. b(i'tel, on. beytill 'hammer'. beet) E. bed (flowerbed). The teut. base bedrid me. bcdred oe. bedrida: bautila- belongs to the teut. lit. 'a bed-rider' mlg. bed- \^ baut in beat. derede 'bedridden'. Cp. ride beetle- an insect .aii:. bitel oe. (and the phrase ride on an- bitola; derived from an adj. oe. chor*). Akin to OHG. bettiriso, bitol 'inclined to bite'. MLG. /W//c:r(?.ri' 'bedridden' ba/ibeg vb. me. begge shortened krese 'a lazy fellow. from OE. bedecian, formed from bee ifE. be oe. beo contr. of ///V/ with intensive k (as in hark, bie (infl. biati) ohg. bia, du. lurk, 7i.<alJi). bij; with //-suffix o. bieiie from begin me. begifine oe. beginnan OHG. bini. Akin to pruss. biitc, str. vb. OSAX. OHG. biginnaii, LITH. bifis, LETT, bittc, \K. bech DU. (i. begitinen, goth. dugimicn bee'; also lat. fiicus 'drone' 'begin'. The teut. \^ gen (the (Aryan base b/ioiko-}^. initial g of which mav be an
;

for me. b(ke OE. see beacon. bed "meT oe. bed {dd) badi (stem badja-), oho.

OSAX. bior

DU.

bier.

A common
beiira-'),

= goth.

westteut. word (base

i6

begin

bellows

belfry me. berfray l)erfrey berberfreit adapt, of OFR. berin OSLOV. po-cinq (infinit. po-ccti frci berefreit=^ 'S^.beffroi. Source 'begin', koni 'beginning'). MHG. Ih-revrit from Inrc 'probeguile vb. me. hegUe {= mdu. tection' and frid 'a place of beghijlcti) loanword from ofr. security'. guiler. belief iaie. beleve from the vb. ^^i. C}). wi/e. believe. behalf 'interest, benefit' ME. l>eleve Phonetically on hehah'e for oti halve or be not ident. with me. beleve ilc've lialve OE. on {be) healfe\ OE. oe. lelea/a OSAX. gilbbo, DU.
in

Aryan k

the

compound)

is

traceable

to

the

Aryan \f ken freid

healf sb.
side'.

(=
vb.

OIIG. halha)

means
behave

geloof,

behave

late

:me.

ileve

OE. behabban: ident. witli

behavior shows
imitation
ai'er

have.
var.

OHG. giloubo believe vb. :me.

G.

glaube.
orig.

bileve

OE. lelefan ^elyfan 'believe'

a fr. ending

OSAX. gilobian, DU. gclooven, OHG. gilouban (;. glanbcn, gofh.


bell
iME.

in

of havior,

of galaubjan.
LG.
belle:

haver for

'possession'.

behead
'behead'.

vb. me. behede bihefden


;

OE. belle ^= du'. bel, WEST-TEUT. base bellon.


bel{o)7ve

OE. behcafdian

cp.

Cp. head.

mho. behoubetcn Akin to bello7vl bellow vb. ME.

behve

base ^'balligon ? Prob. an extended form with vowel mutation and OE. (base intensive formative of oe. bellan to TEur. GOTH, haitau oe. =r OHG. Ih'llan 'bellow'. \{ bell- is h(ftan\ cp. hight ami hest. traceable to belz bels, the teut. behind .me. behindc{n) oe. be- \,^ corresponds to SKR. bhas (for hindan 'afterwards, after'. Cp.
beh(se oe. behces
hces

behest

:me. />ehest(e) bihest earlier

OE. belgian bylgian 'bellow': teut.

'command, vow,'

hdsi- ha/si-) points

bhals) 'bellow"

hinder and hindmost. behold vb. me. beholdr


behdldan
{beh(aldan)
'hold,

= M^i 'speak' and


(also belies)

oe.
see'.

urn. balsas 'voice'. bellows INIE. behves


'a

bellows': prop. plur. of belowe


l>eli 'a

Cp. hold.

behoof
synon.

iME.

behof oe. bchof


behoef
G.
,

belu

ou.

MHG. behuof
moderation'.

behiif,

ON. belp-, G. DU. balg 'skin'. hof Ident. with belly. A teut. \'^belg behoove vb.ME. 'swell' appears in OHG. belgan
icel.

mlg.

bchof,

OE.

bo'li

byli

bellows, a bag, belly' (bkhibyli) 'a bag'

behove OE. behpfian 'be necessary' r^ DU. behoeven, mlg. I'ehoven.

'be

angry', oe. ^ebolgen

'angry',

ON.

bolgen

'swollen';

bcelcian

to me. be/he oe. OIR. bolgaim 'I swell' bolg bole beakian and with suffix 'bag, bellows' OGALL. bulga bcalcettan 'belch'. 'leather-bag'. Cp. bolster.

belch vb. akin

cogn. w.

belly

between

17

belly
also a

JiE. belie

beli'h&Wy

womb,

bon g. berauben,

goth. biraubon

OE. bell byl^ 'a 'rob', ON. ratifa 'rob'. bag, pouch, purse, bag of any berry me. oe. berie ; cp. synon. kind'. Ident. with bellows. OHG. beri G. bccre. The r was

bellows'

below

ME. bilpwe cp. loiv.

belt ME. OE. belt OHG. balz, ox. belli 'a belt, border'. Source

orig. 2

^;

cp.

goth.

/^^^V

in

weinabasi 'wineberry, grape', DU.


bes 'berry'.

LAT. (gall. ?) balteus

'belt'.

beseech

vb. iiE. biseche biseke

bench

me. bench oe. bene; with

oe. bisfcan: ident. with seek.

besom 'a broom' ue. besom umlaut and palatalization from a TEUT. base batiki{z) OSAX. besmc 'a broom, rod' OE. besma DU. bezem, ohg. b'esamo Du. G. OHG. bank, on. bekkr; fr. 'a rod* banc and it. span, banco are G. besen 'a broom', goth. ^bisma. lat. ferula may accord with rEUT. loanwords. Cp. bank. the Teut. word in an Aryan bend sb. 'a band,

bond'

]\rE.

ODU. \f best iEE. beste oe. betsta ^= goth. bende, GQ-xn.bandi'di band, bond') from the \^ bend in bind, whence batista, OHG. be-^j/sto ifflG. g. /^^^/^, Cp. better and also bend vb. bow, curve' :me. osax. betsto. bende OE. bendan 'bind, curve,
OE. bend

(=

osAX.

bendi,

bhes.

bend'.

bestow

vb.

iiE.

bestowe;
cp.

cp.

adapt, of fr. trahir (source lat. tradere 'deliver'). benison me. beneisonn borrowed Cp. traitor and treason. from OFR. bene'ifon. Source lat. betroth vb. :\[e. bitreuthie 'behenedictionetn (vp. me. maleisoun tioth'; deriv. from truth. OFR. tnale'ifon, lat. inaledictioncni) better me. better oe. betera bent-grass oe. bconot =l osax. goth. batiza , ohg. bc"^iro g. biniit, OHG. binir^ mhg. bin(e)- g. besser, osax. betoro du. beter, />'/>w^, DU. bentgras. ON. /^^'//T. Cp. the corresp. bequeath vb. me. bcqucthe oe. superl. best. No primitive
belraisse)
:

DU. beneden from oe. neodan, OSAX. nithatia, ohg. nidana mhg. nidcn(c) 'below'. Cp. nether.
;

beneath

'sm.benethe oe. beneodan

betide vb. me. betray vb. me.

betide

//^/(T.

betraie

(by-form

hecw'cda?^ 'declare, affirm'.

bevb.
{rcve)

adj.

exists

in

quest

:me. bi(/iiestc

usually biquide

langs.;

the Teut. and Aryan for the root cp. boot-

byquide bequidc.

For the OE.


me.
bircue

and

best.

cwedati 'speak' cp. quoth.

bereave
I'irobon,

vb.

OE. ber^afian
F.NGLisH

(reafian)

me. bitwene oe. bctwconum 'between'; in OE. the osax. orig. construction was be S(hn

between

DU. beroovcn, ohg. (bi)rou- ttvcommi


Etymology.

between the

seas',

li

beveiase

lincl

'^tiveon earlier twihn 'two' entreaty') pre-TEUT. hhidh. Cp. lax. bid 'pray' for the identity of bide answers to goth. tweihus with TEUT. bidjan. biniis (Aryan base dweikiw-s). bier me. bere bcre oe. beer betwixt ME, betwix (by-form betwixe) OE. betweox bitwihs (by- OSAX. OHG. bdra G. bahre DU. form beiweoxn^^ osxa.tindariwisk baar; the modern spelling with ohg. umiar zwisketn ie (since 1600) is due to fr. 'between', Source a teut. herd-, 'between' o. zwisc/ieti. The Teut. biere. base izviska- 'two' is a deriv. of derived fr. bear (teut. \^ ber). bile ME. bile oe. byle TEUT. twa in ttvo. DU. beverage me. beverage bevei-ege: buil OHG. bulla ^bf/llia 'blain' bevrage :mhg. biiile g. beiile: teut. base loanword from ofr.

OE.

benrage breiivaige

= fr.

breiroage.

Iniljd(n)-.

bilP 'a writing, account' together with its dimin. billet 'a bevy 'a company' me. l>ez'ey note' ME. bille 'a letter' (dimin. beve; doubtful if ident. with ofr. billette 'a note'): from mei.-lat, ba'eye fr. bevie 'drink, drinking'? billa bulla 'a bubble, boss, leaden Cp. bull. then the E. word might prop, seal, a bull'. bill- 'sword' ME. OE. bill 'sword' denote "a drinking-party'. OHG. OSAX. bil{lt) 'a sword'. If beyond :me. beyo/ide oe. be~^egnGOTH, '^bilja- goes back to Aryan daii. Cp. yon. bible me. bible: loanword from bJnlyo- for bhid/yo-, connection possible. FR. bible, whence also DU. bijbel, with LAT. finder e is Source lat. Hence bill 'the instrument for G. sw. DAN. bibel.

Source

lat. bibere
.

(lat.

type

biberaiicuf/i)

biblia.

splitting'

and
;

'bird's beak' me. bill(e) bill 3 bid ME. bidde oe. biddan str. vb. =: GOTH, bidjan, OSAX. biddiaii, bil{e) OE. bile "beak prob. conDU. bidden, ohg. biitan G. bitten, nected with biir-. The teut. y^ billow ME. ''dilwe prop. ^d>ilge: OX. bidja 'bid. bad for //(/ goes back to an borrowed from ox. bylgja: teut. Aryan \^ b/ddh in gr. T7fi't>(.o 'move \^ b'elg 'swell' treated under bag by praying' which with lat. /ido and bellows. bin ME. binne oe. (^/w/ 'manger': trust' points to connection with CELT, loanword from gall, benna bide. kind of vehicle, whence also bide ME. b/de oe. bidan str. vb. GOTH, beidan, osAX. bulan, OHG. fr. benne 'a basket, hamper'

bitan,

ox. bida.
bida?i
'I

The
wait'

teut.
I trust,

strong verb (it. /;<?/;/; 'sleigh, agrees with 'basket-wagon' is


(^?

cart').

G. benne

of fr. origin.
str.

lat.//V(?

trust'

and gr.
I

nfido/iiai

obey' {niiSio

move by

bind

:me. binde

oe. bindan

vb.

OSAX. bindan, on. binda, DU.

birch

blai

19
also
in

G.

linden

OHG.

b'lntan

teut.

base bik/onbitch';

ox. bikkja

yfb'end.

An Aryan

\^ bhendh

cp. OFR. biche 'bitch'.

appears in skr. bandh 'bind'; bite me. bite (je. bitan str. vb. SKR. bandhu 'relative' points to OSAX, Intan, onG. bi--^an G.beissen, connection with gr. nst'Otfjo^- DU. bijien 'bite', ox. biia. A teut.
gr. nHdna for str. vb. btian 'bite' is developed LAT. of-fend-imentuni from an Aryan \'~ bifid 'split' in ifaua 'band, rope'. Cp. band, bend. LAT. pindo, SKR. bhid 'split'. Cp.
'father-in-law',
)'

*77 i

bitter and bill'-. birch ME. birchc ok. birce bitter adj.ME./v/Ar ok. bitter inter OHG. bircha g. Inrkc teu r. base OSAX. OHG. bittar mhg. g. birkjon-. The synon. OE. lycorc, DU. berk, ox. bjgrk from an orig. DU. mlg. lg. dax. s\v. bitter, ox. base b'crko- are an Aryan bhergd bitr 'bitter': teut. base bitraSKR. bhiirja osLov. bi'cza, (and baitra- in goth. baitrs yx'lW. berzas 'birch'. C]). bark^. 'bitter'), prop, biting': deriv. from
:

bird ME.
orig. 'a

;f'/;'(/

mostly

brid's. bird',

the TEUT.

\/~bit in bite.

young
base

bird' OE. b?'id (plur.

briddas) 'the
TEL'T.

young of any
In-'idja-

bird':

bittern mf.. bitor older butor (= DU. butoor^ borrowed from


:

for

bredju-;

FR. butor

(=

IT. bittore).

Source

LAT. bos taiirus a bird's akin to breed and broodl black ME. blak oe. bicec birth -ME. i^/r///<? older i-birde akin to lg. black 'ink'. OE. lebyrd OSAX. giburd, i)U.

name?
{blac-')
;

^eboorte,

ohg.

gibiiri

G.

geburt,

OX.

/wr^/>- 'birth',

GOl'H, gabailrps

bladder

.aie.
,

bladdre oe.
lg.

blcedrc
,

DU. blaar
g.

bladere

OHG.

'birtli": deriv. from a teut. vb. the TEUT. base ^'blcdrbn- (with ^abtran 'produce' with suflix di-: //r^- as suffix) comes from the pi (cp. IR. /W/// 'birtli', skr. TEUT. V"^/(,' in bioio'-.

bldttara

blatter,

ICEL. bladra;

bhrti

bearing').

blade
bisshop
oi;.

bishop
bisceop
jv//^>/,

OSAX. bishop, du. /w- blatt, OHG. biscof G. bischof, ox. GOTH. biskup. WEST-TEUT. (^/>/&^ (taken seems
as a

ME. Inslwp

bladii)

synon. ohg. /Vrt-/ g. DU. OSAX. M^^/, ox. biad,


*blada-.
to

jik.

^^A?^/.?

oe.

(^/^?^/

(plur.

Tlieir

dental
bla-

be

formative;

iden- from pre-TEUT. M/^;- is perh. tical \\;ith GOTH, aipiskatlpiis akin to lat. /ol-iit?n, gr. ipvXXov. GR. tnt'ay.ono^-, LAT. episc(pus. The Aryan \'~ biwl bhloin bloom}
is

compound /'/ + i'-(v/)

vescovc, ofr.

wanting in rr. blain .me. Mva/ oe. blej^en prov. vesque (but fr. DU. /^/(?/>? rEUT. base blajinbh'eque from ofr. ^ewy//^) =:r vulgar from TEur. \f bla in bladderl
initial
e
is

also

LAr. (e)bisc(pns.

blame
oe.
bie'ce;

vb.
\

me. bldyne

(=
from

mdu.
fk.

bitch

yiE. biec/ie

tkut. blatnen^

loanword

20
bldmer

blank

bless

(=

OSPAN.

blastnar, it. bia-

iiE.

bleik late OE. bldec:

simare: source lat. blasphemare).

ed from ON.

bleikr

borroworig. oe.

blank :me. blank o'. blanc blgnc bide ME. blgk, DU. bleek, G. bleich. =: synon. ohg, mhg. blanc G. A iY\jT:.\fblik appears in OE. blank; ON, blakkr 'gray or white blican, ON. blika, OS ax. blikan, horse': teut. \fblcnk in blink. DU. blijken, ohg. blihhan 'shine'. The TEUT. adj. blanka- was in- blear-eyed 'having sore eyes' troduced into the Roman, langs.; ME. blcr-eyed bler-eighed fr. blcj-e cp. IT. bianco, fr. blanc with the 'blear' -\- eye eij^e 'eye'; cp. dan. ofr. blanket, plir-gjet, LG. bler-oged 'blear-eyed' deriv. fr. blaiichet whence me. e. blanket 'a coarse (akin to i^G. /lii-r-bge 'a bleared-

woolen

cover'.

blare vb.'roar' me. blare vb. DU. blaren, G. bliirren pltirren. ohg. blast :nE. /'/(?j/ OE. /Vj-/ ON. bldstr 'a gust of wind' /'A?i'/, du. deriv. of the teut. \f blcs blazen, ohg. bldsan G. blasen, on. bldsa, GOTH, blesan. A shorter \'~ble cp. under blow-. blaze sb. 'a flame' me. <5/iii'^

eye', en flirr up't oge hebben 'have

^ =

a bleared eye'). bleat vb. me. blete


:=:

DU. blaicn

bleeten,

oe. blcetan lg. bleten,

ohg. bldyxn :\rHG. bld-ifn. bleed vb. me. blede oe. '*bledan OFRis. bUda, DU. bloeden, lg. bld'den, ohg. bluoian, on. i5/l^'^lf^ 'bleed': deriv. from teut. blbda-

in blood.

'flame

torch'
'torch'

bldsaii)
'a

OE.
to

bUese

(infl.

blemish

vb.

me.

blemiss(h)c

lg.

torch'.

Akin

MHG. bias 'wound, injure, soil': loanword goth. blesan from OFR. blemiss-, stem of some
forms of FR. blemir 'grow pale'
(fr. bleme blesjue 'pale,
bldse

g. blasen 'blow'

(cp. G. wind-

licht 'torch').

wan).

me. blenche (also 'blow as a trumpet': perh. loan- blenke) 'shrink back, give way', word from ON. bldsa 'blow' OE. blencan 'deceive': causative

blaze vb. 'proclaim' me.

blench

vb.

of blink, TEUT. base '^blankjan. blend ^ vb. me. blende (pret. osax. blandan blesan (in tifblesan 'puff" up'). blende^ oe. blazon^ 'proclamation' from fr. GOTH, blandan, on. blanda, ohg. blasonner 'blazon', whence DU. blantan :mhg. blanden. blazoen. blazon- me. bldso?i blend'^ vb. iiE. blende oe. blenolder bldsoun from FR. blason dan ohg. blentan blenten G. 'coat of arms' (whence also blenden: causative of blind \^). DU. blazoeti) ? bless vb. :me. blesse older bletsie bleach vb. me. bleche oe, blcecan oe. bUtsian older blcedsian 'bless' --= ON. bleikja 'whiten': teut. from a teut. base *blddisbn, not base blaikjan from the adj. bleak found elsewhere in teut. The
i)U.

blazen

'sound

trumpet',

OHG. bldsan

g. blasen 'blow',

goth.

blind

blow 2

21

orig. 'sprinkle with blood' G. (^/(Cr/^. Uncertain whether the appar. a deriv. of teut. bloda- E. word is a native E. word or adapt, fr. fr. bloc 'block, log'. in blood. blond from fr. blond, whence blind adj. me. oe. blind OSAX. DU. G. SW. DAN. blind (OHG. also G. DU. DAN. blond. Source MHO. blini), ON. blindr, goth. a lost TEUT. blunda- (= it. Akin to on. blunda vb. biondo, span, blondd). blinds. OSAX. blood ME. OE. blpd 'close one's eyes' and to lith. blandyti 'cast down one's eyes' blod, DU. bloed, LG. blood, OHG. ON. /'/c^^, dark'. MHG. bluot G. blut blcsti blisti 'grow blind vb. make blind' deriv. SW. DAN. blod: TEUT. base bloda-

vb.
is

supplanting me. blende (and blopa- in GOTH. /V^/) from oe. blendan a pre-TEUT. bhloto- bhlato-, not Its relation synon. OHG. blentan G. blenden: found elsewhere. causative of the teut. base to the \fblb 'bloom' is doubtful. blindfold See bleed and bless. blinda in blind adj. bloom ME. blpm(e) borrowed adj. me. bli?idfelle oe. blindfellian GOTH. 'strike blind, put out the eyes'; from ON. blom blomi the mod. phonology of the bloma, OSAX. blotno, du. bloem,

of

blind,

(pret.

blende)

second element of the word is OHG. bluotna {bluotno) G. blntne due to confusion .with fold"^ But 'flower'. For the \Pbld cp. lat. its origin is obscure; it may be flos and OIR. bldth 'blossom' and
akin to ov..fcll, G. fell ohg. fcl, LAT. pellis. GOTH, fill blink vb. ME. blinke ^= G. DU.

blow'

blossom ME. blosme


blo(s)sem
\'~ bio
:

OE.

bldsi?/i{a)
:\ilg.

bldsfna^=\iV. bloescm {bloeni),


deriv.

blinkcn,

sw. blinka, dan.


ME.
blisse

blinke.

of

the

teut.

bliss
blids
j'-deriv,

oe. bliss older

in blo7v.^ sb.
'a

blids

{=

OSAX.
oe.

blidsed)

blow

stroke' me. blowe;

of blithe.
:me.

blister
r-

blister

'"blystre

=
G.

deriv.

from l\rE. bleive oe. bleoK^an OHG. bliuwan mhg. bliuicen


DU.
blouwen,
GOi'H.
bleu
'strike':

ODU.

bluyster.
Mt=:.

Root unknown.
oe. blide 'joy-

blciuen,

blithe
ful,

blithe

glad' (cp. bliss^


,

bliggwan
blew.

TEUT. \^
aiE.

o.SAX.
blij'(de),

Mthi
OHG.
bl''d,

LG.
blidi,

bl/de,

DU.

blow

'

vb.

ON.

MViV",

SAY.

DAN. OE. blgwan

'bloom' 'blossom'

/^/^Yi'^

osAX.

is

GOTH, blcips. The dental blojan, DU. bloeijen, ohg. bluojan formative, but the teut. \rbll G. blilhen 'blow, bloom', goth.
"^blojan.

unknown elsewhere.
block wood).
>rE.

The TEUT. y^ /'A' appears

bloom and blossom. blow 2 vb. 'puff' ME. bhhve oe. Cp. tho synon. DU. blok, OHG. bldian 'blow* MLG. block, OHG. <^/i?/^ MHG. bloch bldwan str. vb.
block
'a

block' (of also in

22

blue

bolster

MHG.
'blow,
bla

blcpwen
swell".

blcEJen

G.

blcilun

The teut. \^ ble


partly
in

agrees

with

lat.

flare

(Aryan bhla bladder).

blade and

blue ME.

blaii>:

not deriv. from

OE. blckven (deriv. of OE. bldiv),

whence me.
derived,

"^blewe

ought to be

me. blnv bleu is loanword from the synon. fr. bleu boteeh 'trunk, corpse'. {= IT. biavo'); me- b.'o 'blue is to ohc;. botahha g.

bodkin ME. boidekifi 'a small dagger'; of uncertain origin, related to w. bidog ir. bideog 'a dagger'? The diphthong oi in ME. sViows foreign origin of MF^.boidekin; but the suffix seems to be Anglisized. body ME. body bddi OE. bodi^ 'body'; akin to ohg. botah mhg.
,

Relation
botiich
'a

adapt, of ox. bldr. The source large vessel, tub' is uncertain. boil 'a small tumor' me. bile of the whole group is a teut. base blown-- b'ewa- 'blue' oe. OE. byl{e)\ ident. with bile. boil vb. 'bubble up* me. boile bldw, ON. bldr, du. blaauw, ohg. loanword from ofr. boillir bldo G. blau; ident. w. -LX'\:.Jlavtis boyle fr. bouillir span, bullir, it. 'yellow'. boar me. bar oe. bar ohg. bollire 'boil'. Source lat. bulUrc

=
:

AIHG. ber 'a

young

boar',

ber(swin), lg. b^r, du. beer

base baizu- or bairu-.

OSAX. 'bubble'. boisterous .aie. boistrous 'rough, teut. coarse' an extended form of
:

board

'a

plank'

'mv..

oe.

'board, plank, shield,

table'

boistous 'rough, clums_v'. The bJrd me. <??-diphthong points to foreign

origin; no source yet found. OSAX. DU. sw. DAN. bord, LG. boord, bold :me. bold oe. bald (bc'ald g. bort, ON. bord, goth. (folu)older b(alp) goth. '"balpabaiird 'foot-stool': teut. base (in balpaba adv.), on. ballr (orig. borda- with the by-form breda^balpr), OSAX. ohg. bald 'bold' in oe. bred G. brett (du. berd (hence g. bald 'soon, quickly'). ODU. bred). MHG. bole g. bole ME. bole

boast

vb.

:me.

b}ste\

perh.
:

=
to

bohle

'a

thick

plank';

traceable
deriv.
G.

to an

oe.

*bosctlian

bdse

from teut. \/~baus bus ohg. b3si?


bdl

ON.
peril,

bolr 'trunk

of

in

related

akin to a tree' and GR. (f'u.n.y'l

boat ME.
^^/V 'boat'.

oe.
E.

bdl

=
is

'stem of a treg'.
a

The

word
du.

on. the
bool

boll ME. bolle OE. bolla bowel, du. bol m. round vessel'

source of on.

b.ilr,

g.

OHG.
bolli.

bolla 'a

round
akin

vessel',

on.

and

FR. bateau.

Perh.

to

ball

and

bodice stays for women' for- LAT. follis "hose". merly bodies, being plur. oibody. du. bolster me. oe. bolster Cp. peftce {ox pennies. MHG. bolster ohg. bolstar g.

l)oU

booty

2i

polster,
str-

deriv. with beech-tablet' used to scratch bolstr: from the teut. \f beig runes on. boom borrowed from du. boom 'swell'; hence its orig. meaning base bolstra- {= LG. booni) 'a tree, beam, 'swelling' (teut. Ident. with beajn. pole'. from '^bolhstra-').

ON.

suffix

bolt vb.
blutei-^

'sift

meal' me. bulie


bulter

boon

me. bone 'petition, favor'


prayer'.
beti

borrowed from OFR.


'sift'.

(fr.

loanword from ON. bon 'a There was a native OE.


bene 'a prayer'.

me.

bolt 'a stout pin of an arrow' me. oe. bolt OHG. bolz, DU. bout, Borrowed from lat.

iron etc.,

^= synon.
ox.
boite.

boor adapt, of du.


G.
bauer')

boer

{=
to

catipitlta ?

OE. lebiir,

Akin cp. neighbor.


'peasant'.

bein,

g. boot^ ME. bote', loanword from me. bgn oe. ban fr. bottc OSAX. ben, DU. been, on. /v/;/, OFR. bote (boute) akin to G. bossen sw. DAN. ben, go th. '^bain (du. g. (it. bota) Source unknown. on. sw. also 'leg'). Perh. cogn. 'shoes'.

bone

with ON. bcinn 'straight'.

bonnetME.
OFR. bonet

bonct:

loanword from
FR.

bp't

boot- 'advantage me. bote OE. osax. GOTH, beta, OHG.

orig.

chapel
'a

tie

bito-i^a

biio-^

G. basse,

on.
cp.

hot.

For

bonet; jmed.-lat.

bonneta

stuff

of which caps were made'.

the TEUT. \^<^(?/ better and best.

batten,

an engl. me. Iwfty of fr. ban 'good'. booby not found in :\rE. oe., with ENGL, ending derived from SPAN, bobo 'fool?
:

bonny

tlerivative

loanword booth :\1E. bothe from ODAN. both (dan. bod) :^


:

:mhg. buoile c. bude.

The

oicel.
in the

from dan. bod root-vowels (teut. b:u).

bud

differs

The
'dwell'

book
boek,

ME.

bpk
l>bka

oe.

biic

g.

dental

is

suffix.

For the teut.


bhif)

buch OHG. buoh,

osax. bok, du.


f.

GOTH.
of

bok

V^M
cp.

(iNDO-TEUT.
(base

n. 'a

UTH.

butas 'house', oiR. both


bhu-to).

letter

tlie

alphabet' shows in

(bothdn) 'hut'

See

the plur. the meaning 'writing, booty in the 15''' cent, spelled document, book', and the OHG. akin to the osax. oe. corresponding buoh bptye and butin G. bok occurs in pluralform with the equiv. fr. butin, du. buit meaning 'a single book'. There- beute, ON. l>yte 'booty' the fr. fore it is evident, that the sing, word represents an osax. '^'biitin meant orig. (as in goth.) a *biiti, which is cogn. w. OIR. single letter of the alphabet'. buaid victory' and cymr.^W^/ 'adThe teut. base boka- (cp. vantage, profit'. Aryan \^bhutl bhaud. beecli) was orig. 'beech-bark.
;

build and

be.

24

border

bough

border me. border bord{e)ure: adapt, of FR. bordure. Ultimate


source OHG. boiio 'edge'.

stem of the numeral in its oldest forms had no dental goth. bai

bd bu 'both'. The bore vb. me. bore oe. borian dental ending is short for the OHG. boroft G. bokre/i, DU. article me. bgthe OE. hd da, boren, ON. bora. The teut. base G. beide instead of bei die. In boron agrees with lat. forare the older ])eriods the article 'bore' cp. GR. (/,(>Oi"'plough',SKR. was combined with the numeral; bhurij 'scissors': Aryan v^ bher cp. GOTH, ba pb scipa 'both bhdr. ships', OE. bej^en dd gebrodru borough and -bury in place- 'both brothers'. names :me. borwe (and biry) bottle^ 'a hollow vessel' me. OE. burh burg (dat. sing, ^ivj) hotel DU. bottel, lg. buttel bud'town'. OE. burg synon. OSAX. del: loanwords from fr. bouteille bur(u)g, DU. buig, OHG. bur(u)g (= SPAN, botella, it. bottiglia) G. burg, ON. borg, goth. baiirgs Source med.-lat. buticula f. di'town'. min. of butis 'a butt'. borrow vb. inie. borwe oe. bor- bottle'- 'a bundle of hay' :me. gian 'protect, borrow' ohg. botel: loanword from ofr. bote I borgen G. hoigen 'borrow, give dimin. of fr. botte 'a bundle of a pledge'. Prob. akin to ohg. hay'. Source a teut. bauta- in hergan, goth. bairgaii 'protect, OHG. boy? 'a bundle of flax'. shelter' (oSLOV. brcgq 'I take bottom :\ie. botum oe. botm =^ care of). OSAX. bodom, du. bodem, ohg. bodam g. bodcn. The teut. bases bosom ME. hosum oe. bosfn OSAX. bbsm, DU. boczetn ohg. bupma- {= ohg. bodavi) or butna buosa7H G. buse/i, goth. *bbs//m-. {= on. botii) or with assimibotch vb. 'mend a garment' lation butma- {= OE. botf/i) reME. bocche 'repair' deriv. from present Aryan bases bhutnoboot 'mending, repair of a thing'? bhudno; c^). avjya^ bhudhno- 'botperh. ident. with OE. botettian tom' in skr. budhna cp. gk. W> Cp. G. dial, biieizen nvdf(7Jv, lat. fundus (if tracerepair
oe. be^en

',

'mend shoes'
repair

OHG.

buoszen

netical
'a

able to Iflmdhno-s'^^. The phorelations of the group

swelling on the skin, are obscure. ME. bocche: borrowed bough ME. bough bow oe. boh from OFR. boche 'a sore' (fr. bosse bog := DU. bocg 'bow of the ship 'swelling' it. boccia 'ball'). OHG. biiog 'upper joint of thf both ME. bgthe osAX. bedie, arm or leg, shoulder, hip' G. ofris. bef/ie bede, ohg. g. beide, on. bug 'shoulders, withers', on. bbgr bddir, s\v. bdda, dan. baade. The 'shoulder, bow of a ship'. GOTH.

botch
boil'

bounce
^bflgiis

bov

25

'arm,

from pre-teut. bhaghil-s weapon, a bend' me. bowe OE. corresponds to boga OHG. osax. bogo, DU. SKR. bahil 'arm', also gr. nd^vg boog, G. bogen, on. bogi. bow- 'the forward part of a TiTJ/vg 'fore-arm, elbow.
fore-arm'

bounce vb. me. bounse 'beat, ship', var. of bough. knock' OE. "^"In'msian: frequent. bowel JiE. bouil bowel: loanof a primit. '^biinanl Akin to LG. word from OFR. bouel (fr. boyau); biuiscn bumsen (J)ansen}^ 'knock*? source lat. botellus 'sausage' (it. bound sb. me. bounde older b?7uielio), whence also ODU. bodebounc: borrowed fr. oer. bonde linc DU. beuling 'sausage'. bonne 'boundary'. boundary bower sb. me. bour oE. biir 'a

points
also

to FR.

bonnier

whence

dwelling' (see
n^hiebili-)

DU. Imnder ouu. bunre. Source MED.-LAT. bodina.

bound
rowed

vb. 'leap,

spring' borbond'ir

from

ER.

'leap,

spring' prop, 'resound'.

Source

LAT. Iwmbitare 'hum'

bound
:me. boiin

adj.

'ready,

})rcpared'

oSAX. mlg. bur 'a house, cage', OHG. mho. biir 'a chamber' G. hauer 'a cage', ox. biir 'a chamber, larder'. For the TEUT. Y^M 'dwell' cp. build. on. bowl ME. bolle OE. bolla bolli^ DU. bol, OHG. bolla.

neighbor

OE.

'ready, prepared to go': box' 'a chest' me. oe. box', borloanword from ox. buinn 'pre- rowed from a vueg.-lat. '^buxeni pared', part, bibiia 'till, prepare'; for buxidem (nom. buxis), whence cp. busk. also DU. bus, G. bilchsc 'box' ohg.

bounty me.
from FR.
tatcni.

vous'.

vulg.-lat. loanword buhsa for '"buhsja. source eat. boni- buxis (from GR. vvhg 'box made bounteous mi:, bounte- of the box-tree' cp. box'-) apderived from oer. bontive pears in FR. bosseite, rr. bossolo
bonnte:
bonti;

'benevolent' by inllucnce of 'box'. righteous. box- 'the name of a tree' :\rE. bourn 'boundary' adapt, of fr. box-tre OE. box: borrowed from bornc\ ident. with bound. LAT. -ROM. buxUS (= IT. boSSO, bow vb. 'bund' ME. bowe earlier span. boXy FR. buis), whence also G. bicchshiiwe OE. bugan str. vb. 'bend, OHG. MHG. buhs{-boicm) flee' dl'. buigen, bautn 'box-tree', DU. busboom. (only intr.)

:meg. bi/gen, ohg. biogan g. biegen, boy JME. boic OE. *bdta\ perh. GOTH, biugan 'bend'. The teut. dimin. of a lost OE. "^''bo 'brother' \^ bug is an Aryan bhuk on acFLEM. boe 'brothei-': childish count of OHG. buhil 'hill'. A abbreviation of E. brother, as G. cogn. \^ bhug appears in lat. bube OHG. Imobo is a reduplication

=
of

fugio, GR.

(f&ry<ii.

bow^

sb. 'a

"^bb

'brother'?

2b

boycott

brave

boycott

first

heard of

in

Dec.

bramble me.

brembel oe. bremel

1880. Captain James Boycott was a farmer at Lough Mask, co. Mavo, Ireland the Irisli league pronounced their edict, in consequence of which no one wished to work or have anything to do with him; he was the victim of llie system of procedure named after him. brace sb. me. brace: adapt, of Source lat. bracOFR. brace.
;

earlier "^brcemil; cogn. w. G. brovibecrc 'lirambleberry' ohg. brama,


TiV'.

braatn,

perh. ident.

w. OE.
ir.

brom under broom.

bran me. bran: adapt, from.


w. bran.

chiuin.

me. bren adapt, from OFR. bren points to the same source. branch 'a bough of a tree' ME. braiincJie: borrowed from FR. I'ranche (== span. it. brancai.h.1. t}'pe lu-ramical deriv. of lat.

brach .me. bracchc: adapt, of raniui 'branch'?). OFR. brache. Source ohg. bracko brand me. oe. !>ra?id brond DU. brak ODU. ODU. -^^.G. brand, ohg. mhg. brant 'hunting dog' hrackc. 'a burning, a brand', DU. G.%/>rand brad me. brad usually brod: 'a burning, fuel', ON. brandr 'a loanword from ON. broddr 'spike, firebrand', SAV. dan. brand ?l fireshaft' {= OE. brord 'spike', ohg. brand, fire'. From teut. brinnan burn. brort 'edge'). The teut. base brandish vb, me.

brozda- answers to OIR. brot

'sting'.

braiindifslic braundisse:

loanword

me. bra{g)ge\ from FR. brandiss- in brandir (= akin to OFR. braguer 'Haunt, brave, IT. brandirc) 'brandish'. Source brag'. Source doubtful. a Tia'T. brand 'sword' E. brand braid vb. 'weave' me. breide 'sword' 01:. /'ro?id, ox. brandr, OE. brcyian 'move to and fro, JNIHG. brant 'blade of a sword'. weave' OSAX. br'cgdan brandy short for brandyioine lg. Dv. brandcivijn, G. brantewein breiden^ ohg. br'ettan mhg. br'etten, ON. bregda 'draw, pull, weave, 'brandy', lit. 'burnt wine'. braid'; orig. 'move quickly'; but brass :me. bras oe. brees. lat.

brag

vb. 'boast'

mlg. breiden 'knit'. Cp. bridle. brain ime. brain OE. bra:~^en

co^isidered akin to the teut. DU. brein, LG. bregen 'brain'. The base brasa- in oe. brers. TEUT. base bragena- 'brain', if brat 'a child' perh. ident. with from an Aryan 7nrogh-, is com- me. oe. bratt 'a coarse cloak': pared with GR. (igf/uoc 'fore- orig. a Celt, word, cp. GAEL. ir. w. brat brat 'a cloak, mantle' head' (for *f([)f-/-)is

ferr urn,

\iioxferso-

ARYAN

b/ierso-,

brake
perh.
trunk'
?

thicket'

cogn.

me. brake; w. lg. brake 'tree-

'a

rag-,

a pinafore'.

brave borrowed from FR. brave, whence also du. braaf, G. brav.

'

brawn

breeze

2-J

cp.L AT./rango (jnet./regi) 'break'. Jnin: borrowed from OFR. braon breakfast me. brekefaste: prop, 'a piece of flesh, muscle'. Source 'breakiny one's fast, the first a TEUT. brado ace. bradiin meal of the day by which the OHG. braio MHG. b7-dt 'a slice fast is broken'. of bread' and also like g. braten bream me. br(m: loanword

brawn me. In-awi brawn 'muscle, boar's flesh'; orig. "^braoim bra-

\fbrek

'break'

(aryan

bhrifi)

'roast

from FR. branc; source a teut. in ohg. brahstma mhg. in LG. dial, an OSAX. brado braese^n G. brass en osax. 'muscle' is preserved (e. g-. west- bressemo, DU. brascin, osw. braxn^ PHAL. tvadbrae) cp. mlg. brade. DAN. brasen. braze^ vb. 'adorn with brass' breast me. bresi short for me. JIE. brdsc OE. brasian 'cover witii brest oe. breost =: osax. brio sty
meat', G. braten, DU. braden 'roast';

meat',

OE. brcsdan

'roast

braxma

brass':

deriv.

of

OE. brcps\ cp.

brass.
braze"^ vb. 'harden':

OFRIS. briast, ox. brjdst\ akin to

loanword OFRIS. burst (dind briast), G.brust: from ox. brasa 'harden by fire'. TEUT. bases breiist- brust-. breach bre'clie: adapt, of breath me. bre'th oe. breed FR. brcchc. Source the teut. vb. 'breath odor' akin to OHG. br'ckan break. bradafn :mhg. bradem g. brodcm bread me. bred late oe. bread
:

GOTH,

brusts

plur.

DU.

borst,

:\ir<;.

= OHG. brot

G. brSd,

osax. brSd^

broden 'steam, vapor, exhalation'.

DU. brood, lafc ox. brand. The Teut. base brau-da- is deriv. fr. the \^ bri'c in K. broth and

breech
brec.

'buttocks'

.air.

brech oe.

Orig. ident. with


pair

breeches
jie.

(a
brech

of

breeches)

the corresp. oe. brew. The orig. teu r. word for bread was, loaf (= teut. hlaiba-^. brec plur. points to a sing-. *brcc =: DU. broek, ofris. brbk (plur. In OE. we bread
breche',
l>rdk (plur. brd-kr), ORG. The teut. base formed after length MHG. bruoch. brok- plur. brokiz) is seemingly strength with secondary th from connected with Gall.-lat. braca -ArE. brede oe. brddo

find 'piece of brcU), ox. bread' and /w/^rfV?'^/'honev-comb'.

breadth

'breadth':

abstract
breitt).

noun formed from broad


Cp.

'clotliing for the

legs'.

with uiplaut (GOTH, braidei, ohg.

breed

vb,

^^:.

brede oe.
,

bredan

wesit'Hal. bredde, OSAX. '^brcdtha from bred 'broad'. break vb. me. bre'ke oe. brecan str. vb. DU. breken, osax. brekan, OHG. brehhan G. brechen, GOiH. brikan. With the teut.

^= DU. broeden ohg. bruoten MHG. briieten G. brilten 'brood, hatch', GOTH, "'brbdjan deriv. of teut. brbda- see brood.
:

breeze

'

'a

synon. G.

brise,

strong wind dax. bris: source

breeze

brim

FR.

brise

'the

north

wirfd'

ME.
is

bridegojfie

into E. bridegroom

SPAN.

b7-isa.

due

to the influence oi

gr oom.

breeze- 'gadfly' me. brese oe. bridge me. brigge oe. brycg breosa. Connection with G. bremse OFRis. brigge, DU. (^r?^^, OHG. and brcvic (ohg. brhnisa I^rand) brucka G. brilcke (goth. '^brugja is doubtful. '^briigjo). Thecorresp. o^.bryggja brew vb. ME. brewe oe. breowan (also LG. briigge, northfris. DU. broiiwen, ohg. bragh) and germ, (dial.) briickc str. vb. With the signify 'pavement, floor'; and oe. brhiwaii G. brauen. TEUT. \fbru (Aryan bhru bhreii) brycgian me. brigge and nfris. 'brew' are related phryg.-thrac. braghin, MLG. bri'iggen signif)' 'to liovTOi' 'beer, cider', which prob. pave'.

stands for gr. *(povTov, also lat. dcfriihMi 'must boiled down', oiR. bnith 'live coals, bruthe 'broth'

bridle me. oe. bridcl older oe.


briydel bri^dil

ohg. Imttil for from the teut. Cp. bruith 'cooking'. heat' vb. br'egdan 'pull' under braid. b r c a d. Akin to OSLOV. bruzda '5ridle' bridal, see bride. (Aryan \fbhreghdh also in lat. bride i\ie. bride oe. bryd (from framm 'bridle'?). OSAX. odu. "briuii) "brydi me. bref: brief adj. 'short' LG. brild, DU. bruid, ohg. ]\ihg. borrowed from fr. bref (span. briii G. braut, ON. briidr] goth. lat. brevis 'short').

'^brictil:

deriv.

IT.

breve

brief sb. 'a commission, do(but brup-faj)S 'bridegroom') cument' ME. bref; cp. du. g. OSAX. briid is 'the newly married brief ohg. briaf and the corbridal wife' as e. bride. responding OFR. bref 'an official oe. bryd-ealo: lit. :me. br id-die Orig. ident. with document'. bryd bride oe. 'bride-ale (me.

brttps

means

'daughter-in-law'

and. ME. die oe. eah)).


dialects,
tism'.

In ger:m.
bride-

brief adj.

we bridegroom
brydgtwia
,

find kindelbier 'bap-

brier

'a

prickly shrub'
'a

:me. brere

OE. brctr brer

bramble'.

gome

OE.

:\ie.

synon.

bright
'brigltt,
b'erht,

DU. bruideOSAX. briidiguf/io gomo, OHG. briitigomo mhg. briidegovie


G.

ME. bright OE. white, clear'


beraht,

ohg.

briiziiigam

on.

briid-

'bright'.

osAX. goth. bairhts. Akin to MLG. brehen


;

beorht

gume

The 'shine, glisten' cp. skr. (goth. briip-faps). second element of these com- 'brightness pounds (oe. goth. guma, ohg. brim me. brim; perh. ident. surf gotno 'man' is related to lat. with OE. brii 'ocean homo from indo-teut. ghomoti). ON. brim 'surf; cp. the name of The phonetical development of the city of Bremen.
,

bhargas

brimstone

brook

29

broil vb. ME. /;;-<?/7d'; adapt, of OSAX. brcngian, OE. brengan'hring^ ofr. briiiller 'broil, roast', ofr. bruir 'roast' seems to be ident. TEUT. \fbreng brang. brink me. brink 'edge'; cp. on. with G. briiheti mhg. briiejen, du. lg. brink. broeijen 'foment'; cp. brood. brekka from *l^riftko
,

OHG. OSAX. bringan G. bringen, GOTH, briggan; cp. DU. brengen,

brock 'a badger' me. brok oe. JIE. himstgn earlier a celt. ON. brennisteinn 'brim- brocc (= dan. broJi) loanword; cp. w. corn. bret. stone': deriv. of me. bretine brochy GAEL. IR. MANX broc 'a burn. badger (celt, base brokko-, perh. brine me. brme 'salt liquor' ident. w. lat. broccus adj. 'having DU. bnju :mdu. bfinc. bring vb. me. bringe OE. bringan prominent teeth' and ofr. broc

brimstone

brensttjn

= =

'spit,

point').

brisk a celt, loanword; cp. av\ brysg, GAEL. bri(o)sg 'quick, lively'. bristle :me. brittle older birstle OE. '^byrstcl: dimin. of OE. byrst OHG. burst G. borsie, DU. borste bristle'; akin to OHG. biirsta g. The teut. \fbors Imrste 'brush'.

broker me. pawnbroker


;

brocour

'pedlar,

loanword
brokeor

from
'tapster

OFR.

brocour
retails

who

cp. FR. broche

wine from the tap'; under broach.


me. brdche 'a brooch': borrowed
'a

brooch
pin,

'broach'

peg,
:me.

burs
is

(whence
prong'.

btir in

burdock)
SKR. bhrsti

froni FR. broche

spit,

point'.

an Aryan

\'~ b/irs in

'point,

OHG. MHG. bruot G. brtit: appar. me. britcl oe. '^'brytel'. formed with dental suffix from formed with suffix -// (oE. el cp. the teut. \f~ bro in G. bi-iihen, tiimble) from oe. breotan 'break' DU. broeien. Cp. breed. ox. brjoia 'break'.
brittle

Cp. brush.

brood

oe. brgd

= du. broed,

broach vb. :me. brdche 'bore, brook -ME. brcik oe. broc spur, spit, tap' {sdten on brochc DU. broek, MLG. brok LG. l^rook fr. inettrc 'marsh, pool', OHG. bruoh{h) MHG. 'set a-broach, tap' en broche\z.-\^ a barrel') fr. bi'ocher bi'uoch G. bruch 'marsh, bog';

^
;

'broach,

pierce'

and

broche

'a

possibly

connected
vb. 'put

with

the

l)roach, spit'.

TEUT. \fbrck

'break' in break.

broad me. brmi oe. brad OSAX. ifLG. brM, DU. breed, G. breit, on. breidr, sw. dan. bred, GOTH, braids 'broad': prob. from a pre-teut. mraifo-, akin to an Aryan sl^mrit in skr. mrit 'fall
to pieces' (therefore broad\)xoy^. 'extended'?).

brook
enjoy'
b?riichen

up

with'

ME.
'use,

bro{o)kc brouke

=
G.

oe. briican

gebruiken,

osax. briikan, OHG. briihhan


braucheii 'use,

DU.
ifflG.

need,

GOTH,

briikjan 'use'.

The pre-

of the teut. form \f bhrt<g accords with lat. fruor from

broom

buckiam

^frnvor for *friigvor and cp. lat.


fruges.

brute borrowed from FR. brut


adj.
(fern,

brute)]

source
linen

lat.

broom
of

the 'broom'; perh. cogn. w. bramble.

me. oe. brom 'the plant ODU. brocm broom'

brutus.

buck
clothes

vb. 'wash
in

steep
(oE.

dan. byge, sw. byka, brod == '*buciaii) ON. brod, OHG. brod: dcriv. from NORW. boukja, icel. bauka, :mhg. The TEUr. biichcn G. hauchen. the \^ brn under brew.

broth

:me.

broth

oe.

lye'

me.

bouke

\iXQ\ht,v

^ve..

brother oe.
,

^= DU. broeder OHG. :mhg. bruoder GOTH, brbpar brodir


,

brodor vb. biikbn i^bukjait) is based (jn The (cp. bucket'). osAX. brothar, OE. buc buer, it. bucare 'wash' g. briider, ox. Ro:\i. IR.
'brother'.

are

borrowed from Teut.


sb. ME. bukke

The

TEUT. base broper-

(Aryan
to

buck
bok,

oe. bucca\

bhrater-^

corresponds
skr.
bhratar,

lax.

cp. the synon. osax. buck, fris.

/rater

OSLOV. DU.

OHG. mhg.

boc{ck) G. bock,

bratrii;

ON. bukkr bokkr, sw. bock,^ dan. brow :me. bro7cie brilwe oe. brii buk 'a he-goat, ram, buck(deer)', GOTH, ''-bukks '"bukka: ident. w. cp. ox. bri'in 'eyebrow' and skr. boch osLov. bnkd GAEL, boc, OIR. boCC, CYIMR. orp^jvc, bhrii GR. 'buck' from a celt, base bukkocp. GR. (foaroKx.
; ,

'brow'.

bro^A/'n ^ie. broun oe. briiiv

MLG. OHG.
bruin.,

:MH(i.

OERIS.

britll,

ox.

briin/i.

The

DU. teut.

w.

(whence fr. bouc ofr. boc) and armex. buc 'lamb', avest. bitza

name
ROM.

of the color passed int(^ spax. ir. (fr. brim briino 'brown') and LITH. (brunas have signified orig. 'fugitive'. The proper stem of 'brown'). bucket 'a kind of pail' ME. Aryan bhr-iiiio- appears in lith.

buck' {xxviX^bhngT). TheiNDOteut. base bhiigo- is perh. connected with the root oi fugio, GR. (ftvyui 'flee'; hence buck may

beras 'brown' (see

bear

sb.)

and

boket:
pitflier'

deriv.

reduplicated in 'reddish- brown'

bruise vb. from OER.


'break',

buckle ME. bokcl'. adapt, (jf FR. whence also G. bucket. me. briise: loanword 'a buc(c)uta bruser (fr. briser~) Source MED. -LAT.
boucle,

skr. babhrii-s (see beaver^.

from OE. bxlc 'a with the dimin. sutfix -et.

whence
'a

OE. brysan 'break'.


bri'if.

beaver, shield

bruit

rumor' me.

bor-

buckler me.

bokeler:

adapt, ot

OFR. bocler bucler ^=- fr. bouclicr rowed from FR. bruit 'noise'. hrusshe 'a brush', (whence also du. beukelaar, mhg. brush sb. me. borrowed buckeler, on. buklari). Cp. buckle. 'brush-wood': orig.

from OFR. broce fr.

brosse 'brush-

wood,

brush'.

buckram

me. bokeram bukeram OFR. bouquerati boucaran (fr.

buckwheat

hum
G. biirde,
all

31

and

bougran, mhg. buckeravi). history unknown.

Source burdi
boekweif,

buckwheat
MLG.
i>ok7ceic,

baurpei:

du.

dan. oiR. brith 'the carrying' and boghvcdc: lit. 'beech-wheat' from see birth. the resemblance of its seeds to burden'- the refrain of a song' the mast of the beech-tree. The ME. burdoun: loanword from fr. E. word is of continental origin. bourdoi?, orig. 'a drone-bee' {= Cp. beech. SPAN, bordon, it. bordone 'a drone' bud ME. budde; pcrh. akin to from LAT. burdo 'a drone') cp. FR. boutoii, DU. hot 'bud'. History :mi,g. bardiin 'tenor; a musical and source uncertain. instrument'. bugle 'a buifalo, a horn' jme. burgess me. burgeis loanword bilglc: borrowed from ofr. bugle from ofr. burgeis fr. bourgeois 'a wild ox' (lat. buculus, dimin. (lat. type burgC7isis from burgus of bos 'an ox). The meaning 'town). burgher borrowed 'horn' is short for 'bugle-horn'. from DU. burger :mlg. borgere, build vb. short for me. bildc (pret. OHG. burgari :mhg. burgccre burger bilde) OE. '^byldan (pret. hylde)\ G. burger deriv. of teut. burgderiv. with vowel mutation from ee, borough. OE. bold 'house' which goes back, burial me. buricl biriel prop. as shown by the older oe. botl buriels biriels oe. byriels 'tomb' bodl, by metathesis to a teut. (== OSAX. hirgisli 'tomb') deriv. bo-pla- {= ON. bol DU. boedel, from the oe. vb. byryin (oSAX. OSAX. bodlos plur. OFRis. bodel ^burgiaii)\ cp. bury.
G. buchweizeii,
;
:

\P

on. byrdr, goth. of the teut. ber in bear\ cp. skr. bhrti
deriv.

bold.

OE,

byldan

{bytlan)
I'Eur.

is

TEur. bupljan.

bopla-

burin 'an engraver's tool' borrowed from fr. burin; perh. of


:

ARYAN bhu-tlo- belongs to the Teut. origin; cp. ohg. bora INDO-TEUT. \'^bhu 'dwell, reside' borer' (see under bore).
(cp. be, bo7C'er

'a

and

booili).

For

the

ARYAN

//-

suffix

cp. needle.

lice.

burly ME. Akin

burli borli oe. '^burto


oHc;. buro- 'very'

bull ME. bule; OE. only in in burolang boralang 'very long' dinnu. bullae ^^ me. e. bullock; and perh. to skr. bhiiri 'much'? cp. the synon. du. bul, lg. Inille, burn vb. ME. berne oe. bwrnan ON. bolU, T)AN. boll 'a castrated bull'; bernan tr. (Jiyrnati intr.). Cp. LITH. bullus is primit. related. synon. mhg. brinnen intr. and Whether the E. bull is orig. a its causative brennen; G. brcnnen SCAND. loanword, is uncertain. intr. and tr., goth. brinnan intr. burden! 'a load' me. birthen and brannjan tr. Only one beOE. byrden osAX. burthinnia longs to tlie teut. sTbren, as 'burden cp. tlie equival. OHG. shown by bryne 'conflagration'.

^2

burnish

butter

nisse:
niss-,

burnish vb. me. burnisshe loanword from ofr.

'a support for a woman's borrowed from fr. busc the stem of certain parts busque orig. 'the whole bodice',
biir-

busk

bur-

stays'

fr. brunir. of burnir brunir burr ME. bwre 'a bur'; cp. sw. kardborre 'a burdock', dan. borre, N.FRis. bor, HELGOL. borrcu 'bur-

prob. a corruption of bust. buss^ 'a herring-boat' me. busse du. OE. butse (in butsecarlas)

OHG. buzo, ON. biisa. The dock'. OE. '^burre, if for teut. Rom. shows similar words: med.burzon-, may be deriv. from the LAT. bussa buscia 'a kind of boat', Source TEUT. \fbors in G. borste; cp. OFR. busse buse buce. unknovm. bristle. G. dial, bussen buss 2 'kiss' burst vb. :me. berste oe. berstan; cp. synon. OSAX. brestan, lg. du. 'kiss'; cp. also span, biiz 'a kiss bersten, ohg. brestan mhg. bresten of reverence'; perh. orig. a chilCp. an dish onomatopoeia. G. Ijcrsten, on. bresta. bust from FR. buste (= it. span. Aryan V" bhrest in oiR. brisshn
buis,

break'

(i'i'

for

jt/).

busto),

whence

also G.

biisie.

bustle vb. ME. bustele 'wander me. burie birie OE. hyr'r^an byryrii wk. vb.; akin to OE. blindly or stupidly'; perh. akin byriels under to G. (dial.) pusseln 'bustle', icel. byr-^en 'tomb' burial, teut. biirgjan belongs bustla 'bustle'? busy ME. bisy oe. bisii^ =^ du. perh. with OE. beoj'g 'mound, place of burial' to the ^^\}'X.\fba'g in bezig, 'LG.bcsig: teut. base */w/^rt'-.

bury

vb.

GOTH, bairgan, DU. G. bergen, OE. beorgan 'protect, shelter, secure'. bury in place-names see bo-

but ME.
OE.
btita7i

bate

shortened for

conj. 'except'

'besides, without'
'except'.

prep,

biiten

du.

buitc/i

rough.

Contr.

from

be-utan\

bush
with
FR.

y[s..busho\6.&x: busk\ ident.

OHG.
bois,

busk

G.

busch,

du.

bosch bos

and a
it.

ro:m. bosco

{=

and E. out. butcher me. bpcher earlier boucher: borrowed from fr. boucher
cp. G. ausser

Uncertain 'on^ who kills he-goats' (deriv. bucU). whether of Teut. or of Lat. origin. of fr. bouc bush 'a thicket' jME. busch busk butler JIE. buteler bot{e)lcr fr. OHG. busc G. busch, DU. bosch', OFR. houteiller: deriv. of bottle. butt borrowed from OFR. boiite, akin to fr. bois, it. bosco. Orig. derived as lat. *buxicum from FR. bottc (= SPAN, bota, it. bottc^ Akin to OE. byit 'a butt, cask'. box} lat. buxus busk vb. 'get one's self ready' 'hose, a leather bottle', ohg. butin
bosco^.

ME.

buske

'prepare one'self: of G.

biltte.

butter me. Scand. origin; cp. on. btlask 'prebutore ^= G. pare'. Cp. bojind adj.

butere
butter,

oe.

buterc
boter,

du.

buttock

caitiff

33

L(}.

hotter',

source lat.

biityrutn

(cp. FR. beurre, it. burro)


tjovrv(jov.
flie

butterfly
=

= gr.

yiE.buttcr-

sum from oe. bug an bow; the old meaning was 'obedient, obliging'. Akin to DU. buigzaam,
G.

OE. butor-fleoge

uu.

boter'a

biegsam 'submissive'.
vb.
:^rE.

vlieg\

cp. G. dial, buttervogel

buy

bie

earlier

and the G. dial, syno- OE. bycgan 'purchase' OSAX. nyms milchdieb and violkenstehler. buggian, goth. bugjan 'buy'. buttock :iiE. buttok with dimin. buzzard :me. busard short for suffix (cp. hi /lock) fr. ofr. bot biisard: loanword from fr. busard
butterfly'

bigge

(fr.

/;<?/)

'an end';
:mk.
'a 'a

cp. butt-end.
:

button
FR. bouton

biitoun

borrowed LAT.

by-form of fr. buse 'buzzard' (:=: /w/^<? buzzard), whence also

buttress
tecture)

bud, a button'. support' (in archibuteras butres: borboutcrets,


'a

:siE.

rowed from OFR.


plur. of bouteret

prop,
cp.

buttress';

FR.

boter

boiiter

'thrust,

prop.
ibiih-

DU. buizerd, G. bushart. by ME. OE. bi (but be- as prefix) OSAX. OHG. IfflG. bi G. bei, DU. bij\ GOTH, bi means 'round, round about' and thus connection with GR. ai.i<^)i^ LAT. a7?ibi-

buxom

ME. buxom older

becomes

possible.

cabbage
kabuis),
IT.

earlier cabbache

FR. dial, caboche

= fr. cabus (du.


,

from

ko?nbuis, FR. canibuse.

Prob. akin

to E. cabin.

capuccio

G.

kappes

cackle vb. me. kakle


kakclen,
G. kakeln,

OHG. kabuy.
caput

= du. lg.
kackla,

orig. deriv. of lat.

s\v.

head'.

DAX. kagle
caban:

'cackle'.

Onomatofr.

cabin

me.

from FR. cabane capanna 'a cabin.


history unknown.

borrowed poetic formations.


med.-lat.

it.

Source and

cage ME. edge: adapt, of


cage

cabbia'y

gabbia gaggia dial. source lat. cdvea, whence


IT.

cable ME. cable {= g. du. s\v\ also OHG. c/iezna G. kdpig 'cage'. DAN. kalcl) adapt, of fr. cab/e. cairn borrowed frcjm gael. ir. Source lat. capulwn 'a rojie' AV. carfi 'a pile, rock'? (lat. capere 'take, hold).
:

caitiff

ME.

caitif

captive'

caboose
G.
E.

ident. with du. kabuis,

kabiise, dan. kabys. form comboosc ident. with du. ODU.

loanword from onfr. caitif 'a Earlier wretch' (whence also du. katijvig
catijf caitijf)

fr. chitif

English Etymology.

34
'mean,
vile'

cajole

camphor

lat. cauqiier 'tread' (source lat. calcare 'tread down'). call vb. ME. calle oe. (c. 950) cajole vb. == FR. cajoler 'coax' (OFR. cagcoler 'chatter like a bird calUan (once misspelled fm///c?;;): in a cage, prate', deriv. of fr. a SCAND. loanword cp. on. kalla 'say, call, name' (saw kalla, dan. cage =^ E. cage). kalde 'call'): ident. with DU. cake ME. cake OE. '^'caca (inkallen, ohg. kallon; cp. skr. ferred from the dimin. formation \'^gir 'call, praise'. OE. Cecil cicel, teut. base kakila-) callous from LAT. callosus 'hardON. SAV. kaka, DAN. kage 'cake'. skinned' (lat. callus 'hard skin'). Akin to OSAX. koko, DU. koek, sc. callow adj. me. caloive calii oe. cooky (also OE. ciicil aiE. kcchel du. kaal, ohg. from the dimin. goth. *kokila-), calu {cahv-')
(it.

cattivo

captivus 'captive').

OHG. kuocho

G. kuchen.
is

kakau- kokan-

The base genuine teut. early lat. loanword


(infl.
"'

kalo

kalawci')

= lat. calvus

G.

kahl:

an

ca(u)ldron me, caudroim: borrowed from AFR. caadrojm

calvd),

(whence fr. chauve, it. span. which is of Aryan \)rigin


(cp. SKR. kulva, AVEST. kaoiirva

FR.

chaiidron

(= IT.
for

calderoiie 'a
r^?/-

large kettle').
/^/(7r/^?

Source lat.
hot

'callow').

calm j\iE. cabne (= du. kalvi) of from FR. calme {= span. ii'. modern spelling is inserted in calma 'calmness, still weather). imitation ofLAT. (Scotch still cau- Source med.-lat. cauma'\h.Q heat of the sun' gr. y.avf^ia 'great droii) heat', / being due to association calf^ ME. calf OE. cealf^= osax. w. LAT. calor. DU. LG. sw. calf, on. kdlfr, ohg. cambric borrowed from fr. G. kail?; goth. has only a fem. kalhd 'heifer' chalba G. ca}/il>ray, so called from Cambra'i (ohg. Outside of (fle:m. du. KamerijJi), a town of kalhe f. 'a calf).
'a

kettle

water'
/

(ca/diis calidus 'hot).

The

TEUT., there is a series of words with the base glbh- in skr. garhha 'the womb, an embryo',

n(?rthern
first

made

hull).

France where it was (hence G. kammcrSee arras and lawn-.


from fr. camp
'field'.
rrrr_

GR. daX(fivg 'womb' brother' adaXffog

and

its

deriv.

camp borrowed
'field,

dl-Xcpdt.

young

pig'.

army'

lat. catnpiis

campaign

from

fr.

cam-

calf2 ME. calf) perh. adopt, of pa(i)g?ie 'an open field, ON. kdlfi NORW. kalve , sw. tary campaign'.

a mlH-

kalf iben-kalf) 'calf of the

leg'.

camphor borrowed
caniphrc

ca(u)lk
as a cock':

vb.

]\rE.

cauke

'tread

from fr.
kampfir,

it. caiifora, G.

borrowed from ofr. DU.

kat/ifcr.

card

35

DU. kap 'cap'). Source lat. cappa] OSAX. ohg. kan o. kanti. ident. with cape^ and cope. The TEUT. vb. kiinnan is akin to cape^ MS., cape: borrowed from keen: the aryan\/~<^^// see under ONFR. cape (= IT. lat. cappa 'a

can

vb. me. oe. can ^= goth.

kann,

know. can sb. me.


'a

cloak,
oe. canne =: du. kan

cape'):

ident. with cap.

fr. caprc {= it. du. kapper, v.. kapcr'): FR. canari\ cp. G. kanarien- source lat. capparis. vogcl 'canary-bird', dan. canariecapon ME. cdpoun late oe. (c. fu^l, sw. canariefogel, du. kanaric- looo) capiln fr. onfr. capon (fr. so named chapon) 7'ogel 'canary-bird'; source lat. cappo(nem), after the Canary islands. whence also G. kapaun and ohg.

pot, mug', OHG. kanna G. ON. kanna, goth. *ka>?no. TEUT. word passed into fr. (ofr. can7ie fr. dirain. canette 'a jug).

cape- 'a headland' borrowed kamie, from FR. cap 'cape, headland, The head' G. kap, it. capo. Source

LAT. caput 'head'.

canary

caper from

span, canario

'bird'

cappero,

candle mk. candle candel ok. kappo. early loanword fr. lat. captain me. capitain from fr. candela, whence also it. candela. capitaine (lat. type capitaneus Cp. chandelier capitanus, deriv. of LAT. caput cane me. cane: borrowed from 'head'). Ident. w. chieftain.
candel:

FR. canne =r it. canna 'a reed,

car ME. carre (by-form charre)

a cane', lat. canna.

canker
cancer
chancre^
fr.
:

me.

cancre

late

oe.

borrowed from ontr. carre (fr. chary Source lat.-gall. carriis


(p.REr.
ir.

onfr. source

cancre

(fr.

w.

carr^

'chariot',

whence
kankiir.

also o.

lat. cancer, \)\:. kanker ohg.

whence
karrrn.

also it. carro, DU. kar, OHG. charra charro 'cart' o. karre

canon
FR.

mk.

canoJi.
y.ar(' v^

(gr.

adapt, of caraway borrowed from fr. Source lat. canon carvi =r, it. carvi, lat. careuvi a rule, standard of 'caraway'; cp. Vi\: karivij G.karbc.
canoun:
.

riglit'.

canvas

:me.

can{e)vas

(=

carbuncle :me. carbuclc: bordu. rowed from ONTR. carbuncle carboucle (fr. escarboucle; ident. with
it.

kanefas, G. canne7>as kanevas, SM\

kanfass, dan. karmevas):

borrow-

carbonchio,

ed from ONFR. canevas (la r. type karbunkeiy.


canahacius
"hemp').
,

du. karbonkel, g. lat. carbunculus 'a

deriv.

of

cannabis glowing coal, gem, boil', dimin. of car bo.

cap MF.

cappc oe. cceppe 'cloak'


'cloak' G. kappCy
I

card

(=

OHG. kappa

fr. carte

ME. card: borrowed from 'a card, ticket. I)ill,

36

card 2

cashier.

map,

chart;

ident.

with

DU. cartage (fr. charriage), deriv. of

kaart, G. karte, it. carta.

e. carry. Source carter LAT. c{h)arta 'a card, paper. carrion :\ie. carton caroine ME. carde: adapt, from DU. karonJ\ cp. also me. crone, card''^ FR. carde; ident. with the synon. ODU. kronie: adapt, of onfr. DU. kaardc, OHG. charta o. karte^ caroigne (ofr. charoigne fr.

SPAN, car da, it. cardo 'a card'. charogney, lat. type caronia 'a Source lat. carduus 'a thistle'. carcass' fr. caro 'flesh'. care me. care OE. cam (cearii) carry vb. inie. cai'ie'. adapt, from OSAX. 'sorrow, suffering, grief ONFR. carter (fr. charriet-)', lat. OHG. kara 'lament' (g. kar- in type carricare 'carry' (lat. carries

karfrcitag

karivoche 'Passion

'Good Friday"; mhg. g. week) ^= goth.

'a

cart,

car';

cp. car^.

kara 'sorrow'.

A cognate vb. w. OE. crcet plur. craiti 'chariot' (meaning 'sigh') is preserved in DU. krat 'hindpart of a cart': OHG. qu'cran (goth. '^'qairaii). of Celt, origin; cp. oij^. cret Cp. chary. 'a wain-body.

cart ME. cart ir.o^.kartr; ident.

carol ME. Carole 'dance, song' from OFR. Carole 'a kind of dance, also a carol or Christmas song'.

cartidge, a

Of
AV.

dance',

celt, origin (bret. koroll 'a Manx carval a carol',

cartridge with intensive r for corruption oi cartouche =. FR. cartouche (it. cartocc'to 'cartridge', deriv. of lat. charta

carol 'a song', gael. caridl 'paper'). carve vb. me. kerve oe. ceorfan 'melody, harmony'). DU. kerven, G. kerben 'notcli, du. karpcr, carp ^ie. carpe

karfo ON. karfc, s\v. karp, dan. karpc. Ident. with late lat. carpa fr.
chai'pJio

OHG.

G. karpfen,

indent'
'^^k'erhan

(goth. *kair/an, ohg. not found). The \'^ kerf

appears in gr. yodcffo "scratch,

carpe,

\jirite'. span, carpa. case^ -ME. cds case: borrowed carp vb. ME. (T^f^^'carp at, talk, say adapt, of on. karpa 'boast, from FR. cas (span. it. caso 'cirSource brag'. The present meaning cumstance, chance'). is prob. an outgrowth of the LAT. casus. cdce cdsse: adapt, case'-^ ME. associated idea in lat. carpcre from OFK.casse fr. caisse; source 'pluck'.

it.

carpenter :\ie. carpenter: bor- LAT. capsa 'box, cover'. rowed from onfr. carpenticr (fr. cash from FR. casse. Hence charpent'm-). Source lat. car- cashier sb. pentum 'carriage'. cashier vb. dismiss from sercarriage :me. carid^e 'burden, vice' (== G. kassireii) from fr. baggage': borrowed from onfr. passer 'discharge'.
:

cask

caution

37
;

cask borrowed from fr. casque chacepol)


'a

cp.

G.

hi'inervogt

title

of a tax-gatherer. cater sb. Tsi&.catour acatour achahelmet'). casket corrupted from fr. cas- toiir 'a buyer of provisions a dimin. of caterer': source ONTR.r(7/:= FR. sette 'a small casket', achat 'a buying, purchase', whence FR. easse 'a chest, box'. Orig. lat. type cassock: adapt.fromFR.awa^?^<? FR. acheter. (it. casacca 'an outer coat', span. accaptarc. caterpillar earlier form late me. casaca 'a great-coat, surtout). cast vb. ME. caste: a Scand. cateipel corrupted from ofr. loanword; cp. ox. &\^\kasia, dax. chatepeleuse 'a weevil' lit. 'a hairy she-cat': ofr. chate 'a she-cat' kastc 'throw'. G.kasie, -^ pcleuse (lat. pilosus) 'hairy'. caste 'a breed, race' FR. caste: borrowed from SPAX. caterwaul me. caterwawe shows the E. word cat in an extended casta 'breed, race, caste'. castle ME. late oy.. castel (also form like caterpillar; me. 7c<aicc ODU. DU. kasteel) 'make a noise' is imitative. ME. castc'l catkin dimin. of cat; cp. G. a castle, village': borrowed (c. I ooo) fr. OXFR. castel (ofr. chastel katzchen 'catkin'. =^ FR. chateaii). Source lat. cacattle ME. catfl {chatel, whence stdlutn. E. chattel) borrowed from onfr. cat :me. oe. cat (tt): borrowed caiel (ofr. chatel) source med.from OIR. CORN, cat or from LAT. capitale 'capital, ])roperty'. caudle me. caudel: borrowed ONFR. cat (fr. chat) and ident. with G. katsc, ox. kgttr, norw. from ONFR. caudel {chaudel == fr. sw. katta. The word (base cattu-s') chaudeau) 'a warm drink' deriw (lat. caldus is in use in the Teut. Rom. Celt, of FR. chaud 'hot' languages; cp. late lat. catta calidus 'warm'). cattus 'cat'. cause ME. cause: adapt, from catch vb. ME. cacche (with the FR. cause (by-form chose^ 'a cause, IT. lat. causa. earlier by-form ccche?i): borrowed thing' from oyiVK.cacher (= fr. c/iasser, causeway causey corruption si'Ai^. cazar, n:. cacciare), whence of causey (due to confusion with also ODU. caetsen to chase' DU. 7vay) ME. cause from oxfr. caucc kaatsen Iplay ball' and mlg. katzen (whence also odu. casseie) 'play ball'. Source a lat. type FR. cJtaussie: lat. type (evVi-) *calcask, helmet'
it. casco 'a
,

(=

'captiare =^

captare

'catch'.

ciata 'a jiaved

(way)'

fr.

calciare

Hence

catchpoll

me.

cacchcpol 'pave'.

caution ^i\L.cauciou?i: borrowed late OE. ccecepol prop, 'catcher of poultry' (cp. FR. poule under from YK. caution (it. cauzione) poult) onfr. *cachepol (ofr. LAT. cautio 'caution'.

;ii498:

; :

58

cave

champion

cave ME. cave: adapt, from fk. cave\ cave' (^ir. cava)] source

chair me. chair e: adapt, from


FR. chaire (ofr. cha-ere)\ source

LAT. cathedra (gr. yMd^sdQo) 'a LAT. caviis 'hollow'. cease me. cc'sse ccse: adapt, of chair, seat'. chalice :me. c(h)alice: borrowed IT. LAT. cessarc. FR. cesser ceil ciel me. cek selc vb. lit. from ofr. chalice (calice :=: fr. source la r. 'emboss' from an earlier syle cyll calice, it. calice) From, 'a canopy': source fr. ciel 'a, ca- cdlic-, stem oi calix 'a cup nopy' (fr. ciel, SPAN. IT. cielo the same source also oe. cdlic, lat. osax. kelik, DU. kelk, ohg. kelih 'heaven, canopy, roof

cccluni

'heaven').
:\ie.

G.

kelch.

cerge

cerge;
;

adapt,

from

chalk ME. chalk oe.

DU. G. kalk, on. sw. source lat. lime' dan. kalk: early loanword from cereus 'a wax taper'. certain me. certein certain: bor- LAT. calc- stem of calx 'limerowed from fr. certain (= it. stone, chalk' (whence also fr. certami) from J.xr.certanus, deriv. chaux, it. calce, ir. gael.' cailc, w. calch lime'). of cert us. chalenge challenge sb. me. chafe ME. c/iau/e \varm: adapt, source a lat. 'claim': adapt, from ofr. chalenof FR. chauffer
fr. cierge (it. cero)
\

cealc 'chalk,

t)^pe caleficare

(= lat. calefacere)

gier] cp. IT. calogna 'accusation'

'make warm'. chafer iiE. '^chafer oe. ceafor: TEur. base kafru-; cp. the synon. DU. kever, ohg. chevaro G. kiifer (goth. '^kifra '^^kafrus~). Perh.

^='LX'V.calumnia
accusation'.

'a

slander, false

chamber
rowed
camera

:me.

chaumhrc:

borit.

{xoxQ.^'^.chamhre; cp.

lat. camera camara rcjom' vault, a (vaulted) 'a chaff is cognate. chaff ME. chaf oe. ceaf {= du. ident. w. du. kamer, ohg. chamara LG. kaf)\ akin to OYiG. cheva 'pod, G. hammer 'chamber, office'. chamberlain me. chaumherlein husk' and perh. to chafer. chaffer :\ie. chaffere chaff'are borrowed from ofr. chambrelein (span, cafnarlcngo, oe. ciap 'a chambrelenc earlier chap-fare bargain' -r- faru 'a journey' also IT. camarlingo camerleugo) ident. 'business'; cp. on. kaupfgr 'a w. MED. -LAT. camar- cajnerlingus, ohg. chamarlinc G. kamtnerling, journey'. chaffinch prop, 'the chaff- formed with suffix line and lat.

finch'.

camera.
sb. :me. chaine:

chain
it.

borrowed

champion
rowed
fr.

MK.chaumpioun: bor-

from FR. chaine ofr. chaine


lat.
caten(i)\

(=

fr. champion (cp. du.

ident. with du.


G.
kette.

kampioeii).

keten,

ohg. chetinna

campione

'a

lat. type campio, it. combatant' {campus

chance

chapter

39

'a battle,

the same IT. ca?nMare cangiare)\ source ohg. chanph{i)o LAT. cavibiare 'change, exchange'. channel me. chanelle: adapt, OLG. keinplo, ON. ifflG. kpnpfe, from OFR. chanel; ident. w. e. kappi 'warrior, hero'. chance :me. chaunce: adapt, of canal (= fr. span, canal, IT. T>\:.kanaal, G. sw. hanal). FR. chance (whence also mhg. canale,
duel').

From

source OE.

ce7npa,

chant vb. me. chaunte: adapt, G.schanze; but du. kans fr. oxfr. cadenza from fr. chanter {= span, cantar, cance): ofr. che-ance, it. point to a lat. type cadcntia 'a IT. LAT. cantar e 'sing'). chap vb. ME. chappe 'cut, chop' chance' (esp. in dicefalling ^= MDU. DU. happen, dan. kappe, ]ilaying). sw. kappa. chancel me. chauncel: borrowed chapel ME. chapcle: borrowed from OFR. chancel isiED.-LAT.az/;from fr. chapelle {= it. lat. cclli plur. a grating, lattice-work', capclla, OHG. kap'ella G. kapelle, whence ohg. cancel/a chanzcUa G. DU. DAN. kapel, sw. kapelt). lat. chankanzel'\>\A\)\'C xyc.kahscl. capella (dimin. of capa') signified cellor -ME. chaunce la- chaunselcr: 'a cape'; the chapel itself where bijrrowedfrom YK.chancelier (lat. the cloak of St. Martin and other type cancellarius 'a chancellor', relics were preserved first oborig. 'an officer near the screen tained the name capella; then before the judge's bench', deriv. from the 7 '^ cent, the use of oi'LATS.cancellus 'grating). Ident. the word became general. Cp.
,
\

w. OHG. chanciliwi .mhg. kanzelcere


G. kanzler,

du. kanselicr, dan. sw.

cape.
j

kansler, ICEI,. kanzellari.

chan' j

eery

cellerie:

kanselarij,
celli,

capellan, ir. capellano, med.-lat. adapt. o{ Y^g.. chance llerie\ capcllanus, orig. 'the priest guardw. it. cancelleiia, du. (ident. ing the cloak of St. Martin').
G.
kanzlci,

me. chauncerie earlier chaun-

chaplain :me. chapelein borrowed from FR. chapelain {= SPAN.


:

dan. can-

sw. kansli).

Cp.
1

.MHG.

kapelldn

G.

kaplan,

chandelier from i'r. =: SPAN, candelero, \i.candtlliere\

DU. kapelaan, d.\n. sw. kapellan. chandelier chapman me. chapfnati 'a merj \

chant'

in fnan lat. type candelarius also DU. koopnian, OHG. choufDU. kandelaar', cp. candle. ttian G. kaufmann. For OE. c(ap chandler :me. chaundcler loan- bargain, trade' cp. cheap. word fr. FR. chandelier 'a candle- chapter .me. chapitre: adapt, maker, candle-stick' it. candel.vt. capituof FR. chapitre lajo: LAT. type candelarius. lum 'a chapter of a book', change \h.yi..chauiige: adapt. whence also G. kapitel 'chapter

shortened for OE. carp-

ivova FR. changer

(=^span. camluar,

of a book'.

40

char

cheek
chatier

char vb. me. cherre OE. cyrran wk. vb. 'turn': teut. base karrjan See ajar. or karzjanl charge vb. me. charge; adapt, of FR. chargcT (iT. caricare, med.i.K'X.carricarc 'load a car) deriv. of LAT. carrus car. charge sb. me. charge: adapt, from fr. charge (it. caricd) 'a load'. chariot me. chariot: borrowed from FK. chariot, dimin. of char

(=
ODU.

span,
;

castigar

it.
G.

LAT.

castigare^

ident.
for the

kasteien,

castien.

chastise
ident.

w.

vb. ME.

chastise

chastie 'chasten';

shorter see chaste vb.


chetel,

chattel ME. chatel

w. cattle: source OFR.


'chatter',

chatel.

chatter vb. me. chat{e)re (chitere) an imitative word.

chaudron
w.
G.

'entrails'

borrowed
synon.

from OFR. chaudun cauldun; ident.


kaldaunen.
,

'a

car'.
:

The

charity me. charite (chcrite) bor- IT. caldmne Sicilian quadiwii. rowed from FR. chariti' (it. carita Cat. escahiuvis point to vulgar
LAT.
I'R.

caritate7>i).

LAT.

*cahluf/ie;i.

charm
from

me. charnic:
char7ne
'an

borrowed

cheap me.
,

chep 'trade,

enchant- price' OE. ccap 'price' QSAX. OHG. hou/ G. ment'; source LAT. carfiien 'a kop DU. hoop song, enchantment'. hau/ \rade, traffic'; source lat. chart ident. w. g. karte^ DU. caupo 'huckster'. kaart; borrowed from fr. charte; cheat vb. ME. chcte short for The meaning source lat. charta. charter eschrte 'escheat'. ME. chartrc charter: adapt, of 'defraud' was ushered in in the chartrc 'a charter' (lat. 1 6*'' cent, on account of the FR. chartula 'a little paper'), unscrupulousness of the escheachary me. chdri oe. cearii ters. Cp. escheat. of care sad' OSAX. 'full checker sb. me. chekcr chekker{e) OHG. karag (Heliand modkarag 'a chess-board' short for eschekcr loanword from 'sad') 'full of care' G. karg 'slow 'the exchequer to give'. OFR. eschcquier eschakier 'a chessCp. care. YK.ichiquier chase vb. me. chdce chase: bor- board, exchequer' MED. - lat. rowed from FR. chasser (Picard. {= IT. scacchiere cachier see under catc}i)\ lat. sca(c)cariu}fi). type captiare. chase :me. cheek ME. cheke oe. ceoce: teut. chdce chase: adapt, from fr. base keiikon also in ofris. tziake
,

barter,

=
,

chasse

=^ it. caccia 'chase'. 'jaw-bone' (modern soke^ akin to eastfris. kilkkcn chaste me. chaste: borrowed GOTH, kukjaft from FR. chaste (it. casto lat. 'kiss'. But ME. chi'ke cheke oe. cecice castas chaste). chaste vb. 'jaw-bone' may also point to 'chastise' me. ^7/(W//(^ also chasty: v>\j.kaak ODr. cake 'cheek': teut.

adapt,

of OFR. chastier

fr.

base

kdkau-

kekon-

cp.

mlg.

cheer

chimney

41
cp.
ii\

kake

(fr.

*kako)

and

kcke

(fr.

teut. giw

oslov.

ziva

"^keokii)

'gums, jaw-bone'. zivati 'chew'. cheer sb. me. chcre: adapt, of chich 'a dwarf pea'

.aie.

chichc:

FR. chcre

(whence

it.

cera).

borrowed from
:

fr. chiche 'chick-

IT. cece, SPAN, chicharo, OSAX. OHG. kdsi G. kdse OHG. kichurra G. kicher). Source earl}- loanword from lat. caseus LAT. cicer. (whence also it. cascio, span. chicken short for me. chike oe. (jucso and oiR. caise). cyccn i)lur. c'yc?m du. keuken
I

cheese me. chese oe. cese (c'ys:) r= pea' (^=

)U. /iiias,

cherish vb.

:\ie.

cherisshe: adapt.

kiekeii,

c;.

dial,

kilchen

kilchlein.

of FR.tV/r'/vVi--, stem of some parts TEUT. base kiukina- is perh. of tV/Jr/r 'hold dear'; source fr. traceable to oe. cocc ^= cock. cher lat. cams 'dear'. chicory ident. w. du. chikorei, cherry me. c/icry in comp. G. dehor ie, dan. cikoric\ adapt, chcre- chiri- (plur. cherys cheries of FR. chicorie ir. cicorea, chiries), a new sing-, developed LAT. cichorium ? from the supposed plur. ""cherts

"'chiris

OE.
G.
,

ciris

cyrs

kirsa
ccras/is

hirschc.

SPAN, cabo, it. capo\ source lat. caput 'head'. chess ME. ches(s)e: borrowed chieftain :\ie. chcvctain chevefrom OFR. cschcci chess' prop, tein borrowed from ofr. chevetaine =r med.-lat. capitamis ident. the plur. of cschcc 'check' (it. w. captain. scacco, (J. schach
FR. chef

whence the corresp. Rom. group it. ciricga, fr. cerise


ccrcsia.

chide vb. :\iE. chide oe. cidau ^= OHG. 'chide, brawl': teut. base /Jz^^rt'//. Source lat. chief ME. chef: borrowed from

from a vulgar lat. type

du.

schaak^).

Source chest
cest

i'frs.
mi;,

shah
chesie

'king'.
(chiste)

child
oe. OE.
chisfa

-Mi:,

child

(plur.
cildrii):

chi/dre^

(c/'ste)

= du.
on.
mi:,

h'sf,

ohg.
kista
,

G.

/lisfc

sw.
lat.

teut. base kilpiz- kelpaz-, not found dan. elsewhere; but perh. akin to
ciid

(plur.

/k'/s/c.

Source
a bcjx

cis/a

(gr.

GOTH,
chill

inkiipd 'pregnant'.
MI-;,

/.i6rr^

chile

oe. cyle ccle

fr.

chestnut
chestnut':
chastaigiie

chcstcin

chastcm

a TEUT.

base>6tf//-;

{ox \X\<z\^ kal

loanword from OFR. cp. cool and cold. =r fr. chataigne and chime .mk. chimbe orig. 'cymbal', ident. with ohg. kestinna g. short for orig. cimble OE. cimkastanie du. kastanje. Source bal{a) from lat. cyfnbahwi 'a
, :

LAI",

castiviea.

cymbal'.

chcwe oe. ccoivan chimney ^sViL.chiniuee earlier chcmlg. keuwen, menc: loanw^ord from fr. chemince ohg. kinwan G. kaucn, A preir. camminata, onG. chamnata;

chew

vb.

:mI';.

DU.

kawiven,

42
akin to G. kanmi.
LiWii/ms 'hearth',

chin

churl

Source lat.

OSAX. logy and etymology doubtful. chin ME. chin OE. cin choler me. choler: borroweil OHG. kmm G. kiiiii, du. kin. The older meaning 'cheek' cp. in from FR. coPcre (= it. collcra, GOTH, kinniis 'cheek'. For a pre- LAT. cholera 'bile'). choose vb. older chi'tsc with TEUT. base genu- cp. gr. yivvq phonology but ME. 'chin, jaw, jaw-bone', ytrsidc f. obscure 'chin, beard' lat. grna 'cheek' chese oe. ceosan 'choose' ir. OSAX. OHG. kiosan G. kicsen, or. {iientes genuini 'molar teeth') gin 'mouth'; skr. hanu-s 'jaw', kiezen ON. kjdsa, goth. kiusan: hanavya 'jaw-bone'. i:vAjT.\f kns from pre-TEUT. \f gus gus-tare, gr. chine me. chine; adai)ted from in LAT. gus-tus fr. ichinc, which ytvm for ysvacu skr. \^ jus OFR. eschine with IT. schiena 'the chine, back- 'choose, like'. The teut. factibone' is traced to ohg. skina tive /J-cK/^a/^ (cp. choice) appears
, ;

choke ME. choke; older by-form ME. a-chcke oe. a-ccocian ? Phono-

',

'the

< shin-bone' G. schicnc 'shin, in Slav, knsiti. chop vli. :\IE. choppc (chappe) shin-bone, splint'; cj). shin. chip vb. ME. chippc 'cut into 'cut uj), strike off akin to DU. small pieces' du. g. kippen G. kippen 'cut, lop'. chord cord fr. lat. chorda. hatch out'. Christmas shortened for mk. chirp vb. :\IR. chirpe (chirkc)

Christesniasse OE. Cristesfna^sse\)ro\). an onomatopoctic word. chisel sb. :\rE. chisel: borrowed 'the mass of Christ'. ciseaii fr. chronicle :me. cronicle with the from OFR. cisel med.-lat. scisehmi) by-form cronike (but lata Oic. (it. cesello 'a chisel'; prob. ult. connected cranic): ixomYV^.chroniqne:, ident.

with scindeic.

w. DLT. kronijk, lat. chronica.

chivalry .mi:, chivalric: loanword church ]\IE. chirche oe. cyrcecirce OSAX. kirika, Y)V. from FR. chevalerie (deriv. of older cirice cheval from lat. cahallus 'a kcrk, OHG. kiricha G. kirche c\\\\.xi:\\ As shown by the E. palatalization horse'). choice ME. chois[e) borrowed and by the G. ch in kiricha, the fr. OFR. chois fr. choix 'a choice'. word must have existed in the The FR. vb. choisir 'choose' points 5''' cent. but a goth. ''kyrciko Source to a TEUT. kausjan\ cp. choose. 'church' is unrecorded. choir earlier qim-e me. quer GR. y.vQia'/.6v (not found in lat. borrowed from FR. chociir 'the nor in the Rom. languages). choir of a church, a troup of churl ME. cherl OE. ceorl 'a DU. kerel, mlg. kerle lg. singers': source lat. chonis 'a churl' band of singers'. G. kerl: TEUT. base kerla-. With

churn

clean

43
claime

different

vowel on.

karl

'old-

man', OHG. karal imc. karl 'man,

claim vb. me. borrowed fr. ofr.

chime

claimer cleinier

husband, lover'; hence the G. (source lat. clamare it. chiaproper name Karl (lat. Karolus, tnare 'call, name, send for'). I'R. K. Charks). clamp sb. after mdu. klampe DU. churn sb. me. r/z/Vv/t' OY..cyrne\ klaifip, LG. klampe] akin to mhg.
the
corresjj.

vb.

cliurn

is

me.

klimpfen 'draw, press'.

chime OE. cyrnan from a teut. clan sb. borrowed from gael. base kirnjan ox. kirna, DU. clann IR. clann oir. eland LG. kerncn karnen 'make butter' 'children'.

for making- butter', ox. kirna, DU. kani, LG. butterkerne. Source a teut. base kerna- 'cream' in G. (pro v.) kern, ICEL. kjarna 'cream'.
is

and the 'vessel

=
g.

clap vb. ^lE.clappe OY..clappianl


DU.
klaffen.

klappen

lg.

klappen

(whence

G. klappen),

ohg. klaphon

cider me.
cidrc

sider cider
cidro,

clasp ME. elaspe, prob. akin to from fr. clap and OE. clyppan 'embrace'.
clatter
"^clatorian

(=

IT.

SPAX. sidra; spax.


it.

vb.

me.

clatere

OE.

source lat. sicerd). cigar =^ FR. cigare,


cigarro.

(inferred

from

the

cinder
'slag or
i'//'<?/jr

verbal noun clatrting 'a clatterto du. klateren ing') akin


;

sb. .me. cinder sinder OE.

sindcr 'dross of iron'

= ox. sindr

'rattle'.

dross from a forge', DU.

claw

sb.

:\IE.

claive

(by-form
cl^'a cli-d)

clc)

'cinders, goke', omg. sintar

OE. cla7cni (b}--form

OSAX. klawa, du. klaauw, ohg. G. sinter 'dross of iron, scale'. kldwa chloa mhg. klawe kid', a cipher sb. me. ciphre (= du. ^klaaa f. is probable, cij/er, G. loanword fr. GOTH, ziffer) though ox. kid seems to point OFR. ci/re fr. ciffre, spax. cifra, Pre-TEUT. s^'^glu. to *klo7C'a. ir.
:

cif(e)ra.

cite

borrowed from
citare

fr.

eiter

clay

:me.
;

elai

oe.

cIcbi

=:-

du.

lat.

(deriv.

of lat.

LG. klei

akin

to of. clam 'clay'

citus

E. (dial.) cloam 'earthenware 'quick'?). citizen :m1':. citesein formed after OHG. kleimen, scaxd. kleima klina Outside of teut., ME. denizein (cp. detiizeti) the 'besmear'. yXoi yXi in yXoinq 'sticky earlier, :me. t7/^7(' is an adapt, of GR.
; :

OFR. citeien (fr. citoyen^. city oil'. ME. cite: loanword from FR. citL clean me. el(nc (^clene) OE. clcene Source lat. civitatem. OSAX. kleni, du. kleefi klein, clack vb. ME. clacke =r du. OHG. kleini 'pretty' o. klein 'small' klakken 'clack, crack'; akin to {GO')Lli.*klai-ni- is wanting). The FR. claqucr 'clap in applause'. nasal belongs to the suffix. For

44
the root
oil'.

clear

cloister

syll.

cp. GR. yXoiog

'fat

klippe,

perh. akin to ON. klifa

Hence cleanse

for me.

climbl
DU. klimmen, OHG. klimban The nasal was orig. G. klimmen. a formative of the pres. tense as seen by on. klifa, me. cli^'e The teut. ^kltb (cp. 'climb'.
cliff)

i:/cyise

OE. cl(znsian 'make clean':

a causative vb. with formative -s. clear me. cler: borrowed from FR. c/air (span, c/aro, OFR. cler IT. c/iiiiro from lat. c/arus). cleave vb. 'adhere' me. c/e've OSAX. klibou, DU. OE. cUofiaii

climb

vb.

:\rE.

clivibe

oe. climban

'

may be found

in cleave"^

ohg. klcben o. klebe/i not goth. '^klibon 'adhere'; recorded, teut. \'^ klib. cleave 2 vb. 'split' ime. cleve oe. oSAX. clioban '^cliiban, deofan DU. klovcn, OHG. klioban chliuban /^Z?^ G. klieben: TEUT. \P klub cogn. w. GR. yXvffuv 'hollow out',
kieven,

and cling.
cean

clinch vb. ME. clenche oe. ""clenohg. mhg. klenken 'knot

together'.

cling vb.

^ie. clinge

oe. clingan\

akin to sw. kldnga 'climb', dan. klynge sig 'adhere to, climb'. yfklimbl Cp. climb. \fkHng

perh. also w. lat. gliibere 'peel'. clip 1 vb. 'embrace' (Shakesp.) OHG. cleft r^IE. Clift OE. *i-/>// ME. clippc OE. clyppan. Akin to G. kluft; from the teut. \fklfib;

ohg. kldftra

G.

klafter 'fathom'.

cp. clcat'e-.

clergy me. clergie: from OFR. clergie


(lat. type

=
;

borrowed
fr.

clericatus).

clerge

clip- vb. 'cut, shear' me. clippi:: borrowed from ON. sw. klippa
'clip,

clerk

cut'.

ME. clerk late oe. clerc cleric {= DU. klcrk, FR. r/<?;r) source lai".
clcricus.

cloak by-form cloke me. clpke: borrowed from ofr. cloke cloque
'a

cloak'.

clock :\IE. clokke: prob. borrowclever not yet found in Shakesp., a recent word, perh. developed ed from O'^iYK.clocke (Y^.cloche)\ from :\IE. deliver 'agile, nimble, ident. w. OY..clugge {clucce'^), DU. glocke, ON. lively' (from ofr. delivre 'prompt, klok, ohg. glocka G.
alert').

Or cogn. w.
clever',
sb.

lg. kluftig

klukka.
is

The
CELT,

ro:\i.-teut. clocca

'wise,

DU. kluftigl

of

origin;

cp.

cvmr.
\

ME. clave oe. cleoweii clock, OIR. doc (OCELT. klllkko) DU. klinaen: teut. OE. clucge. eliiven 'clew' clod ME. clodde; a var. of clot. base kUujina-: dimin. of a shorter clog -^lE. clogge 'a lump, block', kliinva (g. ohg. base kliitjbcloister me. cloistre: borrowed knduel^ 'clew'. fr. cloitre from ofr. cloistre oe. clif cliff me. clif {clcre)

clew

= ^

(plur. cleofii)

ON. OSAX. DU.


cp. G. dan.

(span,

claustra

rr.

chiostro).

kUf

'a

cliff,

rock';

Source

med.

lat.

claustrum,

close

clutch

45
{clxpfre)

whence
kloster.

also

ohg.

klostar

G.

dd/re

= DU. klaver
form
is

c}).

LG. klcver (and klaver).


close
:

A shorter

close ME.
(oFR. clore

borrowed from and more

the OFK. part.

c/i>s

= lat.
'a

chnisiis

LAT. claudere).

klco

(gen. klewcs) g. klee:

klaiiv-.

closet
clot

-ME.

closet

from fr.

closet

*klct>ara

ohg. base The formation of OSAX. OE. dd/re looks like


primit.

(dimin. of OFR. clos


MF,. clotte

(also

clod)
i^^Q^w.

OE.

*<:/<?//

compound, the second element of which is unknown. clodde, see :^mG. klotz clown borrowed from icel.
close').

klotzes)

G.

klotz.
:

klumii

clotbur, clote me. dote oe. elate TEUT. base klaiton-, cogn. w. the
equiv. oe.
elide,

sw.
'a
'a

clumsy, boorish fellow ; klunn 'a log' kluus clownish fellow', dan. klunt
'a

dial,

G. klette.

log'?
:

shortened for iiE. cloth club ME. clabbe borrowed from OE. chip (oe. cildcldp 'swaddling ON. klubba, by-form of on. klumba clothes) DU. /^/(f^^y, G. kleid: 'a club". The meaning 'assoTEUT. base klaipa. clothe ciation of persons' is a mod. vb. Ml-:, clothe {cl{de) OE. clddian application of a clump of people.
cloth

{clddati).

cluck

vb. ME. clucke clokke

cloud ME. cloude: scarcely


with

cliid me. cloud 'a MHG. klucken {gluckeii) G.glucke/i. of:, mass of rock, a hill'; source and The TEUT. group is onomatohistory quite unknown. poetic like lat. glocrre gr. clout MK.^r/i'Wi' o?..clut (whence ykioCoiv cluck as a hen'. ON. klt'it)-) ident. with w. cbvt,
, ,

ident.

cloccian i^ducciaii)

= DU. klokken,

oe.

IK.

GAF.I,.
'

Clud,

MANX

clooid}

clumsy

adj.

earlier clumse ME.


orig.

clove -ME. clove clozve: borrowed of ME. ('/?/wj"r 'benumb': of scand. from OFR. do fr. clou 'a nail'; origin; cp. sw. (dial.) klmiwiscn cp. SPAN, davo 'a nail' also 'a
'benum])ed', akin to
cold'.
cluster
J)U.

dumscd 'benumbed':

part,

klemnsch

clove'

fr.

LAT. clavus

'a

nail'.

'numb with
cluster
{clyster)

clove(csj>.

^\Y..

clove oe. ^//^<? 'clove'

of garlic), in clufpung crowfoot'


'buttercup'
(cp.

compounds
dufwyrt

y\\\.

oe.

cluster

lg. klustcr:

akin

to

ohg. chloblouh LG. (Hannover) klunder 'cluster klofolouh khn'olouh =^ g. knoblauch, of berries or fruit' and (Dit])!'. knojlook 'garlic' with -7t by marsch) klus 'cluster, grapes dissimilation). The orig. meaning DAN. klyiige 'cluster'.
appears
'a

in

ohg. kloho
clover

g.

kloben

clutch ME.

clucchc;

connected

split

stick*.
(clt'vcr')

clover ME.

with cloche 'a claw'. oe. ME. form is ch'cheul

The older

46

coach

cole

coach borrowed from FR. coche: sw. kudde mod. common europ. word 'bag'.
HUNG,
IT.

'cushion',

du.

kodde

from
coche,

koszi

'wagon from
G. kutsche.
col

coffee ^^ DU. koffj, g. kaffee:

the Hung, town Koszi'; cp. span.


cocckio,

borrowed from turk. qahweh ARAB, qahweh 'coffee*.


FR.

coal ME. cole and col oe. DU. kool, OHG. kolo m.

kol n. G.kohlc,
orig. 'a

ON. kol n. pkir.;

coffer ME. cofre: borrowed from cojfj-c (whence du. g. koffer'). Source lat. cophinus, gr. /.orfivo^

burning coal; cp. skr.


flame
.

'a basket'.

From

the

jz'al 'l)urn bright,

coal-

also coffin me. coffin:

same source borrowed

col-niose oe. cdlmdse

me. from OFR. cojin (= span, cojin, DU. kool- it. co/ano^. (^= cog :me. cogge ^= sw. cugge; ffiees, G. kohlnieise) prop, 'coalprob. of CELT, origin, cp. GAEL. tit' on account of its blackhead; from col 'coal' -j- mdse j^ie. ingse IR. cog, w. cocas 'a cog'?

mouse,

also

colemouse
;

G. incise, ON. meisingr,


'tit-lark'.

whence

coif ME.
FR.
coiffe

coif:

borrowed from
'MiLD.-iaKT.^ cojia

FR. M^sangc

from

akin to mhg. kiiffe ohg. coast 'siE.C(>st[e): borrowed from chiippa from ohg. chnph G. kopf. OFR. coste (whence also du. kuste Cp. cup. r= G. kiiste) FR. cote (it. costa, coil vb. borrowed from OFR.
cof{e)a\

MED.-LAT. costa 'coast').

coillir

FR.

cucillir

'collect'

coat
OFR.
cotii,

:\IE.

cote

cote:

borrowed from (lat.


COtte

coUigcre 'gather together).


coin:

FR.
'a

(=

SPAN.

IT. cotta

coat').
in

Source

coin ME.

borrowed from

TEUT.

/cotta-

MHG.

kotzc

'a

mantle'.

Cp. cot and


cock OE.

ohg. chozzo stamj) upon a coin, a coin'). woolen coarse Source lat. cuneus 'wedge'.
^ti/t'.

FR. coin 'wedge' (ofr. coin 'wedge,

cock ME.

f(?^ ^(?^^

cogn. w. chicken) ON. kokkr, DAN. /v/C'; ident. w. fr. co(/;


perh. of imitative origin. History unknown (earliest reference eat.
coccus in

(j)erh.

Lex

Salica).

cockle ME.
coccel 'tares'

cokel cokkel oe. cocel\

borrowed from

ir.

cogal

'corn-cockle'

(=
?

GAEL.

cold INIE. cold OE. Cdld {ccahf) GOTH, kalds, ON. kaldr, OSAX. kald, OHG. G.kalt, du. koud: an old partic. formation in lat". -tus, SKR. -ta-s ((;oTH. d from Aryan loud, dead etc.). c\). old, /, A TEUT. verbal \fkal cp. in oe. calan, oi^:. kala 'freeze a corresp. Aryan \^ gel is seen in lat. gelu 'the cold' and gelidus 'cold'. Cp.
=2=
;

cogall 'tares,

cockle)

chill and cool.

cod

'husk, shell'

OE. tW</'bag'

cole 'cabbage' me. col fr. oner. cod codde FR. choti', the me. by-form ON. koddc 'pillow', col
jME.

collier

cornet

47

caul

= OE. cdwl from lax. caulan


Cp. OHG. kol
G.

(caulis).

collier me. coliir'. with -icr as in lawyer. kol under cold. Deriv. keel. collop ME. colopes: ident. with coot 'a bird' :me. co/e OE. *ep'l(a)
SWEIJ. kalops, G. klops\ source LG.

cool ME. OE. col ^= LG. kol, DU. OHG. kuoli G. ki'ihl: teux. deriv. of coal base kolu- from the XEUX. \^kal
kohl.
koel,

kloppca (g. klop/en) 'beat'?

color
colt

iiE. colour

from ofr. colour


color-c?/i). 'a

FR. couleur (lax.


:me.

oe. colt

young
oe.

ass';

perh. akin to &iK. gardabha^di^s'^

comb

sb.

ME. cgml)

'comb, crest' g. kafnm, DU. DAN. sw. ^a;: XEUX. base kambafrom an Aryan gomhho- in gr.
/o'^af/oc 'peg' (j'tt, f/-?; 'jaw'),

cdtnl?

skr.

jajiibha 'jaw,

teeth'.

du. koel 'coot'. vb. Vie with, matcli' orig. 'bargain or chaffer with': a loanword fr. ViV.koopen 'buy', cogn. w. OE. ccapian 'cheapen' from oe. ccap 'bargain'. Cp. cheap. copper me. coper oe. copor: borrowed from vulgar lax. cupru7n 'copper' (orig. cuprium acs 'Cyprian brass'). From the same source ohg. kupfar G. kupfcr, DU. kopcr and fr. cuivre.

cope

OSAX. human, OHG. on. koma; cp. goxh. qhnan: a common XEUX. str. vb. kuinan (fcman fr. an Aryan \fgC7n in skr. ^'^w, or. IJaino, LAT. e't7//<7 (for *gvcmw).
ko7nen,
kofndii g. ko7nvten,

= DU.

come

vb. jME. covie

oe.

cuman copperas
coperosc

iiE. coperosc
ix.
lit.

from ofr.
lax.

coppaj'osa,

cupri rosa

'copper-rose'.

copse
OFR.

earlier coppice contr.

of

copciz

derived
G.

from ofr.
sw.
kork,

coper (fr. couper^ 'cut'.

cork

dan.

comely me.
'fine,

rwi// f^w/v oe. cymlic

^?2w?^ 'delicate, weak'


'hardly'.

handsome'; cogn. w. ohg. and G.kaum


sb. :me. conl earlier coning

DU. kurk: borrowed from span. corcho 'cork' LAr. corticem

(cortex) 'bark'.

corn^ 'grain' me. oe. corn DU. koren, g, on. dan. sw. korn, 'rabbit': ada[)t. from ofr. connin, GOXH. kaurn: xeux. komawhence also du. lionijn, g. kanin- pre-XEUX. base grno- cogn. w. chcn. Source lax. cuniculus (ofr. LAX. grdnjitn, russ. zerno.

cony

= =

in a by-form cuninus. corn- 'a hard excrescence on cook sb. ME. cok OE. cpc: loan- toe or foot': borrowed from fr. word fr^ 'i^Pi.'i.cogttuSy whence ohg. come (= i-AX. cornu 'horn'). G. koch and ir. cuoco, ofr. tjucux. corner me. comer: borrowed The vb. cook ME. coke is fr. i\iED. - LAX. corneria 'corner,
conif)

from the sb. by inof LAX. coquere (= G. kochen, du. kokcn), wlicnce also
fluence
FR. cuirc 'cook'.

derived

angU>' (r.AX. cornu 'horn').

cornet yui. cornet cortreite' a horn': borrowed fr. fr. cornet cornetti, dimin. of fr. come 'a horn'.

48
cornice a loanword from ofr.
cornice
fr.

country

couch-grass
grass.

sb.

see quitch-

it.

cornice 'a cornice,

'a

border, ledge (lat. type comix border' contr. of MED. - lat. coronix a square frame').

ME. coughe (oe. cohhcttmi) DU. kugchen, mhg. kitchen. council adapt, fr. fr. concilc a loanword 'a council, an assembly, session' :\IK. corps: corps from FR. corps cors from LAr. from LAT. concilium 'an assembly counsel called together'. corpus. corpse ME. corps: borrowed ME. conseil counseil: loanword Ir. laT. fr. conseil (lat. consilium 'delifrom OFR. corps cors

cough

corpus.

beration').

count sb. (:\iE. ''^countc corset dimin. of me. cors 'a corslet recorded, but inferred body'; cp. corpse.

is
fr.

not
ME.

corselet:
let
,

a loanword

fr.

fk. corsecors

countesse E. countess)

dimin.
-et.

of
:me.

ofr.
costc:

with fr.

comte

'a

loanword fr. count, an earl'.


(comes)
'a

suffix

Source lat.

comitem

cost vb.

OFR. coster {= fr. LAT. constare), whence also DU.


hosten.

borrowed comf)anion, a count'. count vb. :\IE. countc: borrowed FR. coutcr,

G.

fr.

FR.

contcr

(source lat. com-

putare
me.
custilme
fr.

compute, reckon).
:

costume
custoim-)
:

adajjt.

FR. coutume

LAT.

cosiuina

it.

countenance me. countcnaunce (and ofr. costume loanword fr. OFR. contenancc 'becostume (med.- havior, carriage' (lat. contiiientia lat. consuetu- 'abstinence').

dineni).

Cp. custom. LG. DU. ON. cot ME. OE. cot G. kot 'hut': tf:ut. base kuta-.

counter
i,Ai".

'contrary'

fr.

fr. contre

contra 'against'.

mi:. counterfeit: counterfeit cote (in comp. dove-cote, shecp- borrowed fr. ofr. contrefait, part, G. kote. of cofitrefaire 'imitate'. cot'j) ME. cote OE. cot The TEUT. word passed into counterpane 'a coverlet for a SLAV. (osLOV. /^^//V/'cella'). Akin bed' earlier counterpoint: loan-

to cot.

word
fr.

fr.

ofr.

contrepoinct

'the

cottage ME. cotdl^e tage: deriv. of teut.


cot

ofr.

co-

quilting stitch'; prop,


trepoinct

connected

kola-

under with

0\<. contr epoincter 'quilt'; coniii

and

cote.
:me.

cotton
fr.

coioun

a loanword poinct coutepoint


:

FR. colon

=.

IT. cotone

source
adapt,
colcher

(source

a corruption oi coutre'a counterpane' lat. culcita puucta 'a


cuntre.

ARAii. qoton 'cotton

couch
fr.

vb. ME.

couche:
(earlier

stitched quilt'). country me.

contre:

FR.
IT.

couchcr
colcare)
fr.

loanword
contr a, la).

fr.

fr. contric

{=
-

it.

lat.

collocare.

Source

MED.

lat.

'

county

crab

49
an Aryan stem gow,

tonU-ata derived

fr.

lat. contra
gege/t).

from
in

(go-)

OR. SKR. gaus (ace. gani) county yiE. countc: borrowed (iovg (stem /^o/), lat. bos. of fr. OFR. conU 'count}-' (deriv. cow vb. (:\ie. *cou7ae earUer

(Cp.

c.

gcgend from

FR.
FR.

coiiitc

count
couple:
i.AT.

sb.).

^cugen are
fr.

couple MR.
couple

adapt,
copula)

{=

'a

unrecorded) loanscAND. kuga 'cow, t}ranDAN. kue 'cow', sw. nize over'
:

word

fr.

Ijond, band'.

kufva 'check, curb'.


cor age:

couard coward: ofr. couard coart court ME. curt: borrowed fr. coard (formed IT. codardo OFR. curt cort (source lat. cortis with suffix -ard and ofr. coe fr. Hence queue 'a court-yard, jialace'). lat. Cauda 'tail'). courteous transformed fr. me. cow^er vb. me. coure: borrowed curteis ofr. cortcls fr. courtois. fr. ON. kura (sw. kura dan. cousin ME. cosin cousin: adapt, kure') 'lie quiet, rest'. (med.-lat. cosinus fr. FR. cousin cow^P 'a monk's hood, a cap, for LAr. consobrinus 'a cousin). cmvd
fr.

courage me.

adapt,

FR. courage (lat. type coratiaini).

co^vard borrowed

iiE.

= =

fr.

cove
(:ave'

ME. cm'e o^.cofa

ox.

koji

'kuban-

is

wantint^.

hood' ]VIE. couel earlier chamber, OE. cugle 'a cowl' {= mhg. kuget) goth. 'hut', loanword fr. lat. cucullus 'hood cow^l^ 'a vessel carried on a
'a
.

covenant
loanwortl

\\v..com'enant covenant:

pole':

fr.

FR. convcnant cove-

borrowed
cui'eau,

FR.

nattt\)xe?,. part,

of con('cnir 'agree
couvr ir

tub'

(source
OE.

fr. ofr. cuvel prop, 'a little LAT. cupa 'a vat,

cover
fr.

vb. :me. cover e:

borrowed
Y"^.

butt').

OFR. covrir cueuvrir

cowslip

cilslyppe

cusloppe.
fr.

Source LAT.
fr.

coopcrire 'cover
cuveitc
:

coxcomb
comb 'cock's FR. and comb.

corrupted
crest'.

cock's

covet vb. ME.


oiR.
convoiter

cuveitcr covoiicr

adapt,

Cp. cock

coxswain, cockswain 'steersman of a boat' from cock 'a boat' covey borrowed fr. ofr. covde and S7vain 'the person in comFR. couvi'e 'a covey of par- mand of the boat'. coy: adapted fr. ofr. ^^/ (coit). tridges', prop. part, of fr. couver 'hatch' ^^source lat. cubare he Source lat. quietus 'quiet, still'.
(Lat.

type

*cupiditare

desire').

down).

cozen
cu (plur.

vb.

'flatter,

beguile":

adapt, fr. FR. cousiner 'call cousin, OE. cil (phir. cj") ON. kyr, sponge'fr. FR. (r(?j7>;. Cp. cousin. crab ^ :mk. crabbe oe. crabba I)U. koe, MLG. ko, OHG. MHG. kuo G. kuh TEU r. base ko- 'cow' r= ON. krabbi, sw. krabba, dan.
sb. ME.

cow

kie kye^

English Etymology.

50
krabbe,

cracK

cream

mlg. krabbe cornuc, ohg. chramih chranih(h) g. akin to krajiich; cp. the cogn. gr. ysnavoc, OHG. kr'ebax G. krebs fr. crabe CYMK. gar a /r, OSI.OY. zeravi, lith. Ident. w. crab' 'a gerwc. fr. TEUT. LAT. ^r? (gen. gru-is) kind of apple' me. crabbe', a agrees with ohg. chrcia 'crane'. Scand. loanword; c^). '&w. krabbcrank sb. me. craiikc. teut. apk. crabbed 'peevish, cramp- base kra)ik\-^\%^ allied to cramp.
DU.
krab,

(whence

=
fr.

G.

krabbe)

ed';

i)erli.

ci

ab^.
\

cranny me.
adding
E. -y

crany;

formed by
fr.
crcpc

crack
C7'acian

du. kraken^ OHG. h'achon chrahhon G. krachen teut. \f krak fr. pre-TEUT. g!'g\ cp. SKR. ^7'^'' rustle, crackle'.
:

vb. me.

c>-ake

krake oe.

to FR.rn?// 'anotch'.

crape i^orrowed
(oFR. crespe

fr.

lat. crispus).

crash
crack',

vb. a var. of craze

and

Scand. loanword; cp. cracknel formerly crakcnci cor- sw. krasa, dan. krase 'crackle'. rupted fr. FR. craquelin 'a crack- Cp. crack.
a

nel'.

cratch YiY^-cracche crecche: borcradle me. crddel oe. cradol: rowed fr. OFR. creche (fr. creche) a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. craidhal, which is of Teut. origin; cp. GAEL. crcathalV'a. cradle, a grate'; OSAX. kribbia 'crib' under crib.
cp. cj-atc.

craft,

craft :\iE. craft oe. crceft osAX. DU. kracht, G. kraft, on.

crate borrowed
'a

fr.

lat. crates
bor-

hurdle'.

kraptr.
crceftii

crafty me. = ohg.


^rrt'^:

crafti oe.

cravat

{^

c;.

kravattc)

chreftig G. kriiftig.

rowed
crave
on.

fr.

FR. cravate (from Cra-

crag ME.
craig,

borrowed

fr.

w.

vates 'a Croation').

GAEL, creag.
'a

crake
cry;

bird' so

named

cp. ME. crake 'cry vb.

demand', out' under sw. krdfra "demand', dan. krarc


fr. its

=
is

vb. me. crdve oe.

crafian

krefja

'crave,

crack.
cram?ne oe. cnwiffiian ox. krcmja, sw. kravia, DU. krafmne 'squeeze'.

'crave, exact'.
i\ie.

Perh. the cravant

e.

word

cram

borrowed from Scand.


me.
'beaten,

craven
overcome'

shortened

cramp
(inferred
wrinkles")
kra7)ipf\

j\ie.

crampe oe.
crpvipekt

''^crofnp

fr.

full

cravanti 'oppressed', of cravantcr (source a


'^crepa/itare 'crack,

partic.

ofr. of lat. type


fr.

term for

:^ du. lg. krawp, G. a common west-teut. spasm, cramp'.

break).

crane :me. crdnc oe. cran OLG. krano, du. kraan, mhg. krone with formative guttural oe.
\

(by-form crag 'neck, :me. crawe cro])') oe. '^craga; GOTH. *kraga is wanting.

craw

cream :\ie. crcmc from fr. crane (ofr. crcsnic, lat. crcnior).

creed

51

teut. base krekcii creed sb. me. crede oe. crcda: 'croaking ) loanword fr. lat. credo 'I believe' krtikd/i\ akin to crackl (credo in deum patrem etc.) crock ME. crocke oe. crocca; cj). the origin of dirge. borrowed fr. OIR. croccan.-^ perh. creek me. creke crike {p^^.'^creoca cogn. with G. kriig ohg. krnog, '''cricti)', peril, a Scand. loanword LG. kruke, OE. crp/i crpg.
:

from ox. krike 'crack, nook'. creep vb. me. crepe oe. creopan
str.

= =

croft ME. OE. croft 'small

field'

ODU.

krochtc

high and
crpk
OE.

diy

vb.

cp.

DU. kruipen,

lg.

land' DU. kroft 'hillock'.

krupeti,

kriechen

ON. krjupa. Akin to G. ohg. kriohhan teut. \^ krtip kriiq. Cp. cripple.
:

crook

sb.

ME.

'"cr(>c

o^. krokr krdkr 'hook', ODU. croec, DAN. krog 'hook'. Akin to

cress
oe.
kresse

ME.

cresse

earlier

kerse
G.

OHG. krdko 'hook'


is

(as

e.

hook

ccrse ccerse;

ident.

with

ohg.

Arcssa,

du. kers and

to

c;.

hakeii).

YK.cressou, it. crescione.

Phonoquite

crop

Mi:,

cropp oe. cropp.


croiser.

logy, history

and origin

crosier me. croscr

obscure

common
creste

base a lat.
creste

cross ME.
kross,

type^ *crexo(nem) ?

(whence scaxd. .sw.-dax. kens')', borrowed


cross

from oiR. cross (cymr. croes). Source lat. crtix whence also FR. croix (:\IE. crcis from ofr. crois) crib Ml':, cribhe oe. crihb crybb OIR. crock and ohg. osax. krthi OSAX. kribbia, du. krib, g. G. kreiiz i)oint to the infl. lat. krippe. OHG. krippa: TEUT. base criicem. kribjo {lirubjo) akin to OHG. kreba.
crest ME.

from ofr.

ER. Crete (lat. crista).

\1). :\IE. crpwc oe. crdivan DU. kraaic/!, G. kriihcn OH(4. crimson .^Ui:. crimosin from cfr. krden teut. base a str. vb. crainoisin ^= fr. cramoisi. kr^jan, but orig. not restricted cringe vb. jnie. craige oe. rr^to the cock's crowing as shown ^'</// lEUT. base kraiigjan, deriv. the sb. crow ME. crmve oe. from oe. cringan 'sink, fall in by crdu'c =r G. krdhe OHG. krdia. battle', cogn. w. g. krank 'sick'. crow^d vb. Mi:, croude oe. cripple ME. cripel oe. crypel DU. /C7Y/<'/'crii)ple'; prop, 'a man crudan str. vb. 'crowd, i)ress' who creeps'; teut. base kritpila-, ODU. cruden 'push, thrust' (du. kruie/i), mlg. krnden krodcn \'b. deriv. fr. \/~ in creep.

Cp. cratcli.

crow
:

hyp
oe.

crisp
krisp:

ME.

crisp

ohg. 'molest': teut. \fkrfid.


lai".

an early loanword
vl).

crisp lis 'curled'.

croak

(inferred

crown ME. criine (whence ox. knina, cp. ODU. crime DU. kriiiii) me. croke oe. *crdcian earlier by-form coroune cori'inc from OE. crdcetung borrowed during the reign of
fr.
:

4'

cruel

curb

William the Conqueror


coroiie

fr.

ofr.

cuff sb. ME.


perh.
'coif

cuffe coffe 'sleeve';

FR.

couronne "crown".
corona
'crown',

ident.

w. late
coif.
culle
fr.

OE. cuffie
(cole

Source

"lax.

under
vb.

whence also OE. corenbcag 'crown' and OHG. korona G. krone.


cruel ME.
cruel
r=^

cull

ME.

coilk)
coillir

vb. 'gather, select'

fr. cueillir 'collect' crilcl {crewcf) fr. fr. LAT. crudelis 'severe' in LAT. colligere).

ofr.

(source
oe.

a vulgar

form
:\ie.

crudalis.

culver

^lE.

culver {colver)
;

cromhe short for culfre culufre 'dove' not found cronme OE. crilma (cp. thumb in the other teut. languages, DU. kruim ODU. prob. of LAT. origin: LAT. columba OE. pihnd) critme, L(t. krume (oSAX. '''kriimd). 'dove' in a vulgar form *coiubra ? The m is derivative; cj). the cumber vb. me. cumbre vb. I'Eur. y'" kru in o. kraiien ohg. 'annoy' fr. ofr. combrer, whence

crumb -

( ;.

kroutvon vb. 'scratch'.

also G.

kummer mhg.

kuniber

the

base med.-lat. combrus 'rubbish, E. /'^^w OE. riUii) ODU. kruis, bank of earth, rains' rests ^n a MHG. i^r//jr^ G. krause\ akin to gall.-lat. combero- 'that which is carried together'. ODU. DU. /Cw(?.y, :me. ergs, cummin :me. comi?i late oe. crust :\IE. eruste fr. ofr. cruste FR. eroute LAT. crusta 'crust cumin (= DU. komijii) fr. ofr. coniin FR. cumin. Source of bread'.

cruse MR.

crouse oe. crihc (cj).

LAT. cummum, whence also a DU. kruk, OHG. crucc/m G. krilcke TEUT. kufnin in oe. cymen, ohg. 'crutch': TEUT. base krukjo-; kumin kumil g. kimwiel.

crutch

.ME.

crucche oe. ^rjrr

ident. w. it. croccia 'crutch', FR.


crosse
,

cunning

:me.

cunninge:

deriv.

which
,

rest

on a

lat.

of oe. cunnan =: know.

criicea

'cross'.

crucea

of crux crucis cup me. oe. cuppe 'cup' Therefore crutch krukja kopf, ODU. kop 'beaker, meant originally 'stick loanword fr. lat. cuppa
deriv.

= MHG.
cup':
(cupa),
(copp)

having a cross'.

whence
ada])ted
fr.

also oE. ime. cop

cry vb. me.


FR.
crier 'cry'.

crie:

'summit,

head',

G.

kopf 'head'.

odu. cur me. curre corre cukewold: trans- korre 'watch-dog', swed. (dial.) formation of FR. COUCOU CViCVoO kurra 'a dog'; cp. lg. g. (dial.) whence also e. cuckoo me. kurren. vb. 'growl'. Therefore cur

cuckold

-ME.

'

cuckou.

prop,
OE.
cycgel:

'a

growler'?
curbe

cudgel
kugja?

dimin.
'^cycg
:

of

curate see cure.

a lost primitive oe.

base

curb
fr.

vb. ME.

'to

bend'

FR. courber 'bend'.

curd

dagger

53

curtain sb. me. curtin cortin fr. metathesis fr. me. lat. (also IT. celt, loanword, OFR. cortine deriv. fr. jr. gruth 'curds'? or SPAN.) Cortina 'curtain'. curve adj. fr. lat. curvus cog-n. with crowdl cp. lat. coagu'crooked'. lu?n fr. cogerel cushion me. cusshin (cuss hen cure :me. ciire fr. fr. cure curate me. ciirdt cussho/i) cussin quissin (j/uissken^ LAi". curd. FR. coussin (in fr. fr. OFR. coissin MED. -LAT. curd/us pronunciation; cp. curious ME. 'cushion'; cp. span, eoxin, it. cuscino and ident. w. du. Icussen curious fr. lat. ciiridsusT).

curd

vb.

\v.

cniddc

vb.

curfew
:

:me. ctirfeu

(curfczci)

fr.

ouv.

cussin, G. kilssen kisseu

OHG.

OFR. covrefeu (cp. poor fr. ofr. kussin 'cushion'. Source a med.povre) prop, the sign for put- LAT. coxinuvi prop, deriv. of lat. fr. cuisse coxa hip, haunch' ting out fires.

curious see cure.

'thigh',

whence

E.

(Shakes]).)

curl vb. deriv. fr.ME. crul {IC) cuisse 'i)iece of armor for the DU. krul\ west- thighs'. adj. 'curly' custom ilE. custome earlier form TEUT. krull- for kruzl- krusl- is cogn. with ODU. krtiis g. kraus (c. iioo) custihne fr. ofr. custume MHG. kriis 'curly' (aso ME. crous (fr. coutuTue) ^= IT. PROV. costuma source a lat'. type '^'cofisueiiinwn 'curly'). curlew JNIE. curlew {corlew) instead of lat. consuetiido. fr. courlieu fr. OFR. corlieu cut vb. iiE. cutte (by-form with 'a bird's name' ('scolopax ar- umlaut kittc^ a me. vb. of cel r. cymr. cwtan vb. cp. quata'), composed of ofr. corre origin cwta adj. 'short'. 'shorten' 'to leap' and lieu 'lightly'. it. curry vb. me. currde curraie cutlas fr. FR. coutelas vb. fr. ofr. conreier; lat. type coltellaccio prop, 'a large knife' con-reddrel ROM. deriv. oi lat, culter 'knife'. ofr. coutel curse vb. me. curse oe. cilrsian Cp. FR. couteau Hence 'to curse' cogn. with OIR. cursa- 'knife' fr. i.Ar. cultellus. me. cuteler e. chaim 'I curse'. Source and FR. coutelier history unknown. cutler 'maker of knives'.

D
dace from me. darce darse c2\\ciS. from from OFR. dars, nom. also spelled dart,
\

its

swiftness).

See

dart

'a

dart',

also

'a

fish'

(so

dagger me. dagger

ox. dag-

54

dainty

dandelion

gardr, uu. daggert: of Celt, origin, IR. borrowed from w. dagr gael. daga daigear; bret. dag

southern continuation of the OE. {= ohg. *talon}). ME. dam{me) oe. '^'davi{nmi) dam G. damm, DU. dam, OX. datninr all synon. oe. foi-dainty me. deinte: borrowed (goth. faurdanmijan from OFR. dein!e 'dignity, im- dcfmnan 'dam up).

infinit. in -ian

portance, value' (the me. bydamage TsVS.. damage', borrowed form da'mUth is an anglo-norman from OFR. damage domage fr. Source lat. do7nmage 'harm' (it. dannajo), lat. deintcd 'pleasure'). digTiitatcm {tiainty and dignity are type damnatictifn harm' (lat. damdoublets).

num
;

dairy me. deierie 'room for a milk-woman' ME.^/^/<?'milk-woman' (hence day -wo man 'dairy-woman Shakesp.) is borrowed from ON. deigja 'milk-woman' (sw. dejd), which is supposed to be a deriv. of TEUT. daiga- (under dough) and to mean prop, 'the breadmaker, kneader of dough'. Cp.

dame
FR.

under damn). borrowed from dame, whence also G. DU.


'loss,

injury'

iAv..ddine:

dame. Source lat. domina 'lady'

(=

it.

donnci)\

cp.

damsel.
da7)lpner

damn

vh.^\s..dam{p)ne: borrow-

ed from OFR. damner


FR. datnner

dan/mre)

{=

span, datlar, it. lat. damnare 'con-

demn,
loss).

fine'

(lat.

damnum

'injury,

dough and

lady.

du. lg. damp ME. *damp dais ME. dcis: borrowed from OFR. dcis later dais 'a high table damp 'vapor', G. dampf 'vapor, fr. dais 'a canopy' steam'. in a hair (base MED. -LAT. discus 'a table' damsel me. damesele damisele: LAT. discus 'plate, platter' see borrowed from ofr. da^nisele

under disK).
daisy me.
day'; cp.
daies-ie
daies-eic

damcisele

= fr.
vb.

demoiselle.

The
'a

oe.

source

is

MED. -lat. domicella


'a

dceges-cage: prop, 'the eye of the

young
cella,

lady', lat.

type dom(i)nilady'.

day and
dale
is

eye.

dimin. of dofnina

dale
(me.

aiE. dale oe. dccl plur. dalu

dance

me

daunce

daunse:

the OE. plur. dalu or from the sing,

derived from borrowed from fr. danser, whence also DU. da?isen, G. tamen, dan. infl. decks, dcele). The teut. base dandse, sw.dansa. The ofk. da user to an ohg. dansbn dala- cp. also in the synon. goth. is traced dais, ON. dalr, OSAX. dal, OHG. 'draw, trail'.
e. c in

MHG.

ial (mod. that). dandelion: borrowed from fr. dally vb. me. dalye points to dent de lion {= span, diente de Ieon, GOrH. "^daloii OE. '^dalian (= G. IT. dente di leone): prop, 'lion's dahleii). The ending y is a tooth', so called from the jagged

'

danger

day

55
""daxiaii)
is

leaves
zahti)

of the plant
:me.

(g.

loioenj
I

cian
E.

improbable,
a hereditary

sh

pointing

to

daunger: borrowed from ]'R. danger 'danger'. Source a LAT. type *dovnniariiim 'power' from T.AT. dominium 'sovereignty*. dank 'damp' ME.^a>^: borrowed from the Scand. ? cp. sw. dial, dank 'a marshy piece of ground' icel. dgkk for *daniiu

danger

Word.
^

'

date^ 'an epoch, given point of time' ME. deite from the synon. FR. date (:med.-lat. datum, whence
g.

datuni).
'fruit

datedate:

of the palm'

:\IE.

borrowed from OFR.


datte:

date

FR.

source
also

lat.-gr.
G.
dattel,

'])it,

})ool.
'pretty, neat';

dactylus,

whence

dapper me. daper


,

DU. dadel.

cp. ox. dap- 'sad, dreary', DU. dapper 'brave' OHG. tapfar G.
tiipj'cr

daub

vb. me. daube:

borrowed

from OFR. dauber 'whiten' from

brave'. '^dalber lat. dealbarc 'whiten, a spot, dot' a daj)- plaster" (lat. albus 'white'). pled horse' me. in dappel-gray: daughter me. daughter oe. do/itor peril. Scand. loanword from =: DU. dochter, OSAX. dohtar, OHG.
"valiant,

dapple

ON. depill
1)001').

'a

spot, dot'

{dapi 'a

mhc;. tohter g. toe/iter, on. dottir,

GOTH, dailhtar: ident. with the dare me. dar oe. dear I dare' synon. lith. dukti, OSLOV. diisii: GOTH, dars^ OHG. tar. The Arx anbasc d/iukter; an Aryan base

teut.
'bold

\f dars darz
be

is

y'JoaCtTv

bold'

akin to gr.

dpaoi'g

and

skk.

d/i/-s

Aryan \~ dhers. dark me. derk oe. dcorc\ perh.


:

appears in gr. i)xyu.SKR. duhitdr, avest. duydar 'dare": 'daughter', skr. <///////f/r 'daughter' is traced to the skr. \^ duh
dhugater
xr,(j,

'milk'

and

is

interpreted as 'the
y^Y..

akin to oiR. derg 'red' common milk maid'. base d/iergo- (cp. also oir. dorche daunt vb.
'dark'?).'

daunte: l^orrow-

darling me. dcrling shortened from OE. deorling *a favorite': cleriv. of dear oe. deore. dart :me. dart from oer. dart R. dard (= span. it. dardd) of telT. origin: oe. darod, ox. darradr also shorter darr.

fr. dompter 'subdue, tame': the source is \.X}:.domitare (frequent, of domarc). day ME. day dai oe. dwj^

ed from ofr. donter


IT. ^/<?w'tor

GOTH, dags, OHG. MHG. tac(g) G. tag, DU. OSAX. dag, on. dagr; by-forms oe. dogor, ox. ddgr (fr. dash vb. :me. dasshe; corre- dogaz dogiz) all connected with sponding to ])AN. diiske (=r sw. the SKR. \^dah (for Aryan dhegh'. das/ia) 'slap, strike'. Scand. dhogJi) 'burn'. This root appears
]
;
:

origin of the

E.

word

(oE. *i/as-

also

in

LIFH.

degti

'burn'

56
i/agas

dawn

dear^

'summer',

'harvest', pruss. dagas skr. nidagha- "heat, summer' (also skr. dhar 'day'?).

daga

is

sure

'blind'.

prob. akin to gr. Tv(fX6g Cp. dnmb.


vb.

deal

'divide,

distribute,

negotiate in' jnie. dele oe. ddlan our day and to lith. ddgas signiOSAX. delian, du. dee/en, i.g. fied 'the time of the burning of delen, g. teik7i, goth. dailjan dethe sun, the hot part of the nominatives of dai/z- (cp. deaf) day or year. like OSLOV. deliti 'divide'. dawn vb. late me. daune earlier deaPsb. 'part, portion, indelinitc dmve OE. dag ian on. daga, quantity, degree or extent, barOHG. iai^ai G. iagcn become day'; gain etc' ME. d(l OE. dcel {ddij
to

The base

dhogho-s

common

cp.

E.

dawning
\h.
iiE.

i\ie.

dawhige:
'stupefy'

OSAX.

del,

du.
teil,

deel,

lg.

deel,

deriv. of ielt. daga-

under day. OHG.


dasask
dase,
(^sk

:\IHG.

G.

goth.

dails

daze

dasY
refi. refl.

from ox. *dasa,


represents the 'daze oneself dasa 'lie idle'.

'oneself')

m. daila f. teut. dai-li{la-) seems to point to an aryan \P dhai, proved by osLOV. delil part.
deal'^

dan.

sw.
is

From

sb.

'a

board,

pkink'

daze

deriv. the dimin. dazzle vb. threshing floor' mlg. d^le 'overjjower with light'. 'board LG. dele 'a board, floor, deacon :me. dcken from oe. a room'. The corresponding * deacon for diacon {= du. deke/i, o.
diako/i,

borrowed from du. deeTa board,

on.

djdku,
si' ax.

OFR.
it.

diac/ie
:

OHG. dili G. diele 'boarded floor' corresponds to on. pilj'a, oe.

FR.

diacre,

diacono)

source LAr. diaconus (gr. iVja'xoco^') a servant, a deacon'. dead adj. me. ded oe. dead GOTH, daups, OHG. :mhg. tot g. to(d)i, ON. daudr, OSAX. dod, du. dood. The common base dan-da is prop, partic. {dhau-td-) belonging to the TEUT. verbal \^ dan discussed under die. Cp. death.

Lrrn. //// 'plank in pel 'board'. the boat', oSLOV. tilo 'bottom, SKR. tala-m 'surface' are cognate.

dean me. den


FR. doyen
:

(contr. of *deiiyi)

borrowed from

OFR.

deleft

source lat. decdnus chief of ten soldiers or 'the monks' (= it. deeano ohg.
,

deaf ME.
dof,

//r/ OE.

^/('Vi/"

^ os.oc.

techdn G. dechant).

DU. //^^y, OHG. MHG. tonp{b) 'hearing or feeling nothing, dull,


foolish' G. tanb,

'deaf, o^.danfr.

deari me. dere oe. ^/tvr^'beloved, precious, of great value' GOTH. daufs{b) OSAX. dm?-i, DU. dier, ohg. tiuri The meanings 'dear, beloved, esteemed, costly'

of OHG. MHG. tonp{b) bordering G. tenei-. on those of ohg. mhg. tnmp G. dear- (in Shakesp.) 'fierce, dunim, connection of both groups ferocious' me. der oe. dear 'wild'

dearth

deep

57
dece^ioir =^ lat. Cp. deceit.
fr.

difterent
E.

from dear^. Ident. with cever deceveir fr.


G.
tier;

deer,

cp. deer.
'scarcity,

decipere 'entrap'.

dearth

:me.

dcrthe

deck
'cover';

vb.

borrowed
of.

DU.^/^M^;/

dcaruess' {= OSAX. diurida, OHG. liurida, on. dyrd, olg. diurthd) deriv. of dear ^ -|- -///formative of abstract nouns. death :me. def/i oe. dra/

cp.

peccean

under
decli-

thatch.

declension
iiaisoii

from

ofr.

(i-R.

de'e/i/iaison)

beside

FR. dicUnation,

E declination from

GOTH.

dauptlS,

OSAX.

doth,

OHG. LAT.

declinationeni.

G. tod, DU. dood, decrease vb. me. decrcse borO'S.daudr: a verbal abstr. noun rowed from ofr. decresser decrestre ()f a \~dau (cp. die') with the decreistre decroistre fr. dicroitrc abstract suffix teut. pit lax. (lat. discrescere) LAr. decresSKR. ///- (Aryan base dhau-tu-s). cere 'decrease'.

iod :\IHG. tdt(d)

debate vb. me. debate: borrowdecree sb. :me. decre borrowed ed Irom OFR. dcbatre fiyht, from ofr. decre decrct fr. de'cret contend debate' fr. ddbattre (sPAX. IT. decreto) lat. decre,

'contend
debatir,

debate'
dibattere).

(=^

span.
dette:
dette

tiini

'a

decree'.
:siv..

it.

debt

sb.

earUer det me.


debtc
dette

from OER.
(it. detta)

kk.

=.

r.AT'.

debita L sing-.,

orig

neut. plur. of lai'. debitum.


:me.

debtor
detor
debt tore)

dettur

from

ofr.
(ir.

deteur

fr.

detteur

lat. debt tor em

ace.

of debitor 'debtor'.

decay vb. from ofr. decaer (span, decaer, it. decadere) EAr. t}-pe *deeadere (instead of decidere) fall away, perish'.

ded date oe. ded deed V)V. daad, ohg. mhg. tat g. t{h)at, ox. dad, goth. in ^a-deds 'deed', teut. base de-difrom dhe-ti- from the rEUT.\/"^/(? do from XKWKdhe dho; cp. do. deem vb. me. deme oe. deman (= OSAX. dbmian in cz- DU. doenien, mlg. ddtnen, ohg. tuonien JIHG. tuemen, ox. ddma, goth. ga-donijan 'judge, deem'): deriv. of TEUT. doma- see doom.
OSAX. dad,
:

deed

deep
OSAX.
till/

adj. MK. dep


diop,

OE. </6V/

decease

sb. :me.

rt'^^/j-

borrowed

DU.
G.

^/;V/,

OHG.
OX.

/"/^

from ofr. deces fr.


decessus prop,

dices

MHG.
diiips.

/Ay,

djlipr,

lat.

GOTH,

Tiie

'departure.

common

teut.

adj. deupa-

deceit me. deceit: borrowed \^ diip from ofr. deceit =^ lat. deceptiis api)ears 'deceit' {decipere 'deceive' under and in f. dub.
deceive').

belongs to a teut. whose by-form dfib in oe. dyfan e. dive


Cj).

c\ nir. divfn,

OIR. doiniin fu- domain,

LiiH.

diibiis

deceive vb. earlier deceave ME. 'deep, hollow', OSLOV. ^//i'/'// 'holdeceive borrowed from ofr. dc- low' from an arvax \^ diibh dhhp.
: :

58

deer

derrick

deer
animal'

jie.

der oe. dear 'wild ON. dJT 'wild animal',


,

delve vb.
str.

vb.

inie.

delve

oe.

d'elfati

DU. delven, OSAX.


bi-tclban "bury'.

hi-

OS AX.
tier

dior

OHG.

tior

mhg.

g,

d'eWan,

ohg.

The

language

in the TEUT.y^^/tV/^ {Kryandhell'h dhclfl) ('stag, roe' of hunters). teut. is unknown elsewhere. demijohn from the synon. fr. deuza- is prob. an adj. used as Arab, damagau sb. signifying 'wild animal'; cp. datne-JeaiDie

'animal'

OE. dear 'bold, wild' (cp. dea?-).

(orig.

tlie

town

defeat

vb.

me.

defcte

from northern

Persia,

Damghaii in once famous

OFR. dcfcter 'annul (ofr. defait for its glass-works). den short for ME. dene OE. de?iu desfeit part, of defairc fr. dlfairc\ med.-lat. dcfacerc 'annul, dene 'valley'; akin to MDU. dan 'woods, wilderness' and G. tanu undo'). See feat.

'woods'? me. file oe. dfylan denizen ime. deneseyn denesein: ofr. densein 'defile' and me. defoule 'defile': source anglo-fr. me. fonle (oE. fuliaii) wk. vb. deinseiu deriv. of ofr. deiiif (^ 'make foul' with parallel form fr. dans) 'within' and suffix -ein cp. eitizen. (oE. fylcni) has taken the (= LAT. -amis) file i,AT.-FR. prefix de-. The fr. word means 'a trader defy vb. ME. defie: from fr. within the privilege of the citydifier (== aiED.-LAT. IT. disfidare franchise as opposed to foreign
a fusion of
: ;

defile vb. 'make unclean, sully'

'renounce faith, repudeny vb. ime. denle: from fr. dinier (.span, dencgar, ir. denediate ). Cj). faith. LAT. denegare 'deny'). delay vb. me. dclaie delay e: gare depaint vb. me. depeinte: from from FR. ddlayer (= med.-lat. Cp. paint. FR. d^peiiidre, IT. dilata-rc). delight sb. (orig. deliie) :me. depict vb. ME. only in part. LAT. depictiis , whence With depiet dellte delit: from ofr. delit. the vb. delight ME. delite from also OFR. depicter 'depict'. OFR. deliter (it. delcttarc dilettare^ deploy vb. from fr. deploy er
diffidarc

=
f.

LAT. delectare

'i)lease'.

(ofr. despleyer despleier,

whence
dis-

dell ME. dellc OE. dell a dimin. E. display). derivative of teut. dala- (under plicare.

Source LAT.
depthe
ime.
:

dale), pointing to a goth. *dalja

depth ME.
sb.
diepte,

and corresponding tellia MHG. telle 'ravine'


delle.

to

OHG.

from the

G. (dial.)

point ME. deliige: from dee/^. derrick 'a kind of crane' from FR. ddluge (= SPAN. IT. diluvio, DU. Uierryh, short Dirh, also LAT. diltiviiwi 'a flood').
;

an abstract DU. on. djfpt, goth. diupi/>a cp. an OE. *d)pp to


adj. dtp;

deluge

sb.

descrv

dike

59

devil MF. drrel of. deofol OSAX. dindal, DU. duivel, OHG. Orig. derrick signified 'gallows' tiuval tioval mhg. tiiivel (iievel) named from a Dutch hangman. G. tmfel; goth. diahaillus i)oints
Diederik corresp. to G, Dietrich,
OE. f>hidric 'chief of the people'.

descry
'discern'
criz'e

vb.

i\ie.

descrie discrye

to LAT.

(gr.) diabolus.

from ofr.

descrier

{dcs-

dew
OSAX.
touwes)

ME.
d(7/i,

dcjv

OE.

dcaw

descrivre

fr. dicrire)
desire

'de-

scribe'.

G.

OHG. :mhg. tou (gen. taUy du. dauw, ON.

desire vb.
disirer
(it.

.me.

desirare

from fr. dggg (gotu. '''dagg7oa- is wanting). lat. Perh. cogn. with the 9'KA<.\'~ d/un-

desiderare 'long for').

'to

flow'.

desk from
'a

table'

fr. disqtie (it. desco

die sb. (plur.


j\iE.

dice);

the sing,
i)lur.

is

med.-lat. discus

'a

table'

see under disK). despair vb. me. despcire


dcsperer
it.

developed from the


dis

dice.
is

usually des 'dice' which


fr.
die')

from

OFR.
i.at.

fr. disesplrer
'lose

{=

borrowed from ofr.


det
'die'
'a

dez plur. of

dd

{=

span.

it.

desperare)

hope'.

dado
'that

despatch, dispatch vb. from


OFR.
dcspcchcr
(fr.

from lat. datum


'that

depecher^

which is given antl which is cast'. See date.

'discliarge, expedite'.

die vb. :me. de'^e die dye: gedespise vb. me. despise from nerally considered as a scand. OFR. despiser despicer 'despise' loanword from on. deyja (= osAX. (lat. despicere 'look down upon, doian OHG. mhg. tomven 'die'). despise). An OE. dyym deym (from daujaii) despite sb. by aphercsis spite is not recorded before looo after me. despit from ofr. despit despcit Chr. , hence scand. origin is FR. d^pit (it. dispetto LAT. prob. For the TEUT.\^^/t7/^ cp. despectus 'contempt' see despise). dead, death. hi other Aryan Despite prep, abbrev. for / languages, osi^ox. da^'iti 'strangle' despite of. and LiTH. dovyti 'torment' are despoil vb. me. despoile from compared as related (indo-eur. OFR. dcspoillcr (fr. d^pouiller, IT.
,

dhew dhimi). span, despojar 'de- \f diet mi:, dietc ditUe: from fr. source lat. despoliare dicte (span. ir. dieta^^ lai". diuda). 'plunder, rob'. See spoil. dig vb. ME. digge earlier dikie destiny destenye destinee borrowed from FR. dcstinde (it. lat. OE. dician 'dig': derivative of OE. dic'-d. ditch'. See dike and ditch. destinatd).
despogliare,
spoil')
: :

early

deuce a two at cards or dice' dike ME. dik{e) mod. also dcwce di'us channel, dike,

oe. die 'a ditch,


wall'

=^

mhg.
pond".

FR. deux.

tich

G,

teich

'fishpond,

6o
E.

dill

dissever

dike

and ditch

are

doub-

dirge me.
dirige

dirige oe. (i i'^ cent.)

lets.

'watches' (cp. dirige for

vigilia pro deme. ford-farenum ohg. functis). dirige, Dominus mens, ///// MHG. iille G. dill. Of obscure in conspectu tuo vitam meam<' Psalm 5^ was used in the office origin. dim (w;;/) =OFRis. for the dead in medieval service. dim ME. OE. dirt ME. drit excrement' fr. oe. dim, o^.dimmr: perh. by-form of

dill 'the

two-seeded

dille

OE. dile

tare'

DU.

dille,

on. drita, the synon. OSAX. thijn {fnni). A icdritan str. vb. TEUT. \f pem (whence G. diim- DU. drijteit 'to void excrement meni) corresponds to skr. tatnas i^MT.sf drit. dish ME. dish disch oe. disc a 'gloom', LAX. tenchrae (for temesrd) osAX. disk 'table', 'darkness'. For the initial gram, dish, plate' change from th ^/see doughty. DU. disch, OHG. tisc G. tisch 'table'. A PRE -TEUT. \'" dhem may be lat. discus, the source of tee'T. diskuz, has the meaning 'dish found in oiR. de^nc 'darkness'. dime me. dime 'tithe from FR. only jiost-class. (prop, 'disk ) cp. also IT. dcsco, ofr. dois 'table' dime (^ Evr. decima 'tenth'). (fr. dais 'a canopy, dais' see dimple :me. ditupcl =i g. tmupcl
:

OHG. tumjilo m. 'whirlpool': deriv. with nasalization from the teut. \f dup 'be depressed' in deep

under dais and

desli).

dismay
:

vb. me. dismaie desmaie

{(iemaie esmaie

'dishearten,

lose

and dip\

cp. lith. dinnbu

'be-

come
din
dynr')

hollow'.
sb.

me. dine oe. dyne {= on. din'. Cp. oe. dytinan :=: DU. deunen osAX. dnnnian, ON. dy/jja and the skr. \'" dhvan
'a
,

courage') from ofr. desmayer esmayer (it. sniagare from dismagare points to goth. magaft; see may). dispense vb. me. dispense: from ofr. despenser fr. dispenser (=. it. lat. dispensare 'weigh spensarc

dhu/i 'rush'.

out, distribute').
:me.

dine
diner

vb.

dine:

from

(=

it. disinm-e^ 'dine'.

er. display vb. me. See AFR. despleier

displcic:

=
e.

from

fr.

diployer

dinner.

'deploy'
diner:
dine: sb.

(^ iT.jT/zV^'Yzr^, ikiED.-LAT.
'unfold',

dinner :me.
ident.
is

from er. diner


the
infinitive

displicare

with

fr. deploy er

whence
deploy).

also

used as
:me.

See dine.

dissever vb. me. dissevere descdyttr 'a dint, stroke'. dip vb. MR. dippe OE. dyppan\ vere from ofr. dessevrer (it. discp. G. taufen ohg. tonffan (from ceverarc fr. a LAi'.type disseparare
:

= ON. dyntr

dint

dint oe. dynt 'a blow'

dispute vb. ME. dispute: from FR. disputer (r= lat. it. disputare).

'^tonfjaii)

'baptize'

and deep.

'sever').

distaft"

dole

6i
vb. ME. OE. d/m =1 DU. doen,
df/an
,

distaff
OK.
flax'

:\IE.

distaf orig. dis-staf;


'staff

do

'^//jr-.f^</"

bedizened with OSAX.

OHG.

MHG.

t/lOf!
:

a teut. dho- in G. ///////. For the TEUT. \^dS de MLG. dise f. 'distaff, the bunch cp. also deed and the suffix of flax on the distaff'. Cp. lat. - do VI. The PRE-TEUT. \f dJio dlii
points to
'.

fiisus

'spindle'
d/iois

\'~dMs
i.A r.

Aryan has a wide ramification within the pointing to a pre- other Aryan languages cp.the gr.
for

an

d/ioiso-.

\'^ Sri

d^B in Tti>i^ui 'place, put',

distinguish
distinge:

vb.

:sve..

distingwe

SKR. \^d/ia {dadJnwii and dhdnii)


'place, put, do' {iihatr 'creator),

borrowed

from

fr.

distinguer (eat. distiagiiere).

distrain vb. me. ^//jr/me 'compel, constrain': borrowed from ofr.


dc'straindre

OSLOV. dcjq (and make', lat, facia.


'j>lace, put'

dezdci)

'do,

The meaning

(lat. distringere 'pull


.me.

ginal

seems to be the orione and the teut. meaning


sb. origin uncertain;

asunder').

secondary.
distresse

distress from OFR.


I

destresse:

destrece

'distress'

dock
the
dock,
E.

from
G.

word

are
s\v.

borrowed

R.

dftrcsse.

DU. dok,
ME.

docka, dax.
cp. dax.

disturb vb. me. disturbe tVom OFii. destowher


disturhar ,
it.

desiurbc'.

dok(ke), FR. dock.

disturbare

(spax. lat.

doe
daa.

dp
oe.

OE. dd;

disturbare 'disturb')

generally considered a loanword from lat.


-

The

word

ditch
G.

'a

dike' me. diche oe. die:

dama

])oints

to a

weak stem
evidently

cquiv. to OSAX. dik 'dam',


dcich:
?

whence

dd/i noni.
dai)i

sing,
,

dd from a teut.
is

related

to

gr. Xhlyoq base

wln"ch

connected with OFR. dain m. fr. ditty ME. diti; borrowed from daiuc f. Peril, a lat. base *ddiius ofr. diti' 'a story poem' (eat. (assimilated for *ddmus) may be dicta tiuii) phonology of assumed. Tlie dive vb. ME. dive oe. dyfan the Engl, word may have been ON. dyfa, DU. beduiven, lg. beduven affected by roe OE. rd.
'wair
,

=
:

teut. \P dttb (a by-form of the doff vb. ME. do/fe, orig. imper. tkut. \~ diip) under deep. do/ contr. of do of 'put off'; cp. dizzy adj. me. disy oe. dysi^ doji contr. of do on 'put on'. foolish, stupid' OHG. /ustg, dog ME. dogge OE. dogga, whence \^ dtis (tihtis). DU. dog, SW. dogg, G. dogge, FR. MDT. a//ysig/i: Another form of the \'^ diis dogue. OE. dogga (recorded about appears in oe. drvds (=^ mdu. 1050) is a west-teut. duggan-.

djvaes
in

DU. djcaas)

'foolish

and

dole 'portion, share,


ME.
(oE.
dpl{e) OE.
licbr).

lot,

fortune'

G. tor

OHG.

toro

(teut. base

ddl: equiv. w.

dea

da HZa -^.

62

dollar

dove

dollar sb. a modern loanword du. fris. dot OE. dott 'speck' from the continent: DU. daalder; dot; cp. LG. dott dotte 'the yellow the source is G. thaler which is of the eg^' and osAX. dddro, du. short for Joachwisthaler 'gulden dooier, oe. dydritig, OHG. totoro (Bohemia) tutar-ei G. dotter prim, term for from Joachi??isihat where the coin was first struck 'the yellow of the <i^''^^^; the
:

in

1519.
ME.

-dom OE. -dpf/l OSAX. -dom, DU. -do//l, OHG. MHG.


-tuoni G.
-tntif.

-dom

orig.
'spot,

meaning of dydring
point in the

is

prob.

&^^

odu. dote vb. ME. dote dgtie an abstract noun dotcn 'mope'; perh. akin to mhg.
'jurist/7s(e)

suffix, orig".

a sb. meaning-

'quiet'

tuzen

'be

quiet'

diction' preserved in
its

doom (and from


from

a teut.
FR.

\f dtit.
borrowed
doppio
(iT.

deriv, deeni).

double

adj. me. duble:

domain
whence

(poet, by-form deviaiii)

double

from FR. domaine (lat. dominiuni), LAT. duplus); from the fr. source
also du. domcin.
in me. oe.,

also G. doppclt, du. dubbel.

don see doff. donkey not found


appar. a deriv. key of donkey

doubt
timi)

ME. doutc:

borrowe4 from

FR. doute (it. dotta

lat. dubi-

of dun. Suffix dimin. as in is monkey. The orig. meaning- of donkey is 'the little gray one' (Shakesp. uses dun 'a gray horse'). doom sb. 'judgment, sentence,

decree, law' me. oe. dotn OSAX. dom, OHG. tuom, ON. domr, SKR. dill stroke, smear', lat. GOTH, dbms 'judgment'; derived fingere 'shape, form' {^figura from the teut. sf do in do; for form) and gr. rsT/ng ro7}'0c the w-suffix cp. SKR. d/uhnan 'wall'. Cp. lady. 'sacred custom' and gr. S^ffug. doughty adj. me. dou(g)hty dohti osAX. oe. dohti-'^ tlie by-form oe. dyhti\ door ME. dp're oe. dor dor, G. /or, GOTH. d(7ur 'gate'; ident. corresponds to mhg. g. tiuhtig with OE. duru OSAX. dura; on. deriv. from ohg. mhg. ////// an dyrr plur. corresponds to osAX. abstract noun of the verb reduri plur., OHG. turi plur. door' presented by OHG. tugan oe. G.tilr. The TEUT. bases i/<?;7i;- and dugan. The oe. by-form /;7//'/j (cp. dur- (cons, stem) cp. also in dim OSAX. thinwi) points to GOTH, daiirbns 'door'. To the a primitive teut. \'^fiig. Aryan base dhur belong also lat. dove short for me. douve oe. to GOTH. fores, GR. t}v()a, lith. durys and dilfe; corresponding SKR. dur (for dhu-) 'door, gate'. diibo, OSAX. duba, ohg. tiiba G. taube.

dough OE. ddhig) OHG. MHG. teic(g) G. teig, ON. deig goth. daigs 'dough': deriv. from a teut. dig 'knead' in goth. dcigan 'mould, form'; an Aryan sf dhigh cp. in

= DU. LG.

dough

sb. ME.
decg,

down

dream
strainer' dL.nd
sieve'

63
druugin vb.
'strain,

The

on a pre-TEUT.
in OIK.

TEUT. <////w/- 'dove' is based adj. dhubho- 'black'

(nfris. u from teut. au)

(////' and in ditmarsh dorchdroven 'black'. do\vn sb. 'soft plumage': a 'drain', hess. draucn 'drain'. drake ^ in drakefy oe. draca Scand. loanword of the me. period (me. lioitft), borrowed from on. 'dragon'; cp. synon. ohg. trahho dtinn sw. dun, uan. dunn, g. drache =^ oe. draca borrowed whence also G. daune, DU. do/is. fr. LAT. draco. Cp. dragon. down prep, iind adv., orig. drake- 'male of the duck' me. lg. (dial.) adoivn (cp. back for abacli) short- drake oe. *draca ened for ME. adoiuie adoun oe. drake mlg. ant-drake, which points identity with icel. andriki, ofdtinc: OE. dun is hill' and of- to

diinc

'off

the

hill,
'hill'

downwards'. germ,
!

enterich

ohg. antrchho an-

'"anut A^ trahho^. dal is 'dale' and 'down), oe. diin The TEUT. drakon- occurs onl}' survives in the Kentish downs in this compound and in the subcp. DU. duin. Perh. the word is stituted simple form (the Teut. a Celt, loanword, cp. iR. diin 'a word for 'duck' was oe. ccned,

A TEUT.

duna-

(in

mod.

lg.

trahho

(orig.

fortified

liill',

Gael, dun, w. din OHG. anut g.

ente).

and

the Celt, place-names such

as Tarodunum, for which cp. also

draw

vb. me.

drawe

oe.

dragan
OSAX.

ON. draga', perh. ident. with


carry',

town.

GOTH, dragan 'bear,


vb. prob.

doze

borrowed from dragan, du. dragcn, ohg. iragan


\fdrag 'bear' (aryan dhragJi) has whence been compared with OSLOV. drii-

ON. diisa 'doze'.

dozen
douzaiiic

aie.

dozcine dusain
dosaine),

^ fr.

G. tragen 'carry, bear'.

The teut.

(ofr.
is

also g. dutzend, du. dozijn.


Fr.

The

zati 'hold'.

word

(OFR. doze LAT. duodcc'wi). draff ME. draf oe. ^/r^^/"; cp. OHG. ~trah in tlie plur. trcbir G.
trdbcr
'grains,
(//-(z/".

deriv.

from douze

on. s \v.

husks' and i)U. Cogn. w. i.x\:.fraces

ARYAN Y^^//w7^-^; cp. also dregs. dragon me. dragon drago{u)n'.


from FK. dragon 'dragon, standard'

IT.

dragone, i.at. draco{n-)

'dragon'.
nia)!\

See drake.

drain vb. me. drcine oe. drc'aga TEUT. \^ drau^ appears

in

NORTH

-fris.

druughe

'sieve,

dr(m\ an not recorded (the synonym is s7C'e/n), but is to be inferred from oSAX. drom, ohg. du. droom, ON. draumr mhg. troum G. iraum 'dream'. vision' The meaning 'dream attaching to these forms may be deduced from "deception, vision' so that teut. drauma- (fur or ^dhroughwrnd-T) *draug?nawould belong to the teut. \'^ drug, seen in osAX. bidriogan ^= OHG. iriogan G. triigen 'deceive'.
'vision'

dream

me.

equiv. oe. dr('am

is

64

dieary

drop

'sad';

dreary adj. me. dreri corresponding


c.
trail rig;

oe. drcorii

MHG.
drip'.

G. triefeii,

ox. drjilpa 'droj),

to

mhg.
triiren

triirec

ohg.

G. tranern

'mourn' belongs perh.


v..

drive me. drive oe. drifan str. \h. OSAX. driban 'drive, banish,
swim'
,

to OE. dri'isian
'be

droivse drowze perform', du. drijvcn drive, do,


fl)^

sluggisb'.
'lees'

ON.

drifa

'hasten',

GOTH, drciban 'drive', OHG. trtbau MHG. triben G.ireiben. For the teut. of the ME. period (me. dregges) borrowed with the plur. form fr. \fdrib (ARYAN dhribhl d/irfpl)

dregs

a Scand. loamvord

the equiv. on. dregg.

The

teut.

cp.

also drift.

droll adj. perh. borrowed fr. base dragjo- may be a pre-TEUT. dhraki- which is also jiossible FR. drotc 'odd, queer, funny'. Cp. G. drollig from LC;. drul/ig, nu. of i,AT. /races 'dregs' (lat. /' ARYAN c//; as Mwditx distaff); cp. drotlig; not found in the older also PRUSS. dragios 'dregs' (perh. languages. drone sb. ME.drt'iiOK. dniii (plur. Teut. loanword?). drdii). The synon. ono.^treiio dress vb. me. drcssc borrowed MHG. tretie G. drohne, osax. dran from FR. dresser (oFR. drescer plur. draiii (dan. drone is a condrecier; lat. t}"pe directiare). tinental loanword) are evidently drift sb. 'driving, impulse' me. related, but not phonetically drift 'act of driving, drove, imidentical; oe. dran points pulse': deriv. from c/r/Vv with tGOiH. ''drainiis, while ohg. trino suffix; cp. DU. drift 'drove, tlock, points to GOTH. *drina. An course, current, artlor', c;. trift Aryan \-^ dhren cp. in (tR. Tf i'pasture', ON. drift dript 'snowi)^?jv/] 'a species of wasp' drift'. See drive, drove. also dvdQijvi] 'woodbee' Lacodrink \b. me. drinke oe. drincan nian d^gm'a^ 'drone'. =^ 0'>\y.. drill kan, du. i.g. drinken, drop vb. ME. droppc oe. droppian OHG. triiichan mhg. g. triiiken, also dropian and droppetian (= ON. drekka goth. drigkaii a r)\j droppen, G.tropfeii): afrequent.

ti:)

teut. str. vb. From deriv. of the orig. str. vb. OE. TEUT. comes the Roman group dreopan me. drepe osAX. drioIT. trincare, fr. triiiquer 'hobnob'. pan, uu. druipen, OHG. triufan The TEUT. \^dreiik {Arynn d/ire/ig) MHG. G. triefen, on. drjiipa 'drop'. does not appear outside of See drip and drop. Teut. drop sb. 'a globule' me. drgpe

common

drip vb. ME. drippc OE.dryppan: associated with oe. *dreopaii ME. drepe 'drop, fall' OSAX. driopan, DU. druipen, ohg. tiiufan

OE.

dropa

drop, ON. drope,

OSAX. dropo, du. OHG. tropfo; the

OHG. by-form tropfo (g. iropfen). points to a teut. base druppon-.

dropsy
All

dung

65

\% probable and ohg. would point to a bydropsy me. dropsy dropesie short form Aryan dhrfig. for idropsie hynhopsic: borrowed duck sb. ME. douke oe. dtke: from FR. hydropisie (lat. hydro- akin to oe. '^dilcan under duck pisis) vb.; hence ^/r/5 prop. 'the diving drought ME. drought older one, diver'; cp. T>A.T>i. dukaud ''^g.s.-

derivatives

of

the

teut.

\f dhruk

\'~driip.

See drop^.

trucka7i

drougth drught OE. drilgod 'dryness':


deriv.
dry'

duck', G. tauchenie.

from oe.

driigian
adj.

duck
dtiiken,

vb.

ME.

doukc

an
fr.

oe.

'become
driigi in

and teut.

*ducan may
G.

dry.
(drowze) vb. me. *drouse

be inferred ohg. tiihhan mhg.


me.
diie

du.

tiichen

drouse
OE.

tan chef?.
adj.
f.

drds(i)an

ofr. deu m. deue f. (= cp. I.G. driinse(l)n 'slumber' drunsen IT. debutd) cp. med.-lat. *dcbu'low' (of cattle) akin to oe. tu7n debuta for debitufn. dri'osan goth. driusan 'fall'. duke me. duke from fr. duc\ See dreary. with the deriv. duchess me. drove sb. 'herd, road for diichesse short for diichesse fr. sheep or cattle in droves' me. duchcsse. duchy (cp. me. dr(we earlier drpf oe. ^/rc^ 'drove' ducherie instead of '''duchie) from deriv. from W\^y^ drib in drive. FR. duehi. drown vb. me. droune; short dumb adj. me. dof?ib duml) oe. for ME. druncne (also dissimil. dumb; GOTH, dumbs, OK. dutnbr drimkle^ oe. drunciiiaii sink' a have essentially the same meaning passive formation of the teut. while the corresponding G. dunun verb drink. (ohg. ^\nG.tuf?ip) signifies 'stupid, dry ME. dric dryc oe. dry-^e foolish'. Perh. deaf without from TEUT. driigi-, as shown by nasal (= oe. deaf, goth. daufs) oe. drtigod mod. e. drought. belongs to the same Aryan A TEUT. by -form draugi- (or \'^ dhtibh, which may be found draugu-^ is seen in oe. drij^e also in gr. tvffXng 'blind'. .ME. dreic and in DU. droog, dun adj. 'dark, swarthy' me. LG. drdge (by the side of lg. dou donnc oe. dun (nn) an earh' dryge, north-fris. driltigJi). loanword (oir. gael. All Celtic with the same meaning, which donti, gall, donuos) therefore appears also in the related g. not found in other teut. lantrockcn (oHG. truckivi). Cp. ok. guages. draugr 'a dry log'; ohg. proper dung me. dung doug; cp. ohg. nouns e. g. Druhi-kUnga prove tunga 'dung' c;. dung. ohg. a TEUT. druhi 'dry'. An Aryan mhg. tunc 'subterranean weaving
sluggish'

= MDU.

'become

slow

or

due
m. due

from fr.

dfi

droosen 'doze';

English Etvmologv.

66
room'.
If

dungeon

Dutch 'cave, underground a dialect of Germany. the orig. meaning, gr. corresponds to G. dcutsch mlg. TCiffOC from an Ar}'an dhii^hwos dildcsch, mhg. diutsch tiutsch tiusch may be allied. OHG. diutisk (osAX. thiudisce liudi
room'
is

dungeon
jou7i\

sb. me.

dongeon dondo7i-

'Germania').

loanword from ofr.

dwarf
OE.

ME.

dwcrgh

geon dongon dofijon fr. donjon (med.-lat. do7nnione7n 'a commanding tower' fr. a lax. type dominion cm\ cp. lat. dominiutn under domaiit).

dweorhig)

dwcrugh
dwcrg,
G.

DU.

OHG.

MHG.

twerc(g)

getiv'erc

zwerg, ON. dwergr m., sw. dan. dw'crgadz'erg. TEUT. base


'deceive',

dusk

belongs prob. to the teut. \^ drug hence dioarf prop,

ME.

desk

OE.

dose

(of

'deception, vision'.

rare occurrence, but also


in the deriv. vb. dusciaii).

seen Akin to

dwell
:

vb.

ME.

dwcllc late OE.

scand. loanword from dnskug 'misty'. dwelian the sw. dial, oho. A TEUT. base duska- admits of ON. dvelja 'delay, stay' lat. fuscus 'blackish, twellan (and t^val^n) 'linger'. relation to

dark' (base d/insko-?).

dye

vb.
:

ME.

die

dcie

dej^e

OE.
',

Dutch

orig.

meant

including Dntch\ for 1600, Dutch was considered

German down to

dcagian

derived from uE. dr'ah(g) a TEUT. daiiga is not found elsewhere.

E
each
(hlc

ME.

(eh

earlier

orig. d-gilic

OHG.

MHG.
gillh

iegelteh G. jeglich\

inanno-giUh 'every man'

base auzbn- in goth. ausb, osax. An ohg. bra g. ohr du. oor. cp. ohg. Aryan base aus- cp. in lat.
(Ich

OE.

iogilih

'imbo-

auris,
'ear'
;

GR. ovg,

Russ.

SLOv.

ueho

perh. cogn. with hear. eager me. cgi-e adapted from Hence earwig me. (r-wigge oe. Source car-wigga. OFR. eigre 'keen, sharp'. LAT. acre (aeer). ear- sb. (of corn) me. (r oe. car eagle me. cgle: loanword from contr. from *eahor (Northumbr.
:

every woman' etc.

TEUT. base ahaz-; ident. (liglc, source lat. aquila. <?////^r) eanling'lamb'(Shakesp.) points w. ohg. ahir G. iihre, goth. ahs, Perh. akin to awns. to an OE. ean 'lamb'; c^. yean. ON. ax, teut. ear vb. me. ere oe. crian ear^ sb. me. ere oe. (W/v
FR.

earl

eitrht

.67

GOTH, arjan, ohg. ci-ian 'plough'; eat vb. me. etc OE. etan du cogn. with LAT. arare, or. dooeiv, eicfi, OSAX. etaii, on. eia, goth oiR. arahn 'I plough': Aryan itan, OHG. cT^'i^aii G. esse/i. Cp \^ ar in lat. arz>um 'field' and the Aryan \'^cd in lat. edo, gr in cartJi. edni.iai, skr. ad, lith. ahni 'eat' earl me. erl oe. eorl r= on. (see also tootli). jiirl, OSAX. erl. Perh. ident. eaves .me. roes oe. efes 'eaves'; witli the TEUT. tribe-name Heruli. the e. dial, form oaves (Essex) early .me. 4rU o^.drlke; cp. ere. points to an oe. '^ofes ohg. earn vb. me. erne oe. carnian obasa 'porch, liall', goth. ulnzTi>a =^ OHG. arnon. Perh. traceable 'porch', on. ups 'eaves'. to the Aryan \/'"<7r in Gv..a(jvvi.iat. ebb sb. me. ebbeoz. ebba =1 ofris. earnest me. erftest oe. eornust ebba, du. eb ebbe, G. dan. ebbe, =^ OHG. crtiust G. DU. errist 'serious- SWED. ebb. Source and history ness'; perh. akin goth. unknown. to arniba ;6.&\\ surely'? edge ME. egge oe. ecg (infl.

earth
GOTH,

me.
,

crthe

oe.

eorde
G.

=.

ecge)

t:=

DU.

egge,

osax.
gr.

eggia,

OSAX. irt/ia

OHG.
on.

crda
yi^rrt';

erde,

on. egg, OHG. ccka g. ccke.


acies 'point',

Cogn.
aY.ic',

airpa,

cognate with LAT.

with OHG. iV^- 'earth' jorvi 'ground', lat. arvuvi


GK.

on.

cp. SKR. a^ri 'corner', gr.


'jiointed',

aY.ortc

'field',

lith.

aszru-s

'sliarp'

foCf
.me.

to the ground'.

Aryan
from
ident.
al, G.

\'" ak.

earwig
ease
I'R.

cp. ear"^.
(se

earlier

else

eel ME. OE. el OE. dl OHG. DU. DAN. aal, on. (ill: teut.
cla-

aise 'ease'.

base
oe.
(ast\
;

clu- ?

from ON. egg. the teut. OY..dii (plur. dyii) ME. f/(plur. base aust- is traced to the circ^ ^(i'^^ were supplanted by the Aryan name of the aurora lat. SCAND. loanword egg. oe. (BJ^ and aurora, GR. TjcJg, skr. usas: Aryan ON. egg correspond to osax. base ausos. Cp. Easter. OHG. ei, DU. G. ei: teut. base
east
ME.
(st

egg

sb. ME. egg

with DU.

cost,

G. osten

Easter me. rster oe. {asiro aia- (ajjiz- ajjaz) perh. related OHG. ostarfin G. Ostern. Accord- to LAT. oinini, GR. foo'i' ^^^^ ing to Bcda Venerabilis in egg vb. 'instigate' me. egge heathen times the Anglo-Saxons from ON. fggja ''c^j;^ on'; akin called the feast in April after to edge.
,

their goddess Eosire, which is OE. '^'ehte mostly eight ME. elsewhere quite unrecorded. The eahta =r goth. ahtaii, osax. ohg. "west-teut. word (base ausiro/7-) ^///<^ G. DU. acht: Aryan base is prob. of the same origin as oktbu okto in GR. oxrw, lat. octo, east; c]). mth. auszra 'aurora'. skr. asfaii, oiR. ^'r///.
<:7'(,'-///'<'

5*

68
eisel ME. ODU. aisiji)

eisel

emmet

aisil late oe. aisil


fr.

ofr.

aisil.

LAT.

type

acetuliim;
fr.

(^= the word occurs in proper names ohg. Alp-rat. Source as OE. ^If-rid cp. oe. An Aryan albJiu- is found in

cced

'vinegar'

lat.

acidimi

'sharp.'

oe. either me. eithashortened for (ejjiwceder orig. ^=^ OHG. eliita G. DU. elk., on. a -\- y.hwccder\ cp. ohg. io-giwc- alin., GOTH, aleina 'ell, cubit'. A dar 'each of two' and whether. pre-TEUT. olena- is found in lat.

rbhu 'the name of a certain kind of deity'. ckyier ell ME. elk earlier elm oe. eln
SKR.

TEUT. auk

fr. a ulna, OR. (oXlvrj, OIR. uile 'cubit'. OHG. Cp. elbow. ouh G. auch. Prop, imperative elm me. OE. elm; akin to on. of the str. vb. goth. aukan 'add' dlmr and lat. tihnus (g. ulme is a LAT. loanword, du. aim is ofr. (= LAT. augere).

eke

ME. ck OE. ec earlier (ac

^=

GOTH

alih,

elbow
G.

ME.

elhgivc

earlier eln-hoga
elbogen,

oe.

elboga

(?/w^)

ohg. elinbogo
on.
f//z-

du. ellehoog,

wise'
aljis

else ME. OE. elles adv. 'othergenet, of the pron. GiOth.


:

/^(?^/:

a GOTH,
'the

huga

armen. ait) wanting. cp. OE. ele-lende 'a foreign land Cp. ell and bow. eld'oldage, antiquity'(Shakesp.) OHG. eli-lenti "being abroad' and
GR. aXKac, oiR.
aile,

compound ^aleinabow of the cubit' is

'an

other'

(=

lat.

allies,
;

me.

clde oe. eldo yldo 'antiquity'

abstract

of old

oe.

(fid.

ohg.

elles

'elsewhere', lat.

alias

'otherwise'.

elder adj. me. elder oe. eldra: ember-days me. imbn'-dawes oe. compar. of old. }'?nbren-dagas prop, 'days of proelder sb. (a tree) me. eldre eller cession'?
oe.
ellarn.
mi:,

embers
eulevene
\

'ashes'
OE.
,

me. on.

evimeres
plur.

eleven

oe.

infl.

c/idleo/ane cknlifanc

OE.

eudlufon
OSAX.

cmeres plur.

chnyrian

OHG.

eimuria

eimyrja

Prob. a compound of cp. on. a TEUT. type aim-iizjbn einlif G. du. elf 'eleven'. The einir 'steam, vapor' and usli a TEUT. numeral ain-lif- is a com- conflagration' usel iisel mhg. pound of ain one and lif 'ashes, embers' fr. an Aryan \^ us pre-TEUT. -lika in lith. vaw- in LAT. urere vb. 'burn' (cp. on. lika 'eleven' (cp. twelve). The ysja 'fire')^. orig. meaning of the numeral emmet 'ant' me. einet oe. ccmete: was perh. 'ten one'. TEUT. base amaitjbn- ^=- ohg. elf (with the older by-form a7nei-a G. atneise: prob. cogn. ouphe Shakesp.) me. elf oe. eel/: with OHG. etniy^i G. etnsig 'inTEUT. base alba- also in on. dl/r; dustrious'.

corresponds to ON.
;

ellifu,

'embers'.

elletmn

cp.

goth.

ainlif,

ohg.

emperor

ewe

69
lith.

emperor
onpcrur
fr.

= lat. imperator-cm (but


=^
G.

me. einperoiir

fr.

afr.

OHG.

czartnft)

harmo (corresp. to means 'weasel'.


vb.

OE. Cdsere 'emperor'

kaiser

err
errcr

LAT.

Caesai-')
fr.

cp.

empire

me.
lat.

empire

FR.

empire

me.
lat.

errc

vb.

fr.

fr.

crrarc;

hence
short

impcrium and
peresse earlier
OFR. emperice

empress

j^ie.

wzfr.

errant fr. errant. errand me. ernde erende


for
OE.

= lat. imperatrlcc7n.
efiiti

form emperice

cerende

OSAx. drundi.

ohg. drunti 'message'; uncertain

empty
OE.
o'liitij^

me. empti
'empty'.
vb. me.

short for whether cogn. w. goth. (z/;7/j-, ox. drr, OE. dr, osax. cr 'messenger'.
fr.

enchant
FR.

enchanter

enchaiinte

lat. incantare.

me. oe. emie ^= goth. andcis, OHG. enti G. ende., DU. if/V?^/.?, on. ^W/; TEUT. base andja-, pre-TEUT.

end

escape vb. me. escape vb. fr. oxfr. escaper fr. ichapper. lat. type ex-capparc dcriv. from eappa

'cloak'.

evening
deriv.
('/en]

^v..evemnge OK.ce/nntig:

antyd-;

cp. SKR. dnta 'end, limit'

aptann (swed. a/ion, dan. afteii) enough me, ingugh {inowe) OE. and OE. a^ften 'evening belongteut. 5^//t//i (j^enpg earlier lingg') teut. base to the same group base ga-noga- in du. genoeg, ebnd-'^ cftu-1 OHG. ginuog G. ginog OSAX. ever me. ez^er earlier evre oe. cp. goth. ganohs ^'^^/<i,'- 'enough'; chfre (earlier dbre); the word is and the goth. vb. ganauhati 'to compounded, but only orig. gaiiaiiha 'sufficiency': suffice' the i"^' clement is evident; cp. v'~<'?'^ {fl^k'). ARYAN GOTH, aiw under OE. d 'ever' enter vb. me. ^/;/;r vb.fr. fr.^- aye-. every me. ez'erl earlier
: : ,

and oiR. tV. engage cogn. w. gage.

of eve me. ('Z'e(fi) OE. dfen cp. ohg. dbimd G. abend,

OSAX.

dhand

DU.

avotid;

ox.

//YV

LAT. inlrare
adj.

vb.

'enter.
fr.

form everich
(efre-iehiacer.

late oe. afrdlc.

entire

me. entire

fr.

en tier r= lat. integrum {integer').

everywhere

me.

ei'cr

iwMre

oe.

envy

sb. me. ^//wV

fr.

fr. etivie

evil adj. me. evel prop, ivel oe.


yfel: teut.

lat. Invidia.

base ubila- in goth. ere 'before' me. /r((?) oe. ckr ubi/s, osax. ubil OHG. zibil G. (fr. aV/ </;7 teut. airi) 'before'; DU. euvel; cogn. w. ohg. ilbci, ident. w. goth. air, ohg. osax. uppi G. ilppig and perhaps w. teut.
,

er G. chr.

nber
sb.

over.
ME.

ermine

me. ermine

fr.

ofr.

ewe

nve

oe.

eozvu

(not
:

ertnine fr. hermine,

which is of ioiini, which would be me. *<?<:'<') Teut. origin; cp. ohg. harmin teut. base awi- 'sheep' in du. mhg. hermin iwx The primitive ooi, ON. d-r 'sheep' and cp. goth.
.
i

70
aivcpi 'flock of sheep'
'a

ewer

fair

and awisir OHG. ouga G. auge osax. oga, sheepfold'; cp. OHG. ou (plur. DU. oog, on. auga (under 7vinou7of) fr. a TEUT. base awwi-. doiv). As shown by the teut. vb. A base owi- occurs in other '^aujan pret.*a7mda (= oe. ywau Aryan languages skr. dvi, lat. cowde) for '^agwjan '^agwida 'to oris, GR. otg (*o/'e)j LITH. avis show', TEUT. augon- is transformed 'sheep', oSLOv. ovica, OiR. (j^'sheep'. (by the influence of teut. auzonear) from an earlier ag^oon-: ewer me. (iver fr. afr. *ewiere
,
:

VK.aigiiil're:

'vessel

source lat. aquarium ARYAN base okon- fr. a primitive for water', whence also stem ok 'eye' cp. lat. oc-ulus,
;

OHG. ahhari, du. lg.


bucket'.

akcj- 'pitcher,

OSLOV.
'the

oko,

LITH.

akis,
;

GR.
skr.

0(T(Jf
<?;('//

eyes'
sb.

(fcjr
:\iE.

'''okje)

eyot ovK.espondre: source lat. exponere, monly


me.
expou/ie

expound

vb.

fr.

eiet

oe. /j^/

comi]^

ij^od:

deriv. of

OE. ?j

whence
pret,

also ohg. spunon 'intereie

'island',

which answers to on.

ey,

expound'.
earlier
e'^e

eye me.

OE. cage

OHG. outva 'island' (teut. aiijofr. agwjo- dcriv. of GOTH, cthwa

TEUT. base augon- in goth. augo,

LAT.

aqua

'water').

fable ME. fable


LAT. fabiila.

fr.

fr. fable

^
^=^

face ME.

fa^'e

fis

fr.

fr.

face
vb.

LAT. fades.

w. OHG. gifeho 'jo}-' or accurately w. oe. ^/fea *gi(contracted fr. *gifeaha faho) teut. \~feh (Aryan pek)
ident.

more

fade (Shakesp. fade vb. fr. the

e/a^^/t')

me.

in

oe.

lefeon
we.,

(pret.
'to

lefeali)

FR.

adj.

fade OHG. gifehan


faint adj.
partic.

enjoy'.
fr.

oi feindre', c^. feign. stead oi fatuus 'foolish'. fair adj. me. fair oe. fceier ^= FR. := GOTH.yvz^;'i''fit',OHG. osw.fagar, fail vb. iiE. faile vb. fr. lat. fallere), on. /a^r. (source According to goth. faillir there whence also du. vcilen, mhg. gafahrjan 'to prepare vNen G. fchlen. exists a teut. \/~feh also in g. fain adj. me. fain oe. fcej^en fegen ohg. fv;^w^ vb. 'cleanse'; OSAX. fagan, on. fegimi cp. ON. fdga and ohg. fuogan 'glad' adj. 'glad'; cp. goth. /a^/w;? 'to G. /r/^^"//, OE. lefeian.
,

(whence also Q. fade, ouu. vadde). Source a lat. type ''fatidns in-

feint

ofr. feint

enjoy'

and fahefs

joy',

which

is

fair

sb.

'market,

festival'

me.

fairy

fast

71
versus)
G.

fe.irc

fr.

afr. feire
LAT. feria

=
'a

FR. foire]

lat.

wanne
fr.

is

an

source

holiday',
G.

earlier

loanword

\.K\\

vannus.

whence

also OHG. frra

fcier

fancy short

for me. fantasie

'ceremony'

{J'eiertag 'holiday').

ofr. fantasie (lat. phantasia).

oe. me. fer ferre adv. far fairy .me. fa'iric fr. ofr. faerie 'encliantment'; cp. fayfeor feorran] cp. goth. fairra faith sb. -MK. faith feith (with adv., ohg. fcrro G. fern, du. cogn. w. GR. the by- form fai fei) fr. A^. feid ver, o-ii. fjarri'i^x
\

niouv 'beyond', SKR./ir/zvz 'distant', Source lat. fides fde^n. armen. heri 'far'. foi). fardel me. fardel fr. ofr. fardel falcon si). ME. faukoun fr. fr. FR. fardcau 'burden, load'. Source late la'J'. fxlcofaitcon. fare vb. me. fare oe. far an iicm, whence also OHG. falko G. GOTH, faran, on.fara, falke, o-ii.falke, DU. valk 'falcon'. str. vb. vb. ME. falle oe. fallaii ohg. osax. faran mhg. varn G. fall {fealla/i) =: ohg. osax. falia/i, fahren, uu. varen: teut. \'~far ON. falla str. vb. 'fall': teut. 1= ARYAN \'~por in GR. TJOfjtvouai

fcid (with the by-form/^/

fr.

\ffall
/'/////

Aryan
p'lilii)

\f~pal in lith.
'to
fall';

travel,

go'.

(pres.

cp.

farm
rent,

"siz.ferme 'repast, banquet,


oe.

also GR. aifdXXouai 'to fall'?

farm'

feonn 'banquet,

fallow
in
G.

adj.

y:;c\\.f'alwes

= TEUT.

u^.

falwe

oe. fealo

h^.se.

falwa-

food, subsistence'; cp. OE.feortnian vb. 'sustain, feed, support' bor-

ON. fg/r,
fili/

du. vaal, ohg. falo


fallow'.
'[jale'

rowed

fr.

LAT. firmare 'to

make

'jjale,

w.

LAT. pallidus
GR.

pullus

Cogn. strong' (tirmare alqm. cibo atque


potione).

Tinhog 'gray', skr. pa/iia 'gray' ;. the TEUT. adj. has the same suffix as OSLOV. plavii,
'dark',
i.iTH.

farrow
OE.

me.

fearh

'pig'

farh '\oung pig' ohg. farah

(g. ferkel, du. varkeii)

pre-teut. porko- in GR. palvas 'fallow'. far hafalse adj. mk. late oe. fals fr. 7r6(j/.Oi^, h.\T. poreus, wru. pdrszas, OFR. fah -~ FR. faux', source OSLOV. prase, oir. ore 'pig'. farthing ME.ferthing short for LA'i'. falsiis 'false'. fame .mk. fame fr. fr. fame ^rr ferthing oe. feordung {feording i.A'i'. faiiia feordling') 'the fourth part, farth'report'. famine me. famin(e) fr. fr. ing': deriv. of OE. feor da' iowriW, lat. fames cp. ./'('//-'' and OHG. for dung. deriv. fr. famine:

teut. base

fashion .me. fagoun i^fassouii) lat. factio{nefn). fan ME. OK. fan (nn): borrowed fr. FR. fafon fast adj. ME. fast oe. feest during anglo-sax. times fr. l.\t. 7'atinns vulgar pro- OS. fastr, DU. vast, OHG. /.r.y// adj. (in the nunciation /i/ ////.<; cj*. G. vers =r {fasto adv.) g. /^-i-/" 'fast': teut.
hunger'.

72

fast

feeble

fastu-, Kxy2ca. postii in armen.


'fast'.

fasten, du. fatum. prop, derived fear me. //r^ oe. fdr 'a sudden from the adj. with the orig. mean- peril, fear' osax. far, Ohg. ing 'make firm, observe'. fara 'treason, danger' G. gefahr fat adj. -ME./?/ itt) short for-OE. 'danger'; goth. '^fh-a is the source fceti prop, fdted teut. base oi ferja 'a spy' Aryan \fper also faitida- in ohg. feiyt o. feist, in LAT. perieuhwi 'danger', gr. OSAX. fetid LG. g. /(?^/ 'fat', DU. vet: nsYon 'trial prop, partic. of a teut. vb. feast ME. feste fr. ofr. feste ''^faitjan. The base is a teut. adj. FR. fete: source lat. festa. faita- 'fat' in mhg. ?r/-, on. feit/feat ME. fet by-form feit fait Aryan \'~/id cogn. w. \^j>i in fr. FR. fait LAT. factutn.
,

fastvb. uz.fasteOK.fcesta7i
G.

/?rt'iY

fay
fr.

fr.

fr.
:

//^;

GOTH, fastaii

OFR. /tvV

cp. mhg. feie source a lat. /ar/<a'

vasten, ox. fasta:

gr.

short for me. fethcr pivan pwara 'fat' (skr. v/^/jv?). OE. feder r= du. veder osax. fatal ME. fatal fr. fr. fatal; fethara, ohg. fedara G. feder, cp. fate ME. /?/t' =: OFR. fate. on. 75'6'^r 'feather': teut. base Source lat. fatnin fatalis. fepro-, Aiyan petra-; cogn. w. father me. fade?- oe. feeder GR. TiTfoov feather, wing', skr. GOTH, fadar (commonly atta), pdtatra?n 'wing' patra 'feather' org. fater G. vater, Osax. fadar, Aryan \^pet in skr. \rpat 'to DU. vader, ON. fadir: teut. base fly', also in lat. penna (prop. faderAr}an base pater- in
,

7iio)v

mcf.QOQ

'fat'

^=

skr.

feather

'''petsna)

LAT. pater,

'feather'.

gr. naTijp, skr. //A?r

and

oiR.

rr/////-,

armen.

//t///-;

all

equivalent.

feature U'^.frtilre =- LAT. factiira.


dat. fed)

fr.

ofk. friture

fee sb. ME. /d' OK.feo/i (gen./cw prop, 'cattle, property ident. w. goth. faiJui, cubit': ident. w. on. fadmr, du. in cattle' vadeni 'a fathom' ohg. faduvi ON. fi 'cattle, property', ohg. G. faden 'a fathom, a thread': fihu g. vieh 'cattle': teut. fchn TEUi. base fapma- fr. an Aryan Aryan p^ku neut. in skr. pdpi neut. 'cattle cp. skr. pa(ii V""/"'^ in GOTH. /(7/a 'hedge'
ME. fdthem
oe.
Z^^^;//

fathom

'embrace, extended arms, fathom,

MHG.

ew^/i?

'fence'

and

in

gr.

masc,

LAT. peeiis 'cattle" (hence

faute. feed vb. ME. fede oe. feda/i faveur. fi'dan TEUT. base fodjan under fawn sb. me. faun prop. />?-<?// food. fr. FR. faon 'a fawn': source a feeble adj. me. feblc fr. ofr. LAT. iy\)Q fi'tdnus, deriv. oi fvtiis. fcible foible fr. faihle.

ntxdvvv(.a 'I extend'. fault ME. faute fr.

peeftnia 'money').
fr.

favor ME. feizwur

fr.

feel

fetlock

73

feel vb. ME.

wk. vb.
fiVa,
'feel'.

fr.

fde oe. felan fdlan fend vb. ME. fendc] also abbrea teut. base foljan in viation of defend.
du. voc/cn, ofris.

OSAX. gifbljan.,

fennel

me.

fenel

oe.

final:

03A.\.

MHG. vi'iclcn G. fiihlen vb. Perh. cogn. w. lat. palma, OE. y/w 'hand': \~pal.
we.,

borrowed fr. hkl. fcnkulumfcnuculum (whence also fr. fenouil,


IT.

finocchid)

DU.

venkel ,

ohg.

/dV/,

fcnahhal fcnihhal G. fcnchel are source lat. fingere. earlier loanwords. 'to feign' fern shortened for me. fcj-n teut. fell sb. me. oe. fel{ll) G. fain, du. OE. fearn fcarn base /t7/(?- in goth. fiU, on. varcn. The teut. base farnafeign vb.
feine
fr.

?r. feimirc

OHG. fcl(ll)

G. Z^"//,

DU.

vel.

Cogn. w. LAT. also in film.


fellow
y'fV'A/;./;

/^///jT

skin'

\fpel

'fern'

is

ident.

w.

skr.

pai't.ia

'wing,

feather,

TTTSQOv 'feather
sb.

nTspic
fr.

leaf;

cp.

GR.

'fern.

borrowed
lit.

ME. fclawe late oe. h. on. ft!lag e',


'a

ferret

borrowed

fr.
is

{-r^ IT. furettd),

which

furet a deri-

cp.

ON. fe-lag

'companionship, vative
laying

cissociation',

gether of property' (on. fi perty' r= e. fee).


felly
{felloe)

FR. of lat. ///; 'thief. to- furet is also the source of DU. 'pro- fret, G. frett usually frettchcn.

ferry sb. me. ferie:


certain whether
E.
it
/^'4'''?

me.

/<;'//f

(felwe)

oe. /t'/g^
G. felge,
'rib'
is

(felgan)

=^ ohg.
skr.

it is una genuine word (oe. *ferie) or a Scand.

is

DU. radvelgc.

par^u loanword
fdlire,

(on.

ferja);

cp.

G.
tlie

compared.
-ME.

DU.

veer.

Source

felon
FR.

felouii

Ijorrowed
fr.

fr.

/i'/t*;/

'a

traitor

med.-lat.

fello{ne7n) feld{nem).

verbal sTf^'' i'l f<ii'Cferry vb. me. ferie oe. fcrian 'carry' ON. ferja 'carry', goth.

farjan 'travel'; cp. fare. felt ME. OK. felt; cp. the synou. fetch vb. s\z. fecche with the byOHG. G. yf/s MHG. e'i/s, DU. 7'ili, form fete (pret. fette) oe. feccan
dan. y?//": teut. feltaz *f/tiz fctjan ea.r\ier fetian (prei.fetode)', Felt a pre-TEUr. *peldos. E. -tc/i ME. ecA is developed fr. is prob. related to osLov. pliisti OE. tj {^fetjan earlier fetian, west'felt'. The synon. Rom. words 'lEUT. fetojaii). There exists a it. feltro, FR. feutre (med. - la r. TEUT. sffetxw OE. sidfiCt 'journey', fltni?;t) 'felt' are ofTEUT. origin. ON. fet 'step, pace'; E. foot fen ME. OE. fen(nn) teut. base belongs to same Aryan the faiija'morass' in the synon. \fped. GOTH, fixni, uu. vcen, on. /<//, fetlock orig.'the tuft of hair beOHG. fcnni. hind a horse's pastern-joint'.
s\v.

^rora

fence

sb. short for

defence.

.ME.

fitlock fetlack:

genuine

E.

74

fetter

fight

word
ioc/i,

ident. w. mhg. fiz,lach fiy- exists an Aryan \fpik deriv. of mhg. fc"^el G. pifuna 'treacherous'.

in

skr.

fessel 'pastern of a horse'

seems
fbt

to
E.

which be cogn. w. telt. foot; cp. LAT. pes

pedent 'foot'.

me. fthel oe. fidele OHG. fdula mhg. videle G. the fiedel, on. fidla, du. vedel: whole group is based on a
s}-non.

fiddle

=
'a

fetter

me. fcter oe. fetor sb. OSAX. fetur, on. fjoturr, du.

veter,

ohg. fe-^ytra
\v.

mhg. ve"^er\
gr.
xrtJ//

westteut. ffuhr =- fr. viole, it. SPAN, viola. Source a vulgar LAT. vitula (in a late pronunciation fdnla'f).

cogn.
'catch':

i.AT.

pedicel.,

fetter'

and perh. w. G. fassen field -ME. oe. feld; e stands for TEUT. < before ld\ cp. ohg. osax. Aryan \fped pod.

ed

fcld g. feld, DU. veld. The teui'. fever me. fever fefre oe. /cy^-r stem 'felpn- is related to oe. {= OHG. febar G.fieber^ borrow- fplde, OSAX. folda 'earth'. A pre:

fr.

LAT. febris febrevi,


rr.

whence

also FR. fih're (=^

febb re).

teut.
SKR.

adj.

Pit/ill-

is

prthu

'broad'

found in and frtkivt

adj. me. /iv oe. fUnve 'earth'; cp. GR. nKaxvc, oiR. lethan represents a 'Jeut. '^fauwai 'broad, ixin. flatus. Perh.//(7/ and is ident. with org. yiV;^ is cognate. plur. of a T-Evr. ^f(7tih(7ii)a-: Aryan fiend ME. fend oe. feond adj. fauqo- in lat. pauats. Cp. goth. fjands, on. fjdndi, OSAX. also GOTH, fawai plur. with fiimd, OHG. MHG. viafit G. feind. ON. /r?-;- (dan. /<?^ sw. fd; ME. The sb. is prop, a pres. partic. /i? is Scand. loanword); osax. of the vb. GOTH, fjan (oe. feoym, indo-eur. \'~ />au in OHG. ficn 'hate'). A correspondfahc 'few', OR. navio cease'? ing verbal \~ pty hate' occurs therefore fend orig. fey (SC.) 'doomed to die' me. in SK.R. Cp. friend. on. feigr, osax. meant 'the hater'. fete oe. fcB^e
pkir.

few

/"(^^Z

'doomed to die*; du. veeg fierce me. fers: borrowed fr. 'about to die' (ohg. feigi 'daring-, OFR. fers fiers regular forms petulant' G. feige 'cowardly') fer per fr. fer (lat. ferns TEUT. base faigi-. 'wild').

OE.

ME. fikel oe. fieol from 'fraud'; cp. OE. fdcen fraud, deception', o?,.\x. fekan
fickle
j^efc

fifth OE. fifda


fig

cp. five.
fr.

fgue

ME.

fg borrowed
LAT. ficus,

fr.

whence

also

ohg. feihhan 'deception' teut. OE. fic-treo 'fig-tree'. fight vb. ME. fighte OE. feohtan sffik faik, prop, faih in goth. bifaihbn vb. 'defraud' and faih str. vb. DU. vechten ohg. sb. 'deception, fraud'. There felitan G. fechteti: teut. \rfe/it}
:

filei

fire

75

file^

'a

string,

list,

order';

FR.

pinson

and

e.

dialect, pink

l)(>rro\vcd

rank,
file^

from fr. file 'a line, pi/nil. find ME.f/mle row'; source h\'.flliim 'a

thread'.
'a

oe. fin dan str. vb.

synon.

goth.

finpan

ox.

/V

me. file oe. finna, osax. findan ftthan , du. usually fcol (contracted from vinden, ohg. findan G. findefi:
steel rasp'
;

fiihil)

cp. OHG. Ji/iala mhg. 7nle teut.

G. feile ,

DU.

vijl.

\ffenp finpox by Verner's Connection law fend find is pre-TEUT. /<'/


is

with
tain.
fill

ON. J>d pel


vb. ME.
fille

'file'

uncerwk.

in

the

synon.

IR.

vb.

tV<7/w

'I

find'.

vb.

OE. fyllan

OSAX. fiillian,

du. vullen,

FR. fin

fine adj. me. fine borrow'ed fr. (whence also mhg. vin

Source lat. OHG. fulleii G. /alien, on. fylla: G. fein, DU. fijii)' (lOTH. TKUT. fulljan 'fill' is deriv. finire vb. 'complete'. TEUT. adj. fulla- =; E. fine sb. ME. fine from lat. fr. the fic II. finis 'a fine', lit. 'a final payfilly
filly',

fflli

loanword fr. on. fylja 'a ment'. which is a dirain. of ox. finger me.
Y..

foal.

figgrs, o^. fingr,


:

goth. oe. finger mv. vinger, OHG.

film y^Y.filme oe. filmen fylnien fingar G. finger teut. ha%efingra-, to five (Aryan allied ;= (JERis. filmen from a teut. perh. penqe) dimin. b-eiso. filmina- which points finish vb. me. finisshe fr. ofr. to a more primitive teut. felma-, finiss- base of some forms of fr. cogn. w. E. fell.
filter

vb.

borrowed
through a
feltrmn
short

fr.

FR.
fr.

finir
fir

filtrer 'strain
\\)^.\i.-\.\'\'
.

felt'

filtrutn

'felt';

cp.

felt.
filth
fylii'.

(uAT. finire) 'end, finish'. ME. firre; perh. a Scand. loanword ox. fyra rare b} -form There is a teut. oS. fura 'fir.
:

name
ME.
filtJie

for

OE.

fiirh,

of the tree fiirh-'. OHG. forha G. fohre;


/^;-^'

oe.

cp.
(///tv-

fill

abstract
E.

foul',

formation of oe. pre-TEUT. cp. OHG. fidida


rjr

(jerq

in lat.

CJOTH.

'ftilipa.
(n?i)
fin'
;

'oak. fire ME.

//;-

OE.fyr:

fin sb. ME. OE. fin


7>in,

cp.

du.

WESTTEUT.
fiiir

fiiir

contr. of

osax.

\.\T.

sw. />^ 'a peniia p'mna

cogn. w.
a

commonly
ir

osax.
,

OHG. OHG. fiur

'featVier'.
fr.

MHG.

finch ME. fineh oe. fine TEUT. base finki-; cp. du.
OHG.
e'zV/yJr'

The

du. 7<uur. viur G. feuer of osax. ohg. ffiir (cp.


is

7'ink,

ox. fiirr fyrr)


pitis

suffix;

///
:

fr.

G. fink.

Observe the pre-TEUT.


(jf

the

root

OX.
pi-r,

similarity

of sound
'finch':

the

Rom.

fiir-r,

GR.
liu-r

Tiv-(},

Umbrian

words

for

it.

pineionc.

ARM EX.

point to a

common

76
base
first
'^fyrcst

first

fleam

pu-r\
ME.

skr. sTP'''
'fire'.

'flame',

whence pavakd

first

oe.

TEUT.
G.

farista'first'

fyrst fr. in ohg.


?'6';'y/'

ME. fail fleil oe. '^fieiel recorded as fiiieP) =^ OHG. fiegil G. fiegel, DU. vlegel: a
flail

(once

WESTTEUT.
FR. fliau

loanword from lat.

furist

(cp.

filrst,

DU.
'first';

fiiigellicm 'whip, flail',

whence

also

'prince'),

on. fyrstr

the
osax.
/'/w-

(also OIR. sraigelt).

original

foniw
suffix

=
;

word
OE.

for

is

forma with
GR. TipotlOC,

flask OE. flasce

on. fiaska,
;

(goth. fru-vui) from indocp.


SKR.

DU. fiesch, OHG. fiasca g. fiasche corresponding to the synon. it.


fiasco, OFK. fiasche K. fiacon (med.-

EUR. //-

ptirva-s, o-iUiY.prilvil^ U.TW. ph'tnas


'first'.

Cp. former.
yi^.y//

LAT. fiasco

fr.

lat. vasculuniT).

fish ME.

oe.

GOTH,
yfj'/J

fisks,

_^V (and /'y^-) OHG. ON. fskr


,

flat me. y?^?/:


y7^^/r

borrowed
dan.
cp. oe.

fr.

on.
cp.

sw.

fiat,

yf^?^/;

OSAX.

G. y/jr/i.

TEUT. fska-z

OWG.

fia-^ 'flat';

fict,

osax.

from
with
oiR.

pre-'i'EUT.
\.^):.piscis;

pisko-s

iasc

the corresponding points to pre-historic

and ohg. agrees of the hand


yft'/// 'floor'

fia~^yi

palm

flatter vb.

ywi.

fiatere

*peiskos. fist ME. fist


Ir.

ed
short
for fist oE.
r=r

fr.

OFR. fiatcr
iME.

borrowfiattcr.

fr.

ohg. flax ohg. fiahs G. flachs, DU. rV^/^' prob. If cogn. w. the vb. ohg. fi'ehtan G. DU. ?'/j-/ 'fist'. //2.f/' G. faust, connected with synon. lat. piig- fiechten and goth. fiaihtan 'braid' 7ms and GR. Ttvy/Loj, westteut. the in tkut. *fiahsa- would be /ihti- stands for fuhsti- == pre- derivative; cp. the Aryan \~plek
Jlax OE. fieax
/).</

=
;

'rEUT.

*fiisti(z)

i'

I'EUT. piik-sti piig-sti- ?

'braid' in 'LXi'.plecterc, GR. nklyjo five ME. five oe. fife; without 'weave'. inflection OE. fif from teut. fi?nf flay vb. ME. fie OE. fii'an contr. GOTH, fimf, OSAX. /{/, DU. vijf, ON. fr. a TEUT. str. \\i. fJahaii

OHG. y?/
ON. ^///w

MHG.

Vilnf

G.
:

//^///,

pre(uAN. sw. /^?/'i) ohg. flea ME. Jl( OE. ficah TEUT. ph}ipe pinqc (for the shifting DU. ?'/(?(?, on. fid: G. fioh , see fir fidh of INDO-EUR. q to base plauh- for plauhTEUT. four, too If)', cp. SKR. panea, meant orig. 'a fugitive', so that lat. GR. ntvrs {ntjiins nsjunTOc), goth. the root under flee

fid.

quijique (for '^pinque), lith. penkl,


OIR.

^wV,

CYMR. //w/.

pliuhan

is

the source oiY^flea,

flag sb. 'an ensign'

= Q.flagge,

G. fioh.
'a

DU.

eV^i'',

DAN.

y/^?<,'',

modern word, not found


OTEUT. periods.

fleam sw. fiagg: a in the Jlatnmc.

kind of lancet'

fr.

fr.

Source lat. fiebotomum,


also OE. fiytme, du.
7>/iJfn,

whence

ileck

flood

77

OHG.
fliete.

fUettma

mhg.

7'licte(n)

G.

flicker
corian
glitter';
flik

=
'

vb.

me. flikere

oe. fii-

du. flikkeren

'sparkle,

fleck a Scand. loanword: on. flekkr, sw. fliick ^= du. vlek, G.


y?^r/;'spot'.

a frequent,

of a

base
n'^

Cp. ME.yJV^/^^^'spotted'. from OE. fleogan fledged adj. ue. /cHe o^.fycge flight ov..flyht G. e. //;-. MDU. 7>Iiigghe, LG. fliigge, flight- prop, 'the act of fleeing from a wEST-TEax. base /?i(^'-^<'

flak in y\%.flakcre,G. flacker 'the act of flying' me. flight

fluggj-

(oHG. flucchi .MHG. vliicke ME. flight OE.flyht


fliiht,

(=

DU. vlugt,

from WEST-TEUT. JItikkj-'). The OHG. OSAX. source is the teut. \ffg in e. /f(?;? 'flee',
7>l7igt

G.

fluchi)

from
of
oe.
G.

e. flight

oe. flyht, du.

have
'a

both

meanings
me.
flint,

fiehen\ GOTH. sw. 'musket, flint-lock', flinte f>liuhan str. vb. 'flee' points to flinta, DAN. y/zV// 'flint': perh. rean ARY.AN \^tluk-\ c\>.flea and lated to GR. vh'v^oc 'a brick',
G.

of '^fleohan MHG. vliehen

flee vb. UE. Jfe oe. ^/^ contr. osax. ohg. fliohan

flight.

Cp. flee.

flint

hard stone'
;

flint 'a rock'

cp.

dan.

///>/^/.

flit vb. ME. flitte OE. "^flyttan =r ending (T^ for j) ON. flytja (sw. y^'Z/rtr, DAN. flytte) WE.JIes oz.JIeos (and with vowel- cp. the root imder fleet vb. mutation /fw) from TV.MT. fetisaz flitch UE.flicche oe. y?/r7<? =r on. {jiiusis) cp. uu. r'//r.T, mhg. f/zVjflikki: teut. base flikkja-, perh. (li'lilis) G. 7'Iil'SS. or cogn. w. akin to fleckl

fleece

(the

fleet' 'a
flete

number of
'a

ships' me.

OK.

yfr'^/"

ship'.

fleet

float

vl).

me.

y^f-z/c

oe. flotian;

'a

creek,

bay'

^^E. Jfet

oe.

yft-'^/

cp. ME.
flota
'a

//r//^ 'a

boat, a fleet' oe.


ship,

'a

bay of the

sea'.

Both belong
'float,

boat,,

fleet':

to the vb. fleet me. Jlete

deriv. of the te\]t.

\'~fliit

under

swim'

ov.. Jli-oiaii

float,

oti. Jfjota, o?<.w.jJiota/t,

V)\5.

swim' =- fleet vb. vlieten, flock 1 'herd,


teut.
OE. flocc

OHG. flio"^a7i
\^fleiit flut
fr.

G. Jficssen.

= ON. flokkr,

flock'

me. flok

dan.
fr.

yM,
ofr.

ARYAN

pleiid-plud.

cp. flit

and float.

sw. yZ^r/;. flock - 'a lock of wool'

flesh ME. y7^.yr/; OE.fa^sc shows floe ^= h\v.floce?iS, whence also umlaut' and palatalization of the OHG. floccho G. flocke, du. vlok. OSAX.yfM flood ME. jDE. /fw/ base *fldski(z) -"jlaiski{z) =^ ohg. on. DU. 7'/<?iv/, OHG. fluot G. y/z^/, ON. du. 7>lecsch fleisk G. fciscJi, yft'.y-^' means only 'pork', more yf<;i^, GOTH, flodtis: a common ham and bacon'; perh. Teut. word. GOTh. flodus from esp. ARYAN plotu-s is based on the cogn. w. flitch.

78
TEUT.
in
\'~//o-

floor

foe

from pre-TEUT. p/S-

flute

borrowed

fr.

fr.

fliitc,

flow.

DU. vlocr, vloitc G. flote 'flute' and ofr. floor ME. OE. flor vlor, MHG. vluor (g. fliir^ flauic, iT.flauio. Chaucer uses 'field, surface, tiall', on. flor 'the the vb. floute 'play on the flute'.
.MLG.

whence

also uu. fluit\

cp. mhg.

floor
flbru-s

of a

cow-house':
pre-TEUT.
related

from
closely
M'^.

teut. flutter vb. MK.flotere oy.. flolorian plorus ir.\fflut under float. Cp. G.
to
oiR. flatter nl

pldrus
Idr for

"^'plnr 'floor,

florin

florin:

paved floor'. borrowed fr.

fly

vb.

ME.

flic

OE. flcogan str. vb.


G. fliegcn,

earlier flti^cn
OViG.flioi^an

FR. florin

(it.
it

fiorino so
lily,

named
from
it.

because

bore a

DU. vliegen, on. fljiiga. GOTH, ^fliugan is inferred from

florc 'a flower').

the factitive flaugjan 'carry away flounce changed fr. M^./roimcc in flight' and shows that the loanword fr. fr. froticcr common Teut. vb. was flcugan; 'a ])lait' (prob. from a cp. LAT. pluma (for *pluhma}^ wrinkle" 'plait
:

LAT. type '^frontiare 'wrinkle the

'feather'.

fly
OE.

sb.

forehead').

earlier flc^c

Jleoge

m^

flic

OHG.

flounder sb. borrowed fr.SCAND.


s\v.

flioga G. flicge, du. vlieg

fliindra,

dan. flyndcr
w. flozuer

on.

ablaut fluga

'fly')

(on. with evidently fly

flydra.

means
from
:

'the flyer'

flour ident.
FR.
flt'iir

'flower'.

foal ME. file OE. fold " synon. ON. foli, OHG. folo G. fo/ilcn,

from fly vb.

me. flouris she GOTH, fula: a common Teut. vb. flourish adapt, fr. ofr. fleuriss- stem of term for 'the young of a horse fleurir 'flourish' (f.at. florescere or an ass' from pre-TEUT. pjlonallied to gr. jKoXog 'colt, young inceptive oi florcre 'bloom'). flow vb. ME. fliiwc OE. flozvan animal, i.vv. pullus a young ani;

str.

vb.

=- on.

floa,

DU. vloeicn:

mal' esp.

'a

chicken'.
ME.

rKVT.\'^flo- in

/lood=
'I

pre-TEUT.
sail',

foam
earlier

sb.
:

fpme

oe.

fim

=
an

pio- in GR.

ttX(Ij-o)

swim,

OHG. fcim

base faiina- for

TrXtOToq 'swimming',

sailing.

'^'faina-

skr.
oe.

pltcna,

flower ME. flour


afr. flour flor
flos).

borrowed

fr.

OSLOV. pc/ni 'foam'.

fr. fleur

(lat.

Ident. w. flour.

fodder

me. fodder

fnidor
G.

DU. 7'ocder ,

OHG. fuoiar

flounder' me. floke oe. fitter, ON. fodr: cp. oe. foda on. floki; cogn. w. ohg. under food. flpc foe ME. fp OE. icfd contr. fr. flah G.flach, du. z^lak adj. 'plain west-teut. Cp. the xK^h'iisfplak in lat. an earlier gifilia p>lac}ita 'cake' and planus (for gafailio{n)-\ cp. the abstract oe.

fluke

'a

placnusT) 'plain.

fc'chd

(ohg.

gifchida

G.

fehdc):

fog

forbid

79

OE.

~^efd

sb.

and fcehd
adj. OE.
/(ih
OE.

sb.

based on the
OHG.
faihaadj.
:^ifc/l',

J^efah

gdn would be the second member. TEUT. fond ME. /ond prop, /onn-ed
are

OE.

from

pre-XEUT. paiko-

partic oi /on/ie 'be foolish';

cp.

ME. sb. /iv/ (////)


fr.

'a fool':

borrowed
ICEL.

in

fog: a Dan. loanword, D\'^. fog cp. snccfog 'a snow-storm'


;

'a

sw. /dne 'a fool'; buoyant person'.

/dni

ON. fok 'spray,


'drift'.

snow-drift', fjiik
str.

'snow-storm' from fjiika fold


vl).

ME. fgldc

OE.

food ME. /ode OK. /oda: teut. \^/od /ad (cp. OHG. /atiinga 'food') fr. AR\ws pd I in jranTaD^ai fdldan 'eat'. Cj). also /ced, /odder.
vb.

{/calda/i) str. vb.

^= GOTYi.falpan, /osier.

ON. fa/da, OHG. faltan G. /alien: pre-TEUT. /// cp. TEUT. \f falp in osLov. pldq plesti 'braid', GR.

(=

fool ME. /pi: adopt, fr. ofr. /ol fr. /ou /ol) 'a fool'.

twodinXudiog for "dinXdrio^ fold', ^HR.pufa 'fold' (for '^pultd).

foot

.ME.

OE. /pi (plur. /ei)

=:

OSAX. poi, DU. voei, ohg. /uoi^ G. /ass, ON. /dir, sw. /oi^ dan. /od,

-fold

{-/{aid')
G. -/i?//,

= OSAX.

ME.

-fold
^/'c?/^/,

OE.

-/"^r/^/

DU.

-Z'oud,

GOTH, /oius TEUT. base /oi- from ARYAN pod- changing with aryan
:

pod- ped- in the declension; cp. Teut. suffix for GR. nod- in noSu, nom. sing, nov^ the formation of raultiplicatives UAT. ped-evi (nom.

ON. -/aldr, GOTH, -/alps:

common

(aeol.

tjok)

corresponding to GR. -nXaaioq in sing. ^inkdaioc (also dinaXro^ 'twofold').

/t'i);

GR.

77ftV/Ao)'

'sole'

TxsLoi^

(for

'-'Tiedjoc)

'pedestrian',
'step,

folk ME. /(?//C' OE. /olc y<?//^, DU. VOlk, OHG. /t^/t
ON. /olk.
is

=
G.

SK.R.

pad
vl>.

'foot'

and pada
fr.

OSAX.
?W/C',

print'.

The
'a

primit.

meaning
'a

fop

borrowed
:

DU. /oppen
'a

pcrh.

crowd of people',
pulkas
crowd',
OE.
arm\''.

'prate,

cheat'
slang.

{fopper

wag',

whence

/opperij 'cheating')

orig. a

word

i.ith.

OSr,ov. pli'/ku 'an

of

G.

follow vb. ME. /olive /olOK<C


/olg'hvi

(b\-form
the

/ylipiii)

goth. for ME. OY.. /or prep. /aura 'before, for', ohg. /ora o. ON.

/ylgja,
/olge/i
:

DU. volgen, ohg. /olgeti G.

common
vb.

vor 'before', du. voor; cogn. w. west-teut. LAT. pro 'before', GR. t/oo 'be'follow';
fore;.

and

Norse

for

possibly a compound verbal stem, the first member of which


is

forbear MK./or/>(re
str.

ov../orberaii

vb.;

cp.

hear

vb.

/all;

cp.
OE.

OE.

/till-eodc

'he
I

forbid ME. /orbede oe. /orbcodan

followed',

OLG.

/iilgangan,

confounded with
y/orbiddan; cp.

WE../orbidde oe.

OHG. /ola-gdi!

'follow'.

Go

fr.

/'/(/.

8o
force sb. ME. force fors:

force

foul

rowed

fr.

FR. force

(lat.

DU. fork ME. forke OE. forca bortype vork, OHG fiircha furka G.furke,

fortia 'strength' derived ir.fortis ON. forka:


'strong').

borrowed

fr.

lat.

furca 'a fork', whence also fr. ford ME. OE. ford (me. also four die, .span, /wrca, it. forca. forlorn 'quite lost' .afe. forlorn DU. iwert^ osax. '^ford fortJi) in Hertford (prop, 'ford of an OE. forloren part. oiov.. forleosan

army'), ohg. viud G. fiirt {Frank-,

'lose

utterly';

Er-, Schwein-')
(lit.

cp. OE.

'ford of the oxen')


'^fordii-

TEUT.

xvxtT.sffar in prop, 'passable, practicable pass- cp. first. forsake vb. me. forsake age'; cp. A VEST, pcretn 'bridge', LAT. portus 'haven', on. fjordr forsacan str. vb. 'oppose';
'bay'
;

former formed by adding the from the compar. suffix -er to me. fort/ic fare; hence ford OE. forma ^= osax. formo 'first'
forpnoe.

= Oxford.

Oxenaford DU.

verloren,

cp. lose and dan. for lor cu.

G.

cp.

also celt. -lat. -ritinn


in
Aiix'ustoi-itio/i,

(for

sak e.
forth
forth,

'"prtorri)

r/iyd 'ford'.

\w.. forth OY.. ford ^^osax. OHG. '^ford G. /('/-/, goth. foreign me. for cine: ada})ted compar. faurpis adv. earlier. lat. type foraneus oteut. forp from older frpo prto fr. ovK.forain derived fr. foras adv. 'out of is allied to before dcnd further.

cy.mr.

door'.
forfeit sb. ME.forfeie:

iovtnigh.X.MK.fflurtemghtfourtcn-

borrowed

uight from me. fourtene 'fourteen'

night (old plur.) 'nights'; 'a fine' part, of and fr. OFR. forfait fotfaire fors fair e 'trespass' (med.- cp. OE. feowertyne niht and also seven night. It lat, forisfactuni part, of foris- E. sennight facere 'trespass', lit. 'do beyond'). was usual to reckon by nights in

forge ME. forge borrowed fr. forge from lat. fabrica 'a workshop'. forget vb. ME. forgete oe. forgitaii str. vb. =i os,\\.fargeta?t, DU. 7>ergcten, mlg. zwrgeten, ohg. firFR.
g(:"jiin
G.

pre-hist. periods. forty me. du. veertig, fourty OE. feowerti^ G.vierzig, GOTn.fidwortigjus; cp.

OE. feower

= ten.

= four

and

OE.

//g

vergessen.

The comp.

remnant of a str. vb. is the verbal \'^^v/, whence e. get 'obcp. goth. higitan tain, reach';
'find',

on. geta 'obtain'. Cp. get and the arvan \f ghed ghcnd in:
,

LAT. prae-hendere
seize'.

or.

/avdaroi

foster vb. ME. fostre short for hom fps tor 'nourishment"; akin to food: tevt. \^fod. DU. foul ME. foul OE. fill on. />///, vuil, OHG. />// g. fan/, GOTH, fi/ls; la- is suffix, and the teut. \ffu is inferred fr. ox. fiiemi 'rotten' and from the facto titive vb. ON. feyja 'cause
OE. fostrian

found

free/e

rot'.

An Aryan
in skr.

verbal
rot,

\^ pu
stink';

appears
caved',

puy

cp. LAT. piiieo 'stink' GR. GR. 7IV0V


^

putcr 'decause
to

'perform'): derived fr. ov.. frani strong, good', ident. w. from. franchise me. fraiinchise: bor-

rowed from Y^. franchise 'privileged liberty' from VK.franchiss-, found vb. 'lay the foundation stem of some forms of franchir of ME. founde adapted fr. fr. 'free' from fr. franc 'free'. fraught part, of me. fraughte fonder from i.ki fjindare 'found'.
7iv-itio
rot',

:
.

LAT. fUS 'pUSs'.

foundrowed fr.
fount

vb. 'cast metals'


FR.

bor-

vb.^DU.
gain'.

fondre

from lat.

bevrachten, G. befrachten; cp. G.fracht onG. freht 'earnings,

fimdcre 'cast metals'.


'^m. fount fr.

Properly
(ehi,

compound

ofr. font

cp.

OE.

OHG. eht 'property'

LAT. font-em.

under owtt. freak 'a whim, caprice' me. frek

four iME. fourfowcr oe. feoiver 'quick, vigorous' oe. free 'bold, {/eower}^ osax. /iwar, du. g. mer rash' =T ON. fr'ekr, oho. fre/i OUG. for, o^.fjorir. The oe. by- 'greedy' G. frech 'pert', goth. form fyder- (in comp. ^.sfyder- faihu-friks 'avaricious' teut.

fete 'four-footed')

base freka-. wor (^fdur-') j)oint to a j)re-TEUT. freckle from on. freknur plur. hdiSe. petwor petiir for qetwor qetur\ 'freckles'; cp. sw. friikne plur. ident. w. skr. catur, lat. quattuor, frdknar, fris. (Amrun) friakan GR. rsnauosc (nlavfjec) oslov. 'freckles'. Perh. cogn. w. GR.
fid,

and goth.

cetyri 'four'.

fowl WE. fout

77fp>f)'oc

spotted'.

OSAX. fugal, DU. vogel, fugot OUG. fogal MHG. G. vogel, ON. fugl, GOTH, ftigls: teut. base fug/a-. priyo- is the base of cvmr. rhydd fox ME. oe. fox OHG. fuAs 'free' and of skr. priyd-s dear,

earlier //m'^/ OE.

free me. fre oe. freo frl: teut. base frijagoth. freis, osax. OHG. fri G. frei. The pre-teut.

G. fuchs,
.y

DU.

Z'i?.^,

ON.

/^ijc

the beloved';

cp.

the

skr.

verbal

base fuh-s- is \^pri 'rejoice, render favorable' suffix as is shown by gotu. fauho, with goth. frijon 'love' under ON. foa 'fox' r::^ OHG. fo/ia MHG. friend and Friday. ?^<?^ 'she-fox' (and o^.focge 'shefreeze vb. .me. frese oe. freosan fox'?). Cp. vixen. vb.; cp. synon. on. frjosa, str. frail (me. /r^/^') borrowed fr. DU. vriczen, oncfriosan G.frieren; OFR. fraile (fr. frcle) 'brittle' =: cp. GOTH, frius 'frost, cold': teut.
TEUT.
LAT. fragilis.

of

the

\^freus fruz from a pre-teut.


in
if

frame vb. me. frente oe. frem- preus prtis, which seems to exist man 'promote, do' (= o^.fremja, LAT. priirio for *prusio 'itch',
OHG. frennnan
,

oSAX. frcniniian

'itch,

frostburn'

is

the
6

inter-

English Etymology.

82

freight

frock

mediate meaning, and in skr. friend .me. frend OE. freond \^prus 'spurt out'; pnisvd 'drop, OSAX. friund 'friend, relative', du. frozen drop, frost'. Cp. frost. Z'riend, ohg. friunt mhg. vriunt (d)
freight ident. w. fraught.

G.freund, goth. frijonds 'friend':


oe.

fresh adj. me. fresh fresch


fersc versch
kino-;

= OHG. frisc
'fresh';

teut.

frijondis

(formed

like

G. frisch,

du.

fiend)

pres. partic. of
frdoj^au'lovii

an old

cogn.

w.

OSLOV.
'sweet,

teut. vb. frijon 'love' == goth.


ov..
.

presinii 'fresh'

from Aryan prais- frijbn,


pr'eskas

C'^.free.
fr.

cp.

LiTH.

frieze

(of

a column)

fr.

unsoured' with finn. rieska 'fresh, frise (=1 iT./r^^/i? 'frieze'), whence unsoured'. The Rom. family of also G. DU. fries. IT. fresco, FR. frais comes from fright ME. fright oe. fyrhtu AVEST-TEUT. frcska-. cp. the fyrhto; synon. goth. fret^ vb. 'eat up, devour short faiirhtei 'fright' and o&Kyi. ohg. for ME. frete oe. fr'etmi str. vb. for{a)hta mhg. vorht(e) G. furcht DU. LG. vreten, Ohg. frexifln 'fright'. frighten vb. ME. />-4'^/;/'^ G.fressen 'eat up, consume'. The oe. fyrhtan goth. fatirjitjan, corresp. goth. fra'itaft (pret. fret) OSAX. forhton, ohg. furihten 'con.sume' shows that west-teut. forahtan G. fiirchten. fr'etan is a compound of etan fringe me. fringe: loanword eat] fra is a common prefix in from ofr. "^fringe fr, frange GOTH. (cp. fraught and fret). (source lat. fimbria 'fringe'),
'

fret 2 vb. 'oi-nament,


iviE.

variegate
'adorn':

whence

G. franse,

du. franje.
adj.

fretie

oe. frcBtwan

frisk vb.

formed from the

from o^.fmtwe plur. 'ornament'= OFR. fi'isque SCAND. friskr OSAX. frataha 'ornament': source 'frisky, brisk'. perh. a Teut. compound fra \iriih. firth uy.. firth: a Scand. GOTH. thva 'arrangement'. loanword; cp. O^. fjordr (plur.
frirc

dan. fiord, sw.ffiird teut. base /<?r//-^-, aryan Friday me. frlday oe. friiedcei pertu- cp. LAT. partus 'haven'. For =; DU. vrijdag, OHG. friatag mhg. the Aryan \fper cp. ford. vritac G. freitag ON. Frjddagr: fritter late me. fritoure: borfriar
.ME. />-fr^:
fr.

adapted

fr, firdir) 'bay';


'a firth':

'a

brother'.

really 'day of the Teut.


dies

goddess rowed
fried

fr.

fr.

friture

'dish

of

Frija Frijjo in imitation of lat.

fish',

Veneris {Frla and Venus ofr. /;-// correspond). ON. T^r/^'-^ like OHG. frig en); c^. fry. Frm is prop, 'the goddess of fro ME. fro earlier fra adapted love'; cp. SKR. //-/>'</ 'wife, loved fr. o:<s.frd 'from', ident. w. from. one' (oSAX. fri, oe. freo 'wife). frock ME. frok: borrowed fr. ofr. froc med.-lat. frocus 'a Cp. free.
:

also 'a fragment' from (source lat. 'fried'

fro?

furze

83
pttri.ia

monk's
'coat

frock';

source osax. hroc ARYAN base p3l-no in skr.


'full';

cp.

LAT. plenus,

oiR.

Ian

frog UY..frogge o^. frogga; the (orig. ^plonos) 'full'. Prop, partic. aryan suffix -no- fr. an OE. parallel form frocca (mod. with dial, frock) points to the synon. \f pie plb 'to fill' in skr. \f pur ON. fraukr. Prob. oe. forsc, pr, LAT. implere, GR. TjiunXtjiM. fuller sb. i\rE. fuller ov.. fuller OHG. frosk G. frosch, on. froskr show the same root, if derived 'a cloth-bleacher': adaption of
fr.

TEUT. */ruhsqa-.

'LKi.fullo 'a fuller,


fr.

bleacher'.
fr.

frolic
'merry'
;

borrowed

du. vrolijk

funnel

late

me. funel

fr.

cp. nHG.vroloke?! 'rejoice', fofidcfle; source h\T.infundil>ulum.

prob. after mho. vro-sanc 'merry fur UK.firreforre fr. oK.fuerre older forre 'a sheath, a case'; source song' supplanting an TEUT. - GOTH. /^//r 'a sheath'; cp. froleichen. from iME. OE. from fram =^ g. flitter ident. w. e. fodder. furbish vb. me. furbisshe fr. OSAX. OBG. fram mho, 7'ram prep, from' OK. OFR. fourbir {fourbiss-^ 'polish', 'forth, adv. 'forth', fram adv. 'forward frd prep, which rests on OHG. furb(j)an adv. 'fro', goth. fram MHO. viirben 'purify, clean' (teut. 'from'

prep, 'from' adv. 'further, forward'.


frost ME. frost OE. forst =: ON.

\f furb
TTfC^TTW?).

= ARYAN =

\'^ prp

in

gr.

DAN. sw. G. frost, derived fr. \f frus

DU.

froth sb. .ME.y/Y/Mt'fr. o^.froda.

furlong see furrow. furnace me. fumeis forneis fr. freeze. lat. fornax [forfr. fournaise
vorst:
naceni)

froward adj. iviE._/r6W<7;7/ earlier fr award: derived fr. fro.

'an

oven'.
fr.

furnish
fourniss-).

fr.

fournir

(stem
\-b.

frown
fr.

vb. me. froune shortened

Source a teut. wk.

KR.

rcfrogner.

frumjan 'perform'; o^. perform furro^A^ me. furwe forwe oe.


furh: teut. base furh- also in OHG. furha G. furche 'furrow',

fruit

fruit

ME. friit

(^fruit')

fr.

fr.

LAT. fructiis.

fry vb. iME. frie fr. OFr. frire DU. voor, ON. for 'drain'. A pre^^ hxr.frigere 'roast'; cp. fritter. teut. prk pork is evident in lat. fry sb. ME.fri fr. ox. frjo (frd) porca 'a ridge between two 'spawn, fry ident. w. goth. fraiza furrows', CYMr. rhych 'furrow',
;

seed':' pre-TEUx. pro-eiwo-.

ARMEX. herk.
okr. furlong
lit.

furlong

me. oe.

fuel sb. late me. fouaile


*fouaillc:

fr.

'furrow-long'.

LAT.

t^-Tpe

focalia

'fuel'.

full ME. OK. ful(ll)^z::zGQn:H. fulls,

further me. further OE.furdor; cogn. w. for and OHG. furdir.


:

ON. fullr,
fol(ll):

DU.

vol,

G.

Voll OHG.
fr.

TEUT. base fiilla-

furze ME. firse oe. fyrs earlier an fyres Teut. base furisa- ?
6*

'

84

gab

gall

G
ME. gabbe 'talk idly, jest, adopted from ofr. gauger later borrowed fr. on. gabba, jauger 'measure the contents'. whence also VK.gaber, iT.gabbare. Source uncertain. gabber gain sb. ue. gain: borrowed fr. Cp. gabble gibber. 'gabble', var. of gabble both of ON. sw. gagjt DAN. gavn 'gain'.

gab

lie':

which are frequent, verbs oi gab. gain vb. late me. gaine: borgabble C\).Jabbcr andgibber. rowed fr. VK.gagner OVB.. gaagnier var. of gabber. gaaigner 'cultivate, gain': source gabel 'a tax, impost, esp. the a TEUT. vb. (oHG. *tveidan/an tax on salt': borrowed fr. fr. weideiion 'pasture').

gabelle

gabella,

span, gabela, it. gain- pref. me. gein oe. geyi med.-lat. gabella gab(u)gin gedn {=^ G. gegen, on. gagn-^. luj/i). Source a teut. sb. gabulagainsay me. geinseie 'contrain OE. gafol 'tribute'.
(=--

gable ME. gable


OFR. gable
'a

borrowed gable', which


:

dict'.
fr.

Cp. against

oe.

ongeanes.

is

gait ident. w. gate^.

gaiter borrowed fr. fr. giietre of LAT. origin; cp. LAT. gabalus, whence on. gafl 'a gable' (but (ofr. guestre, perh. loanword fr. GOTH, gibla, G. giebel 'a gable' MHG. wester 'a child's chrisomakin to GK.y.scpa'krj 'head': Aryan cloth'; cp. GOTH, wasti, lat. vestis

base ghebhald-

ghebhlo-').

'clothing).
fr.

gad
gaddr

ME. gad:
'a

borrowed
;

on.

gale sb. a Scand. loanword; akin

teut. base to DAN. gal, sw. galen 'furious, gazda- ident. w. lat. hasta from mad', NORW. galen "furious, wild, an Aryan base ghazdha-; but gad mad' (of wind and storm).

goad, pike'

in

gadfly stands for goad. gag ME. gagge 'suffocate'; prob. of the sound of imitation
choking.

gall' OSAX.
ON. gall.
*galzin-)

ME. galle

oe.

gealla

^=

OHG

galla G. galle, du. gal,

GOTH. *gallin-

(hardly

gage' ME. gage:


FR.

gaggio fel fellis 'gair (whence it. fiele, Source a SPAN, hiel, FR. fi^t). Many think (lat. type wadiuni). TEUT. sb. cp. GOTH. wadi\ cp. wed it allied with yellow so that gall\\a'& named from its yellowish and wage.

gage

= SPAN,
also

borrowed
it.

fr.

from pre-teut. g/iol- is cogn. w. GR. /oXrj /oXog, lat.

g'age,

gage'"^

gauge

jme.

gauge:

color.

g;ill^

garden

85

gallgalle

'a

sore on the skin


'a

me.

OE. gealla

horse)

gall'

(on

play'; prob. ident. w. goth. gaa -?nan 'communion of men'. The

du. gal 'a windgall',


'a

pref.

ga-

is

used collectively

MHG.
in

G.

galle

foot -disease

for

horses'; perh. borrowed fr. LAT-ROM. galla a gallnut, an oak-

man gander
to

cp.

man.

akin

me. gander oe. gandra; oe. gps from a teut.


in

apple'

^=- IT.

'windgalls'.

galla, SPAN, agalla base gan-s But a confusion of g a n n e t.

goose and

cp.

galla with a teut.

gang ME. gang 'a going, course, way, passage' oe. gang 'a going, osax. du. g. gang sw. dialects too there exists a way, privy' swelling on a 'a going, walk, way, passage', grdssgaller 'a ON. gangr 'a going, a crew'. horse's hoof.
word of similar
since
in

phonology

is

possible,

borrowed fr. gannet me. '^'ganet oe. ganoi from lat. galla 'a gall- 'swan'; akin to du. gent 'gander', nut, an oak-apple ? ohg. ganar-o 'gander; cp. a galley me. galeie: adapted fr. primit. teut. base gati- also in
gair^ 'a gall-nut':
PR. gale
ER. galic galie
(ri'.

galea

= med.-

teut.-lat.

ganta

'goose';

see

LAT. galea 'a galley').

gander and goose.


gantlet prop, gantlope 'a milipunishment' corrupted fr. sw. gatlopp 'running down a lane' (sw. gata 'a lane' and lopp
tary
'a

gallon ME. galoun: a fr. loanword: FR. gallon =^ IT. gallone. galloon borrowed fr. VK.galon. gallop ME. galope: borrowed fr. FR. galoper; cp. also wallop. gallows (the plur. used as

running'

fr.

lopa

'run

=^

E.

leap).

sing.) ME. galwes plur. oe. galga gaol see jail. ohg. osax. gealga 'cross, gibbet' gap .ME. gap borrowed fr. ox. galgo, DU. galg, G. galgen, on. gap 'opening, breacVi, chasm a common galgi, GOTH, galga gape vb. ME. gape adapted fr. TEUT. word, TEUT. galgan- from scand. gapa 'yawn' =r du. gapcn, kxy-AXi ghalghan-\ cp. lith. zalga G. gaffen 'gape, yawn'.

'pole

gar see garlic and gore. appar. a frequent, of garb borrowed fr. ofr. garbe an unrecorded me. *gafn(e)le, commonly me. gamene oe. ga- 'good fashion' from ohg. garawi oe. gearive 'preparation, Deriv. 'dress' menian play at games

gamble

Cp. gear. of game. For the change of ;/ dress'. garden me. gardln fr. ofr. (Pito / cp. MHG. gamel gamen 'pleasure. game 'amusement' me. card.) gardin fr. jardin, which org. garto ON. is of Teut. origin game OE. gamen gomen OHG. gavian (mho. i^ameti garnet) (gen. and dat. gartiii) G. gartcn,

gargle

gaunt

OSAX. gardo,
fold';

goth. garda m. akin to yard.


fr. fr.

'a

warjan
defend'.

goth.

warjan 'hold,

gargle borrowed
gonilkr
'gargle'

Ofr. gargargoiiille

garrison see garnish.


garter
fr.

me, gartere:

borrowed

'windpipe'.

ofr. gartier jartier fr. jarrc-

garland me, gerkmnd: borrow- tiere: deriv. of fr, jarret 'the ed fr. OFR. garlande F'R.guirlaftde, small of the leg behind the knee'. whence du. g. dan, guirlande. gash ME. garse garfe borrowgarlic ME. garUk garlick OE. oe, l{ac cp, ed fr. ofr. garser 'scarify'. gdr-l(ac\ for lie

leek.

The compound

element of the gasp vb. ME. gaspe oe. '^gdspian: gar 'a spear' TEUT. base gaispon on. geispa {c'^.gore^. Hence garlic prop, 'gasp'. The E. word is not
first
is

oe.

'spear-leek'.

borrowed
short
for

fr.

Scand.
'a
fr.

way, road' ON. gata /lemcnt deriv. of fr. garnir (ace. gotu) 'way, path, road' 'garnish'. Cp. garnish. lane', dan. sw. gata 'a street garner me. gerner: adapted fr. gade 'a street'; ident. w. ohg. (it. grenier gernier fr. OFR. ga"i/i G. gasse 'a street', goth. lat. type grandgranaro
}iC7)icnt:

garment
,

me.

gar^ar-

borrowed

gate^ (cp. gait)


:

fr.

FR.

ME. gate

borrowed
,

gatwb
ME.

'a

street'.

riuni)

garnet me. gernet:


fr,

borrowed

gate'-

FR. grc7iat
:

(=

span, granate,

'door, gate ydte


j^eatii)

gate,
OE.

opening'
(plur.

IT.

granatd) ius 'having


seeds'.

source lat. granaman}^


me.

gatu

grains

or

gat 'a hole, opening, gap', on. gat 'an


osax.

leat

du.

opening

the stem of garnir (= deriv. of oe. geador (cp. together). Prob. akin to oe. gadeIT. giiarnire^ 'avert, warn, garnish', which is of Teut. origin: teut. ling 'cousin, G. gatte 'husband' garrison me. from the same root as good. base tvarnjan. borrowed fr. fr. gar- gaud a show, ornament' me. garnison nison deriv. of fr. garnir 'pro- gaude: borrowed fr. lat. ^atifr.

garnish borrowed

vb.

garnisshe:

gather me. gadere

oe. gaderian

FR. garniss-.

(=

DU. gaderen,

G. dial, gattern)

of certain forms

diu7>i. gaudy 'merry, bright, fortify'. Cp. garnish. garret me. garde: borrowed fr. showy' fr. gaudzwd the suffix -y. gauge see under gage'^. OFR, garite fr. giierite 'a watchgaunt prob. from Scand. cp. tower': derived fr, ofr. garir warir save, keep' fr, guirir norw. ^'/^^/ 'a thin pointed stick; (== IT. guarirey Source a teut. a tall and thin man'.

vide,

gauntlet

gibber

87

gauntlet
gantelet,

borrowed

fr.

of gant fr. gant (= IT. guantd) 'a glove'. Source a teut. (med.-lat.) wanins the long sleeve of a tunic, a glove'; cp. DU. want, dan. va/ife, OK. vgttr 'a mitten'. gauze borrowed fr. fr. gaze 'cushion-canvas, tiffan}'' span. gasa 'gauze'. gawk (cp. go7vk) 'a cuckoo, fool' ME.' gouke: loanword from
dimin.

ofr. gesiura 'a

mode

of action' from

gerere 'carry,

behave'.

get ME. gete


geta\ OE. litan
ite\

borrowed fr. on. would be me. yite

cp. GOTH, gitan from a teut.

pre-TEUT. ghed ghend-^ cogn. w. LAT. praehendere, gr. Cp. forget. /avddvi(v. gewgaw corrupted fr. me. giuegoue prop, gouegoue (i)ron.

\r

get ,

gugiV():

Oi^.gaztkr

(whence
.

sc.

gowk)

adapted of ghastly MF. gastly


OE. gckstan
E.

fr.

joujou-

oe. gckstlic

fr.

oug. gotih(hh) unG. gouch G.gatcch,


OE. i(ac 'cuckoo gay ME. gay borrowed
:

'frighten'

and
,

lie

-ly\ cp.

gherkin
fr.

aghast.
du. agurkje
POL.

dan.
as

fr.

agurke,
orig.

G.

gurke:
fr.

borrowed

gai

{=

IT.

gajo)

'gay,

merry'.

"^'agur/ke

ogiirik^

Source OHG. gahi 'quick, sudden' BOHE.^L okurka fr. late GR. ayyovjah. G. gdhc Qiov a cucumber, gherkin'. gaze vb. ME. gdse, prob. of ghost :me. gpst OE. gdst (gcest) Scand. origin sw. dial. g(7sa synon. ohg. g. dan. geist,

'gaze,

stare'.
ge're

OSAX.

gest

common

Teut.

gear me.

points to an OE.

*gcere or *gcero,

mutation of ^
akin to
OE.^'-^/r

same meaning ce being vowel for which a/ima is used in Goth. teut. ai. Perh. The orig. meaning of the word

word with the

'spear [c\i.garlic

g ore)}

gem
v\<.

ME.

genmie

{=

gevime: adapted fr. vv. genwia). Source


'a

jewel,

bud, a whence also oe. limm, OHG. gimma 'gem'. gender me. gender borrowed
LAT.

gemma

swelling

a gem',

('excitement?) is not established; yet ON. gezsa 'rage' (of fire and passion) and goth. usgaisjan 'terrify' seem allied. For the dental formative of teut. gaist (pre-TEUT. ghaisdos) cp. the skr. \f hid (from *ghizd) be angry', hedas 'anger' with which agrees
E.

IV.

OFK.
,

gendre gefire

fr.

genre
span.

aghast

'angry, excited';

cp.

'kind

genus
it.

style'

(=

also ghastly.

ginerc,

genere

'kind').

Source
stock'.

giant ME. giannt prop, geaimt


fr.

FR. giant =rz: lat. gigant-em, wlicncc also OE.OHG.^'/^''(7///'giant'. gennain borrowetl fr. fr. gergibber and with other var. main (source lat. germatius). gabber gabble, frequentatives of gesture borrowed fr. med.-l.\t. gab of which jabbrr and

LAT. gencr- in genus 'race,

german germane
;

adj. formerly

giddy

gist

Jabble
atives.

are the assibil. frequentME.

gini

'a trap,

snare' me. (c.

200)
me.

giddy
orig.

gidy
'having

oe.

gin and gydiy. engin -=l

gmn

shortened

fr.

fr. engin 'a contrivance'.

perh.

demon, Source
ginfr.

lat. i/igeftium.

possessed of a demon': deriv. oigod; cp. OE. ylfii 'deranged,

'a

kind of spirit' shortened


fr.

earlier

genevre

abstract formative -/ from gifan give. The initial g in E. me. gingerly sw. dial, gift points as in give to Scand.

crazy' prop, 'possessed of elves'. genievre) 'juniper' (lat. jjiniperus gift ME. gift yift OE. gift plur. 'an evergreen shrub'). gifta 'nuptials' =' du. ohg. gift ginger me. ginger earlier gingiG. in gift viitgift 'a dowry' vere from ofr. gengibre fr. ginand in ohg. g. du. gift 'poison', getnbre (it. zenzero, mhg. gingelit. that which is given, goth. here from the synon. late lat. gifts in fra- 'promise' with the gingiber gr. liyylfifgig).
.^

(=

fr.

influence.

gig me. gigge 'a whirling thing'; prob. Scand.: on. geiga "rove
at

random'
vb.

gild

short

cp. Jig. for

me.

gi/de

OE. gyldan:

derived with vowelmutation (teut. gul/>jd/i) fr. gold. (teut. gurdjan), ident. w. the str. vb. GOTH, bi-gairdan 'begird'. gill' ME. gille: borrowed
fr.

Scand. loanword gdngla 'go gently, totter': frequent, of on. t gang a 'go'. gird short for me. girde oe. gyrdan osax. gurdian du. garden, ohg. gurten gurtan G. giirten, on. gyrda: all weak verbs
a

gingla

DAN.
plur.

gjcelle,
gills'.

sw. gdl\ icel. gjplnar


^///t'

girdle
DU.

.me.

girdcl

oe.
g.

gyrdel
giirtel,

^= synon. ohg. gurtil

gill'-

'one- fourth pint' me.


fr.

gor del,

girth me. gerth: of wine-measure' (lat. type^^//a adapted fr. on. gjord 'a girdle' {gcrd 'girth round the waist', gillo a wine-vessel). gillyflower corrupted fr. ofr. goth. gairda 'girdle').
ofr. gelle
'a

borrowed

sort

of gird.

on.

gyrdill:

deriv.

giroflie

fr.

cloii.

de giroflc;
'a

lat.

girl ME. girl gerl;

akin to lg.

type caryophylliim

clove-tree'.

gimlet borrowed
helet FR. gidelet;

fr.

g&re 'boy, girl' which is of late ofr. gim- occurrence (first record 1652).

of Teut. origin, The / of the E. dimin. of the form represented *gyrel teut. base by E. ivimble 'a gimlet' cp. dimin.
,

word
gurilcr-)

(oe.
is

w im h le.
gimp adapted
(ofr. giiimplc
light robe'

gist
fr.

borrowed
from
'lie'.

fr.

ofr. gist
gesir
lat.

guimpe ohg. wimpal 'a


fr.

fr.

fr,

git

OFR.

=
fr.

g/h-ir
'lie'.

Source

jacere

e.

wimple).

give

listen

89
me.

give ME. give


w.
's\Y..yeve

fr.

oe.

yfan

on. gefa\ ident. j^efan =^ osax.

gleam
'splendor,

glrm

oe.

brightness,

glmn gleam
;

'splendor geben, goth. giban: a common and to G. glim?ner; cp. ohg. Teut. verb cp. also gir. gabhn glimo gleimo 'glow-worm'. An take', LITH. gabinti 'bring, arvah sl^ghlt cp. in ir. gli (fr. 'I procure', gobinti 'fQich'l C\).gift. base^/ev-) 'shining, clear' under gizzard ME. giser: adapted fr. glee.
g'cbaii,

DU. gevcfi,

OHG. geban

G.

akin

to

osax. gli-nio

FR.

-('sier;

source

lat.

gizeria

glean vb.
fr.

:sie.

gl(;ne

borrowed
oe. glida

'gizzard'.

OVK. glener (fr. glaner^ 'glean'.


kite'

glad ME. glad OE.

glcEci 'shining,
;

glede ME.
'a

bright, cheerful, glad'

ident. w.

OHG. ^/<?/'G. ^/(///'smooth, shining', DU. glad 'smooth', on. gladr glad,
bright'.

of the teut. \f gild in glide (the name of the bird means prop,
on. gledi:
deriv.
'the glider).

glide glede

TEUT. *glada- for aryan


.

ghladho-. agrees with OSLOV. gladtikii

'smooth',

LAT. glaber

(for

ghladhro-') 'smooth'.

The meaning

of the E. word is secondary when compared with the orig. meaning smooth'.
glair ME. gleire: adapted
glaire 'the white of
IT.
fr.

ofr.

an

Q^'g

chiara d'un ovo,

whence

also

G.

eicrklar (med.-lat. clara ovt).

glee mirth, joy' me. gle oe. glco with the by-form gliw on. gly TEUT. base gliwa-, perh. akin to IR. gli (base gleizc'o-') 'clear, shining. Cp. gleam. gleed (E. dial.) me. glede oe. gled (^glddix. glodi-') T>v.gloed, OHG. gluot G. glut, on. glod, GOTH. "^glo-diTEUT. ^Tglo under glo7V. glen of Celt, origin; cp. gael. IR. gleatvi 'valley (cvmr. Corn.

glance
cp.

vb. a

Scand. loanword; glyn).


,

swED.

glans

dan.

glands

'brightness, splendor'.

glide vb. ME. glide

oe. glidan

synon.osAX.^//Vrt:, v>\i.glij(d)en,

is

glare \h.^\.^. glare] o^.'^gldrian OHG. glitaii g. gleiten, sw. glida, unauthorized. DAN. glide glide, slide'. Cp. glass ME. ^/^-.y OE.^/^.y: a com- glede. mon Teut. word, (not verified in glimmer vb. me. glimere G. GOTH.) DU. MHG. G. OSW. glifmnern, dan. gli7nrc; akin to sw. dan. glas (oHG. glas glass sw. glimtna and osax. glhno also 'afixber); but on. gler with 's])lendor under gleam. change from s to r, thus proving glimpse vb. ME. gliuise vb. the word to be primit. Teut. akin to glimmer. i^glaza-'^glasa-). Perh. the OTeut. glisten vb. me. glistne OE. glisname of the 'amber' (lat. glesuni) nian 'gleam' akin to oe. glisian is cognate. ovvM.glisa 'shin c' teut. \^ glit

90

gloat

goal

in glitter me. glitere (oe. *gliio- glutoii\


riaii)

vb. 'shine'

source lat. glutio-gluttoncvi

on.glitra, G.

'glutton'.

glitzern.
is

corresp. strong vb.

ON. gllta, OSAX. glitan

= ohg.

gnarl akin to oe. gnyrran.

gnash

vb.

me. gnastc
'^gndstian

glil.Zpn

shine' (cp. o. gleissen

and the

teeth'; oe.

is

'gnash akin

to ON. gnista 'gnash the teeth'. GOTH. glit7nunjan shine'). gnat me. g?Mt(it) oe. gmett: gloat vb. akin to G. glotzcti, an oe. glotian is un- TEUT. base gnatta-. ICEL. glotta gnaw vb. me. gnawe oe. gnagan recorded; cogn. w. UE.gloute(p^. T= o.SAX. g?iagati, OHG. (g)7iagan ^gluiiaii) 'look sullen'. gloom 0..glpm igldmung) 'gloom, g. nagen, ON. gnaga\ cp. a bytwilight'; the m is formative (as form with initial k: DU. knageii, in bloom, dooni); for the teut. OS. HG. knagan 'gnaw; the G. form nagen arose from gnagen. \fglo cp. glow. OSAX. gdn, glory me. glg-rk glgrie from ofr. go me. go OE. gdn LAr. gloria; cp. fr. gloire. DU. gaan, ohg. gdn gen G. gehen. glorie gloss vb. akin to mhg. glosen The TEUT. \f ghai- (= oE. gd-, OHG. ge-^ supplanted the aryan 'glow'.
;

glove ME. glove short for glove \fi


oe. glgf

Since teut. gai- has no old primit. noun-derivatives in glow str. vb. cp. DU. gloeijen, ohg. Teut. and takes the place of gluoen G. glilhen, on. gloa 'glow, the ARYAN-\/~z (the aorist goth. OE. eode still remains) glitter, shine': teut. Y"^/(9 gle iddja under gloom and e. dial, gleed. and as it is inflected after the glue ME. glue borrowed fr. OFR. ;;- conjugation, the supposition
ON. glofi 'glove'. vb. ME. glpwe OE. glpwan
SKR. \^i.
;

'go'

in

LAT. ire,

gr.

Ikvm,

glti

'birdlime';

source lat.

gliis

arises
'^gaip

that

teut.

'^gaim
fr.

"gais

glutem.

are

contracted

the

from me. glomme verbal particle ga and the skr. cmi vb. gloinbc be gloomy as inherited hn iz ?/ gloomy shows, connected with est eti; cp. gr. ii.u. gloo7)i and s\v. gldmig 'languid goad ME. god OE. gdd; ident. with langobard. gaida 'spear': of look'. pre-TEUT. glut sb. me. glut sb. borrowed TEUT. base gaidb*ghai-td; akin to oe. gdr, ohg. fr. OFR. glut glout (it. ghiotto^ 'a arvan glutton'. glut vb. me. glote \ger 'spear' under gore,

glum

adj.

glide vb.

borrowed

fr.

ofr. glotir

\f ghi ghaim gr. yaloc. 'shepherd's


rod'.

gloutir (cp. fr. engloiitir 'swallow

up')

source lat. ^//////yr 'swallow'. goal borrowed fr. VK.gaule ofr. Source teut. 7valu =^ glutton ME. glutoun glotoun: waule. borrowed fr. fr. glouton OFR. ON. voir, GOTH, walus 'a staff'.

goat

gossamer

Qi
of the adj. was prob. from a root mean-

goat ME. ggte o^.gdi^= du. on. meaning


geit,

OHG.

gei-^

G. geiss,

DAN. gcd, GOTH, goits cogn. w. LAT. hcedus


ghaido-s.

sw. get, a goat

'fit,

suitalile
fit,

ing
for

suit

fr.

ARYAN together.
orig.
suff.

seen in gather,

goodbye

short

gobble a frequent, with


-le
fr.

(Shakesp.

God be God buy

by you you).
:

FR.

gober 'devour.
OE.

god
god,
god.

MK.

god

03AX. DU.
^

ON. gud OHG. got G. gOtt GOTH, giida- gupci- 'god' is based on aryan ghu-to-, -to- being a part, formative as in old, cold, SKR. loud; INDO-TEUT. \'~ ghu hti 'implore the gods' (skr. hutd-

goose -ME. OE. gps (plur. ges) Teut. base gansdu. gans, OHG. G. gans, ON. gas; akin to

gander
ghan-s-

a.nd
is

gannet.

An aryan

represented also by SKR. hansd-s m. hansi goose', N.PERS. ydz, LITH. zqsls, OSLOV.

gqsi

GR. y7]r,
,

LAT.
gt-is

anser

(for
(fr.

part.).

Therefore god

is

'the

'''hansel')

OIR.

swan'

being implored'; in the veda g hansi) gore ME. gp're 'a gore of cloth, puru/iuia 'much implored' is an ordinary epithet of the god a garment' OE. gdrei 'a projecting
^

Indra. god in godfather godson goddaughter me. god -\- compound: used in reference to the spiritual relation between them; cp. gossip. goggle-eyed me. gogel-eied; the first element of the compound can scarcely be a native E. word and is traced to iR. Gael, gogshuileach 'gogglc-e}ed'. gold .ME. OE. gold =OSAX. OHG. G. gold, DU. goud, ON. goll gull (for *golpa), GOTH. gulj>: ARYAN RUSS. ghltO- =-- OSLOV. zlato

point of land'
'a

cp. du. geer 'a gusset, gore', ohg. gero G. gehre


;

wedge, gusset,

gore', on. ^^/rz,


'a

nor'W. geire, odan. gere

gore

of cloth or land': deriv. of teut. gaiza- spear =Oi..gar a spear,

OHG. ger

spear. Cp. goad. blood' me. gore ohg. on. gor 'mud', sw. gorr 'mud'. gorge ME. gorge borrowed fr. FR. gorge 'throat': source lat.
'a

gore - 'mud, OE. gor 'mud'

gosling dimin. of goose. gospel ME. gospel OE. god-spell meaning of the \f ghel, from which the word of God', as shown by gold is derived (cp. lith. gel-tas on. gud-spjall, OHG. got-spcKU). 'yellow' and skr. hdrita and hari Cp. spell.
zoloto

gurges.

from

'^zolto.

The

orig.

'yellow'),

ra/iya 'gold'-

gossamer me. gossomcr rei)recp. skr. hisenting an OE. type '^gps-sumor Cp. yellow. GOTH. gods, Summer of the geese'; cp. the good me. OE. god osax. god, du. goed, ohg. guot G. names altweibersonwur, mddis

'yellow

G.

gut,

o\. godr.

The

orig.

chcnsotmner.

. :

Q2 gossip ME.
OE.
god-sibb
;

gossip

grave

gossip

earlier gossib

grange me. graunge: adapt, of


FR.

prop, 'relationship in God' see the end of the ohg. article on god. oe. sibb sippa, GOTH, sibja means 'relation-

grange

(lat.

type

granea

granary' deriv. of grdnum' corn) grant me. graunte vb. adapt,


fr.

ship'.

OFR. granter 'caution, secure (source a lat. type *credentare

gouge from FR. gouge. gourd ME. gourde: borrowed


FR.

vb.
fr.

^credentia sb.).

grape
grapes'.

me. grdpe

loanword
'cluster
is

fr.

gourde
;

(orig." ofr.

gouhourde OFR.
cucurbita

grape

grappc
fr.

of

cougourde
'a

source

LA.T.

The

word

con-

sidered to be of Teut. origin (teut. *krappa>). FR. goutte 'dropsy': source lat, grasp ME. grapse perh. for gutta. *grapse oe. *grdpsian possibly an intensive deriv. of oe. grdgowk ident. w. gawk. gown ME. goune goun fr. ofr. pian =^- grope. gone 'a gown', which is of Celt. grass ME. gras o^ grces gc^rs origin (gall. - lat. gunna 'fur- GOTH. ON. OSAX. UU. OHG. G. gras
gourd'.

gout

sb. ME. goute

borrowed

fr.

coat').

'herb,

growth'.

The

final s

is

sw. grabba, mlg. formative, the ^^'x^gra meaning grabben^x2i%^\ An ks.Yh^\^ghrbh 'sprout, grow'; cp. grow and

grab

vb.

cp.

in ?>&s^.\f grbh green. grasshopper .me. grashoppcr grapsa 'bunch, tuft' and OHG. garba G. garbe orig. grashoppe oe. gcers-hoppa (= 'sheaf'. DU. grashupper lg. grashiipper) grace :me. grace fr. fr. grace 'an insect which hops about in LAT. gratia 'favor'. Cp. hop. the grass'. source grate sb. me. grate grade borrowed fr. fr. grade: grate source LkT.gradus a step, station'. LAT. crates 'a hurdle'. graft (Shakesp. graff) vb. me. vb. w^. grate vb. from OFK. grater graffe 'graft' deriv. of OFR. graffe 'scratch' (fr. gratter), which is (fr. greffe prob of Teut. origin (ohg. krazzon 'a style for writing' 'graft'?). Source lat. graphiicm G. kratzeti) grave vb. me. grdve oe. grafan 'a style for writing. GOTH. OHG. graban G. gragrail 'tine sand' fr. ofr. graile 'dig' bcn, DU. graven dig, O^. grafa: 'tine, small ^=. lat. gracilis. ARYAN ghrabh, grain me. grain grein from fr. TEUT. \l^grab grain source lat. graniim 'a orig. related to OSLOV. grebq
'to

grasp'

is

found

'grasp, seize'

grain,
niaire

corn'.

'dig'

grammar
from

me. gratmnire
fr.

gram-

and grobil grave'. grave adj. from fr.

grave

grammaire.

'stately'.

gravel

grizzly

93

gravel me. gravil borrowed fr. ME. greihound formed after ox. dimin. o{ 0K. grave greyknndr 'greyhound'; cp. ox. 'rough sand' fr. greve 'strand'. grey 'dog'? gravy earlier orthography ^"^r^rt"- griddle me. gredel 'griddle': a CELT, loanword; cp. IR. greideal 7y, akin to greaves! gray grey me. gray grey oe. 'griddle' (fr. a lat. '^crdtella). grief ME. gref {= odu. grief) gnei akin to du. grauw, ohg. grdo (infl. grdwer') G. grau, ON. adapted fr. ofr. gref 'heavy' grdr, which represent a Taut, FR. grief 'injury' (source i.at. grieve vb. base grdwa- grewa- (oe. grchj^ grevis for gravis). pointing to a hasegrdga-grega- ?). u^. greve vb. 'burden, injure' fr.
0V..graz'ele,
;

graze

vb. 'feed cattle' me. grdse

OE. grasian

OFR. grever.
grill vb.

G.

of TEUT. grasa-

grasen

deriv.

grass.
:

broil

adapted fr. on a gridiron'.

fr. griller

grease me. grcse


from OVR. gresse
ness'.

grc'fe

adapted
'fat-

grim

ME. OE. gri7n (mm): teut.

(fr. graisse)

base grifuniaG. gj'ifnm,

^ osax. ohg.

gri^n

Source LAT. crassus


A'^r^/,

'fat.

ox. grimmr: cogn. w.

great
OSAX.

me. ^rfV oe. great; cp. DU. groot, OHG. ^r^5


g. griebe

G. gross 'great': teut. graiita-.

greaves cogn. w.
griiibo 'greaves'?

ohg.

me. gredy oe. gredi'^ oSAX. grddag, ohg. grdtag, ON. grddtigr, goth. gredags derived from a teut. 'hungry' goth, grains, gredu- 'hunger ON. grddr 'hunger'. Perh. akin to
grcBdi-^ --=
:

greedy

the SKR. \fgrdh

'to

be greedy':
:

OHG. gram 'angry' G. gram. grin vb. me. grinne gre?ine OE. grciniian 'show the teeth, snarl, grin'; cogn. w. gritid. grind vb. me. grinde oe. grindan aryan teut. yfgr'end str. vb. ghrendh in lat. frendere 'gnash'. gripe UY.. gripe o^.gripati str. vb. OikX.griJ)an, du. gi-ijpen, ORG. grifan G. greifcn GOTH, greipan gripe, seize'. Outside of Teut. cp. the related sfghrib in lith.
OE.
:

PC&XK^ \f ghredh ghrdh. green me. oe. grene Teut. base grotiiO'iky.. groni, onG. gruoni g. gruti 'green', on. grc^nn, sw. deriv. of the teut. DAN. gron y/^gro in gr ow and grass. The adj. orig. means 'growing. greet vb. me. grete oe. gretan

greibiic

greibti
will'

griba

'seize'

and

lett.

gribet 'to

will.

gryslic (cingrysiic)
rible.

grisly ME. grisly short for OE. 'terrible, horgrist


ME. grist
'a

short

for

OE.

grist

lit.

grinding':

deriv,

of

= OSAX. groiian,

grind.

du. groeten, on.


G. griissen:

grceta , OUG.

gruoyian

= OHG.

grit 'gravel'

me. gret OE. greot

grio2, G. gries, ON, grjot.

TEUT. type grotjan 'greet'.

grey see gray.

greyhound

grizzly fr. me. grisel 'a grayhaired man': deriv. fr. fr. gris

94
'gray'.

o-udafeon

Source a teut. grh-

'gray'

to ME.

agruf

agraiive 'groveling'

in G. greis.

and ON. a
deriv.

grtifu

groveling'

groan
'moan'
str.
:

vb. me. grpne oe. grdnian grilfa vb.

intensive

'bow down'. The E. word of a seems to be a Scand. loanword.

grinaii grow vb. ME. growe oe. grpwan DU. groeijen, ohg. gruaan mhg. DU. grijnen. groat sb.ME.^rfVc?: a continental griiejen, ON. groa, SW. dan. gro: TEUT. word: MLG. ov>\}. grote, DU. TEUT. \fgro, whence green and perh. also grass. groot, G. groschen. grocer borrowed fr. ov'R. grassier growl UY..growle from DV.grollen

vb. "^^gri-nan

== OHG.

G. gi'cmcfi 'weep',

(lat. type grossarms 'a wholesale


dealer', cp. fr. engros'^\\o\^ sale').

G.

gro lien.
vb. ME. grubbe 'dig': teut.
(g. griibeln

grub

groin corrupted
FR.

fr.

ofr. gi-me

\fgrab under grave;

grain 'the fork of a tree of a river, a groin'.


fr.

or grubilon over).

cp. ohg. 'brood, pour


earlier

groom ME.^T^y'w'boy': borrowed


OFR.

grudge
griicche

vb. ME. grugge

gramme gourme, whence


ME. grove 'a
pit'

(short for

*grauc/^en ?)

fr. OVK. groucher groncer murmur'. gruel ME. grjiel: borrowed fr. groeve groef ohg. gruoba G. grube, ON. grof, GOTH, groba; from OE. OFR. gruel ^= FR. gruau (lat. grave. type gruteUuni dimin. of med.grafan grope vb. ME.grJ/>(' OE. gr apian; LAT. grutum 'meal'). gruff borrowed fr. DU. graf intensive formation of gripe SA\'. graf, DAN. grov G. grab. OE. gj'ipan.

OFR. gromet "servant".

borrowed

groove

=^ du.

ground

me. groiuid oe. gi-iind

akin to mdu. grotnmelen, grand, meler griwimcn mdu. of DU. grand, ohg. grunt, on. grtcnd frequent. grunnr (fr. *grunpus) gronnnen 'murmur'. 'meadow' grunt vb. me. grunte gronte 'bottom of the sea, GOTH.grimdus grunnettan G. ident. w. m. grundtmiaddjus 'foundation', lit. OE. grunzen, dan. grynte, sw. grynta. 'a ground-wall'. group borrowed fr. fr. groupe A more primit. stem appears in The \fgrun OE. grunian 'grunt'. (= IT. grappa^ grove ME. grove oe. grdf 'grove'; is imitation of sound; cp. lat. TEUT. base graiba- graifa-. The gruuiiirc. ME. by-form gr{.ve greve 'grove, guarantee see warrant.
orig. grilnd
g.
;

= osax.

grumble loanword

fr.

fr.

grom-

wood' corresponds

to OE. grcefe

guard

vb.

borrowed

fr.

fr.

guardcr, see ward. TEUT. base graibjon- ? grovel vb. with the ^.dv. graveling gudgeon borrowed fr. ^K.goujan ME. graveli7ig{es) grufling{es) akin (me. *gugeon *gaugeauftl^.

guess

Gypsy

95

guess vb. AiE. gesse: prob. not gullet sb. 'throat' m^. gullet golet a native word, but borrowed fr. borrowed fr. fr. goule 'throat' LAT. gula. the continent (du. lg. gisseti) or fr. the Scand. (dan. gisse, sw. gum^ short for me. gpfne OE. giss(i). A native me. gesse would gp?/ia. 'palate'; cp. on. d?iir, ohg. point to an OE. *getsiaft (cp. guo?no 'palate'; cogn. with the

bless OE.
''gotisoti ?

bletsiaii)

teut. base
fr.

equival.

\^gM
ME.
gest

guest

borrowed

gum 2

lith. go?nurys: aryan {ghduT). ME. gonmie gwnme: bor-

SCAND. gcstr 'guest'; there was a rowed fr. fr. gonnne it. g07nma native OE. y^st pest, which was source lat. gunimi (gr. y.6iif.ii). supplanted by the Scand. loangun ME. gunnc gonne the me. word. SCAND. gestr OE. pst word was first applied to a cataOHG. OSAX. G. DU. gast represent pult or machine for throwing a TEUT. base gasti-z =^ lat. Posits stones; perh. shortened for ofr.
:

'enemy j.oSLOv. gosti' guest' aryan mangonne, which is the base of base gliostis. OFR. ME. mangonel 'machine for guide vb. me. gide borrowed throwing stones'.
:

fr.

FR.

guider (ofr. also giiier


ME. glide
OE.

=
fr.

ME. gie vb.).

gush vb. ^\^.gusche -\^xo-^.gousche\


akin to on. gusa vb. 'gush', Odu. guisen 'gush': TEUT. \fgut in GOTH. giutan, OE. "^eotan, ohg. gio"^an G. giessen 'pour out'.

guild

gyld\

cp.

uu. gild, G. glide.

guile sb. ME. gUe borrowed


OFR. guile
'treacherv',

which

is

gut ME. OE. gut (plur. ME. guttes of Teut. origin; cp. zoile. Teut. base guttu-. guilt sb. ME. gilt OE. gylt 'a OE. guttas) gutter ME. gutire gotire fr. fr. crime': teut. base gnlti; a \'"gult gouttierc (ofr. goutier, lat. type is unknown elsewhere. deriv. of lat. gutta guise me. glse fr. ofr. guise guttarium
:
:

'way,

wise',

which
fr.

is

of Teut.
fr.

drop').

origin; cp. wise.

Gypsy
gol/c,

short for
;

me. Egipgi(n

gulf

adapted

Egyptian

cp. span. port, gitano


\

also G. golf. The Rom. Gyi)sy' from Aegyptidnus mod.group Span. it. gol/o 'a gulf, bay' GRKKK /t'r/To'caus A'iyvnxnc.. The is based on gr. y.nhfnq -/.oXtio^ Gypsies were poj)ularly supposed 'bosom, lap, a deep hollow'. to be Egyptians.

whence

96

habergeon

hale

H
herjoim:
g07i

habergeon me. habergeon hmoborrowed fr. ofr. hauberhauberjofi,

haggard
(earlier
'hag-like'.

adj.

'lean,

meager'
prop,
oe.

spelling
ME.

hagged)

dimin.

of

ofr.

haitberc\

see hauberk.

hail

sb.

habit ME. abit: adapted fr. fr. ha;iel {hagof) du. g. sw. dan. habit garment, habit, a custom': hagel, OYiG.hagal, o^.hagl: Teut. source lat. habitus 'condition, bases hagla- and hagala-. Perh. habit, dress'. cogn. w. GR. y.ay'Krj^ 'a round hack vb. me. hakke OE. hacciati pebble'. A single pebble is
{Jioicceait)

hail

{haut)

^=

-DV.hakken, G. hacken,

called

stone'

sw. hakka, DAN. hakke; possibl)from the \/^ haunv haw seen in
OE.

ha-^elstdtt,

e.

hailstone

OE.

on. haglstcifin.

heawan

hail adj. (ident. w. hale adj.)


ME. heil 'healthy, sound'
:

e.

he7v.

hack''^;

see hackney.
sb.

hackle hatchel
hechel;

Scand. superseding me. hekel the native oe. hal =^ E. whole.

loanword (on.

heill)

hechel\

cogn. w. du. hekel, G. sw. hdcMa dan. hegle


,

hail

vb. 'greet, salute'

me.

(goth.

'*hakihi).

formed fr. the me. adj. heil, which was borrowed fr. oti.heill.
heile,

hail (an exclamation of greeting) ed fr. FR. haquenie 'an ambling me. heil from on. heill 'hale, horse' (= ODU. hackeneye, span. whole' (esp. used in greeting hacanea a hackney). as far heill 'farewell'). haft ME. haft oe. haft\ cogn. hair (earlier spelling hear heare w. DU. heft, on. hepti, ohg. hefti in the i6. cent.) me. hh- oe. hhon. Mr, osax. ohg. mhg. G. heft: TEUT. v^ haf (cp. heavy) hdr =- .KYCik-ii^sf kap in LAT. capio 'take'. hdr, 'du. dan. g. haar, sw. hdr;
me. hakeney. borrow-

hackney

hag

ME.

hagge

short

for

OE.

ha-r^tesse

:= mdu.

haghetisse,

ohg.

Teut. base hera- Qieza-T). Orig. allied are ON. haddr, OE. heard

(goth. *hazda-) 'hair'. Outside of Teut. cp. OSLOV. kosmii kosa (Lith. cesati vb. 'comb'. un- kasd) 'hair' hale adj. (ident. w. hail adj.) explained. haggard adj. adapted fr. fr. fr. ON. heill sound'; cp. zvhole. hale haul vb. 'drag' me. hale hagard 'wild, lit. 'of the woods'; formed fr. ohg. haga with the OE. {^eholian and) ^ichaliatt Fr. suffix -ard from G. -hart; cp. OS AIL. halon, OFRis. halia,DV. halen, OHG. holSn (Jialbfi) G. holett. The hag.
haga-zussa: the
first

compound is perh. ident. haw, the second part still


'

part of the w.

half

hamper
'brittle'.

97

TEUT. \fhal hoi answers to lat. calare, GR. Y.akH\' 'summon'. half ME. half oe. healf=^ goth. halts ON. hdlfr ohg. g. halt, OSAX. DU. sw. half, DAN. halv: Teut. base halba- , perh. cogn. w. SKR. klpay 'arrange, divide'. halibut holibut me. halibut;
,

halt vb.
(=

:me. halte

oe.

healtian

halzen 'limp')

ohg. *halzen mhg. from oe. healt

halt adj. 'lame'. halter me. halter oe. halftre =: MDU. halftcr DU. halster OHG.
,

halftra g. halfter; closely allied to oe. hylf m. ^= e. helve

from
sw. the
is

jME. holy 'holy'

and

buite 'a

plaice';

cp. du. heilbot 'halibut',

helgflunih'a,
fish is

dan.

fullefiynder

so called because it excellent eating- for holydays;

cp. SCAND. heilagr fiskr , lg. heilige


butt

and

heilbutt.

hall

]\IE.

halle oe. Iieall

on.

hall hgll, osAX. halla, du. hal. teut.

\fMl
cp.

hel in oe. hela/i 'hide'


hela/t

DU. helen, ohg.

g.

hehlen;

ARYAN \^^^/ 'conceal,

in LAT. celare oc cider c, in KaXvnra) hide'

cover' gr. V"xaA

ohg. half. From the are derived with w-formation me. haltne 'handle', ohg. halmo mjioh- 'rope fastened to the yoke to guide the oxen'. halyard halliard 'a rope for hoisting sails' shortened from hale-yard, because the ropes haul the yards into their places. Cp. hale vb. and yard. ham aiE. hamme oe. hainm lit. 'bend of the leg'; Teut. base hamma- from an Aryan kaimid'handle',

same

root

xaXvjjtj 'hut',

k?tdmd- in gr.

Avr-f.irjl

oiR. cnd'mi

OIR.

celim

'I

hide';

skr.

fala

(base kndmi-) 'bone'.


:me. hdme haam, g. hatnen: Teut. base haman- cogn.

'house'.

hame

'horse-collar'

vb. ME. hdhve short for OE. hdl^ian: from OE. hdlii ^=
E.

hallow
holy.

(oe.

*hama)

du.

hallowmass
from
All

'feast'

w. GR.

y.rjuoc,

LAT. cdtmis 'muzzle'.


hattielet;

shortened

Hallorvs

hamlet

ime.

formed
:

'mass of all saints'; with dimin. suffix -et from ofr. halloivs' is the gen. of halloics, hamel (= Fr. hameati) source plur. of ME. hal{o)we 'a saint' a Teut. word OFRIS. ham e. OE. hdlga 'a saint" from oe. hdlii home (with dimin. suffix -eC).

Mass

Cp. holy. hammer me. hamer oe. hamor borrowed fr. lat.-gr. ON. hamarr osax. hatnur, halos 'circle around the sun or ohg. hamar G. haj/wier; on. moon'. hamarr denotes also 'rock,
'holy'.

halo

halt adj. me. halt oe. healt

cliff',

pointing

to

relationship
'stone'.

GOTH, halts, on. haltr, oSAX. halt, with OSLOV. kamy OHG. halz: Teut. base halta-, hamper vb.
pre-TEUT. ^ohlo
claudus
halt',

:me.

hampere
fr.

hlotlo in

lat.

ha/nprc vb.

gr.

y.Xaiiao6^

hamper

sb.

borrowed

ofr.

English Etymology.

hand

hard

orig. 'a vessel to keep hanker vb. akin to du. htinkeren cups in from ofr. ha nap (Lat. (dial, hankereii) long after'; prob. type hanapus) goblet'. The Fr. akin to hang and hunger. hatiap is of Teut. origin; cp. hap sb. ME. hap borrowed fr. OE. /map, OHG. hnapf G. napf, SCAND. happ 'chance, good luck';

hanapier,

]\ILG.

DU. nap.
jvie.

cp.

OE.

lehccp

'fit'.

Hence

hand hgmi ;= happen vb. me. happene exGOTH, handiis on, hand, ohg. tended for ME. happen (cp. SWED. hunt g. osax. du. hand: prob. happa^. (Z"^. perhaps. derived fr. teut. goth. hinpan harass vb. loanword fr. fr. 'catch' (cp. hound and hunt). harasser 'vex'. handle vb. me. handk oe. harbor sb. me. herberwc, earlier handlian ^^ du. handclen ON. (i2. cent.) herJyerge inn, lodging, hgndhi, ohg. hantalon g. handeln guest house": Scand. loanword, frequent, vb. derived fr. hand. cp. ON. herberge 'inn, lodging' handle sb. me. handd oe. OHG. heri-b'erga 'guest house' handle from handle vb. hand- (prop, 'sheltering place f^r the cuff 'a Cliff iox the hand adopted army") G. herberge, du. herberg. fr. me. handcops 'a handcuff' from The first part of the compound ohg. osax. heri, oe. handcops 'a handcuff' from is oe. here The second oe. hand 'hand' and cops 'a fetter'. GOTH, harjis 'army handicraft with unorig. in- part is derived fr. a lost str. serted / (after handi^vorJi) from vb. TEUT. berg an 'shelter'. OE. handcrceft. handiwork me. harbinger me. herbcrgeoiir 'one handiwerc OE. hand-y^cieorc from who provides lodgings: deriv. OE. hond and ~^cii.'(orc ident. \v. of OFR. herberger vb. 'lodge, is a deriv. of lueorc. The i is due to the prefix quarter' which
oe.
,

hand

OE.

le.
:\ie.

OFR. herberge

(=

fr. auberge).

handsome
hendy
OE.

handsom prop, This

'easy to handle'.
hendij^

is

ident. w. ohg. heribcrga

handy

me.

in

listhendi'^'^

Akin w. GOTH, handugs

clever',

DU. handig 'handy, expert'; perh. not derived fr. hand, but akin to GR. -/.si'Tc'di 'prick, spur'; cp.

OHG. hantag 'sharp'. hang vb. to. hange oe. hangian := OHG. hangen G. hangen: deriv. 'hard, severe': Teut. base hardiiARYAN kartii- in GR. y.oarvg of a str. vb. teut. *hanhan =^ hardy adj. jSIE. hardy GOTH. OHG. hahan OE. hpn {yM(jTa). borrowed fr. fr. hardi which ic (for '^)wh<ifi); cp. hiinge?-.

(see harboi-). hard adj. me. hard oe. heard; perh. the me. phonology points to its being borrowed from on. hardr. Cp. OSAX. du. hard, ohg. ///';-// hart G. hart 'hard, solid, heavy, painful', on. hardr, sw. hard, dan. haard, goth. hardus

hards

hasp

99
first
;

of Teut. origin cp. ohg. harti under hard. hards sb. 'the refuse or coarse me. herdes OE. part of flax' of flax; hear dan plur. 'hards akin to OE. heord, on. haddr
;

word occurs
Teut. origin.

in the 5'^ cent,


is

herti

as LAT. harpa

fr. harpe

of

harpoon adopted
whence

fr.

fr. harpon,

also DU. harpoen (g. harpune^. Source lat. harpago(nem).

harrow sb. me. harwe (pointing to OE. *hearwe or *hearge) OHG. /laso G. hase\ for the perh. akin to the synon. G. harke, rhotacism in E. cp. on. here: DU. hark, ON. hcrji, dan. harv, Teut. base hasan- hazan-\ an SW. harf 'harrow'. ARYAN kaso- is represented in harry vb. me. herie herien oe. the synon. skr. (aga, opruss. heryan herigan 'overcome with sasins 'hare'. The Aryan name an army' (= goth. ^harjon, on. of the animal points perh. to hcrja 'go on a plundering expedition', ohg. herio7i g. verthe OE. adj. haso hasu gray'. hark vb. ime. herke (oe. *hircian heereti)'. derived fr. teut. harja*hyrciatt) from a Teut. base 'army' under harbor. *hauzu/dn ofris. herkia, mlg. harsh adj. late me. harsk: a horken g. horchen aiHG. hdrchen Scand. loanword; cp. dan. osw. late OHG. horechen from *hdrah- harsk 'rancid. hon: derived fr. the teut. \fhauz hart sb. jme. hert oe. heort (heorot) DU. hert, ohg. /?/r?/!in GOTH, hausjan e. hear. harken vb. ime. herJme short for hirz G. hirs now hlrsch, on. OE. hiraijati hyrcnian] an E. hjgrtr, sw. hjort DAN. hiort: derivative of the verb hear; cp. Teut. base *h'crut- from Aryan ta/k and tell lurk and lower. kerud-, cogn. with lat. cerz'us harlot ME. harlot a disorderly hart' and GR. y.eQun^ (lit. 'horned' loan- from AtQag 'a horn'), kymr. carzc person' (of either sex) word fr. OFR. harlot 'vagabond'. hart, PRUSS. sirwis, OShOX. surna harm me. harm, oe. hearm 'roe'. OSAX. harm ohg. hara?n 'insult, harvest ;me. hervest oe. hcprfest mortification'; cogn. w. OSLOV. DU. herfst, ohg. herbist G. sramil (fr. "^sormii) 'shame, dis- herbst: related to lat. carpere 'pluck', GR. Y.an-nog 'fruit', y.onigrace'. harness me. harneis; borrowed TTiov 'a pruning-knife', skr. krpaiia fr. OFR. harneis armor', whence 'sword', lit. kirp-ii shear'. also g. harnisch. hash sb. from fr. hacher vb. harp ME. harpe OE. hearpe; cp. 'hack' (of Teut. origin cp. synon. on. harpa, du. harp, ohg. hack vb.). harp/a harfa G. harfe. The Teut. hasp MK. haspe oe. ho'ps (for
'hair' ?

hare me.

hare

oe.

hara

lOO
*hcesp)

haste

hawk
hate',

DAN.

SW.

G.

MHG. noun from the vb.


ki/idred.

cp.

ON. hespa 'hasp'. haste vb. ME. haste', loanword fr. OFR. haster (fr. hater), whence also DU. haasten, o. hasten 'make haste'. The fr. vb. is prob. a Teut. loanword. hat sb. ME. hat (plur. hattes) OE. hat (plur. hcettas) on. hgttr 'hood, cowl', sw. hatt, dan. hat 'hat' Teut. base hattii- cogn. hood sb. and perh. also w. with LAT. cassis (for *cat-tis)
haspe,

hauberk me. hauberk borrowed


halsb'erc

'helmet'.

hauberc; source ohg. prop, 'neck-defence'. haughty adj. me. hauteifi 'arrogant' from OFR. hautain', source OFR. haut LAT. altus 'high'. haul see hale vb. haunch sb. me. haunche.: loanword from FR. hanche (ofr. hanke of Teut. origin cp. ohg. a Ilka ?) haunt vb. me. haunte borrowed
fr.

OFR.

hatch vb. me. hacche; cp. fr. FR. hanter 'haunt, frequent'. MHG. hecken 'produce young have ME. have oe. habban from eggs by incubation' G. OSAX. hcbbiati, du. hebben, v ohg. aiishecken 'hatch', sw. hdcka haben G. haben, ON. hafa, GOTH. 'breed', dan. hcekkebimr 'breeding haban: Teut. base habai-^ ident. cage'. w. LAT. haberel Aryan base hatch sb. 'halfdoor' me. hacche khabhey ?

OE.

hcBcc'i

cogn. w. DU. hekl

hatchel see hackle sb. hatchet sb. me. hacchet: loanword from FR. hachette, dimin. of FR. hache 'axe': source a teut. hakka cp. hack vb. hate vb. me. hate older hdtieu GOTH, hatan, DU. OE. hatian haten, osax. haton, ohg. hai^'Z^on G. hassen. hate sb. me. hate influenced by the vb. hate

haven me. have?! late oe. hcefene, prob. a Scand. loanword; cp. ON. hgf7i 'haven' perh. allied to OE. hcef, ON. haf 'ocean'.
;

haversack
havresac
oats'.
'a

borrowed
knapsack'
'a

fr.

fr.

habcrsack hafcrsack

from G. sack for


haga
'an

haw

ME.

inclosure'

hatve

oe.
hagi',

ON.

cp. ohg.

hag 'an inclosure' G. hag 'a hedge', DU. haag 'a hedge, garden'. A osax. heti, DU. haat, ohg. hai^ corresponding Aryan \f kagh is G. hass, ON. hatr, sw. hat, dan. evident' in cymr. cae, corn, ke had, GOTH, hatis. The teut. 'hedge'. Hence hawthorn \P hat 'hate' is perh. ident. w. OE. hagii-porn. Cp. hedge. the Teut. \^ hap in OE. headohawk ME. hank oe. heafoc; cp. war' OHG. hadu and G. hader OSAX. *habuc in the proper name 'quarrel'. Habuc-horst , DU. havik OHG. hatred me. hatride{n): abstr. habuh G. habicht with secondary
earlier
]ME.

h(te

OE.

hete

=
;

hawser

heart

lOI

/,

//ok,

haila- ^= E. hale hail adj. health me. helthe OE. with formative -ka- as in ahaks adj.). ohg. 'dove'. The \P haf is seen in /^^^^^ 'healing, cure' 0'&. hebban E. heave orig. 'take, heilida an abstract formation from the adj. hdl 'whole, hale' seize' as in lat. capere. ha\vser 'a tow-rope' borrowed (see whole^.

ON. haukr

(for

hgdiikf)

sw.

of the

Teut.

adj.

DAN.

Mji^;

GOTH,

'^habuks

whole

(cp. also

fr.

the a

OFR.
boat'

vb. hauls er

tow

(Lat.

'raise, heap ME. hep type altiare troop, crowd'

= OSAX.
,

OE.

heap

'heap,

hop, DU.

'elevate, raise').

hay
base
(gen.

HIE.

hey oe. hauja-

hej^

hii

Teut.

goth.

hattjis)

'hay, grass',

OHG. houf 'crowd, troop' pile' troop haufe 'crowd hawi {QOTYL.^haups). oslov. kupil and ohg. lith. kaupas 'heap' are prob.
hoop,
g.
,

hcwi houwi G. heu, on. hey, S\v. allied. DAN. ho, DU. /^(?(?/; orig. verbal hear vb. me. here oe. heran osax. adj. of the Teut. verbal \fhau seen (west-sax. hyran) in hew. Hence hay 'grass to be horian, du. hoorefi, ohg. horan hewn' (orig. hauja- sc. grasa-'). G. horen, on. heyra, sw. hora, DAN. hore: all with rhotacism hazel jME. hdsel oe. h(Bsel DU. hazel, ohg. hasala G. ^rt'j'i?/, versus goth. hausjatt 'hear (cp. on. ^^/: from pre-TEUT. koslo-, har k diXid hear ke/t). The teut. hence in Lat. with rhotacism \fhauz == ARYAN kous may

corulus for '^cosulus

'hazel'

cp.

be connected with gr.


for
d-y.ov(ifo

d-xovio

also

OIR. coll 'hazel'

osax. he. for me. hal fuller form hcveil OE. h{afod^= on. haufup osAX. {hpfuf), GOTH, haubip hobid, DU. hoofd, ohg. houbit G. haupi: Teut. base haubida- haubuda- is closely allied to oe. hilfe, ohg. hiiba g. haube 'cap, hood'. This z?-root (aryan kap-T) may be connected with lat. caput, if this, is traceable to an hypothetical *cauput *c6put. head var. suffix of -hood.
he
,

he MK. OE. head short

for *cosl}

(with

prefix a-

SKR. sam) and with teut. ausS ear. 'ear' hearken var. o{ hark en; cp. h a r k. hearse sb. me. herse herfe orig. then "a triangular harrow' 'a body': for a dead carriage adopted fr. ofr. herce 'a harrow'

FR. herse 'a harrow'. Source hirpice?n 'a harrow'. LAT. hirpex heart me. herie oe. hcorte equivalent to osax. hcrta, on. hjarta, goth. hairto (ohg. herza heal vb. ME. h{l^ oe. Juklan; G. herz by the second soundcp. the synon. osax. helian, du. shifting) Teut. base herton- or Aryan base kerd krd heelen, ohg. heilan G. heileti, on. hcrianhcila, goth. hailjan 'heal' deriv. in LAT. cor cordis, GR. /(igdln

'

I02

hearth

heel

and

x/jp

for

""yirj^id,

IR.

cride,

OSLOV.

sridicc 'heart'.

hearth me. herth oe. heorp DU. heerd, OSAX. herth, G. herd: a TEUT. \f her 'burn' (cp. lat. cre-niare 'burn?) may be assumed as the base of E. hearth and GOTH. hauri'coSiV pkir. hanrja
'fire',

OSAX. h'eban (lg. ha:veii) with a by-form himll, ohg. hi7?iil, du. hemel, G. sw. dan. hitinriel: the /-suffix stands by dissimilation for the older /i-suffix after goth. himins, ON. hbnhw, whilst in the Saxon forms the orig. 7)i is dissimilated
to
b.

heaven me.

h(ven

oe.

heofon

ON. hyj-r

'fire'.

The common

heat
hat

sb. ME. hcte oe. hdto,

the

abstract sb. from the adj. oe. 'clearness E. hoi) formed by vowel

Teut. word is prob. a deriv. of a more prirait. teut. haiman,

{=

brightness'

(oeris.
sky'):

mutation (goth.

heat vb. me. hcte oe. hcktan: hd-dor 'serene'. Cp. hoar. a factitive vb. from the adj. oe. heavy me. hevy oe. hefii hat e. hot (goth. ^haitjan OHG. hdng, ON. hgfugr 'heavy': from *hatts) cp. G. hetzen. deriv. of the TEUT. sf hxif in heath me. heth oe. hckp heave. heide 'heath', OHG. heida G. hedge me. hegge oe. hecg (oe. GOTH, haipi 'a waste', ON. heidr. also hc-^e me. heye haye): Teut. Hence heathen me. hcthcn oe. base hagja-\ cp. ohg. hecka G. on. he eke, DU. heggc heg. C'^. haw. to corresponding hceden heiditm, du. mhg. hciden G. heide. heed vb. me. hede oe. hedan In GOTH, we find only a femiOSAX. hodian, ohg. huoten G. nine haipno 'a heathen woman', hiiten, du. hoeden. The teut. whereby the existence of the \fhdd from aryan M^/z {kodh}) common Teut. masculine haipina or /^d/ is regarded as orig. cogn. is secured for the fourth cen- w. LAT. cassis (for *eat-tis) 'hela trans- met'; cp. hood sb. tury. It seems to be lation of the synon. lat. paganus heel sb. me. he'/e oe. y^^'/a A^/if?

*haitei

f.

heat').

hchnlieht

'bright

as
G.

the
heiter,

TEUT.

\/^

hai

in

OE.

occurring in the latter half of shortened from *h(ihi/a eastthe fourth century of the Chris- fris. he/a (whence DU. hieb),
dimin. of OE. hob 'heel'; a Teut. h{ve earlier base hanha- cp. in on. hckll 'heel', me. on. DAN. /^(?/, sw. hill, and in E. hough. hebbe oe. hebban str. vb. heel vb. 'incline' shortened hefja, OSAX. hebbian, du. heffen, OHG. hejfan hcvan G. heben, from ME. helile oe. hildan hyhian
tian era.

heave

vb.

ohg. heldan w. vb. 'incline': GOTH, hafjan 'lift, raise' aryan. yfkap in LAT. capio seize'. See Teut. base halpjati derived fr. the Teut. adj. halpa- 'inclined' heavy.
:

heifer

hen

103
fr.

in

OE.

nidcrhcald

'bent

down- derived
OE. OHG.
1

the verbal \^ lie/ in

wards'.

/I'e/an,

goth. hi/an 'hide,


,

heifer ime. haifer (heck/re) OE. conceal' (aryan \'~ /ie/ in lat. (arman skr. occu/ere heahfore heahfre (^'hcegfre ?) 'a ce/are young cow': apparently a com- protection'). pound, but of obscure elements, help vb. ME. Iie/pe oe. /ie/pan GOTH, hi/pan, on. /ija/pa, sw. the first element seems to be teut. haha- haga- hje/pa, DAN. lijalpe, osAX. hie/pan, heah- hce-y,

cp. G. dial, hagen hegeVhviW., ox'; the second element is perh. OE.

DU.

LG.

he/pen,

ohg. he/fan

G.

he/fen.

teut. \f }ie/p from pre-

fearr

'bull, ox'

(gr. tzooic heifer).

height

'MS.Jieghte earlier heghthe

goth. hau- ARYAN yf/ielp). OE. hehpo hyhpo helve sb. me. Jie/ve oe. he/f hipa 'height', on. hdd: abstr. formation from the teut. adj. hylf: Teut. base }ia/bi-\ cp. mlg. high formed with suff. mdu. he/ve, ohg. Iialba he/ba mho. haiihahelp ha Ip 'a handle. Si^e halter. ipa {ci. length, strength^. heinous me. heinous from ofr. hem sb. me. /letn (plur. /icmmes) OE. hem (plur. /lemnias): Teut. hdinos := FR. haineux 'hateful'.

TEUT. \f/ielb- (lith. szelpti vb. pasza/pa 'help' pointing to an

heir me.
eir

heir eir

from ofr.
heir'.
he//;

heir

base havija-.

hell

LAT. heres 'an ME. he/Ie oe.

hemlock
cp.

GOTH,

he/lia, part of the compound seems to ha/ja, OSAX. /le// oug. hella G.hd//e: common Teut. be explanatory (cp. lee/i), the Christian name for 'Hades, in- first part ]H)ints to a Teut. base

OE.

hnn/ic

me. hcm/idi limn/o/i hym/cc\ the second

fernum"; ON. /ic/ shows that the older orig. word was also used in pre-Christian times for heathen 'infernum'. Cp. also ON. Hel 'goddess of death'. Usually connected with \^ /le/ Iial 'conceal' (cp. hal/), hence /i^// 'the hiding place, the unseen place". helm sb. me. he/me oe. /ie/tfia\ cp. on. lya/m 'a rudder'. helmet dimin. of me. oe. /le/m. In the form /ielma- helmet' common to the Teut. langs.; cp. GOTH. Iii/nis, ON. /ijalmr, sw. dan. hje/m, OSAX. DU. G. he/tn with
the

*/iauvii- ?

hemp ME. hemp oe. Jiancp; cp. ON. hampr, DU. /lennep, OHG. Jianaf G. Iianf: ident. w. the synon.
LAT. cannabis, GR. vAvva^iii^ The Teut. word cannot be borrowed Perh. the from GR. or lat. Teutons adopted the word and the thing from the Scythians

whence the word came


Greece.

also to

same meaning that mav

hen me. oe. lien (stem /icnn-): the fem. of oe. /uum 'cock' (goth. OHG. henna G. henne ^han/b-) derived fr. hana m. ON. hdna (sw. hona be 'cock').

I04
'hen')

hence

hidei

points
oe.

to

goth. *honJd. stem


ohg.
hand)

hi-

is

cogn. w.
'this

lith.

szis,

The common teut. masc. hanan- OSLOV.


(goth.
hana,

si

one',
side'.

lat.

ci-s

ci-tra 'on this

orig. meant 'singer', primit. reheron me. heiroun from ofr. lated to LAT. canere 'sing'. hairon fr. hiron. hence me. hennes with secon- herring me. hering oe. hcering dary -s (as in thence, once) for ohg. hdring mhg. hceritic G. an earlier henne, which by syn- hering, du. haring. westteut. cope stands for late oe. heonane hdring is the source of fr. mostly oe. heonan OSAX. ohg. hareng.

..

An origi- hest 'a command' me. histe stem hi- 'this' is evident Mst with inorganic / from OE. also in here and hither. hcks 'a command' ^= teut. haisiherald :\ie. herald (Jieraud): orig. hait-ti teut. \fhait in borrowed fr. fr. hiraut (lat. OE. hdtan 'command'. See behest type heraldus), which is of Teut. and hight. origin (heri-waldl). hew vb. ME. hcwe OE. hec^wan herb me. herbe adopted fr. fr. OSAX. haiiwan, OHG. houwan herbe: source lat. herba 'grass'. G. hauen, du. houwen on. hgggva herd' 'a flock' short for me. points to GOTH, '^haggwan in Jierde oe. heord goth. hairda, place of TEUT. hawwan. The on. hjprd, sw. dan. hjord ohg. verbal \f^ hawiv haw (cp. hay) h'erta G. herde, teut. her do- from is allied to the Aryan sfkow in ARYAN kerdha is cogn. w. SKR. OSLOV. /^^?/rt' kovati 'forge', lith.
hinan
(g.

von hi/men).

nal

fdrdhas (drdha-s 'troop'; also kauju 'I strike' kiijis 'hammer'. OSLOV. creda 'herd, flock', LITH. heyday orig. hey day e. kerdzus 'shepherd'. See herd-. high day. herd^ 'shepherd' now usually hiccough hiccup, also hick-et compounded {shep-, cow-, swine-,) looks like a dimin. of hick or me. herde oe. hyrde (Jiiorde), hik 'a catch in the voice', imiGOTH, hairdcis, on. hirdir, OHG. tative of sound? hirti G. hirte: with formative jahide^ sb. me. hide oe. hyd (by from TEUT. herdo- 'herd, flock'. vowel mutation fr. aTeut, base huhere isie. here oe. her goth. di-); synon. in all Teut. languages ON.' OSAX. her ohg. hiar g. hier: except Goth.; cp. ohg. hiit o. adv. of place (formed like goth. hatit, ON. hud, dan. sw. hud, aljar 'elsewhere', par 'there' cp. DU. huid. ARYAN ktiti-s answers there^ from the pronom. stem to LAT. ciitis 'skin'; cp. gr. y.vro^ ///in GOTH, hi-mma daga 'to- 'skin, hide'. The \/~ ku appears day' und hi-na dag 'till to-day in LAT. scii-tutn 'shield', GR. (cp. hence and hither). The 6av-xq^ 'skin, hide' with a prefix s.

hide^

hipi

105

hideland

sb. 'a

OE. /lU conir. of OE.


for

measure of land' 'a hiir, admen 'a top', lith. katnas ///^zV/ 'enough kalva hiir, GR. aoXu)Voc.
prop.
hilt
MS..
h'elza
^

household';
ME. hide
hiidjan,

OE.
'a

/////

= ON.
oe.

hjalt,

'^hlwida- 'family' allied to hind'^.

OHG.
ON.

sword-hilt'.

hide

vb.

oe. hjdan:

hind

ME.

hinde

Teut. base

perh. cogn.

DAN.

sw.

hind,

hhid DU. hinde,

w. CYMR.^//r/^/ 'hidden, concealed' OHG. htnia G. hindin. goth. *hindi and GR. y.ftd^co 'hide': Aryan (gen. *hifidjds) is perh. connected

x'^Md/i?

with GR.

y.f^i-dc

'youngdeer'.

hideous by change of suffix for hind^ 'a peasant' ME. hine OE. 'a domestic'. Cp. htde^. ]ME. hidons adopted fr. ofr. hidoiis hina FR. hideiix: source a lat. type There is a Teut. base hiwa- in

'husband', heiwa-fra2ija extension of lat. hispi- goth. OE. hiwrceden 'family, household' dus 'rough, shaggy, bristly'. OHG. hirdt 'marriage G. heirat. hie vb. 'hasten' me. hie earlier hind in behind and hind-feet hi'^e higen oe. higian. Teut. base akin to the oe. adv. hindan 'at hi-gai- perh. a reduplication of hinder 'backwards' the back of an ARYAN \'^M in lat. ci-to ^= GOTH, hindar prep, 'behind', 'quickly', gk.yuhv go'? Or cogn. hinG. hinter prep, 'behind'. w. SKR. iigh}-a 'quick'? der vb. ME. hindre oe. hinderian high adj. aie. heigh earlier heh ON. hindra OHG. h.intircii hinoe. h{ah GOTH, hdiihs, on. taron G. hindern. hindmost hdr, DU. hoog, osax. ohg. hoh,
hispidosus,

corrupted

fr.

teut. hauha- from an ARYAN kouko-. oteut. possessed a sb. formed from the adj. meaning 'hill (base kouko-s) cp. ON. haugr 'hill' (whence E. how in proper names) and with
G. hoch:
;

with

fnost)

hind7?iest

(confused

GOTH,

hindufnisis

'hindmost'.

hinge

me. henge\

oe. "^hencge

is not recorded: deriv. of the teut. \f Jmnh hang (see hang~)\ cp. ablaut G. hilgel; cp. lith. kaiiMLG. mdu. henge 'rack for hangkara 'hill'. ing up things'. hight vb. ME. highte heghte OE. hint sb. shortened fr. me.

(for TEUT. *hangjdn-')

heht (JiihtT)
to
G.

'was

called

pret.
haiiafi,

hinted part,

OE.

hdtan

r= goth.
(plur.

heiss^n.

hill

ME.
(plur.

////

hilles)

OE.

of hinie (Jiente) hentan 'seize, hunt after' ixom. \'^ henp seen in hunt} hipi sb. MS., hipe o^. hype; cp.
OE.

hyll

Teut. base GOTH, hilps (nom. plur. hiipeis), hulli- or hulja- cogn. w. goth. DU. heap, G. hilfte AfflG. huf (plur. hallus 'rock' and on. hallr 'hill'; hilffe) OHG. huf (plur. huffi): an ARYAN sf^kol cp. in lat. coUis TEUT. hiipi- from ARYAN ku/>i-.
hyl/as):

: ;

io6

hip^

hog
koi
is

hiphiopa,

sb. 'the fruit of the

rose' ME. hepc OE. heope

= OSAX.

dog-

cogn.
lustre,

with
torch'.

skr.

kc-til-s

'light,

OHG. hiufo mhg. hiefe. hoard me. oe. hard osAx. hip vb. ME. hippe OE. *hyppan hord {Jiortli) goth. huzd, on. l\fflG. hupfen hupfen o. hup/en; hodd n. hoddr m., OHG. G. hort. allied to OE. hopfian e. hop TEUT. hozda- from aryan kuzdhovb.; o^. hoppcttan, G. hopfen, on. for kiidhto- part, 'that which is hoppa. hidden'; cp. gr. y.evdw under hire vb. me. /?/?-(? oe. hyrian hide vb.

vb.

DU.

huren,

OFRis.

///nz,

Hoarhound

me.

hgrJioune

oe.

sw. A>7v?, DAN. hyre mlg. hiiren, sio hare hilne 'the hoar hound' G. heuern 'hire, rent': West-Teut. OE. hilne is a plant-name. base hierjon. hoarse me. horse prop, hps, OE. hiss vb. me. /^/Vj-^: prob. an has pointing to goth. '^haisa- ^= onoroatopoetic word as ODU. OHG. heis heisi ^mG. heis heise; hisschen 'to hiss'. the r of mhg. g. heiser seems to hit vb. iviE. hitte: adopted fr. be the same r as in E. "hoarse ON. hiita, DAN. hitte; perh. cog. j\iDU. hcersch (mod. DU. heescli) w. GOTH, hinpan 'catch'. perh. originating from the OE. hitch vb. me. hicche 'move' dat. hdsre (fnid hdsre stefne) transposed to hdrse ^^ jsie. horse} OE. ^hyccanl hither :me. oe. hiiter: derived hobble vb. ME. hoble for *hopple; from a Teut. pronoun hi- 'this' frequent, of hop vb. in here and hence; cp. goth. hobby sb. 'a toy like a horse, hidre, on. hedra 'on this side ambling nag, a favorite pursuit'; cogn. with LAX. ci-tra 'on this ME. hoi)in 'a nag': borrowed fr.

For the suffix cp. thither. OFR. hobin 'a little horse'? hive ME. hive oe. hyf: Teut. hock corruption of Hochheim: base Mibi- in mlg. hiive 'hive', the name of a German town on DU. huif; cogn. w. lat. cupa the river Main, famous for wine. 'bowl? hoe sb. from fr. houe 'a hoe' hoar adj. i\ie. hdr oe. hdr source ohg. houwa g. haue GOTH. *haira-, on. hdrr 'hoary', hoe'. OSAX. OHG. her g. hehr 'distinguihog ME. hog (plur. hogges') OE. shed', also 'venerable'. The orig. hocg (plur. hoggas) a Welsh meaning of the adj. was prob. loanword, cp. w. h7cich 'a sow' 'venerable', on. and E. have the (bret. corn, hoch pig'). hogsmeaning 'gray with age'. A teut. head cp. the equiv. mlg. hukes\^hai 'glitter, shine' is supported hovet huxhovet du. okshoofd (earlier b}' heaven and ON. A^zV/ 'clearness also hokshoofd') G. oxhoft, sw. of the sky' teut. hai from Aryan oxhu/vud, DAN. oxehoved: origin
side'.

hoist

hood
veil';

107

and history of

this

compound
akin to
,

from
JNiE.

teut.

huljan

and

are unauthorized.

sufT. -stra fr. -s-tra

(oE. heolstor).

hoist vb. earlier


the

hoise

holy

OSAX. helag, ohg. heilag heilig ON. heilagr DAN. hijschen, dan. heise, hellig sw. //<?/4'- (goth. hailag G. hisse/i, FR. hisser, it. issare. in a Goth, runic inscription). hold vb. ME. hglde OE. hdldan Common teut. hailaga- from OHG. haltaii (Jmltka/i) {Jh;aldati) common teut. haila- cp. whole OSAX. GOTH, haldan, G. halten
equivalent
lg.
hisscn

du. hdlei sw. hissa, G. du.


,

holy oe. hdlii earlier

DU. houden, on. halda a common TEUT. vb. Cp. behold.


:

and
fr.

^<?/^.

hold
prop,
hollow

sb.
//t?/^:
;

(the hold of a ship)


ident. w. hollow
^(?/ 'a

and

me. homage: borrowed FR. hotumage; OFR. ho?nage source a lat. type homatiami 'the service of a vassal or man' (lat.

homage

'a

osAX. home ME. hpm oe. ham on. holr, ohg. mhg. hem, on. heimr, ohg. G. du. //<7w hoi G. /r^>^/, DU. hol\ the E. ME. GOTH, haims 'a village'. 'home OE. OHG. MHG. adjectives are Teut. base haimb- (/laimi-) from used as substantives: teut. a pre-TEUT. kaimd- (kaimi-) \f hel 'conceal' in oe. helati, G. LITH. kemas PRUSS. caymis 'a hehlcn. hollow me. holwc oe. village', GR. Y.Mf.iri 'village holh (gen. hohoes) cogn. with hone ME. hone oe. hdn\ Teut. equival. ohg. mhg. hoi, on. holr: base hainoON. hein, SW. hen teut. '\j'~*hul connected with 'hone'. Cp. OE. hcknan 'to stone'. the teut. sfhel in oe. ohg. helatt honey me. himi oe. hm'r^ huncy. 'hide, conceal' {c^iJiell, helmet). base himang on. Teut. holiday prop, holy day. hiinang, du. hotline, OHG. honang
cave'

cp. DU.

hole, cave'.

ho7no 'man').

hole

sb. ME.

hole hoi oe. hoi

holly ME.
to

holi?i

OE. holeyi; akin


g.
hulisy

G.

honig

'honey.

Origin

un-

the

equivalent du.

htdst certain; perh. cogn. w. OR. y.oric

MHG. huh, ohg.


houx;
celyn
,

whence
in

fr.

'dust'?

suff. used to form nouns orig. an inIR. cuilcann 'holly'. dependent sb. dying out in me. hollyhock for me. holihoc prop. oe. had 'state, quality' goth. holy hock': oe. hocc means haidtis, ohg. mhg. heit 'manner

pre-TEUT.

\'~kel,

w.

-hood a

corn,

celin

bret.

kelen,

abstract

(g. -heit only suffix). Cp. its var. holster borrowed fr. du. holster -head. 'a case for a pistol' (g. pistolenhood sb. 'covering' me. oe. hol/tcr) ident. w. on. hulstr 'a hod DU. hoed OHG. hiiot g.

'mallow'.

case, a sheath', goth. hulhti-

'a

hut.

Closely allied to hat and

io8
to the TEUT. \l^ had hoof ]\IE. OE. hgf

hoof

host'

= OSAX.

hod

vn heed.

ho/,

guttural (base *huqon) as shown by the oe. abstract noun hyht

horn'; cp. also E. hari prop, 'horned' and skr. crn-ga 'horn'. GOTH. ''^'hcg(g)a 'hook'. G. haken hornet oe. hyrnet ohg. being 'a kind of plough', goth. hornai^ hurnnz, G. hornisse. The hoha 'plough' may also be com- synon. Slav, and Lat. words pared, so that the stem may be for 'hornet point to GOTH. hoh heg hak. *haurzniiis with an ARYAN. \i^ krs
hake.

DU. hoe/, ON. ho/r, ohg. huo/ G. hu/: Teut. base hS/(^- from Aryan whence osLov. kopyto *koJ>o-, 'hoof'. Others derive teut. hb/afrom Aryan kdpho and compare it with SKR. (aphd avest. sa/a 'hoof. hook ME. OE. hoc niDU. hoeh 'hook'. The kindred forms have a diff. vowel and answer to OE. haca, ON. ha/^i, ohg. hd{c)ko G.
,

'hope'

(base
hup.

\Phuq

huh-ti-s)

teut.

for OE. td-hopa


sb. 'hope'.

hope sb. me. hope

oSAX. to-hopo

me. oe. horn =; on. du. hortt, goth. hailrn: common Teut. (in a runic inscription) horna 'horn' cogn. w. LAT. cornu and IR. cymr. corfi, with other suffix GR. y.s(j-ag

horn

ohg.

g.

OHG. hdg(g)o

points

to

hoop
hoep,

sb. ME. OE. hop DU. (iND. (rs) LAT. crdbro 'hornet' OFRis. hop, north-fris. hfp for '^crdsi'o, osLOV. srnkni, LITH.
:

'hoop',
hb/>a-.

MLG.

hop;

TEUT.

base

szirszofie

'hornet'.

The Aryan

stem is krs for 'hornet', cp. hoop vb. ME. houpe adopted fr. OSLOV. sriisa, lith. szirszu. Du. FR. hoiiper 'hoop unto'; of Teut. preserves a trace of this inner origin, cp. OE. hwopan =^ GOTH. in horzel 'hornet' (goth. '^haiiri'

hwfpati vb. 'boast, glory'. hoot vb. ME. hoiite borrowed


fr.

osw.

hitta 'hoot'.

horzelen oe. hors hem, du.


suls)

vb. 'hum'.

horse me.

hors

ros,

osax. ohg. ros (gen.

hop

vb. ME. hoppe OE. hoppian r asses) G. ross (whence it. rozza, DU. hoppen on. sw. hoppa FR. rosse a jade'), on. hross,
,

DAN. hoppe, w. hip vb.

G.

MHG. hop/en. Cogn. also


hoppe
late

hors,
:

hop
hop,
G.

sb.

]VIE.

'a

horse'
G.

sw. dan. dial, hors Teut. base hrossa-.


hose

du.

hose

me.

oe.

hdsii

hop/en
is

ohg. hop/o, DAN.

hose,

med.-lat.
Its

(for *hiippa). ON. hosa The obscure. Teut. words found their way hope vb. me. hope oe. hopian into Celt. (corn, hos 'ocrea, mdu. hopen, mhg. g. hoppen. cuisses') and into Rom. (ofr.

hupa

DU. hoos, (goth. ^''hilso).

OHG.

origin

The

labial in oe. hopia7i


is

*hupdii)

substitute

(goth. hose). for a host^

sb.

'army' me. host

gst'.

host 5

hull

109
]ME.

OFR. Jiostc 'army' fr. hosteni). (source LAT. hostis host^ sb. 'entertainer ]me. kosie: loanword fr. ofr. hosic (= LAT. hospHeni). Hence hostess me. hostesse and hpstesse from ofr. hostler me. hostUr 'innkeeper' from OFR. hosteller 'innkeeper'. host^ sb. (in the mass) me. source lat. hosiia, hoste pste

loanword

hovel
dirain.

hovel

'small
-el

hut':

hof

with suffix ON. hof


cp. vb.
G.

from
temple,
yard'.

OE.

'a

hall';

hof

'a

hover
ofris.

intensive
'tarry,

derivative
wait';

of ME. hove vb.


hovia
:

cp.

'receive
fr.

in

one's
hofa-

house
'hall,

derived
ME.

teut.

yard'.

oe. hu (for Teut. form hwo in hot adj. ME. hot OE. hat: Teut. osAX. hwo 'how', OHG. wuo du. on. he/tr, DU. hoe for hwo, ofris. ////: formed base haltastem hwa- in heet, OSAX. het, ohg. heiT, G. helss from the Teut. in who; cp. gr. TTfct,'. 'hot'; the TEUT. -y'^ hit cp. how in local names cp. GOTH. heltS 'fever and in on. high. hlti, OSAX. hlttla, G. hitze 'heat'; cp. hrat sb. howl vb. jme. houle; cp. du. hough sb. ME. hough (/uf) oe. huilen, G. heulen. hph 'the heel'; hence the dimin. huckster me. huckstire (oe. orig. 'a female reheel. Teut. base hanha- in on. '^huccestre) hctll 'heel'. tailer akin to mhg. hucke hocke hound ME. hound oe. hiitid 'a retailer'; derived from mhg. hu)id =^ GOTH, hiinds, on. hundr, hocke7i vb. 'squat', ox. hokkinn DAN. SWED. hund, DU. hond, 'bowed, bent. Cp. du. heukcn heuker OSAX. G. hund OHG. hunt: Teut. vb. 'huckster, retail' base hunda- prop, 'the hunter', huckster, retailer'. derived fr. the teut.-goth. vb. hue ^ sb. ME. hewe hew oe. w. hinpan 'seize, capture' (oE. hup heow 'appearance': ident. 'bootv') see hunt. goth. hmi (g. hiujls) 'form, hour ME. houre cure borrowed appearance', sw. hy 'skin, comfr. OFR. {h)ure {h)ore (= fr. plexion'. hew-), whence also du. tiur, g. hue'"^ sb. 'outcry' JIE. hii derived uhr (dial. auer). Source LAT. fr. FR. huer 'hoot, hiss'. hora. huge adj. me. huge (Jiouge): house me. hous oe. hus: Teut. loanword fr. ofr. ahuge 'huge'. base husa- in goth. gud-hus hull liusk' me. hule oe. hulu 'house of God', osAX. ohg. 'hull, husk'; cp. synon. G. hi'tlse hiis G. haus, du. huis, ON. hus. OHG. hulsa for *hulisa (goth. housings earlier houss (of a *hulisi or *huluzt) formed from horse), borrowed fr. fr. housse ? the \^hel hul (g. hiille) under
:

how

how

FR.

hostic.

*huiu

*h7iiip)

no
hell,

humble

hutch

hollotv
sb.

and holster.

hull 'body of a ship' ident. w.

hurt (plur. hurit) G. hilrde; cp. ON. hurd 'door', goth. haiirds
door'. The meaning 'door' is developed from the common meaning 'wickerwork'. Teut. base hurdiaryan krti in

hold

humble
rowed
hufiiilis)
fr.

adj. me. hutnl'le

FR.

humble
sb.

(=

borlat.

me. hofnbel-be; an equivalent OE. *hufnbol is to be assumed for ohg. hufubal G. hummel, DU. hommel 'humblebee'.

humblebee

LAT.

crates,

basket'
basket';

GR.

y.vgT/]

'a

fishing-

y.dpraXng 'a (woven) cp. skr. hrt 'spin' connect'.

ert 'bind,

hurl

vb.

ME.
sb.

htirle

earlier

humor
humor

me. humour from ofr. fr. humeur.

hu/tle vb.

hundred synon. dv. orkaan, dan. sw. g. {hundrep), ident. w. osax. huuorkan, FR. ouragan, IT. iiracano, darod, G. hundert, on. hiuulrad; SPAN, huracan 'a hurricane' ;,after the word is appar. a comp., the the discovery of Americaadopted second part of which belongs fr. Caribbean hurakan 'a hurrito GOTH, rapjmi vb. 'count'; the cane. part GOTH. OE. hund is first hurry vb. me. hurie horie vb. cogn. w. LAT. ceiiiuf/i, GR. ey.avov,
me.
oe.

hundred

hurricane

akin

to

the

SKR. (atdm. hunger me. hu?iger honger oe. hurt vb. ME. hurte hirte vb. hungor cp. synon. osAX. ohg. 'offend' borroweti fr. ofr. hurter hungar G. hunger, on. hungr; (fr. heurter^. husband sb. me. husbonde oe. GOTH, hiihrus (for *hunhrus) 'hunger' with the derived hug- (about lo^o) husbonda: a Scand. grjan 'hunger common teut. loanword, cp. on. husbondi, sw. hunhru- hungru- hunger' from DAN. husbonde from hus 'house' ARYAN, htikrti-l cp. LITH. kankli and ON. bondi bundi 'husband. 'torture' with on. hd vb. 'torture' husk ME. huske OE. *htlseca 'a (from TEUT. *hanhd7!). small house' (?); cp. G. gehduse. hunt vb. ME. hunte OE. huntiau: hussy short for housewife. a secondary verb from a primit. hut ME. hutte from fr. hutte.
;

'hasten'.

'take prisoner'.

G. hiitte. goth. frahinpan Source OHG. hutta From the same hutch sb. 'a box' me. hucche (whence prop. hucche me. root E. hound and hand. hurdle me. hirdel oe. hyrdel, whicchc') loanword fr. fr. huche dimin. of an OE. *hyrd ==. ohg. trough, bin'.

vb.

shown

in

inquest

III

I ME.

earlier ich
ic,

ic

OE.

ic

imp
scion'

sb.

DU.

ik,

OSAX.
:

OHG.

ih G. ich,

ME. OE. impe 'graft, with the vb. IME. impe


'graft';

common teut. ik ek GOTH, ik from ARYAN. egom\ cp. lat. ego, GR. lyil, SKR. ahdm, aslov. azii, lATn.az. The oblique cases were formed in all Aryan languages alike from a stem me--, cp. me and mine. ice ME. OE. is ^= OHG. ts G. eis, ON. tss, DU. /y^ (goth. *eisa-') not Teut. word, a common found elsewhere. icicle

OE.

itnpian
G.

cp.

OHG.
ytnpe,

itnpfon

impfen,

dan.

sw. ymipa.
impiitare,

Source a lat. type


also fr. enter,
vb. 'graft'.

whence

DU.

enteti

impair vb. me. empeire borfr. rowed fr. ofr. empeirer

(lat. 'make worse').


empirer

type

impeiorare
'hinder'

impeach
fr.

vb.

prop,

for ME. apcche

vb. 'hinder' bor-

'ME.

isikel:

prop,
small

compound, rowed
peel
is

fr.

empccher

(lat.

OE.
(cp.
i

is-ycel
'a

(isesycel)

type itnpedicare
sb. 'fetter').

'fetter' irom. pedica

dimin.
ok lilt).

piece

of

ice'

MLG.

isjokel

'icicle',

on.

imply
in

cp. ply.
:\ie.

prep.

in

oe.

in

idol ME. idgle borrowed fr. fr. OSAX. G. DU. GOTH, in, ON. /, idobivt, gr. fiOVoAoi- sw. Orig. related to idole (lat. DAN. /. LITH. i, in, GR. 'an image, likeness'). LAT. av{i), idle adj. me. oe. idel 'empty, LETT. C.
vain
vain,
,

useless'

oSAX.

ulal

inch
early

sb.

me.

inche

OE.

ync'e:

'empty, useless', ohg. ital 'empty,


boastful' g.
citel 'vain',

loanword from lat. uncia

ijdel 'empty'.

ME. // OE. lif OSAX. ef DU. of if 'whether, but', of, OHG. oba with the older by-forra ibu 'if, whether' G. ob 'if, as if, even if, whether', on. if ef 'if, GOTH, -ihaii) 'whether, perhaps Prop. dat. instr. of on. ifi efi
if
.

DU. 'an inch', also an ingot ME. ingot


ingot} Source
ful.

ounce'.
fr.
lingot

and

history doubt-

ink ME. enke from ofr. enqiie (fr. encre, DU. i7ikt, lg. inkci) source lat. encaustum 'the purple
:

red ink'. inkling

sb.

from

the

vb. me.

m. and
iba
ill
f.

if ef n. 'doubt', 'doubt, condition'.


///

ohg.
loan-

inkle 'hint.

ME.

ilk:

Scand.
the

inn ME. OE. /// inn lodging - house'


'inn'.

sb. 'house,

on.

inni

word from ON.


E.

illr;

native

synon.

is

evil (oe. yfel).

inquest me.

enquc'ste

from ofr.

112
enqueste

ire

jail

{=

fr. enquete).
]ME.

Akin

lie

to

inquire vb.
;

enquere from

(source lat. insula) 'an Cp. island.

isle'.

OFR. ciiquerrer {^= fr. eiiquirir issue ME. issile from ofr. issue source lax. i?tqtiirere. 'end, event' (derived fr. issir ire ME. ire 'anger' from ofr. LAT. exire). it ME. it earlier me. oe. hit ire (lat. ird). irk vb. ME. irke 'tire' with the neuter to E. he (OE. MS., he).
'inquire')

adj.

irk 'distasteful'.

itch vb. ME. icche for ~^icche oe. Teut. base jukjan lyccan DU. jeuken, oSAX. jukkian, ohg. iron ME. OE. iren oldest oe. form
fr.
:

irksome

extended

me.

ise?'n

= GOTH,

eisarn,

tsarn G. eisen, DU. ijzer, on. isarn

OSAX. ohg. juckan G. jiccken. teut. sf juk. ivory ]me. ivory (ivoire) borrowed

(jam): Teut. base isarna- perh. fr. OFR. ivorie FR. ivoire, whence borrowed fr. a Celt, isarno- {= also DXJ.iz'oor. Source 'LA.T.eboreus ebur 'ivcyy'. OIR. lam 'iron'); gall. Isarno- 'made of ivory' doriim a placename. ivy ME. iz'y oe. ijil short for

island
(i'^land)

me.

ilond

oe.
first

i~^lond

"^ff-hii

if-hei

= OHG.

eha-hewi

island';

the

compound of the the oe. ii ii 'isle' (cp. on. eyland, to GOTH, ibuks 'backwards' ? It OFRis. DU. ^'/AzWisland'), blended is uncertain, whether the 2"*^ eleOE. iji'^ w. OFR. isle. The word starts ment of OHG. eba-hewi from a 'XWJT.aujo- {inScandin-avia is ident. w. hay. Bat-avid), which is a derivative iwis 'certainly' me. iwis oe.

part mhg. ep-hou (g. epheii) with the represents by-form OHG. ebah: perh. akin

of TEUT. -GOTH, ahwa flowing water' ohg. aha

= OE. ia
fr.

'stream,

LAT. aqua 'water'.


]\rE.

isle

Ue

borrowed

OHG. ^i7iiis G. gezciss, lewiss DU. gewis'. Teut. base ga-wissaprop. part, of the Teut. vb. FR. witan 'know' (cp. wot).

jabber variant of e. gabber. jacket from fr. jaquet; cp.


me.
jakkc
^

jail
]ME.

with

the

by-form

gail jaiole gaihgl


gaiole gaole

gaol borrowed fr.


Source lat. E. cage,

OFR.

jaque

(g.

OFR.

(fr. geole) 'a

jackt).

prison, bird-cage'.

jade UE.Jdde 'old horse'. Source caveola from cavea G. kdfig). and history unknown.

(=

jamb

journal

113

jamb
also
'a

from

fr. jambe

'a

jamb'

(source
pot'

In oe. we find leg', LAT. Judaeus. lat. Judeas plur. 'the Jews' from the
Latin.

gat/ibd) .

jar sb. 'an earthen


FR. Jarre.

jewel :me. jouel juel from ofr. (whence G. jiiwel, du. jaundice ism.jaundis jaunis from juweei) FR. joyaii. Source
joiiel

from

FR. jaunisse

prop, yellowness'; a LAT. type gaudiale from gausource FR. jaune 'yellow' dium. LAT. galbmus 'greenish yellow'. jig sb. me. gigge 'a fiddle' from javelin sb. from fr. javelin: OFR. gige {= MHG. gige G. geige) cp. cymr. gaof Celt, origin

'a

fiddle'.

fiach

(whence
ME.

jaw

OE. gafeloc) 'spear'. chaul (choul) earlier

jingle ME. gingle.

chavel oe. (plur.) cdfias\ akin to

job
piece'
ful'.

sb.

cp.

ME.

gobet
'a

'small

OS AX. kdflos plur. 'jaw'


:

and with

and OFR. gob

mouth-

other formatives on. kjaptr, G. teut. \^ kef kef fr. kiefer 'jaw' an ARYAN geph, perh. cogn. w. AVEST. zafra 'mouth, jaw'. jay ME. jai from fr. geai (ofr.
jai gai).

jockey
of Jack.

ident. w. Jackcy. dimin.

jog

yb.

^lE.

joggc
joine

vb.

go
fr.

hastily'.

join vb.
]ME.
Jeloiis

JiiE.

borrowed

jealous

gelous

from FR. joindrc

Hence e. me. joint sb. from OFR. gelous (fr. jaloux, whence FR. joint. DU. jaloes). joist sb. ME. giste 'joist' from jelly sb. late me. gelU from OFR. giste (== FR. gtte ? derivative FR. gelce. jeopardy sb. me. jiiperdi orig. of FR. gdsir 'lie').
jilparti 'hazard,

{=

LAT. jungere).

hazardous feat
'risk,

jolly

iME.

joli

earlier

jolif:

borrowed

fr.

fr. jeu parti

loanword

from

fr.

joli

(ofr.

hazard' (orig. 'a game, in which jolif)jostle justle vb. intensive forthe chances are equally divimation from ME. jouste 'tilt' ded'). jest prop, 'a merry tale' me. OFR. jouster (me. jouste 'tour:mhg. geste (also gcste) 'a story' from nament' fr. OFR. jouste tjOSti^. OFR. geste romance'. journal from fr. journal. jet sb. (a mineral) short for fr. geyH: journey me. journe journie 'a me. git contracted loanword from ofr. gaiet {jaet day's travel, a day's work' from jet) FR. journie 'a day, a day's work' source lat. gagates. jew ME. jew earlier gl7a bor- (it. giornata, lat. type diurrowed fr. OFR. Giu Jui: source natd).

English Etymology.

114

joy

kettle

June aie. jilne earlier jiinie joy WE..Joie from YK.j'ok (source from ofr. gU7iiel (fr. y?^m) LAT. gaudia r= gaudiufii). judge sb. short AIE. jilge from LAT. Junius. just ME. yV/i-/ (short for jilstl) FR. jiige (source lat. judex judge from FR. y>/5-/<? (= LAT. Justus'). judiceffi) judge'. 'a Justice IME. justice orig. Justice vb. liiE. Ji/ge from FR. jnger ^= ^= 'EK. Justice: source LAl.Justitia. LAT. jiidicare. Justify vb. ME. Justifie from juice ]ME. Jiise j'l/fe from fr.

y/ (source lat. jus) 'juice'. July ME. Ju/i from lat. Julius.

FR. Justijicr.

K
keel sb. ident. \v. on. /Cy'c'/r (Teut. base kelu-) "keel of the synon. dan. kjol, sw. ship' Source and kol, G. DU. kiel.

rowed
r=
G.

fr.

ON. kenna

vb. 'know'
;

GOTH, kannjan causative of teut. kunnan 'know'.


kennen,

Cp. can vb.

history

unknown.
vb.
'cool'

kennel
me.
kele

'a

house

keel
fr.

oe.

ME. kencl: adopted


{chcjiil)]

celan: Teut.

the

adj.

base koljan derived E. teut. kolu-

source

for dogs' oner, kenil onfr. ken (fr.


fr.

chieri)

'dog' with
'^

suff.

-//

(lat.

cool.

type
adj. me. kene 'sharp, bold,

candle

from
sb.

canis 'dog').

keen
brave,

kerchief
fr.

earlier

spelling

brave' oe. cene orig. ccmi 'bold,

cu7-chief ME. coverchef'.

borrowed

= OHG.
'bold
,

wise'

Teut.

base

koni-

kuoni G. kiihn, DU. koen original the daring


;

OFR. covrechef lit. 'a headofr. cozn-ir (= fr. couvrii-) 'cover' and chef 'head'.
covering',

meaning is evident 'wise', which points

in

on.

kditir

\f kan 'know'
knoii.'.

in

kernel me. kirnel oe. cyrnel can, ken and (Teut. base kurnila-) dimin. of corjt (with the Teut. dimin. suff.
to the TEUT.
:

keep ME.
'keep'
:

kepe OE. ccpan ccepan

-iUi)

jan;

kettle ME. ketel borrowed fr. from a Teut. base kopno \f kop exists in the ON. kctill =r GOTH, katils, ohg.
ke7,yl G. kessel, du. ketel;
:

other Teut. languages.

corre-

sponding to OE. cetel ME. chetel, which was superseded by ON. kaggi 'a keg'. The Teut. word was ken vb. 'know' me. kennc bor- ketill.

keg

sb.

Scand. loanword

ON.

cey

kitchen

"5

early

'kettle',

borrowed fr. lat. whence also ohg.


sb.

catimis
ke-^-^in.

kindred and mankind. kind adj. 'natural, loving' me.


ki7ide
:

key

ME.

keie oe.
'a

cczj^

cceie

OE.
sb.

lecynde
fr.

'natural,

in-

OFRis. kei

key': Teut.

base born'

derived

kind

sb.

kaigi ?

kind

'nature,

sort'

me.

kid sb. ME. kid borrowed fr. kinde OE. j^e-cynd 'nature'. cogn. w. ohg. kizzin' kindle vb. me. kindle: derived chiizt G. kitze 'a young goat' a with intensive -/ from on. kynda native E. word cogn. w. scand. vb. 'kindle' ? (on. kyndill 'a kid would begin with ch. torch' ?) kidney sb. me. kid-nere (oE. kindred ivie. kinrcde (oe. '"cy7iON. kid;
;

*cyde?teore

second
is

ME.

*cydneoral); the rcedefi): composed of ki?i part of the compound OE. cynn 'kin' and OE. rceden {= nere {= ox. nyra, DU. GOTH. garaideins) a suffix meaning
tiioro
first

nier,

oHG.

G.

nie7-e
is

'kid-

'state,

condition

(cp. haired).

ney').

The
;\IE.

part

ob-

king ME.

late oe. king oe. cyng

a late shortening for the common a corresp. oe. cyning: Teut. base kuninga-^^ OE. *cyll(Tn is wanting: Teut. OSAX. OHG. kuning G. konig, DU. base kuljan akin to oe. cwellan koning; cp. ON. konungr (but me. qiielle vb. 'kill', on. GOTH, rciks 'king'). kvelja, OSAX. quellian. There kirtle sb. me. kirtel oe. cyrtel was a primit. str. vb. OE. cw'elan from a teut. base '^kurtil (= on. 'die', OSAX. OHG. (juclan 'smart' kyrtill) prop, 'a sliort under-

scure.

kill vb.

kille;

'

cp. G. qua/.

kiln sb. ]\ffi. ki/ne oe. cy/n older cyletie cyline 'furnace': early shiri). loanword fr. lat. ciilhia 'kitchen', kiss sb.

garment from lat. curtus 'short' (cp. G. kurz and see short and

whence

ME. kiss with the also oiR. cuile 'kitchen'. vowel accommodated to the vb. ON. kylna 'kiln' is an oe. loan- kiss for oe. coss osAX. kus

OHG. kus G. kuss, iiE. ki/i oe. cynn orig. ON. koSS, DAN, kys, SW. kyss, GOTH. 'a tribe': Teut. base kunja*kussus. kiss vb. ME. kisse on. ky'u, OSAX. kunni, ohg. oe. cyssau osAX. kussian, chutmi MHG. kunne race', goth. DU. OHG. kussen G. kilssen, on.
cos,

word. kin sb.

DU.

kus,

\f ken sw. kyssa, DAN. kysse. kind 'child', kitchen sb. me. kicchen oe. oe. cennati vb. 'produce', answe- cycene from a wkst-teut. base ring to an ARYAN V" gen in lat. kukina DU. keuken, ohg. genus, gerzs-gentis, GR. yivog yovi^ kuchina chuhhina G. <^//r//^ an yiyoum, si\K.\^jan. Cp. kind, early West-Teut. loanword from
fr.

kuni; deriv.

the teut.
g.

'produce'

in

ohg.

8*

ii6
late

kite

knuckle

LAT. coqmna (class, culina there is an equivalent du. knijf, see under kilii) or rather from LG. knif, G. dial, kneif. a common Rom. and vulg. lat. knight sb. me. knight oe. cnihi: cocina 'kitchen' (cp. fr. cuisine, Teut. base knehtadu. g. cucina, span, cocina). IT. Cp. knecht OHG. kn'cht, ofris. kniuht; cook. cogn. w. knave'} kite sb. ME. kite oe. cyta 'a knit vb. me. knitte oe. cnyttan Teut. base kutjan-. kite' deriv. of oe. cnotta (by vowelkitten me. kitoun answers to mutation) (= ON. kniitt-) the synon. fr. chatton 'a young E. knot; OE. cnyttan is ident. cat' (perh. the E. word points w. LG. kniltten ? to ONFR. ^ketonT) knob sb. ME. knobbe; allied to knave me. knave oe. cnafa ^=- MHG. kniibel 'knuckle', du. kfwbbcl OHG. knalw G. knabe 'boy'; iden- 'knot, lump, callosity', o. knopf tical with oe. cnapa me. kndpe 'button, bud', ON. knappr. OSAX. knapo, ofris. 'boy' knock vb. me. knocke oe. knapa. ON. knapi 'boy', germ. *cnoccian; ident. w. oe. cfiucian, knappe points to a teut. knab- ON. knoka: a sound imitation, ban-. Perh. cogn. w. knight} closely allied to knack. or. w. GALL, gnabat 'son'? knoll sb. IME. knol OE. cnoll knead vb. me. kncde oe. cn'edan DU. kno/ 'a turnip', G. kno//en. MLG. DU. kneden, ohg. knetan knot sb. me. knotte oe. cnotta kneten: teut. y" kned G. MHG. knotze, DU. knot; cogn. ARYAN \'^ gnet in Russ. gnetate w. OHG. knodo knoto G. knoten press'. knuta and ON. kmltr 'a knot' kngltr knee vb. me. kne oe. ctieo osax. f. 'dice' (goth. knio, DU. G. >^/z/V OHG. c/iniu kneo, '''knaitus) m. 'ball'. GOTH, kniu (gen. kniwis): Teut. know vb. ME. knowe oe. cndwan base knetva-, cogn. w. the synon. str. vb. ohg. chjiaan 'know', LAT. genu, GR. yovv, skr. janu. ON. knd vb. 'know how to do': 'knee'. kneel vb. me. cnele oe. TEUT. sf knc kno (akin to can ^cniowliatt du. kniclen mlg. and kccii) Aryan y~ gen knelen, sw. chniile 'kneel', dan. g/io in LAT. gignosco ignotus kncelc ? igftavus ignarus gr. yiyviooy.oj, knell vb. me. knille oe. cnyllan; SKR. sj'^jna. knowledge sb. cogn. w. MHG. knellen in er-, G. ME. kngwUche derived fr. the knallen. vb. jME. kngwUche, intensive forknife sb, me. knif oe. (about mation of ME. kngwe E.

= =

looo)
late

cnif.

The occurrence
Scand.
the

in

know
wanting).

(oe.
sb.

*j^ecndwlckcan

is

oe.

favors

origin

on.

knifr.

On

continent,

knuckle

me.

knokel

oe.

labor

lake

117

'^'cnucel\

cogn.

w.

G.

knochel,

dimin.
'a

OFRTS. knokie, DU. knokkel, iiLG. knogle knokkel: knokel, DAN.

in G. knochen 'a bone',

of a simple word, seen DU. k/iok knuckle, a bone'

me. labour adopted hlapan 'load, lade': teut. \f hlad LAT. labor (em) Map from an aryan \f Mat; perh. cogn. w. \(^klad in OSLOV. kladq 'labor'. The vb. OE. hladan lace sb. mk. Ids borrowed fr. I lay'. also 'draw OFR. las {lags) source ME. lade signifies FR. lace water', hence E. ladle me. Iddel LAT. laqueus 'noose, snare'

labor

sb.

fr.

FR. labour

(=

IT.

laccio).

See late he t.

lack sb. am. lak oe. */ ODU. lac DU. lak 'blemish, stain, lack'. lack vb. jie. lacke from the sb., but earlier me. lake (oE. *lacia>i) ODU. laken 'be wanting', ofris. lakla. Teut.

OE. hlcedel.

lady
Idfdi-^

ME.
OE.

lady

earlier
'a

lafdi

hkefdiie

lady,

mistress';

cogn.

hldford.

The

first

w. lord oe. part of both

\^ lek in leak. lacquer lacker


fr.

sb.

e. loaf words is oe. hldf the second part in oe. hkefdij^e connected with goth. is adopted deigan vb. 'knead' (see dougH).

FR.
IT.

laque
lacca.

'varnish'?

cp.

G.

Therefore

oe.

hkkfdi-^e

(teut.
'the

lack,

'"hlaiba-digjo-)

meant

orig.

lad ME. ladde borrowed fr. IR. kneader of bread'. lath 'a youth, champion'; lair :me. leir oe. cp. leier 'lair, lass. osAX. legar couch, bed' ladder me. Idddre short for oe. 'couch, sick-bed', du. leger 'a hlddder: Teut. base hlaidrjo- =^ couch, bed, lair', ohg. legar G. DU. ladder leer, OHG. leitara g. lager (for leger^ 'a couch, bed, letter GOfH. '^hlai-dri storehouse', (gen. place of lying, '^hlai-drjos'): teut. s^hlai hli in GO fH. ligrs 'a couch' Teut. lean vb., ARYAN \f kit in gr. base legra- from \^ leg in lie 'ladder'. The Teut. and lay. y.}.T-/.iui suffix -dr- in ladder answers to laity si), from the adj. lay. a gr. -void. lake me. Idke 'lake' oe. lacu lade sb. ME. lade oe. hladan 'lake' and 'stream': early loan== OSAX. hladan, DU. G. laden word fr. LAT. lacus 'a lake, OHG. (hjladan, ON. hlada, goth. pool". OE. lagti 'sea, ocean' is

n8

lamb

G.

laT

the genuine E. correspondence of the LAT. word and of ir.


loch 'lake';

la?ize.

Source

lat.

lancea

{=

IT.

lancict);

cp. launch.

land sb. me. oe. land (Igml) lamb Igmb OSAX. DU. G. on. sw. dan. OSAX. lamb, DU. lam, OHG. la?id from a Teut. base landa-; lamb G. lamm, goth. on. lamb: cogn. w. IR. land lann cymr. Teut. base lamba- {lambaz- in llan, CORN. Ian (from '^laTidha) the plur. OE. lombru me. lonibrcn, 'open space, surface', bret. Ian lambiz- in the plur. ohg. kt/ibh- 'heath', oslov. ledina 'heath,
cp. loch.

lamb

sb.

ME.

OE.

untilled land' (russ. IJada Ijame. hhne OE. lama dina). land vb. me. lande OSAX. lamo, DU. lam, ohg. du. g. lande?i, dan. lande, sav. MHG. lam (gen. lames) g. lahm, landa from land sb. landON. lami, sw. DAN. lame. The scape borrowed fr. DU. landcommoner meaning bruised, schap 'a landscape'. maimed' is prob. the orig. one, lane sb. me. oe. lane (lone) though the meaning 'lame' is ofr;s. lona lana, du. laan a very old (goth. used halls cp. lane, a narrow passage': ^Teut. hall). Cp. OSLOV. lomi/i vb. base lanon-. 'break, bruise', ON. lama 'bruise' ? language me. langdge adopted lammasME. lammasse shortened from FR. langage: deriv. of fr. late OE. hldmrntrsse, commonly FR. langue lat. lingua 'tongue, OE. hldf-mcBsse'. lit. 'loaf-mass' speech'. from lildf 'loaf, bread' and languish vb. me. languisshe masse 'mass'. from FR. languiss- stem oi languir See loaf. lamp short for me. laumpe 'languish (lat. langicere 'be
G.
liimtiier^.

lame

adj.

adopted
lampa.
'a

fr.

fr.

lampe,

whence weak).
lank adj. me. lank oe. hlanc; lampas perh. cogn. w. G. schlank, which lampa). points to a teut. slanka- aryan
:

also DU. lanip, dan. g. lampe, sw.

Source

lat.-GR.

lamp' (== it. sb. me. laiimpreie borrowed fr. OFR. lampreie {;= FR. lamproie), whence also du. lajtiprei. Source lat. lampetra 'lamprey' in a vulgar form lajjipreda (= it. lamprcda), whence also OE. Icmpedu lampreta' and perh. the synon. pride (oE. ^pride short for *la7?iprulel). lance me. laiinge borrowed fr. FR. lance, whence also du. lans.
torch,

lamprey

klang- s(k)lang

lantern

me.

lanterne

humterne
lanterne:

borrowed
source

from

fr.

lat.

laterna
'lap,

lanterna,

whence
OE.

also G. laterne.

lap sb. ME. lappe


Iceppa

border'

loosely hanging portion'; cogn. w. DU. lap, ofris. OHG. lappa G. lappen 'rag, tatter' and lith. /^/^/.f 'patch' (lat. labarc

'hang down,

fall').

See limp

adj.

lapwing

lath

119

lapwing vb. accommodated to Icest 'the shoemaker's last'. The tving for me. lapivinke, shortened orig. meaning is evident in ON. fr. OE. hlcapwince lit. 'the bird leistr 'foot below the ankle, a Cp. the aryan which turns about in running'; short sock'. cp. leap for OE. hlcapan 'run' \j'^ Its la is 'go' in lat. delirare
and wink.
larboard
earlier

go mad.
Icrboard

and

leerboard (cp. starboard)'^ perh.

Icestan

last vb. ME. Idste short for OE. 'perform, stand by, carry

OSAX. lestian, OHG. G. from ME. ler 'cheek? In Scand. out' the planks in a ship's side have leisten, goth. laistjan: derived different names as au7-~, skaiit-, fr. a TEUT. laista^ 'foot-mark' under last sb. so I- bar d. latch vb. ME. lacche oe. Iceccan larch sb. me. *lerc/i oe. '^lerc *leric aiHG. ler che G. liirche. le-lcBCcan 'seize, catch hold of.

Source lat. larix {laricem). lard late me. lard from the synon. FR. lard =^ lat. larda
{laridus adj. 'fat).

Hence latch
iiE.

sb.

me. lacche

'a

catch, fastening'.

latchet sb. ONFR. *lachet

= FR.
late'

lacchet
lacet a

from
dimin.

large
liberal,

= LAT.

me. large large, wide, of FR. generous' from fr. large lace.
largus.

lacs 'a snare,

noose'; see
(late

late

adj.

me.
adv.

lat

the ARYAN \'~ lad in lat. (from *lad-tus, an old part.) lash sb. ilE. lasshe 'the string 'weary'. Cp. let vb. and last of a whip' OE. Icesce =^ du. lasch, adj. MLG. lasche 'a stripe'. lath :me. lappe oe. hetta (Jceppa) lass ME. lasse: perh. for *ladse r:rr OHG. latta G. lattc, DU. lat. and cogn. w. lad ME. laddel Though OE. // corresponds here adj. ME. last(e) earlier to OHG. // (regularly oe. // last latsi(e) shortened for oe. latost OHG. tt), the word is still ge'latest': superl. of OE. Icet late. nuine Teut., since it is allied w. last sb. the shoemaker's woo- G. laden "board, plank, lash, den mould of the foot' ident. shutter', whence fr. latte (= w, OE. last sb. foot-track, foot- SP.\N. lata, IT. lattd); akin to "\v. print'; the E. meaning agrees w. Hath 'a rod. staft', IR. slat, bret. G. leisteti, DU. leest, sw. last, dan. laz 'rod, lath' (Celt, base sla/ta-').
to

lark ME. larke contracted fr. OE. Idwerce earliest form Idwricce: Teut. base laiwrakonOHO. Icrahha (from ^lewrahhd) G. lerche, DU. lecuwerick lewerke. inilg. Formation and origin quite ob-

OE.
(lg.

la-t

'slow,

= osAX.
du. ON.
:

adv.)
lat,

late

'late'),

laat,

latr, OHG. lai (^^) G. lass, an GOTH, lats 'slow, slothful' OTEUT. adj.-stem lata-, belonging

scure.

lassiis

I20

lather

lay

lather me. lather short for OE. ON. laiidr (mod. icel. Igdr^ 'froth, foam: Teut. base lau-^ra- derived from the aryan \'^law in LAT. lavare', as for the Teut. suffix cp. gr. Xovtqov 'bath' and gall, laiitrum 'balneum'. Latin adj. me. Latin adopt, fr. FR. lathi (= span. it. latino, DU. laiijn, G. lateiii)\ source lat.
Uado}-

Source lat. lavandus 'to be washed' (it. lavanda 'a washing').


laurel inie. laurLh- (with the byforms lor^r lor it) from fr. lauricr: source lat. laurus 'a laurel tree'. lave vb. ME. lave oe. lelafian ohg. lapon G. Men 'refresh'. The WEST-TEUT. ladSn is perh. a loanword fr. lat. lavare (=

FR. laver).

Latinus,
'Latin'.

whence

also OE.

Iczdefi

lavender me. lavendre (with an inserted e. ;) borrowed from IT. lavanda lavenFR. lavande

latten sb. 'a kind of brass or tola, whence du. g. lavendel. bronze' me. latoun borrowed fr. Source lat. lavare wash' (laFR. vender was laid in freshly washed the synon. ofr. laton

laitou,

SPAN,

laton.

linen).

lattice sb. ME. latis

adopted

fr.

law

ME.

lawe

oe. lagu

'law',

FR.

which about goo was borrowed ON. formed from fr. latte 'a lath'; fr. an early scAND.*/^ log nom. plur. law' (sw. lag, dan. see lath. laugh vb. ME. laghe laughe lov 'law). Cogn. w. lat. lex e?ix\\eT lahhe OE. hlehhan hlyhhan ^= legem fr. aryan \f legh 'lie'; cp. OSAX. hlehhian, du. g. lachen ohg. G.gesetz, satzung for the meaning. lahhen {h)lahhai?, ON. hlceja (for The genuine E. word for 'law' OHG. ewa. *hlahja), goth. hlahjan 'laugh'. was OE. (k
lattls

'lathwork, lattice-work'

ARYAN klok, prob. lawn sb. 'a grass plot' me. TEUT. sfhlah laughter sb. lau/ide lande: borrowed from FR. onomatopoetic. ohg. lande 'a grassy plain', which is ME. laughter oe. hleahtor hlahtar g. geliichter, on. hldtr of Celt, origin (cp. IR. lann from the TEUT, \f hlah with the under land).
1

suftix

pra-

tra-.

lawn 2

sb.

'tine

linen'

orig.

launch vb. me. launche com- 'lawn linen": so called from fr. monly launce: adopted fr. onfr. Laon a city N. W. of Rheims; fr. lancer cp. Arras and Cambric. (Picard.) lancher

'hurl,

of FR. lance

lay vb. ME. Icie lein earlier deriv. li'ggc OE. lecgan wk. vb. (3 sing. lance. laundress extended with suftix OE. leyl> ME. lei-th): Teut. base goth. lagjan, osAX. -ess fr. :me. laundir lavendire from lagjan OFR. lavandiere 'washer woman' leggian, OHG. leckan G. legen, du.
cast, dart, thrust';

E.

FR.

lai'andiere

laundry - maid'. leggen, on. leggja: causative for-

lav

learn

121

mation of the \f leg hence lay 'cause to

'lie'

in lie\

legue

= FR.

lieu:

source a lat.'a

lie

down'.

GALL. leuga

leiica

Gallic mile',

lay sb. 'a song' aiE. lai GALL, leuga corresponds to BRET. OFR. FR. lai. lay adj. me. lai from ofr. fr. leo, IR. leige 'a 'league'. leak vb. me. leke oe. Iccan (the lai 'secular, belonging to the leccan 'wet' from a base laity'. Source lat. la'icus, whence factitive on. leka drip, leak Imved (g. laie 'a lay- lakjaii) also OE. du. lekke/i, ohg. as a ship', man). See leivd.

from whence

also late oe. leowe 'leuga'.

lazar
n.

sb.

me.

Idzai-

fr.

lazarel Source the biblical prop,

Icck adj. ofr. lechan G. lecken vb. teut. yf lek lak see 'leaky'.

Lazarus; 'the lazar-house'

in G. lazaret
lazaret.

is

under lack vb.


lean adj. me. lene oe. hldnc from a Teut. base hlai-ni 'lean' (with suffix -7ii as in clean green). lean vb. aiE. Icne oe. hkman 'cause to lean': Teut. base hlainjan OHG. leinan factitive of oe. hlionian 'lean' oSAX. hlinon, OHG. hlinen 'lean'; cp. G. lehnen,
^

it. lazzarctto,

fr.

lazy from fr.

Icedan: lead vb. ME. Icde {lede) base Teut. OSAX. Icdian, DU. leiden, G. leiten, on. leida 'lead': prop, factitive of the
str.

= lat. OE. laidjan =


/as

lassiis.

vb. TEUT. lipan


travel',

OE. lidan

'go,

osax.

lithafi,

goth.

leipair.

.teut.

\f

lip

under lode.aie.

DU. leunen.

The

teut.V"/^// (cp.
to

star.

ladder^

corresponds
cp.

an

lead sb. short for


lead

= DU.

led oe.

ARYAN
rrc

\fklt\

LAT. inclpidre

load 'lead a weight',

'incline',

lead-weight': Teut. base *lauda- cogn. w. synon. oiR.


G. lot 'a

liidide

(base laudio-^.

osax. leaf ME. Icf OE. leaf OSAX. hlopan, OHG. louffan G. DU. loof 'foliage', ohg. loub laufen, ON. hlaupa, GOTH, hlaupan G. latib leaves, foliage', ON. lauf 'leap, run': T'EXST.\/^hlaup, perh. 'leaf', GOiH. laufs (plur. latibos) cogn. w. LITH. klupati vb. 'stag'leaf: Teut. base lauba- orig. ger, stumble'. the single leaf (used as a collearn vb. short for jme. Icrne lective; sb. 'the foliage'). OE. leornian: from a base Icrnon
lof,

GR. aXIvm 'I lean' vXilat. cli-vics 'hill', GOTH. hlai-w (oE. hldiv) 'mound'. leap vb. ME. l{pe oe. hlcapan str. vb. 'leap, run' ^= du. loopen,
'hiir,

league sb. 'an alliance' adopted teut. liznon ohg. lirnen Urncn from FR. ligue 'a league': source G. lernen 'learn'; cp. osax. llnon lat. ligare 'bind'. Akin to from a base Ihndn. league sb. 'about three miles' the primit. str. vb. GOTH, lais late ME. /(W borrowed fr. OFR. 'I know' and the deriv. oe. ohg.
,

leisure

GOTH, lis-ts 'art, cunning'. See lore for the teut.-v^A/Zs liz. lease vb. 'let tenements' borrowed from FR. laisser. lease 2 vb. 'gather, pick, glean' OSAX. ME. Icse OE. lesan 'gather'
lis-t,
^

a hl6 'to stand to leeward')' prop, 'shelter, protection' (oe. hleo, osAX. hleo 'shelter'). Cogn. hlyr 'warm; w. on. hly 'warmth' and G. laii- ohg. hlao\ cp. luke-

I'esan,-

DU.
lesan

lezen

'gather,
lesen

read',

wartn. leech 1

'physician'
lece

(Shakesp.)

OHG.
read',

G.
Icsa

'gather,
pick',

ME. leche OE.

on.
lisau
Icsli

'gather,

= GOTH,
sician':

Idee 'physician'

lekeis,

OHG. lahhi 'phylekja-

GOTH,
LITH.

'gather';

cogn.
Icest

w.

Teut. base

Idkja-.

'pick up'.
lest

Pei'h.

allied to oiR. liaig

(gen.

Ugd) 'physician'. leech- 'hirudo' me., '^liche (not tened fr. Icesest (by-form Iccresi) Teut. base laisista- superl. to recorded) OE. /^irV hirudo': prop,
least

ME.

OE.

shor-

the
less.

cornpar.

teut.

laisiza-

leather me. lether oe. I'cder letlr, DU. leder, OHG. ledar Teut. base G. leder 'leather': pre-TEUT. letro- in IR. lepracymr. lledr, bret. lezr lethar,
ON.

= =

'physician'

and

ident. w. leech^.

'leather'.

leave
tr.

vb.

'leave

me.
intr.

Ic've

oe.

Ice/an

'remain': Teut.
leiben

Cp. ODU. lake 'leech'? leek ME. lek OE. l^ac :is= du. look, OHG. IoilJi g. lauch, on. laiikr leek': Teut. base laukapre-TEUT. lougo-. leer me. le'r oe. //leor 'cheek OSAX. /illor, ON. /ilyr 'cheek': If the orig. Teut. base hleuza-. meaning was 'ear', listen might
,

base
lelrian

laibjaii;

cp.

lees 'dregs of wine' from fr. lie base a late Gallo-Latin on. lei/a 'leave': causat. 'lees of a str. vb. Itba/i. in oe. belifan lia for ^liga 'sediment' (aryan osAX. hillban, du. \f legh in lie). me. belive left ME. left lift allied to the blijvefi OHG. biliban G. bleiben,
'remain',
'leave',
:

OS AX. OHG. mhg.

far- be allied.

ON.

Ufa

(orig.

str.),

leiban

'remain'.

see live.

GOTH, bi- synon. ODU. lucht luft, lg. lue/it, For the root NFRis. leeft; the orig. meaning was perh. 'faint, weak' in oe.
{leve^

leave sb. me.


mission'
cp. OE. OE.
dlifaii

l(ve

'per-

lyft

'inanis':

Teut. base
allied
to

lufti-1

leaf

'permission';
'permit',

liifnfti-l

perh.

OHG.

dlefan

lenka 'the left hand' G.

Ii7iks 'left'?

OHG. rrlouben leaven me.


levain
lev amen.

G. crlauben.

legend me.
FR.
Ugeiide.

legende

from ofr.

kvain

froni

'ferment'.

Source

lee ME.

Ic

from on. hU

me. lisiire (commonly OFR. leisir == FR. loisir. (sigla Source LAT. liccrc.

lat.

leisure

Icistfr)

fr.

leniman

liei

123

lemman 'sweetheart' jME. lenwian


shortened
fr.

let^
str.

an earlier
fr.

Icfinan:

vb. ME. lete OE. litan Icktan vb. := GOTH, letan, on. Icita,

OSAX. latan, ohg. Idi^y.i7i G. lassen, DU. laten'. TEUT. \/~/i?? /cw" 'permit'. lit/i c' let- vb. 'hinder' MR. lette OE. lend vb. ]ME. line OE. Icznan lettafi fr. a base latjan 'to make vb. lend' from OE. Idn 'a loan'; slow' (teut. lata- 'slow' see uncp. loan. der late^ GOTH, latjan 'tarry' length :me. lengthe oe. lengp ON. letja, OSAX. lettian, OHG. from a Teut. base lafigipolezzan (g. verletzeii), DU. lette n. ON. lengd: abstract formation of letter me. lettre fr. fr. lettre TEUT. langacp. long. (lat. litter a). lent :me. /^v;/^ lentcn oe. Icnj^ten lettuce late me. letii(e\ allied 'spring' OHG. lenzin with the to FR. laitue lat. htctitca by-form lengiyn Icngizo Icnzo G. (whence OHG. lattiiJi). /^s 'spring', DU. lente. ohg. /V/zz/;/ levy fr. FR. levie (fr. lever (= oe. lenpeti) points to a teut. LAT. lei'are^. langa-tina- 'the long day'; for lewd me. litved oe. Icewed 'unthe second element cp. goth. learned' fr. LAT. la'iciis cp. lay'-''. sin-teins 'daily, SLOV. dim, skr. lick vb. ME. likke OE. liecian dina day'. OSAX. likkon, OHG. leckon G. lentil ME. lentil fr. fr. lentille; Iccken, GOTH. *likkdn. teut. likkon source the synon. lat. Icnticula belongs to the Aryan \f Ugh leniis lentil'). 'lick' in GOTH, laigon, gr. Xuyu) (Jens leper me. lepre 'leprosy' fr. fr. "lick' XiyvsrVM 'taste secretly', lepre 'leprosy' (lat. lepra). SKR. s^rih lih 'lick', Oslo v. //i(j: less me. lesse lasse oe. IcBssa {liiati') and lith. /,t\s> 'lick', lat. smaller' fr. a Teut. base laisiza?i- ////^-i? and perhaps lat. lingua OFRIS. lessa\ the adv. e. less LITH. I'eziivis 'tongue', oiR. /^'/w me. les OE. Ices answers to OSAX. 'lick'. Ics (teut. laisiz). For the superl. lid sb. {eye-lid') me. //V/ oe. ////^/ cp. least. A primitive adj. laisa- 'cover, lid' DU. lid lid, cover', is lith. Icsas little, small'. OHG. /// (older hlit) G. //V/ (in -less suffix ME. -l(s OE. -leas: augenlid 'eyelid'), on. lid 'cover, prop. adj. meaning loose. gate'. Cp.the teut. \P hlid \\\ lesson ME. lessoun fr. fr. Icfon: the str. vb. oe. osax. hlidan source LAT. lectio{ncvi). cover'. lest 'that not' ME. leste shorlie' vb. 'speak falsely' me. lie
prop, -olief nian.

lemon

from

limon;

cp.

ten etl for the

pe

'for

the
Idis

for OE.

list the oe. py Ices earlier lie li^e oe. leogan reason less -that'; OSAX. OHG. liogan, DU. liegen, G. ME. les cp. less. lilgen ON. Ijuga, GOTH. liugan
,

124

like

str. vb. 'tell a falsehood'. The light(e)ne (where the /i is TEUT. \f Ictig answers to an Aryan formative) 'become light and \f leugh - high in OSLOV. litzq lightning verbal sb. 'an illie' luza sb. lie'. luminating flash' (with the suffix {Jiigati) vb. lie^ vb. 'rest, repose' me. Ik -i/ig). liti OE. licgan OSAX. liggian, light adj. ME. light OE. liht leoht DU. ligt, OHG. liht G. leicht, DU. l/ggen, OHG. licken G. liegejt, ON. liggjd, GOTH. ligan str. vb. ON. Idttr GOTH, leihts: Teut. The str. vb. teut. Ugjan base linhta- for lenkto-1 Perhaps 'lie'. is derived fr. the Aryan sf legh cogn. w. GR. IXayvQ 'small', lith. lengjcms leng7ci as light in GR. Xey.T^ov Xh/og 'bed' See lung. Hence also lights 'animal's Xi/(o 'bedridden dXo/oc wife'

woman'

Xo;(S(.o

'bear'

^^6/oc

lungs'.

light

vb.

'alight,

'ambush, lair', LAT. lectns 'bed', descend' me. lihte OE. Uhtan lit. OSLOV. legq (Jc'zati) 'lie'. Cp. lay 'make light, relieve a horse of his burden' fr. OE. liht light. and lair. lighten vb. ident. w. Vight lief adj. ME. Iff OE. If'of (cp. lemmaii) oSAX. liof, du. lief, vb. (w. formative -en). light OHG. Hob ijiub) G. lieb 'dear, lief, in the phrase "to make light of ON. Ijiifr, GOTH. Frufs dear Teut. somebody' represents me. lite OE. base leuba- adj. 'lief from the lyt 'little, smair, which is cogn. w. little. TEUT. \flub in love. like vb. ME. like oe. lician wk. liege ME. lege (by-form ligc) fr. vb. 'please' goth. leikan (pret. OFR. liege lige fr. lige. OSAX. lif, leikaidci) 'please', du. lijken "suit', life ME. OE. /// ON. hf, OHG. lib 'life' (g. leib, ON. lika 'please': deriv. of like w. oiR. ligach DU. lif 'body) allied to the adj. or cogn. lig 'color, splendor'? TEUT. \f lib in liz!e', a lost str. 'beautiful' vb. Itban cp. under leave vb. like adj. me. lik earlier ilik OE. Outside of teut., gr. kma^HO ^elic GOTH, galeiks, ON. glikr, DU. gelijk, 'remain' points to an aryan \f lip. OSAX. gillk, OHG. lift vb. ME. lifte fr. scand. lypta\ gilih (hh) G. gleich. The Teut. cogn. w. loft. adj. ga-lika- is a comp. of the light sb. ME. light OE. leoht particle goim. ga- and a sb. likaOSAX. OHG. lioht, DU. G. Hcht "body', the comp. meaning having The dental of the word the same body'; cp. goth. leik, light. seen in goth. OSAX. ON. lik 'body', oe. lic-hofna is formative as leiche leichnam liuh-ap 'light; G. cp. the Aryan 'body which and Cp. -ly \f Ink: leak in lat. luceo 'shine', 'corpse Hence liken vb. me. GR. Xhvy.6c, 'white', skr. rue 'shine'. such. Hence lighten vb. me. likne compare'.

lily

lion

125
OE.
line

lily
lilicvi)

ME.

lUic

OE.

Ulie

(plur.

line ME.

du.

UJn,

^= OHG. lilia o. Ulie, DU. OHG. lina MHG. j\n.G. line G. leine, ON. lina 'cord, rope': Teut. base lelie: source lat. plur. lilia 'lily', lin-jbn- prop, 'the thing made of whence also OSAX. ///// 'lily'.

limb
leomii)

ON. limr 'limb' Teut. base li-via- cogn. w. goth. li-piis, oe. /// OHG. li-d, OSAX. li-t/i lejiiif lith. also 'limb'; cp.
: ,

j\iE.

lini

oe.

Ihn

(plur.

flax

cp. linen.

'stature,

growth':
sb.

ARYAN

\j^ll.

lime^

'viscous

substance,

me. oe. lifn 'cement, DU. lijfn, G. Icim OHG. glue' lim, ON. lim 'glue': teut. limaallied to teut. laima- (see Itmi 'flax'. is linger vl). extended fr. me. loavi). LAT. llmus 'slime' corresponds to lime in form, to letige vb. 'tarry' w. the frequent loam in meaning. \(" lai li is suffix -cr; OE. lengan prolong' attested by ON. leir (Teut. base fr. long. link sb. 'ring in a chain' fr. an lai-z-a-^ 'clay, loam' and lat. li-no unrecorded me. '^lenk *link: 'rub over, daub'. lime sb, 'the linden-tree', cor- SCAND. loanword fr. an orig. rupted fr. earlier line-tree for hlenk- cp. ON. hlekkr {lor hie nki-), lind-tree\ see linden. sw. liink, DAN. IcEuke link'. There lime'^ sb. 'a kind of citron' was a genuine oe. hlence 'link' borrowed fr. fr. lime 'a lime'; fr. a base hlankjon-', but the guttural of link shows that the idcnt. w. lefnon. linch-pin earlier lins-pin me. word may not be the developIms OE. lynes osAX. lunisa, ment of oE. hlenee. linnet sb. jme. Unet adopted DU. Inns lens, G. liinse', allied to OHG. luning and ohg. imG. lun fr. FR. linot{te) 'a linnet' fr. fr. The primit. base lin 'flax' so called from feeding 'linch-pin'. is on the seed of flax or hemp luni-, if fr. an ARYAN Iniperhaps ident. w. SKR. d/ti 'linch- cp. G. luinjiing 'linnet' fr. hanf pin'; cp. oe. d-lynnan 'loosen'. 'hemp'. Cp. oe. linece 'carduelis' lindentree me. linde oe. llnd and Unetwige 'linnet'. linseed short for me. lln-sed 'lime-tree' ohg. linta G. DU. linde, ON. sw. DAN. lind: Teut. prop, 'flax-seed cp. linen. base Undo pre-TEUT. lenta-, if lion me. lloun earlier leun borallied to gr. f-Xdrrj 'fir-tree' or rowed in the 12''' cent. fr. fr. LITH. lenta 'board'. Uon; source lat. lcone?n (leo^.
bird-lime'

lineage aie. li?tdge adopted fr. lignage: source lat. linea a line linen adj. and sb. (orig. only osAX. adj.) ME. OE. llfien adj. OHG. linin G. leinen linjtefi, DU. Ii7ten 'made of flax' deriv. of OSAX. ohg. lin, OE. lin 'flax' GOTH, lein sb. 'linnen'; cogn. w. GR. Xivof OSLO v. LAT. linum
.

'^'

126
lip ME. Uppe OE. lippa
///,

hp

loath

synon. GR. rj-nao, SKR. yakrt and the OHG. two assumed stems '^lik and *ljek OE. wlisp wlips 'lisping' (for ^wlc/s) 'stammering'; is doubtful. lefs livery me. liveri fr. fr. livrde. akin to DU. lispen, G. lispeln 'lisp': pre-TEUT. w/^i-. lizard me. lesarde fr. fr. lizard TEUT. Y"?'/^i" sb. ME. list short for OE. 'lizard' (= LAT. lacerta). list list lo interj. me. Ip oe. ld\ a preDU. lijst^ G. leiste 'list, historic OE. *ldw for TEVT.^laiw border' OHG. lisle 'border'. Ident. w. list^ 'catalogue' fr. is warranted by ohg. Ihv-es 'lo'! FR. liste, which is of Teut. origin Perhaps teut. lai-wa- is connected with lai-pa- in loath. (OHG. Ihta 'border, strip'). list vb. ]ME. lisle OE. lystan 'desire' loadstar see lode- star. derived fr. licst. loaf ME. Igf OE. hldf: Teut. hlaibain GOTH, hlaifs listen vb. ME. listene earlier base form lisle OE. hlyslan 'hear'; allied bread', on. hleifr, OHG. leib G.
librolispe

OSAX. MLG. uppe (whence cogn. w. the synon. G. uppe) OHG. leffur and OSAX. lepur OHG. lefs 'lip'. LAT. labium 'lip' with the Teut. group points to an ARYAN sfleh lab. lisp vb. (Scotch wlisp) me.
*Uppia, DU.
;

G. leben,

DU.

leven,

oSAX.

libhian;

cogn.

w.

oE.

belifan

^=
life.

ohg.
see

biliban G. blciben:

TEUT.

\'~ lib

under leave vb. and


lever,

liver ME. livre oe. lifer

= DU.

ohg. libara I'ebara G. lebcr, ON. lifr. Connection of teut.


w. the
,

{lipse^

formed

fr.

the adj. LAT. Jecur

to

OE.

hlos-nian

OHG.

{h)losen

laib;

akin to LiTH.

kl'cpas 'bread'.

'hear, on. hlera (goth. *hluzaii)


'listen'.
is

An aryan \f klus

'hear'

See lady, laf/imas and lord. OHG. loam ME. lorn OE. ld?/i

evident in skr. ^rus-ti 'obedience', OSLOV. slysati vb. 'hear', LITH. klausyli 'hear', ON. hhis-t cymr. dust 'ear'. Cp. leer. 'ear litter ME. littre fr. ofr. litiere
;

leim

G.

lehvi,
fr.

du.
the

Iee7n:

Teut.

base lai-ma-

aryan \^ li

under lime. loan ME. Ion fr. on. Idn 'a loan'. There was a genuine oe. Idn (fr. litiere) 'a horse-litter' (lat. fr. a TEUT. laihniz; cp. OHG. Wian 'a thing granted' and ON. type lectaria fr. lectus bed').
on. ////// \f lihiv (goth. lei/miati 'lend', OE. leon 'little'. Relation to the synon. OHG. lihan G. leihen aryan DU. luttel, OSAX. luttil, OHG. luzzil, pret. Idh 'lend, give ) \^ liq in LAT. linquere 'leave', GR. OE. lyttel 'little' is obscure.
leitils

little

short

for

;me.

oe.

litel

Idn

fr.

a teut.

laih'ia-(zf):

TEUT.

GOTH,

'small',

live
livie

vb. ME.

liz'e

earlier
{lijiari)

vb.

libbe OE.

libban
Uba7i,

form Ldn^iv, sw. wk. loath adj.


I'ebm
'hateful'

ric

leave'.

GOTH.

OHG.

me. loth oe. lap ON. leidr 'loathed',

lobster

lore

127

OHG. kid 'odious', OSAX. leth] ofr. log/ie now longe (lat. type cogn. w. OHG. lidan G. leide?i "^lumbea fr. LAT. lumbus loin'). Perhaps there was an loiter vb. me. loitre. 'suffer.

ARYAN \f li
lobster me.

lai cp.

lo.

loll vb.

me.

lolle.

lone short for alone. long adj. me. oe. long (Jang) earlier lopust 'lobster': adoption 'lobster, locust'. ^= OSAX. la/!g, DU. OHG. G. lang, fr. LAT. loaista a Gaelic ON. langr, goth. laggs; cogn. w. loch OE. loh lake' word; cp. GAEL. IR. loch 'lake' synon. lat. longus (whence it.
lopstre

oe. loppestre

(ident.
'sea'

w. lat. lacus
sb.
fr.

oe. lagu
Idke

lungo, fr. lofig)

cp. ling er. OE.

under lake).
1

long

vb. ME.
after,
G.

lotige

langian

lock

the vb. me.


'shut
up",

louke OE.

Ittcati

'lock, enclose'

=
=

'long

long'
loke

^=
earlier

osAX.
for'.

langoian,

verlangen 'wish

GOTH, galukan
lichhan,

ohg.

look vb. ME.


OE. Ipcian

DU.

liiiken.

Igkie

OSAX. lokon (ohg.

lock- (of hair)


lockes)

ME. lok (plur.


G.
\v.

hiogen

G.

lugen).

The

early

OE. locc (plur. loccas)

DU.
locke

lok,
:

ON. lokkr, OHG. lok Teut. base lokka- cogn.


'I

history of the teut. \f^ lok {log) is obscure; cp. skr. laks 'notice,

perceive'

and cymr.

llygat

corn.

GR. Xvyltco

bend.

lagat 'eye'.
(cf.

loom sb. ME. Igme oe. ^e-lgma {andhhnd) 'a tool, implement'; ohg. ON. leidarstjarna G. leitsteni), perh. akin to OE. ^elmne which is cogn. w. lead vb. ^= giluomo gilamo 'frequently', ohg. TEUT. laidjan 'guide, lead'. Cp. gastluomi 'hospital'. ME. Ipdesjnan 'pilot' and E. lodeloose adj. ME. Ids (Jous) borlode-star me. Igde-sterre contains OE. "^eldd "way, course'

stone.

rowed fr. ON. Ipiiss ^= goth. lodge vb. ME. logge vb. adopted latis, OE. leas (cp. less), DU. los, fr. FR. loger; e. lodge me. logge OSAX. ohg. los G. los. The
fr.

'a common teut. adj. laiisa- is a a lat. deriv. of the \^lus 'be loose' type laubia fr. ohg. louba 'an under lose. arbor' (g. lanbe 'a covered hall'; lord ME. lord short for Igverd allied to leaf). OE. hldford prop, hid -wear d loft upper loaf-ward' ob. ME. 'keeper of bread' loft 'an room' borrowed fr. ON. /i^/ 'upper (cp. OE. /^/(t/ under loaf)', the story, balcony', which has also masc. corresponding to the the meaning 'air, sky' goth. fem. formation lady OE.

'lodge, tent'

fr. loge orig.

small

house'?

Source

luftus,

g.
lift

luft,

OE.

lyft

'air'.

hldf-dij^e.

Both compounds are


lore

Hence

vb.
loifie
:

peculiar to English.

loin late me.

adopted

fr.

lore

IME.

oe. Idr

infl.

hire

. ;

128

lose

lump

OHG. OSAX. Icra, G. lehre, DU. w. ME. luvestiche oe. lufestice. Teut. base laizo-, whence Source of the whole group LAT. GOTH, laisjan, OE. Idran, OHG, ligusticutn 'lovage'. love ME. love oe. liifu =: leran G. lehren, DU. leeren 'teach'. OHG. li/da 'love': See also learn for the teut. GOTH, lul^o Teut. base lubon- allied to the Uz laiz. Y'" An lief. lose ME. /f/iv mostly forlese oe. TEUT. adj. letcbagoth. /ra- ARYAN sf lubh 'desire' is evident forleosan str. vb. liusan, osAX. oho. farliosafi G. in LAT. lubido, skr. lobha 'desire' verlicren str. vb. lose'. An aryan and SKR. V" lubh 'to desire'. V^ //^^ (cp. loose) may be an low adj. ME. low earlier Idg extended form of v^ lu in -gr. late OE. lag: borrowed fr. on. Icigr 'low' (sw. lag, DAN. lav) release', lat. lucre. Af'oj "I DU. laag, which are derived loss sb. me. oe. los 'destruction'. DU. from the teut. \f leg lag 'lie lot ME. lot OE. hlot goth. Hence low prop, 'lying flat'. lol; ident. w. oe. /ilyt Teut. low vb. ME. Ipwe OE. hlgwan hlauts, OHG. Ib-^ G. loos base hlmiti- teut. \/^ hlut hlaiit 'low' cp. DU. loeien, ohg. luoien pre-TEUT. vb. 'get by low': TEUT. \f hid str. in ON. Jiljota kid in LAT. c la-mare 'cry. lot', OE. hlcotati, OHG. {h)lio"i^an.
leer
:

= =
:

loud

adj.

ME.

/<?^/

OE.

/^/z^^/

lower

vb.

ME.

loiire
;

^=-

arao.
cent.;

OSAX.
G.

>^/z/c/,

(-^)/z2/

laut\

DU. luid, the Teut.


<?A/,

OHG. base

luren G. lauern 'lurk


ident.

cp. lurk.
15*''

luck found since the


w.

hlii-da-

(cp.

^(?/^/,

coiitli)

DU. luk geluk

'good

was

a part, with suffix -to fortune', mhg. gelilcke G. gli'ick, Akin to G. lockeii, OFRis. luk. GR. -roc, SKR. -tas) pre-TEUT. klu-to-s (sKR. (rutds, DU. locken 'entice, allure'. lucre ME. lucre fr. fr. lucre GR. xA-tTo't,', LAT. incliitus 'famous') fr. an ARYAN y" /^/ in skr. /tz/ LAT. lucrujH. lug vb. ME. lugge 'drag, lug' hear, GR. x/.i)W v.Xhoq. lough 'lake' fr. ir. gall. loch\ cogn. w. sw. lugga. lukewarm fr. me. leukc (liikc) see loch. louse ME. Ions (plur. lis) OE. earlier hlcuk; perh. contr. fr. ^hleowoc /5- (plur. lys) unrecorded OE. DU. ///, OHG. an cogn. w. me. lewe 'lukewarm' l/7s G. /az/.y, ON. Ms (plur. lyss)
orig.

(lat.

-//<!.f,

ON. Teut. base li7s-, derived perh. OE. hleowe 'lukewarm' fr. the TEUT. \^ lus 'destroy' hlyr 'warm' (ohg. hlao G. lau under loose and lose; cp. GR. 'lukewarm'). DU. lulle/i, lull me. lulle (p&siQ 'louse' (pdil{j(<) 'I deDAN. lulle, sw. lulla. stroy'. lump sb. ME. luffipe lonipc; lovage fr. FR. livcche mixed

lung

G.

magpie
XiXuloi-iai,

129
SKR. Y^ las lat. las-civus.
for
lals

ident. w. du.

lotiip

'a

lump',

lumpen

'rags'.

'desire",

jNIE. lunge longe OE. lungen ON. lunga, DU. long, ohg. lunga G. lunge 'lung': Teut. base

lung

lungon-j-,

allied

to

adj. bnghu- 'light'

= gr. slaxvc,

an

ARYAN

lute sb. ]\IE. liite: borrowed fr. OFR. lut leut FR. luth; ident. w. DU. lull, g. laute, IT. liuto leuto, SPAN. laud. Source arab.

al lid

'lute'.

laghu 'light'. -ly adj. -suffix aie. -ly -It earlier Cp. lights with lungs. See -lich(e) OE. -lie as synon. osAX. -lik, lighi for the ARYAN V" ^^f^g^- DU. lijk, OHG. -Iteh g. -lieh, on. lure sb. ivee. Im-e fr. fr. leurre -///5r, GOTH, -leiks. Orig. the 'bait'; source a teut. lopra- same as lika- 'body' discussed

SKR.

(goth. waira- leiks prop, having the body iviE. louren (== lower) as hark of a man'). fr. hear, talk fr. /<?//. lye sb. ME. liie oe. Icah (infl. lust sb. ME. OE. //^^/ 'desire' le'age); cp. synon. DU. loog, ohg. OSAX. DU. G. ON. lust, GOTH. louga G. lauge ON. /^^ 'warm lustus 'desire': a common Teut. bath': prob. connected with the formation, prob. allied to the ARYAN \'~ lou lu 'bathe' (cp. ARYAN \^ las 'desire' in gr. lather).
luoder 'bait'
]ME.

MHO.

(o. luder^.
fr.

under

like

lurk vb.

lurke: derived

'manly'

M
'a big club' borrowed OFR. mace fr. masse: source a LAT. type *t?iatea 'a beetle'. mackerel me. makcril adopted fr. OFR. maquerel (fr. maquereaii) DU. fnakreel, whence G. makfr.

mace

letncedan 'drive mad', deriv.

from

the

OE.

adj.

^e7ndd

'mad'

OSAX. gimed 'foolish', ohg. gimeit 'foolish', GOTH, ga-fnaids "frail,


feeble'.

relc

madder sb. me. '^maddrc oe. source MED. -lat. macarellus madre (mcedre'i) on. madra, ?naquer^llus 'a mackerel'. OHG. mdtara; cogn. du. lg. machine (= g. masc/une, du. mede 'madder' ? machine) fr. fr. machine: source maggot lateiME. maggot maggat; LAT. machina gr. (.iti^uvi'i 'a prob. fr. CYJIR. maceiad jnacai device'. 'a maggot'?
:

mad
prop,

adj. :me.

mad

of.

'^cnukd

magpie
short
for

sb.

'a

lemceded:
Etymology.

part,

of

oe.

Magot

bird';

mag
Margot
y

FR.

F.NGLisH

I30
'Marguerite',

maid

malt

also
fr.

FR.

pie

'magpie' pie it was adopted LAX. pica 'a mod. languages.


;

by

the

other

make vb. me. 7ndke oe. macian OSAX. ?nakon DU. make ft, me. 7?iaidc oe. 7nceyien OHG. magatin: Teut. base OHG. tnahlidn 'make, also fit or together' machen: G. magadina- is diminutive of a fasten TEUT. -GOTH. tfiagap'a girl, Teut. base makon 'join, belong virgin' OE. OSAX. together'. Cp. with GOTH. *makdn niceiep jnagath, DU. ?//>/, OHG. magad the on. comparat. makara 'more
magpie'; see pie.

maid

G.

= magd mddchcn.
sb.

Allied
son',

to

suitable, fitting',

oE.

ymcBC

'fit,

the Teut.-Goth. base ON. mggr 'boy, magu.

tiiagu- 'boy'

suitable',

ohg.

gimaJi

'con;

oe.

venient, comfortable' G.

gemach

OE. letHceccea 'husband, wife' (e.


fr.

maiU
7)iaille

adapted
(also
'a

'mail'

mesh of a match
macula
'a

fr.

make

companion,
'spouse'),
sb.

spouse',

e.

net')

source
sb.

lat.
me.

malady

spot, hole,

mesh of

a net'.
'a

rowed
malade

fr.

bag, wallet' borrowed fr. the synon. OFR. viale FR. malle (ohg. malha 'a leather bag').

mail 2

male

]\ie. maladie borOFR, maladie fr. fr, (source male 'ill, bad'

and
fr,

aptus 'disposed'),
adj.
jME.

male

mdle

adopted

FR, fndle (source lat. dimin.


sb. jnalice

f?iasculHS.

maim
mai/ie

vb.

me.
fr.

f/iaifuc

prop.

malice
fr.

ls\s..

borrowed
adj.

borrowed
sb.

ofr. f/iehaigner

FR. vialice
'ill

(source lat. ma-

'torment'.

litia

will'),
fr.

malign
(f.

main

me.

f/iaift

oe.

mcej^eti

adopted
?nale

fr.

fmili/i

maligfie')
i.

'strength'

^= OHG. magan megin, 'malignant' (source maligniwi


i?iegin 'strength'
:

e.

OSAX. ON,

teut.

and tnay. borrowed fr. ofr. borrowed fr. fr. inail 'a mall': maine magne 'chief' (lat. magims source LAT. malleus 'a hammer'.
in ?/iight

\fmag main

genus 'ill-born). mall sb. me. malic melle mail

adj.

'great').

vb.

Hence mallet
fr.

sb. me. maillet

maintain adopted fr.

me.
'hold
fr.

maintene
(lat.

borrowed

fr. tnaintcnir

type maimtencre hand').

by
tnais,

the
g.

maize
tnais;

sb.

DU, vialuwe: borrowed fr. LAT. malva whence also fr. mauve, SPAN, it, malva, G. nialve.
,

mallow

a mallet', ME, mahve oe. mealwe


fr.
fnaillet

adopted fr. span, maiz. Cp. viajive. Columbus is said to have im- malt sb. ME.
r=:

malt
j/ialt,

oe,

mealt moui,
?nalta-

ported the Haytian name mahis and the cereal to Spain whence

OSAX. ON.

G, f/ialz.

The

DU, Teut. base

many
a TEUT.\^fne/f in OE. mUtan melt' with which is allied the on. adj. 7naltr 'rotten' OHG. inalz 'melting away, soft' so that *malt is perh. the
fr.

13^

geoire 'manger, stable' (fr. ma7i-

'dissolve,

ger

'eat

lat. 77ianducare).
for
*7?ui7ikele
,

mangle vb. ME. wa^^/^ frequent,


and weakened
fr.

ME. ma7ike OE. J^e77iancian which adjectival neut. sb. meaning 'that was prob. formed from an adj. OE. *7nanc=^'D\j.7/iank: loanword which is soft'. Cp. melt. man sb. aie. oe. man mo/i{?tn) fr. lat. 7na/tcus adj. 'maimed'. OSAX. OHG. DU. MLG. man mangle sb. borrowed fr. du. G. manii, OX. madr, GOTH, maiwa 77ui7igel (= sw. G. 7na7iget)\ dimin. 'mankind, man'. In OE., man tngti of a simple word represented {ii nn) denotes 'man' and by G. 77ia7ige 'a mangle' IT.

'woman' (cp. OE. wifmon E. woman), goth.-teut. maiin- is based on older ??ianw- manu- (as chin is based on an aryan kcnw- genu-), ixdo-eur. manu 'mankind' appears in skr. as Manu, but it signified also the 'father of mankind'; cp. also SKR. mamis and matiusa 'homo' and OSLOV. mqzt 'man'. mane sb. me. indtie oe. manu == OHG. jnafia G. mdhne, DU. maan, ON. mgn, sw. dan. i?ian. The Teut. base nianb- 'mane' shows a later development of meaning; the older meaning was 'neck'; cp. ON. men, OE. niene, OHG. menni 'necklace', cogn. with lat. monile 'necklace', ocelt. ^iavid/.i]g

77ianga7io 'a

machine for smoothing


fr. lat. 77ia7iGR. udyyavov 'a war-

linen, a war-engine'

ga/itwt

machine'.

manikin
FR.

7na7taki7i

DU. 7/ian/ieken\ cp. G. 7nd/mche77, DU. t/iannetje: all diminutives of man. mankind sb. me. 77iankinde
77ia7i7iequi7i

borrowed

fr.

earlier

7nan-kin

OE.

7no7i-cy/tn.

See
fr.

7na/t

manner
OFR.

kind. me. ma7i47-e borrowed


also

and kin,

7na7tei-e

fr.

77ta7iierc.

mantle
77iau7itelv&

form unrecorded) ^= du. sw.


me.
77ia7iiel

(a

dan.

mantel',

on. mgttull

and

OE.

7nentel rest

on a
it.

lost lat.

77ia/itu-

luin 7/iantilu7n (fr.

LAT.

77ia/itu77i

oiR. muince 'necklace

In

lieu

of ARYAN W(^7//<? 'neck' occurs skr.


7nanya 'nape', closely allied to oiR. ihuin muindl 'nape'.

the borrowed from the FR. part. ma7igi


sb.
fr.

mange

adj. :me. *maungt'

shortened which
fr.

is

a cloak'), whence also G. 77iantel onG. 7nantal cogn. w. FR. 7/mnteau, ir. manttllo (lat. type *7nantellu7ti). many me. 7fia7u 7na7iy oe. 7!U7tii'^ 7/i07iey. Teut. base 7tuinagaOSAX. OHG. 77Ul7iag G. 7/ia/ich, DU.
FR.
7na/ite,

7nanto

77ienig,
7/ie>iicc

ON. 7/iargr. Cogn. w.


IR. 7ni/iic 'frequently'

oiR.

lit.

'eaten

mange'.
viaungir

cp.

?nangaison
sb.

manger
fr.

me.

7nenccci-'f)

and

cy:sir. mai/it,
t7ia7tti-).

(base bret.

borrowed

FR.

man-

7nent (celt,

base

y'

132

map
sb.

marsh

ir. gael. marc, cymr. nap- CORN, t/iarch 'horse'. kin, table-clotli'. miargin me. fndrgin(e) fr. lat. maple sb. me. vidpel oe. *mcspel marginetn (nom. sing. lat. margo *mapul in mapoltreo viapidder 'a FR. marge). maple-tree': perh. ident. w. ohg. mark^ sb. 'line, dot, cut' me. tna-i-piltra (g. mass/wider), which marke OE. mearc DU. on. mark, points to TEUT. fftatlu-, whilst aiHG. marc (gen. markes) g. the E. word points to a base marke (gotk. marka 'boundary'). map III-. Hence mark vb. me. marke mar vb. me. t/urre oe. d?/ierran OE. mearcian on. marka, osAX. dmyrran wk. vb. 'to hinder, ob- 7narkon; cp. DU. G. j/ierken =-GOTH, marzjan 'oflfend', GOTH. *markjan. struct' OHG. marren, DU. marren 'tarry': mark'- sb. 'a unit of weight, TEUT. -ARYAN \f marz mars. a coin' me. mark late OE. marc: marble me. marble mdrbre fr. borrowed fr. ON. mprk, whence FR. fiiarbre; source lat. marmor. also DU. G. mark (med.-lat. march sb. me. ?ndrche 'march, marca). boundary' fr. fr. marche 'boundmarket sb. me. market late oe. ary'. The Fr. word is of Teut. (ii^'^cent.) markit marcdt: bororigin; cp. GOTH, marka, OE. rowed fr. OFR. "^market FR. marcM mearc, OSAX. OHG. marka 'bound- (it. mercatd) ^= lat. mercatns ary' which are primitively related 'market', whence also ohg. markdt to LAT. margo 'border, edge', merchdt G. DU. markt. See mart. AVEST. merezu 'border', IR. mruig maroon adj. 'chestnut-colored* 'shire' (Celt, base mrogi-). Cp. borrowed fr. FR. marron ^= it. mark. marrone 'a chestnut'. march vb. fr. fr. ?narcher. marrow me. marow mary oe. March (the month) me. (since mearh mearg oSAX. marg, the 12"' cent.) March fr. fr. OHG. mar{a)g G. mark, DU. tnerg, mars} Source lat. Martins me?isis ON. mcrgr: Teut. base mazga(whence ohg. me/ zo g. mdrz, lg. ARYAN *?nazgko- in oslov. merte) mozgii, ZEND mazga, skr. 7?iajjau mare me. mire oe. mire myre: 'marrow'. The root is skr. 7}iajj Teut. base tnarhjon- (= ohg. 'immerge' lat. mergere. merihJia G. mdhre, DU. merie, on. marry vb. me. marie vb. adoptmerr^, deriv. fr. teut. tnarha' ed fr. FR. marier: source LAT. 'horse' in oe. mear/i, ohg. mara/i, maritare 'marry'. Hence marON. marr horse' (see fnarshaf). riage ME. maridge FR. mariage. There is a pre-TEUT. marka- in marsh me. 7?iersh oe. mersc mdu. the Celt, languages; cp. gall. earliest form merisc

map
IT.

borrowed

fr.

fr. mappe fnarca


'a

LAT. viappa prop,

marshal

mastiff

133
vb. masche vb. 'mix' (oe.

maersche lg. G. marsch, dan. marsk: Teut. base mariskamariscus 'swamp', ]MED. - LAT. whence ofr. niaresc fr. marais. Source TEUT. 7nari- 'ocean (= LAT. f/iare) in OE. mere, OHG. meri G. f/icer, ON. fnarr, GOTH. tnarei. marshal aiE. ?/uir(e)schal adoptfr. ed fr. OFR. ffiareschal mar^chal, span. ?fiariscal, it. mar/j'^a/(? 'a marshal, farrier'. Source a teut. marha-skalkaz 'horsethane' OHG. marah-scalc (ohg. marah 'a horse' E. fnare and OHG. scalch OE. scealc jme. schalk, ON. skdlkr OS ax. skalk,
,

mash
cogn.
trees'

(^7?idscia7iT)

G. fneischen:

prob.
of

w. OSLOV. mezga

'sap

(osLOv.
sb.

s<if

:= teut. skl^.
fr.

Cp.

7?iix.

mask
mason
fr.

borrowed

fr.

masque, whence also DAN. maskc SW. mask.


ime.

G.

DU.

tndsoun
;

adopted
type
fnezzo

FR.

ma(on

matio 'a

source a maison' OHG.

G. steiitfnetz 'a stone-mason'.

sb. 'a lump of matter' ME. ?nasse borrowed fr. fr. masse (== it. tnassa^ source LAT. massu 'a lump, a mass',

mass^

late

GOTH,

skulks 'servant'.

whence
masse.

also
sb.

OHG.

tnassa

G.

mart sb. short for inarkct. marten short for martern orig.
martrc
martii).
aie.

mass^
masse

'the

j/iartre

adopted

fr.

OE.

mcesse;

eucharist me. evidently

identical w. osAX. tnissa, DU. word, which mis, OHG. messa missa G. messe'. supplanted a genuine OE. mearp, a Christian word from ivied.is of Teut. origin: on. mgrdr, LAT. ?nissa 'mass' fr. ?nesse OHG. viardar G. niarder DU. (whence me. messe). inarter] OSAX. "^marthar inferred mast ME. mast oe. fncest fr. the adj. marthnii. DU. LG. G. SW. DAN. mast, ON.
FR. inartre (=^ it. martora, span.

The

Fr.

viartin,

fr. In accordance with fr. mastr. proper name Grimm's law, the Teut. base Martin, wliich was applied to masta- is based on pre-TEUT. various birds and animals; cp. mazdoLAT. mains (for *madus)

martin

sb.

borrowed

orig. the

robin-

red-breast.

'a

mast'.
sb.

martyr
tyr

= OSAX. martir, OHG. martyr,


:

sb. me. ;nartir OE.

mar-

master

me.

maister
fr.

late

OE. mceiester

borrowed
,

ofr.
:

GOTH, martyr (with suffix DU. maistre fr. maitre (= it. maestro) martelaar, ohg. martirari G. 7ndr- source LAT. magister whence tyrer^ fr. lat.-gr. martyr 'a witalso OSAX. mhtar, DU. meester, ness'. OHG. mcistar G. meister. See

marvel rowed fr.

vb.

me.

merveile

bor- mister.
fr.

FR. fnerzieil/er; source


thinars'.

LAT. mirabilia 'wonderful

mastifFME. wi'ji-/'//"wrt'iV//"adopted OFR. mcstif prop, an adj. fr.

134
the sb. OFR.
'a
7)iastin

mat

mayi li-

(fr. matui)

mastiff'.

mat
DU.
IT.

ME.

matte

oe.

tneatta
g.
fr.

=
oe.

7natras)

mattress me. materas (= du. borrowed fr. ofr. 77iate-

ras

FR,

77iateias

med.-lat.

vtat,

OHG. matta
rug',

tnatte,

7/iat7-atiu7n\
'a

viatta
'a

matta

borrowed whence
me.

lat. prop,
/lattf.

source ARAB. 7nat7-ali place where something


adj.

fr.

is

thrown'.

match'
-^cmcrcca
'a

sb.

macche
E.

maudlin

companion' ident. w. ME.

OE.

OFR. Magdeleine, lat.-gr. Magof a dale7ia. Ma7'ia Magdalena was candle, a match' me. macche considered a type of sorrowing borrowed fr. fr. fnlxhe 'match penitence. of a lamp' source lat. jnyxa maul vb. me. 77ialle 'strike with 'the nozzle of a lamp'. mate sb. 'a companion' jie. a mair formed fr. the me. sb.

lemaca sb.
sb.

Majuielei7i

make.

corrupted
Magdelai7ie

fr.

=r

match-

'the

wick

77ialle 'a mall' borrowed fr. ir. DU. maat, OSAX. '"'gwiato, OHG. gima7,%o mhg. gemai^i^e, oe. 7nail 'a mall', whence also niallMaundy Thursday :me. 77iau7ide ''"lemdta (wanting) would be derived from oe. mete meat; thursdai fr. ofr. mandi (= OHG. hence mate prop, 'mess-mate'. MHG. fnanddt^ 'the ceremony of mate adj. me. mdte mat 'con- Christ's washing his disciples' founded, dejected borrowed fr. feet': source lat. 7na7iddtu7n acOFR. fr. tmit (= SPAN. ?nate, cording to John XIII 34. IT. 7/iattd). Source the Arab.mauve 'mallow color' borrowed

7ndte

"

expression in the chessplay sc/idh mat 'the king is dead'.


Pers.

fr.

fr. 7/iauve

'a

mallow'

= lat.

77ialva\

ident. w. 7n allow.

matins,
fr.

mattins
plur.

'morning

prayers' me. matin{e)s:

borrowed
of
matin

maw
'stomach'

me.
G.

FR.

matins

'morning': source lat. matutinus

mach'
77iagi

ohg. mago 'sto7/iagefi, DU. 7/iaag, ON.

77iawe

oe.

;aga

'belonging to the morning'; cp. LAT. hora matutina in ohg. mettina


G.
7nette

'stomach'.
vb. me.
G.

may
fr.

mai oe.

mce"^

'matutinal service'.
sb. me. matere

matter
fr.

adopted
lat.

OSAX. OHG. GOTH. mag.


to OSLOV.

DU. mag, ON. 7nd, TEUT. \'^ 7fiag (7/!Ug)


is

FR.

matiere]

source

ARYAN magh
mogq
77iay

closely allied
'be
fr.

materia 'materials'.

7/iosti

able'.

mattock

jNIE.

nmttok oe. mattoc

May
FR.

me.

7nai

fr.

Mai

prob. fr. CYMR. viatog 'a hoe'; but OSLOV. 7/iotyka and LITH. matikas 'mattock* point to a Teut.

(lat. Mains

7ne7isis).

mayor
fr.

sb.

7/iai/-e:

me. 7nai/'e adopted source LAT. 771ajor

word.

'greater'.

me

mean

135

pers. pron. dat. and ace. an ARYAN v'" "^^^^'^ 'thin, long'. ME. OE. me fr. a Teut. and ARYAN lith. mdzas 'small' and ohg. stem nu- in GOTH, mis 7)ii-k, magar might point to a common GR. V" magh. Perh. the Teut. group G. mi-r 7in-ch, lat. mihi me us lie; skr. mahyam comes fr. vulg. lat.-it. magro. Lioi tuoi

me

I-

me
t/ia-

dat.,

imim
sb. me.

7/id

ace.;

base

meali
mclo
m'elo,

sb. 'flour'

me. m(le

(gen.

7nelwes)

oe.

OSAX.
wyV)/:

mead^
DU.
g.

fn(de oe. f/ieodo

DU. DAN. meel,


"^'m'elwa-

ohg. melo
on.
'flour

:mlg. met,

7)ieiie

ohg.

;;/t'/^

(gen. melawes')

o. w^/?/,

w/V

ox.

mjgdr:

base Teut. base

meal'

teut. w^^/w i= ARYAN *tfiedhu; cp. lit. 'that which is ground' from SKR. mddhu 'honey, sweet drink', a Teut. and ARYAN \'" mel 'grind' OR. i-iBtyv 'wine' (allied jiisSim seen in osAX. ohg. goth. imdan 'I am drunk', a,-';!^/; 'drunkenness'), DU. 7nalen G. 77iahlen, ON. 7nala OSLOV. 7;iedu 'honey, wine lith. 'grind'; cp. LAT. /wf/t', GR. fivXXc, mediis 'honey', IR. osLOV. 77/e//a (7;/teti), LiTH. f7/a/u midiis 'mead'

mid.

(md/ti),

OIR.

f//e/i7/i

'grind';

cp.

'meadow' (now in 7nill. poetry) ME. imde OE. mdd (gen. meal'- sb. 'a repast' mk. w<"7 DU. mat iiLG. tnade vickdwe^ OSAX. 7Hdl, DU. 77iaal, G. 77iahl, olg. mdtha iridda, ofris. meth, ON. w7, OHG. *//// wanting with G. viatte, GOTH. *tnedwa: based this meaning; ident. w. goth. on a TEUT. V" imip med, con- 77iH time', oe. 7>i(bI 'time'. nected w. LAT. f/ieto 'I mow, mean adj. me. 7naie oe. J<e77i(kne reap' and showing a shorter a Teut. base ga-7nai7iifr. form me in E. moiv. But the OSAX. gi77ieni, GOTH. ga7naitis represent ''^me might GOTH. DU. ohg. gi/tiel/ii G. ge7nein, the root and twd the suffix. <rw//cogn. w. lat. ge7nee7i\ meadow iiE. medwe oe. mckd

mead-

sb.

gen. mdd7ae. A/e ad and meadoiv //i- with GOTH. rt^/^Jare related as shade and shaoi/io-s. dow. Cp. mead. meagre adj. me. mcgre bor- mean vb. me. wr'//^- oe. OSAX. 7timia7i, DU. rowed fr. FK. maigre (= span. OHG. 77ieinett inei/tari g. source lat, macei: IT. 7nai]rd):

7/uinis

for

co7/i-i7ioi/ii-s\

cp.

lat.

ARYAN
7/id/ia/i
i7iee/ieii,

7/iei7ien,

'lean,

thin,

meagre',
is

oe. tna'^er
!

oyi.7/iei/ia,
1/ieiijq

GO-m.*7nai7iJa7i;
is

OSLO v.
allied.

{= DU. MLG. G.
ox.

mager ohg. magar,

7/te7iiti

closely

magr

common

Teut.).

Connected with v^
>/ii/i

w^?// 'think' in

The

forms with i-Ai". Teut. uur.macer, GR. ua/.tdvoy tall oog long" have prob. come fr.
,

dl
adj. me.
fr.
;//<>/<

mean

adj. 'middle'

contracted

'^7iiej(n

=^

ofr.

136

mercy

meyen FR. moyen 'intermediate': adj. midhvds 'spending lavishly'). meek adj. me. mek (late oe. source LAT. mediamis. measles sb. me. mesel sb. *mdoc) borrowed fr. the equiv. sw. ?/iJuk, dan. loan- on. mjukr adj. leprous': leper' word fr. OFR.w^^^/=LAT. jniselliis. fuyg 'soft', cp. DU. muik 'soft',

fr.

rowed

bor- GOTH, fuiiks (inferred fr. mukaSPAN. 7nddci 'meekness'). meet vb. me. mete OE. metaii. from LAT. it. misiird) mesura OSAX. motian, DU. moeten, vb. menstira. meat me. mete oe. tnete fr, a ON. mcita, GOTH, gamotjan 'meet' OSAX. meii, TEUT. \f7)lbt. Teut. base matimeet adj. mk. mite oe. lemdte DU. 7fief (in -wurst), ohg. wa;, OFRis. mete, mlg. tnate, ohg. ON. matr, GOTH, fnats 'food'. medal borrowed fr. FR. jh^- gimdi^i; cp. mete. daille {= SPAN, medalla IT. melt vb. me. melte oe. meltan; An medagUii); source a lat. type for the V" ^'^'^^^ ^^^ /<?//". Aryan V" meld is evident in skr. metallea fr. LAT. metaUum.

measure
,

sb. me. fn^'silre

FR. mesiire

(=

m.eddle me. medle {tncle^ 'mix' mrdii 'soft, borrowed fr. OFR. medler inesler 'cook'.
miscnlare
'mix',

tender',
sb. me.
fr.

GR. /.UXdaiv

= FR. meter source a lat. type lat. mis medley me. medle OFR, medle mesle adopted medlee = fr.
:

menace
borrowed
minacia')

menace mandce
7nc>iace

'mix'

fr.

cere

fr.

(lat.
for

sb.

'tlireat'.

fr.

mend
atnende

vb.

tnende
fr.

short

(fern,

trie I^e')

part,

borrowed
etnendare').

fr. amc?ider
af/iend.

of OFR. medler 'mix'. miedlar sb, me, medlc-tre

(lat.
fr.

See
adj.,

OFR. meslier mesle 'medlar-tree': source lat. mespilmn 'a medlar'.

meed
once

sb.

me.

oe.

med
'

(oe.

=^ osAX. tneda, DU. miedc, OHG. ?<?/; wzV/Za G. sionata. merchant me. marchaunt martniete 'hire' GOTH, tnizdo 'reward' marz of which was lost in chaund borrowed fr. OFR. (the FR. marchand: source Teut. witli lengthening- of / to chant market). e) fr. an aryan mizdho- in gr. LAT. mercari 'buy' (cp.
f/ieord)
;

but also used as sb.) me. meineal formed with the suffix -al fr. me. meini This is maini 'a household'. borrowed fr. OFR. inesne meistiee answering to a LAT. type *;;/(?-

menial (prop,

fiialfog 'wages,

pay,

hire',

OSLOV.

mercy
FR.

me.

mer(i

borrowed
med.-

mizda

avest.

mizda

'wages', from

tnerci

(source

OIND. midhd (for mizdho) 'contest, LAT. fnerces 'mercy, pity' extended See match, booty' (perh. orig. 'a fr. LAT, merx 'traffic'). prize' by inference fr. the skr. market, merchant.

lid

137
fnissus.

merge
merit

vb.

inergcrc 'plunge
inie.

adopted under

fr,

lat.

an extension of lat.

the

water'.

Hence

messenger

(with

fr. fr. mirite. insertion of 7i as in passenger) me. mer-tnaide; OE. ME. messagir formed fr. message 7/ierc 'ocean' me. i/nye agree with the suffix -er denoting 'the with OHG. OSAX. jricri, GOTH. agent'. marei 'ocean'; cp. marsh. metal me. metal borrowed fr. merry adj. me. mirie OE. rny7-^e E'R. mital. from a Teut. base niurgi- 'short' mete vb. 'measure' ]\ie. tucte in OHG. murgfari 'of short life', OE. metan sw. vb. 'measure' Swiss 7nurg 'mannikin'; cp, goth. GOTH, mitan, G. messen ohg. mc'^z^an, viaurgjan 'shorten'. The adj. DU. meten. ?niirguTEUT. 'short' IE. mettle ident. w. tnetal but mrghu- corresponds to gr. /J^pa-

merit

mermaid

yvc

'short'

(for ""aga/vc).

me. fnesche oe. mcesce ohg. mdsca G. of a cat's cry. maschc the Teut. base *?/tesgen ME. tniw oe. 7ndw cp. belongs to the IE. tnezg in lith. DU. meeuw on. md-r, G. moive: mdzgas 'knot' from the vb. mezgii TEUT. base maiw-.
sb.

mesh

^= on.

meaning now 'spirit, ardor'. mew vb. onomatopoetic like DU. maauwen, g. maiien; imitative

mpskve,

mew

{megsti) 'knot,

weave

nets';

hence

mesh may be traced


mete
osAX.

to a teut.

mickle me. mikcl michel


7/iuchcl,
771 ikits
,

\^ mcsq (aryan mezg 'braid).


vb. me. mete oe. m'etan
fiictan
, ,

oe.

7/iicel
i7iikill

77iycel

= goth.
77itich.
i/iid

7iutkel

ON.

77iykill ,

OSAX.
7nidd
7nit-,

DU. mete?i ohg. inc"i^an G. nicsscn, on. vieta, GOTH. mitan with which is allied GOTH.
mitbii

1/iikiI,

ohg.

77iihhil\
7/iid

cp.
oe.

= OSAX.
E.

mid-

adj. me.
77uddi,

OHG.
G.,

7Tiitti

g.

'think

over',

ohg.

m'e"i^dn

ON. midr, goth.

7nidjis.

In

mod.

moderate'. The teut. \Pmet is based on the ARYAN \fmed in


GR. utdnuui 'counselor'

and

a corn- 77udsu7ti7ner, 77iidwinter g. t/iittag, measure', LAT. modtis 'manner' 77iitte7-nacht, 77nttwoch (orig. dat. tnodius 'a corn-measure', goth. sing.). The teut. stem 77iidjamitaj>s 'measure'. answers to aryan 77iidhyo; cp. mess sb. me. messe borrowed GR. usnoc (for "ndjo.s-) , skr. fr. OER. fnes fr. tnets (source 7/iddhyas, LAT. 77iedius. middle lat. missus fr. tnittere) "send' and adj. and sb. me. oe. 7niddel in MED. -lat. put, place'). DU. 77iiddel, ohg. 7nittil G. 7nittel; message me. message borrowed with formative -/ from the adj. fr. FR. message: lat. type missatica 771 id.
jnhdiurog
\

devise'

E. 77iid-

in

mod.
G.

the adjectives
77udle/it,

7/iit-

are only used in

ut-dntv

compounds

as e. 77iidday,

138

midge

milt

me. migge oe. f?iycg fr. mugjoOSAX. muggia, DU. 7nug, OHG. tnucka G. milcke. From ON. my it may be inferred that the West-Teut. guttural is secondary. midst formed with excrescent / from ME. in niiddes equivalent to a m id. mien borrowed fr. fr. mine fr.
a Teut. base

midge

(passuum) lit. 'thousand paces', (whence also FR. milk, it. miglid).

The more

frequent
in

plur.

milia

was adopted

Rom. and G.

as

a fem. sing, (omitting passimni).


feuille

milfoil ME. milfoil fr. fr. milleLAT. inillefolium.

milk ME. milk oe. ^= OSAX. miluk, DU.


miluh G.
miluks.

t/ieoloc

mile

IT.

7>iina

OIT. me}ia

'fashion,

ohg. milch, on. mjolkr, goth. It is remarkable that a


melk,

carriage ofman': sourceMED.-LAT. common Aryan or at least a minarc 'conduct, lead'. West -Aryan term for 'milk' is might ME. might oe. miht meaht wanting, although the \f melg ^= ^=^ OSAX. OHG. maht, du. magt,

teut.

fftelk 'to

milk' occurs in all

GOTH, mahts. The common teut. *t?iahti is an old verbal abstract from goth. magan (like OSLOV. most! from See *mokti from mogq 'clean').
G. macht, ON. mdttr,
tn

the West-Aryan languages.

From
:

oe. a common Indo-Eur. vb. melcan, DU. melken, ohg. melchan G. melken, goth. ''^milkan. Cp. lat.

mulgere
(pres.

GR.

af.iBXy^iv

oSLOV.
t7ulsti.

ay.
'^

mlcsti (pres. mliizii),


ynilzii)

lith.

miilch adj. me. inilche oe. my Ice: deriv. of milk\ cp. the equiv. mjolkr OHG. adj's. ON. milkr
,

OIR. mbligim {inlicht

and melg
ME.
7nilke

'milk').

milk

vb.

oE. meolcian

{=

ofris.

m'elch

melka, ON. ?njdlka) fr. oe. meolc. me. oe. milde raiill ME. 7nille earlier milne oe. DU. G. mild OHG. OSAX. mi/di DU. my In (whence ON. mylnci) milti GOTH, mildcis. ON. mildr OHG. tnuli{n) G. molen mculen Cogn. w. oiR. meldach 'agreeable' mfihle; borrowed fr. late LAT. or blaitli 'soft, smooth' (base common ROM. fnolina 'mill' (for mlati-) ? or oSLOV. mladii 'young, class. LAT. mold), whence also

G. tnelk,

oe.

t/i'elc.

mild
,

adj.

tender', lith. mildiis 'pious'

=
G.
fr.

mildew

me. mildew oe. miled{aw

IT.

mulino, FR. moulin.

millet fr. FR. millet; source lat. DU. mceldainv, OHG. mili-tou 7iiehltau\ the first part is prob. milium 'millet'. du. milt, milt ME. oe. milte GOTH, milip 'honey OE. mele

mihka 'a honeyed drink'; ORG. milzi G. f?iilz, ON. milti: from the second part see under dew. the TEUT. sfmelt seen in malt. DU. E. and DU. milt soft roe of fishes' mile ME. mile OE. mil a corruption of milk (sw. mijl, OHG. mlla tuilla (for ^milja) is
cp. ON.

G. meile:

borrowed

fr.

lat. mtlia mjolke

'milt'

fr.

mj'olk 'milk',

dan.

139
fiskcmclk 'soft roe of fishes',
'fisli-milk).
lit.

mingle a

frequent, vb. from me.

mingc menge OE. fnengan

= OSax.

min- mpigiajt, DU. fnengen, ohg. mengan Cp. sian wk. vb. 'make small' deriv. fr. G. viengen, goth. *maggjan. DU. min 'smaller'; am fig. OE. ?nin(nii) minnow 'a fish' me. minowe oe. cp. FR. tninccr 'mince' from mince *mynwe (and wjv/^'capito ) OHG. 'small' of Teut. origin.

mince

vb. me. mince oe.

mane, hess. mcvhn} mind': Teut. base unknown. goth. ga-munds ga-mundiminster me. minster oe. mynster 'memory' from goth. ga-munan fr. du. a base munistirjaOSAX. (far)munan "despise", munster OHG. munistri prop, ON. viuna, OE. letnundiT, cp. GOTH. 'monastery' then convent-church' mind', desire miins 'purpose G. fniinster after lat.-gr. fnonalove', 'mind desire ON. mimr sterium, whence also fr. nioutier Allied OE. jnyne 'memory, love'. 'monastery, convent'. to ON. m/w 'remembrance, mind', minstrel me. miftistral menestral OHG. minnia and OSAX. ?ninna borrowed fr. FR. minestrel: source OHG. minni G. minne 'love', orig. LAT. ministerialis 'an artisan, jester, All belong to 'remembrance'. buffoon'. the common Aryan and teut. man 'think'; cp. GR. /.tkroc mint sb. me. mint oe. 7nynet \fmen DU. munt, OHG. 7nuni~^ nmni".^a 'courage, mind, jiiiuv7J(yy,(o I g. milnze: TEUT. viunita- ?njinitdremember', lat. mejuini reminiscor borrowed fr. lat. moneta 'place mens moneo, skr. \/^?nan 'think, of coinage, money', whence also believe'. FR. monnaie under money. mine possessive pron. me. oe. mint- sb. 'a plant' me. oe. miiite tnin OSAX. OHG. min, DU. mijn, DU. munt, OHG. minza G. minze G. 7neiti (also OHG. min G. meine/'), adapted fr. lat. mentha ?nenta ON. minn, goth. mcins: derived (gr. jiiivda) whence also fr. fr. the stem me- of the pers. ment/ie, it. span, menta. pron. cp. me and for the suffix mire^ 'deep mud' me. /nire oe. cp. SKR. makina 'mine and thine. myre from west-teut. miurjon du. fnijn, G. ON. mvrr 'slime' mine sb. uv..mine the r of tliese DAN. f/iinc: borrowed from fr. words is orig. z ^r= s] cp. OE. meos tnine {= span. it. mimi): of Celt, 'moss' by the side of oe. mos origin; cp. IR. Gael. 7nfin 'metal', 'moss, swamp G. moos also signiBRET, men 'stone, metal, cymr. fies 'marsh'; cp. moss. Hence mwyn 'metal CELT, base jncna e. mire prop, 'mossy soil'. mcina ? mire- cp. pismire.

mind

sb. me. minde oe. "^e-mynd

mimiwa 'capedo';

cp.

'memory,

westphal. Etymology

140

mirth

mole
small',

mirth me,

mirihe earlier
fr.

ftiur/ide

OE. 7nyrgd deriv.

OE.

myv^c

whence goth. maitan


'cut'.

on. meita

merry

with formative length, strengtii).

-ih

(as in

mis-,

^ prefix me. oe. misdu. OHG. viissa- missi- G. miss-, ON. mis-\ GOTH, missa- for '^mipta-

mis

mite'- sb. 'a very small portion' ME. mite borrowed fr. ODU. mijt a small coin. mitten me. mitaine borrowed
fr.

FR. mitaine 'a mitten'.

(prop.
to-

from mldan me.

{=

vb. ME. mixe OE. miseian ohg. miskan from *misk/an viithe 'shun avoid' mhg. mlg. g. mischen: all prob. OSAX. midan, ohg. mldan G. borrowed fr. lat, miscere 'mix'.
'lost')
is

an old part, in a \("mip seen in OE.


,

mix

meideti). Akin to gnim 'misdeed' ?

oiR.

mi

in ml-

mizzen
misaine

sb.
IT.

borrowed
mezzana:

fr.

fr.

source

mis 2 prefix older w^y- borrowed


fr.

LAT. medius.
scgel.

Ident. w. G. bezaan-

OFR.

mes-

(tR.

mischief moan vb.ME. mone (oe. *?/idjiian^ borrowed fr. Ofr. with the by-form me. md/x oe. ines-chief 'a bad result, damage' nice nan 'moan'. fr. mis'*" and chief (cp. me. bonmoat sb. ME. tnote borrowed chi'f 'happiness'). miscreant fr. ofr. jnote 'dike'. borrowed fr. OFR. mescreaiit mock fr. FR. se moquer.
LAT. minus
'less'.

;//t'-)

source

ME,

f/ies-chef

(source lat.

crcdent-eiri).

mode
missan

fr.

FR. 7node.
fr.

= DU,

miss

vb. ME. misse

oe.

moiety borrowed

fr. moitii

G. misscn, ON. missa,

goth,

(lat. type 7nedietateni).

Evidently connected moist adj. me. tnoiste 'moist, with WEST-TEUT. mipan 'avoid' in fresh': borrowed fr. ofr. tnoiste OE. mldan, ohg. midan G. mciden {= FR. ?noite). Source lat. 'avoid. Cp. ?/iis. musteus 'belonging to new must miss contr. of mistress. or wine', also 'new, fresli' (^mustiis mist ME. OE. mist du. mist, 'new wine'). LG. mist 'darkness fog mist', mole^ sb. 'a mark on the body' on. fnistr 'darkness, mist'. ME. 77iple OE. Tndl ohg. meil mister me. maister r^ master. also tneila, GOTH, mail 'a spot', mistle ME. mistel oe. 7nistel mole'- sb, 'breakwater' borOHG. mistil G. mistel on. ??iistel rowed fr, FR. mole 'a bank'
missjan.

=
fr.
.

'mistletoe.
misteltdn
w/ji-///

mistletoe
>nistilsttinii)

oe.

(=
pile'.

IT.

7nole
'a

?nolo^

source

{=
sb.

on.
'a

LAT. moles

great heap, a vast


'an
tnolle

bird-lime'
^

and tan 'branch


small insect

mite
'a

OE. mite

LG. mite,
:

me. ohg. miyi

mole^

sb.

insectivorous

animal' me.

=^ du.

fttoH

midge,

fly

teut. \fmit 'cut Prob.

short

for

me. moldciverp

monday

more

141

G. mauhvurf. G. mut, goth. mods, on. modr. ME. molde OE. mglde 'earth' The orig. meaning of the teut. =: ON. mold, OHG. molta, goth. stem moda- was perhaps 'strong w/^/(^/i:7 'earth' and from the\'~ werp emotion, violent excitement and seen in goth. wairpan\ see was prob. derived fr. the \^ wawarp. in GR. {.lauGd^at desire". monday me. unmenday OE. moon me. tnone oe. f?iptia ^= f/iona/ida;'^ du. 7iiaandag, ohg. OSAX. OHG. mdno, du. maan, G. fnanatac G. moiitag, on. mdnadagr: mond ON. mdni, goth. jnena the common Teut. name for 'the moon'. The Teut. base LAT. dies Lunac (fr. Inndi, it. menan- (and nienopmont/i) lunedt) the first syllable of is cogn. with the greater part

OHG. moliw'erf

From

fnonday

is

ident. w.

money
fr.

me.

motieie

OFR. mo/teie SPAN. jHonedciy source lat. moiieta. monger sb. me. oe. mongere OE. LAT. fnhisis 'month', osax. meseci mangcre {= OHG. mangdri, ON. 'moon, month', lith. memi 'moon' mavgari) formed from OE. wavienesis'v(XQ\\i\\ OlR.w/ 'month'. ^'zVz// 'trade' with suffix -ere. Moor^ sb. 'an inhabitant of Source lat. mango 'a defrauding Barbery' borrowed fr. fr. More; trader source LAT. Maurus whence monk :xiE. mofik oe. mtmuc also SPAN. IT. Moro, ohg. Mor osax. mu/iik, DU. Jiioimik, ohg, G. Mohr. munih(h) G. monch: source lat. moor^ sb. 'a tract of unfilled monachus (gr. uoraxo^^j whence land' :me. oe. mor a moor, morass, also FR. moinc and OIR. vianach. OSAX. mor, DU. 7noer, monkey formed like donkey. bog' OHG. muor, LG. G. moor; related source IT. tnonna mona 'ape', whence also G. (16. cent.) mun- to OE. fnere, org. meri 'sea' LAT. ?fmre 'sea'. See marsh.

(=

moon. of the terms for 'moon, month' borrowed in the other ARYAN languages fr. montiaie cp. SKR. mas (for mans mens) IT. jnonetd)'. 'moon, month' mdsa 'month', See fnint^. GR. f.i7Jv (for ^'jLiij'vS) 'month',

aff 'simia prasiana'.

me. moncth oe. mpnap DU. tnaand, OHG. mdnod G. motiai. OT<!.mdnudr,GOT:il. menops. The common Teut. stem jncnop'month' (pre-TEUT. ?nendt-^ is ident. w. vicnanteut.

month

me. tnareis bormarais {= it. marese), whence also du. ?/ioras


sb.

morass

rowed

fr.

FR.

moon.

ME. OE. jnod osax. mod, DU. moed, ohg. vmot


sb.

mood

= more adj. me. more = = OSAX. OHG. mere


7neer,

moras (whence G. source med.-lat. maragium 'swamp, marsh'.


fnoeras
,

LG.

tnorast)

oe. 7ndra

G. 7nehr,

on.

meiri;

goth.

du. maiza

142

morning
iza is the

mother^
'a

(whose
(r

OTeut. coinOE. nidra

swamp,
ON.

plant' G. moos 'plant,


tnosi

parat. suffix)

became

bog',

'moss,

mire'.

from z by rhotacism) The Ident. w. OE. meos, ohg. mios stem 7na- belongs to the teut. from a Teut. base fneusa-, whence adj. nic-ra- 'iUustrious'. mire. Outside of teut., lat. morning jme. morni/tge mor- miisais and OSLOV. vmchic are
weninge deriv. of OE. morgen =^ OSAX. OHG. vi07-gan, DU. G. morgen, ON. morgunn and myrgenn, goth. tnaurgins: a common TEUT. word for the first half of the day from day break. Cp. evening.
cognate.

and adv. 'greatest most OE. mast commonly OE. mdst OSAX. mest, DU. meest, OHG. G. meist, ON. mestr,
adj.
in size' me.

most

GOTH,
to

moists.

Superl. belonging

morrow;
7norrow.

see 7norn

and

to-

the

compar.

more.
ohg. ohg.
to
?nost.

goth.
be^ist,

maists has the old superl. suffix


fr.

morsel me. tnorsH adapted


OFR.
IT.

like

GOTH,

bat-ists,

morsel
morselto)
:

(=

fr.

morgeaii,

OE. betst (for bet-est).

The

adj.

dimin.

of
in

lat.

stem
OE.

GOTH,
etc.

tub's,

ha-ri,

morsiim

bit'.

mdre

seems
oe.

be the
(plur.

mortar'

'a

vessel

which

base of

more and
7ngte
;

substances are beaten to powder' ME. inortir OE. jnorUre (= DU.


mortiery.

mote
motii)

ME.

mot

'atom'

the ME. form


of.

are
plur.

borrowed

fr.

fr. tnorlier

based

on the

nom.

'mortar'

SPAN, moriero, IT. fnorta/o^ Cp. DU. mot} source lat. mortarium moth ME. tnoththe oe. tnoppe :=r 'a vessel in which substances DU. motyf), MHG. G. motte, on. moiti, are pounded'. sw. mott a moth' with the bymortar- 'a mixture of lime forms MHG. matte, oe. mohpe me. and of sand so called from the moughpe.
:

(=

1 I\ie. mdder oe. mo dor OSAX. tnodar DU. moeder, fr. fr. mortier (= OHG. nmoter G. fmttter, on. modir. SPAN. morter 0, it. mortajo~), The common teut. word for whence also DU. mortel, jSIHG. 'mother' (gotH. saidrt'/'/5^r/). teut. morter ??iortel G. 7jwrte[): source 7fiddr- 'mother' from ARYAN tnatrLAT. mortariiun. in SKR. ??iatr, gr. /.n^vqo uartj^j, mortgage borrowed fr. fr. LAT. fnater, oSLOV. mati OlR. mortgage lit. 'a dead pledge'. tndthir 'mother'.

vessel

in

which
me.

it

was

made

mortar"^ adopted

morter

mortier

mother

moss me. OE. mos 'a swamp, mother^ 'dregs, lees' from a plant': Teut. base mosa'^'mudder ODU. modder. 'mud, DU. mos 'moss, plant', ohg. mos dregs', DU. mocr 'dregs, lees',

motley

muff

143

LG.

G.

vioder,

'mud,

mould'.

motley rowed fr. OFR.


curdled'.

dan. sw. mudder 'mouse' with the \^ f/ius mm Cogn. \v. mud. musdy 'take away, rob'; also adj. me. motle bor- GR. ^ivq, LAT. nitlS, OSLOV. 7}iysi.
Jiiattcld

'clotted,

mouth
OSAX.

me. jnouth oe.

7tttid

77iud,

DU.

77l0nd,

mould'
ME.
OE.

sb.

'fine

soft

earth'

G. 7>tund, ON. 77iu7i7ir


77iiinps
!

earth,
'dust':

mglde country'

ground, ohg.
goth.
in

land,
violta,
\

'mouth'.

OHG. 7/timd 7/mdi-, GOTH. The teut.

77mnpa-z

'mouth'
77i37ito-s
77ieiitii77i

ON. mold 'mould',

mulda pre-TEUT.
cold.
'a

is based on and connected

\f

ffial

(cp.

meat) with with LAT.


old,

'chiu'.

formative

as

move
77ievoir

vb.
fr.

me.

7iigvc
fr.

with

the

mould^
fr.

sb. ME. mglde

adopted by-form moeve


moduhis
l>i-

OFR.

OFR.

molle

(fr.

?fumle)

7nouvoir

7/wvoir

lat.

mould':

source

lat.

77iovere.

dimin. of f/iodus 'measure'. moult vb. ME. ?nouie OE.

mow
7/niga

sb.

ME. 77iowe 7/iouwe oe.

7>iu'wa

= on.

77iugi

'heap';
orig.

borrowed fr. LAT. 'change', whence also DU.


miltian:

miitare
muiteti,

OHG. 7/w-werf 'mole' 'maker of mole-heaps'.


cp.

OHG.

7nii"J"i

G. 7nausern

'change
fr.

mow
str.

vb. JME.

77i(hve

oe. 7/idwa7t
,

the feathers or skin, moult'.

mount
mohkr

vb.

vb.

adapted
7nouiit:

fr.
77iae7i

;= DU. mhg. 77iceje7i

77taaijen

ohg.

g. 77idhen.
sf7iie.

A
in

'mount'.

mount
The

sh.UE.

loanword
(mons).

common

avest-teut.
77i(i'p

'mow'

appears in oe.
aftei--, laltiT-'),

(e. 77iath

from FR. fno?it. ?niint from lat.

Ident. with OE.


jnontem

ohg.

7/uid G. 7/iahd

'mowing, swath', and in GR. MF. on ;=; u is not the OE. I a-ud(o a-ii>]TOQ 'harvest' it, but substitution for the FR. mow' and in lat. 77ietc7'e 'reap mountain me. much me. 77wche 77iiiche for nasal vowel. mountaine fr. OFR. montaitie a earlier 7/iuchel OE. 7/iyc'el fr. FR. fftontag/ie (lat. type monTeut. base 77iukila- {77ukila-)\ tanccj) cogn. w. GR. 1.11-ydXrj and usyac, mourn vb. me. mounic oe. SKR. 77idha7i 'great'. Cp. 77iickle. miirnan str. vb. osax. morfiian, muck me. 77iuck borrowed fr. OHG. mornen, ON. morna, GOTH. ON. 7/iyki SCAND. *77iukmmirnan ARYAN \^ mer in gr. a 77iykr 'dung'. tdoinva sorrow' and 'Lh.T.7nemor. OLG. 77iudde mouse me. mous (plur. mis) mud ME. 7/lud

OE.

7m'i.s

(plur.

fiiyi)

DU.

micis,

'mud'.

muff vb. DU. 77iof LG. G. s\y. OHG. iniis G. }naus, ON. f/iiis. The base mih- occurs in almost all 77iiiff\ DAN. 77iuffe a new teut. ARYAN languages. Cp. skr. 7fius word derived fr. FR. mouflc

144
'mitten',

imilbenv

med.-lat. viuffula (q*^

murky
rowed
OSAX.
fr.

me.

77ii7'ke

77urk

borident.

cent.).

Cogn.

w.
fr.

fiiuffle

vb.

ON. 77iyrkr
7/iy7'ce.

and
OE.

'cover

up warmly'
:me.

ofr. nioujie w. oe. 7nirce


t7iii'ki

77iy7-ce,

'mitten'.

and

on.

7/iyrkr

mulberry
,

oe. milrberie oe.

'dark'

represent
vb.

a Teut.

base

moerbesie ohg. 7>wrberi morlnri G. maulbeere', the / of the first part of the compound for r is the effect of dissimilation mdr is LAT. ffiorum 'a mulberry'. The
;

mor-berie ^= DU.

moerbes

77iirkwi-.

murmur
adopted
fr.

me.

77iw-77iure

{^= SPAN. 77tur77turar, it. 77i07-77iorare, OHG. mur77iuron G. 77iU7-7/iel7i) source lat. 77iU7-77iU7'are.
771117- 77iU7- 7'
:

FR.

second part
addition.

is

an explanatory

muscle adopted

fr.

fr.

77iitscle:

mule
mule',

ME.

mille

borrowed
mu/us
7/mlo,
it.

fr.

source lat. 7nusculus 'a muscle, a little mouse', dimin. of 77ius


'a

FR. mule; source LAT.

whence
(ohg.
sb.

also

maulcsel
71111 f).

mul^

OIR.

murder
7)iordor

me.

f/iorther

mouse' (gr. f^Lvq) 'a mouse, a muscle'. From the same source oe. also DU. G. 77iuskel 'a muscle'. must sb. me. OE. 77iust 'new oe. wine' (= DU. G. 77iost, on. 77ius{)
'a

o.

GOTH.

77iaurpr\

from adopted
wine',

fr.

lat.

musttmi

'new

\^t/ir

77idr 'die'

77l07'd ON. 77lOrd, DU. 7>l007-d, OHG. G. 77iord 77ioist etc. 'premeditated murder'. teut. must vb. ME. OE. 77ioste pret. 77iorpa- 'murder' is based on of OE. 7)ipta7l OSAX. 7716 ta 71, pre-TEUT. 7/irto-7n 'death': \f7710r DU. 77wete7i, OHG. niuo'7^a7i g. widely diffused through all the 77iilssen, GOTH. TnotuTi.

Cp.

oe.

and

suffix -pra\

whence also ofr. 7/iousl, OSAX. FR. 77wfd, IT. 7/iosto. See 77171s ty,

TTlOrth,

Aryan languages

signified

'die'.

mustard

me. 77iustard 77tostard


7noste7-d
\

Cp. the SKR. y^77ir 'die' 'death' mrtas 'dead'


'mortal')
77i07-i

{7/irtd-77i

(=

DU.

7710s taard,

G.
fr.

77idita-s

77iostc7-t

{77iost7-icK)

borrowed

'die'

77irtyus

'death';

77107- tuns' d&did'

'death'; OSLOV.^wr// 'die'


su-7/iriiti

'death'

7/ioru'die'

LAT.
77iors

OFR. 77lOUSta7'd ^= FR. 77iouta7-d. Source OFR. W^WJ^ LAT. 7/lUStllS

77irutvu
77iirti

'new wine'. (lat. mutfe ME.

7/iuei

fr.

fr.

//met.

77ioriiius)

77n7'tls 'death' * uQ0T6g)'morial'

'dead

lith.
;

Source lat.

//mtus 'dumb'.

GR.

(j(jorng (for

mutton ME. /^/'6'w^'^z^/^ adopted


fr.

'/!^^orot,' "im-

mortal';

OIR.

77iarb

'dead'.

muzzle

OFR. 77ioton (fr. 77l0Ut0/l). ME. TTiosel borrowed fr.

murder
GOTH.

vb. me. 77iurthre 7nh'th7e

OE. 77tyrdrian

OHG.

77iurdi)-en,
kill'.

OFR. 7/insel perh. orig.

= FR.

77iuseau 'muzzle';

77iaurp7-ja7i

'murder,

identical

w.

7/iof-cel

E.

77107-Sel.

iiiusliroon

nap

145

late me. mus/ieroun sw. DAN. monster. Hence the vb. the equiv. ofr. f/umssero/i. muster vb. 'exViibit, review' etc. muster sb. 'a show; review, ME. must(e)re <. ofr. mojistrer array; pattern' etc. short for (fr. montrer span, mostrar,
fr.

mushroom

ME.

f/iotistre

from

OB'R.

tnonstre

IT.

mostrare) from lat. monstrare;


musterft,

(fr. r/iontre= it.

f/tostiii):

source

cp. DU. monsteren, :mlg. fnnnsteren,


G.

LAT. vions/rare,

whence

also DU.

sw.

monstra

dan.

monster, mlg. tnunster,

G. niush'7-,

monstre.

N
nag
negge ME. nagge 'horse'; cp. odu. a small horse'.

without

consonantal

suffix

are

formed osLOV.

nagii, lith. jiu gas

OHG.

nail ME. nail oe. ineiel := osAX. nagal DU. G nagel, on.

/zfl'^/'tinger-nail

naked'. Allied also lat. niidus for *nozidus * nog via us. - - aryan

/z^^^/?

'wooden,

\^nog}

osAX. OHG. namo, DU. nagla- arose from aryan ?toghlo- naam, g. name, on. nafn (for or nokhld-\ cp. SKR. nakhd 'nail *namn), goth. namd\ synon. witli of a finger or toe, claw of a SKR. ndma, gr. o-voua, lat. bird', GR. ovvx- (nom. oVyi) 'nail nomen and perh. also ident. with of a finger or toe, claw, hoof, OSLOV. im( fr. *m-men ^'^n-men, hook', LAi\ unguis 'claw, talon', PRUSS. emmans, OIR. ainm. The oiR. ingen (cymr. ewifi) from ARYAN base was nd-?nen-, which jnghwind, OSLOV. nogiiti 'nail, perh. was orig. *gno-7>ten- fr. the claw" (fr. OSLOV. noga 'foot'); ARYAN \'"^//^ in know. Then LITH. ndgas 'finger-nail' nagd. nafne prop, meant 'name by horse's hoof, akyan \'^ nokh which a thing is known'. nogh. nap sb. from the vb. me. naked adj. mk. naked oe. nacod nappe OY.. hnceppian hnappian 'doze'; DU. naakt, OHG. nackut nahhut cp. OHG. hnaffezen mhg. nafzen Perh. cogn. w. G. nackt, ON. nokkziidr GOTH. vb. 'slumber'. naqaps: Teut. base naqo-da- OY.hnipian, o^.hnipna vb. 'droop'.

iron nail'; goth. *nagls inferred from the vb. uagljan 'nail', teut.

name
noma

si),

me. name

OE. ndma.

'

naqa-da- from a pre-TEur. fiogotonogeto-; cp. oir. ^^^/'naked'

nap'- sb. earlier nop

:me.

noppt

from nap', OE. hnoppa ('villus') 'nap a base nokto- and SKR. nagnd of cloth' DU. nop, MLG. DAN. naked' with suffix na for ta\ noppe, osw. nop 'nap of cloth or

English Etymology.

146

nape

neck

wool'; cogn. w. NORAVEG. niippa,

nave'^ sb. 'the hub of a wheel' nave oe. ndfu =r du. naaf nape me. udpe 'knob'; pcrh. aaf nave OHG. na/>a G. nahe, with inner labial for guttural and ON. no/, GOTH, "^naba: an old
[

GOTH, dishniiipan

"to break'.

:mk.

cogn. w. neck.

ARYAN word
adopted
fr.

(l)ase

nobhcf);

cp.

SKR. nabhi f. and nabhya n. 'the nappe table-cloth' with diuiin. nave (of a wheel); cogn. w. PR. suffix -kin. Source a vulg. lat. navel. See auger. navel sb. me. ndvel(e) oe. >!a''nappa LAT. mappa 'a cloth'. fela ^=- DU. navel, ohg. nabulo See map. nard :\ie. /lard borrowed fr. G. nabel, ON. nafii; goth. *nabala FR. /lard (= SPAN. IT. nard(i) a commonARYANword with a base LAT. nardiis, whence also G. nobhalo-: onbhalo-; cp. the synon. GR. djiUfaXog, lat. umbi/iais (tor narde.

napkin me.

napekiu

narowe narive CSAX. nam, du. Jiaa)-) from a teut. adj. nanua(used as fern. sb. in ohg. nanva G. narbe 'scar'). Cp. ltth. ncr-ti vb. 'thread' (a needle) narvit cell of the queen-bee".
adj. me.

narrow

"unbHieus

'"nobilicus),

skr. nabhila,

OE.

nearu

OIR. i?nbliu 'navel'.

These words

old /-derivatives of on bha 'nave, navel'; cp. LETT, naba 'navel', lat. umbo 'boss of a shield'. Cp. nave.
are

very

ARYAN nobha

narwhal (== g. narwat) adopted fr. DAN. sw. narJwal on. nd-hvalr 'sea-unicorn'. The se-

me. ndvie ndvr. borrowed OFR. navee orig. 'a single ship' (fr. LAT. navis ship').
fr.

navy

cond element see under


the
first

^oliale]

part
adj.

is

obscure.

nay aie. nai; loanword fr. on. DAN. nei 'no, not', which answers to genuine no (cp. aye).
neap-tide
OE. ntp-Jfod
jtepais

ncar{nvr) contr. oi^neahor (*ne'aosAX. OHG. nahor adv., nave' sb. the l)ody of the DU. naar adv. Cp. nigh. church' borrowed fr. OFR. nave neat adj. borrowed fr. fr. net FR. nef (= SPAN. IT. nave^ 'a (source lat. nitidits 'shining, ship' 'the body of the church': clear). MED. -LAT. navis 'the nave of neck ME. nekke oe. hnccca a church' lat. navis 'ship'. DU. nek; cp. OHG. nac hnac (ck)
hir)

corruption of an perh. borrowed fr. sw. dial, naskug 'nasty, dirty'. naught ME. naught OE. ?idht earlier ndwiht OSAX. niowi/it OHG. niozi'iht G. nic/it, du. niei, GOTH, ni waihts 'no thing'; cp. whit.
earlier

nasty

nasky.

me. ncp-sesoun a teut. adj. not found elsewhere.


sb.
'ebb';

adj. nigh' now used as a positive, but prop, a comparative adverb me. n& {net-) oe.

near

need

nest

147

c.

nacken, on. hnakki: Teut. base


for

origin like on. gneggja


Inocion.
\-h.

and ohg.
oe.

'"huakkan'^/ui'ekkanciiocc,

ON.
OE.

hnakki
hnccca.

and
oiR.

'neigh'.

for

neighbor

me.

neighebour

OBRET. cnoch 'hiir (stem m^hhebur prop, n^ah-j^ebiir^o'&xy;.. rnocco-') may be cognate, perhaps ndbur (for ndh-gibur^, Ttxs.nabuur, also nape. OHG. ndh-gibiir G. nachbar: a comme. niul {nai) oe. /led mon West-Teut. compound of need sb.
}iyd i^/icad)

DU. nood, ohg. GOTH, ''nelnva-gabtir. neither see either; .me. nonther ^^Z, //fV ON. nandr, goth. G. ndiader earlier form /lanaiips: pre-TEUT. naiiti- has been OE. connected with pruss. nauti- hwirder. nephew jme. nezn'w borrowed 'fhstress'; pre-TEUT. \'^ nan. from FR. neveu; supplanting the needle ime. nedle oe. nedl ricedl genuine me. neve oe. ncfa 'grand(oldest form ncedl) osax. nadla, son, nephew' = on. neji 'relative', i)U. naald, OHG. nadala G. nadel, DU. :'/(?^ 'grandson, nephew, couON. ?/^//, GOTH, nepla: a common sin', OHG. n'evo G. neffe 'sister's (or Teut. word for 'needle' formed brother's) son': Teut. base n'efanwith the suffix -plo-, Aryan -ila- fr. \" ne seen in ohg. najan G. ndhen from a pre-Teut. base m'poi- appearing in SKR. ndpdt (stem 'sew', TEUT. v^;/6' is usually conndpfr) 'descendant, son, grandnected with the ARYAN \,^.y//6' in son', GR. avsit-'iog 'a first cousin, LAT. nere, gr. I'f-'w 'I spin' I'T^/m kinsman' venodeg 'offspring', 'thread' I'fjrgov 'spindle'; oiR. LAT. nepos (the source of fr.

fr.

a Teut. base

iiaiuii

nigh

and bower, pointing

to

OSAX. nod,

i-/w 'spinning'

and

jr//(^///?t'

'thread'

sndthat

needle'.

san

nest ohg. g. teut. n'esta- = pre-Teut. 'sneeze': i'i-V\\\f hneus, cogn. w. form nizdo- confirmed by skr. the TEUT. \^y>/f ?/.f in oe. fneosan nida-s 'lair of animals' also ME. fni'se and du. fniezen 'to
G.

zing'

neeze vb. cp. me. nesinge 'sneeand ON. hnjosa, ohg. hnioniesen,

neveu, whence E. nepheu') 'a grandson, also a nephew', oir.

nia

'a sister's

son'.

nest me. oe.


nest:

du.

niezen

vb.

DU.

sneeze'

and

'dwelling',

armen.

nist

'seat',

\'^ sneus

in

sneeze.

neif neaf me. //(W rowed from ON. hnefi


ndfve, DAN. nceve).

'fist'
'fist'

bor(sw.

neigh
'neigh'

vb.

jie.

/;<V<'

oe.

hndyin

nu.

nckn

vb.

and

lat. nidus 'nest' for *nizdos. The .vrvan ni-zdo- is prop, a compound of the Aryan \^sed "sit, seat oneself, and the verbal particle ni jireserved in SKR. (see nether) nizdoOIR. net 'nest',
;

mlg. neiinge sb. 'neighing', MHG. from ni-sedd- means lit. 'settleneigen vb. 'neigli': of imitative ment'; cp. .SKR. ni-sad 'sit down,
10*

148
settle'.

nisht

nestle
a

vb. me.

.nest(e)le
[

OE. nistlian
nistebi):

(:= du.
frequent,
net (U)

ncstelcn,

g.
lit.

form,
fr.

newt with secondary // from me. cute evete OE. efete\ not found in the other Teut. languages.
Tent, base
abiton-'i

'frequent a nest'.

net ME.
?iatja-

OE.

a Teut.

next
nchst
ndcJist:

adj.

me.

tiext

oe.

niehst
o.
e.

ON.
nati;

7iet,

OS AX. 7tet {/iftii), du. OHG. nezzi g. neiz, goth.


to ON. ndi 'a large
'net'.

=z osAX.

allied

nigh.

OHG. ndhist superl. of oe. 7iiah := See also near.


Wj-t'

net'

and lat. nassa nether adj. me.

nice ME.
oe.
'

'foolish'
dull';

fr.

ufr.

nethere

ni(e 'slothful, idle,

source

fieodera; cogn. w. osAX. nith'tri, lat. nescius 'ignorant'. DU. ncder, ohg. nidiri g. nieder niche borrowed fr. kr. wr/?^ and oe. ///i^/cvosAX. nithar, =1 IT. nicchia 'a recess in the DU. (?^/i?r, OHG. 7iidar G. nkder, wall'. ON. w^r, GOTH. '''ni/>ar: deriv. nickname short for earlier from the Aryan verbal particle nekendme me. eke-ndme prop, 'ad-

ni 'downward' mentioned under ditional name'; cp. on. aii^na/n, nest and the comparat. suffix DAN. ognavn 'nickname'. For oe. LAT. -ter, GR. -rfc(jOv,\ skr. -tarcj. icanycean 'to add' cp. eke. The nettle -ME. /leitle OE. nete/e initial // of fiickname is seconDU. MLG. nete/, ohg. ne^Ua G. dary as in newt. nesscl; with dimin. suffix -/7(5/^niece me. ne^e fr. fr. niece: from a more original form seen source med.-lat. neptia 'a niece' in OHG. na-^yi 'nettle', goth. *nata lat. neptis a' grand-daughter,

possibly connected niece'. with net and with the redupliniggard sb. me. nigard with cated OIR. nenaid (base nenat-) the by-form ME. nigoun 'niggard'; nettle'; cp. lith. notere 'nettle' the formation of the ^le. words never adv. me. never oe. ncpfre points to Fr. influence. from ne 'not' and dfre ^= ever. nigh adj. adv. and prep. me. new adj. me. newe oe. ni'owe neigh OE. neh earlier ncah {/liwe) OSAX. OHG. niinai, du. OSAX. ndh, OHG. ndh G. nahe, on. nieiiw, G. neu, on. nyr, goth. niujis. nd-r, GOTH. >ieh7Lis 'nigh, near': The common teut. niuja- from Teut. base nehicapre-TEUT. pre-TEUT. nhiyo- answers to skr. 7ieko- tieqe-. Cp. near, next ndvyas 7iaviyas (and ndvas), lith. and neighbour. nanjas navas (oslov. //c;?'/^, lat. night ME. 7iiglit {natight) oe.
''^natilo;
^

and

noviis, OR. j'f'oc); prob. connected with the ARYAN particle /nt 'now', so that that which is new' means

7iiht
I

{/leaht')

osax.

ohg.
7idtt,

7iaht,

now,

recent'.

Cp.

no7ei.

goth. 7iahts teut. 77aht- from preteut. 7/okt-: cp. lat. 770X (stem
g.
:

du.

/lacJit,

on. ndtt

nightingale

??'

nose

149
(^77)

nodi-'),

ndkta
naktis,

GK.

vvS.

tiaktaii

(i/i'XT-),

skr.
LlTH.

cp.

from

?ie

not'

and

ndktt,

osL.ov.

nosti.

a 'aye, ever'. noble me. iwbk See fortL.\T.

fr.

fr.

//c/'./^

night, sennight.

nobilis.

nihte-gale

nod vb. ME. nodde; cogn. w. nightingale me. nightcngdle oe. OSAX. ohg. nahti-gala, OHG. hnutten 'vibrate' mhg. notten

ou.

nachtegaal,

G.

nachtigall
//////

'a

'stake'
:

nightingale': from oe.


7iihte)
str.

= night

(gen.

and

'lEur.

go Ian

vb. 'sing'.

Cp. stanycl.
nighlcmdre; oe.
'a

and ON. hnjoda vb. hammer TEUT. \~ hnud. noddle 'head' me. nodle. noise sb. me. 7ioisc borrowed
fr.

nightmare me. OHG. ON. mara


nightshade
OE.

FR. ;;wV^ 'quarrel'

source

la'I'.

night-mare' nausea 'nausea'.

(du. nach'-jnefrie 'nightmare').


oe. niht-sceadu

from
oe.

niht

=1
E.

E.

night

and
lit.

scciidu

-=.

shade.
'ready
vb.

nimble
to

noisome adj. of me. noy nuy 'annoyance, hurt' earlier me. aniii (ofr. aniii) cp. FR. ennui fr. an n oy. none me. non oe. Jidn from ne
;

adj. me. niviel

'not'

and an

catch'

from
for

one.

oe.
tlie

ninian
suffix

'take,

seize';

cp.

nook noon
no/ia,

ME. mik 'cornei-'.


ME. OE. np7i

^= osax. ohg.

brittle.

DU. noen, G. none, ON. non.

Source LAT. nona (sc. hora) lit. neogon oSAX. 'the ninth' (hour) with an exnigun, nu.negen; cp. goth. ohg. tension of meaning 'midday, niun G. nenn, on. ni/i 'nine' the twelve o'clock'. forms with g- are based on teut. nor ME. nor short for nother
:\ie.

nine

nine oe. nigonc without

inflexion nigon

'''negun for ""tiewiin, whilst GOTH, 'neither', oe. ndwder contr. of and OHG. niun are based on^n&ian. ndhivccder 'neither' from oe. nd == The numeral is common to all no cind oe. hwceder whether. Aryan languages in the form north ME. north(e) oe. ?ior^ new3n tiewn; cp.SKR. mhum, L.vr. DU. noord, OHG. G. nord, ON. nordr,

ncn>evi,

gr. fvrsn, OIR.


ME. nite
OE.
nit,

noi.

nit
neet,
;V.f.

hnitf^

sw.
du.
G.

DAN.

nord;

it.

span,

norte,

FR.

nord are of Teut. origin.

mlg.
;r.
;

nete ojVc

ohg.

fii-

(plur.

,om)6c)
fleas"
is

northern me. northerne oe. norderne prehistoric *norpriini fr. a

"egg of lice, bee-bugs and

TEUT. type norproni ^= owG. nordruoni, on. norrd'nn 'northern'. common to both languages. Cp. nose ME. nose oe. nosu (ndsn) also SLAV, gnida and ai.han. deni 'the nose' cp. DU. nens, ohg. from *kenida. fiasa G. nase, oyi.nps: TEUr. ""naso-

may

be

allied

if

y.(n)vid

no

adv. me. no oe.

//(/

(=

ox.

noso- 'nose'

Aryan

nas-;

cp.

I50
SKR. fldsa /MS, OSLOV.
nosis, LAT, /lihiis ndrcs.
UOSi^i,

not

nut

LITH.

verbal

noun

fonned

nostril
{iias-

pres. part,
nocere
hurt,

of fr. nuire
injure'.

fr.

the
lat.

ME. noscthirl oe. iws-l^yrcl

pyrf) lit. 'a nose-oriticc' from numb adj. me. nonie nonien prop, OF., aosu /iasu^= nose and of., pyre I part, of ME. nime OE. niman 'a perforation, orifice'. 'take, overpower, deprive of sennot ^!E. not short for nought sation'; cp. ON. nuniinn 'bereft' OE. nauht niuciht ^= osax. ohg. (of life, of speech).

niowiht,
OE.
//(

uu.
'not'

niet,

G. ///V//A

From
-==

and

number adopted
numerous
lat.

fr.

vw.notnhre:
'a

ok.

dwilit

aught.

notch

also

nock

me.

nokkc =
vk.

source lat. numerus


adj.

number'.
fr.

adopted

FR.

ODU. nock

'a notch in the head hreux) fr. of an arrow', O'^w.nocka 'a notch': 'numerous source OFR. hoche 'notch ?

numcreux (for the usual


numerosus

noni-

adj.

note ME.
note:

fipte

adopted

nun

ME. non/ie oe. niin/ie =- du.


G. no?ine.

fr.

.source
note'.

sign,
fr.

i.at.

/!ota 'a mark, notice borrowed

7107J,

OHG. nunna

*In the

8'^ cent,

FR. notice 'notice'

= lat.
fr.
: .

notitia

(orig.

adopted fr. lat. nonna meaning 'mother') cp. fr.


;

'knowledge, acquaintance'.

nonne,

it.

nonna

'a

nun'.

noun
FR.

sb.

borrowed
'a
'a

ofr. non

nurse
niiri(e:

sb.

contr.

of

^me.

uorife

noni

LAT.

nonien

name name

source

loanword
nourrice.

fr.

Ofr. nurrice

FR.

nourish vb. me. nurisshc vb. adopted fr. ofr. noriss- the stem

nutnc-eni'a nurse'.

nurture
fr.
:

Source

lat.
sb.

me. nortiire

adopted

ofr. no-

of certain forms of ofr. norrir riture {= V.,nourriture) source FR. nourrir 'nourish': source lat. 7iutritura 'nourishment. See LAT. nutrire 'feed'. Cp. nurse. nouj'ish. osax. now ME. noici oe. nu nut ME. note nute OE. hnutu nti, DU. ;///, OHG. //// G. nu(n), on. uu. /und., OHG. nuz, g. nuss, on. GOTH. nfr. a common aryan ///A'/ 'nut'. I'lie Teut. base ///;///////, adv.; cp. skr. ful n.un.-a?n 'now', points to v^ knud (seen in OIR. nutmeg me. noteGR. vv vvv, LAT. nuuc (with the c end 'nut'?). oihi-c^, OSLV. nyne 'now llth. nu. niuge nutmegge from me. Jiut

Cp.

ne7C'.

nude

adj.

fr.

fr.

nude

nut and me. miige borrowed


lat.

OFR. niiige 'musk'

fr.

lat. muscus

nitdus 'naked'.

'musk
:

C]).

OFR.

muguette fr.
ital.

nuisance sb. me. no/sau/ife bor- /nuguet 'a nutmeg' == rowed fr. fr. nuisance 'a hurt nwscada.

noce

oaf

on

151

o
oaf ident. with elf\ perh. OE. odd numbei'' (^standask i odd<r or rather borrowed fr. on. be at odds, quarrel'). of ME. OE. 0/ GOTH. ON. DU. alfr 'elf. oak ME. ok OE. dc fr. a Tent, af, OHG. aba G. ab: aryan apo in
celf

base
OHG.
w.

aik-

on.

elk,

du.

<?//&,

GR.

ano,

SK.R.

dpa 'away.
ME.
ojfeude

off
fr.

with the same meaning 'oak'; perh. cogn.


cih
G. m-//^:
all

orig. ident.

w. of.
fr.

OR. uiyavirj 'spear'

offend vb.
oftendre

AiyiQ.

lat. of/endere.
offrian
fr.

oakum
'tow';
])rop.
out'.

me. okii7nb oe. d-ciimba

cp.
'that

OHG.
OE.

tr-kaf/i/>i

\o\\:

offer vb. ME. offre oe. wk. vb. 'offer': loanword


offer re
'offer';

lat.
sb.

which
C0//1/'

is

combed
comb.
(infl.

cp.

du.

offer

For

cp.

offering'
offer'.

and osax.

offron

vb.

oar ME. ore


IV.

oe.

dr
ciiro-

a Tcut. base

are) ^= ox. dr
If

office ME.

office fr. i-r.

offfce

(DAN. aare, sw.


eiirois

dra^.
eryd-,

teut.
in

eat. offfcium 'dut}'.

an aryan

GR. ^()8T>]Q 'oarsman'


'oar'

\~ er

spsr/nog
ro7C'.

=
G.

often earlier oft me. ofte oe. oft ON. 0/>t, GOTH, ufta, OHG. tf_/A>
oft
'frecjueiitly'.

might be cognate, cp.


ost OE.
^-sY

The
adj.

adv.
of-ta-,

oast ME.
inghoiise'

'kiln,

drya/sf/i-

points

to

a
SKR.
o/7e

Teut.
uc
'to

= du.
r7/V//^

eesf:

teut.

which
X^//;/

cogn. w. LAT. aes/us 'glowing heat';

=
ME.

is peril,

part, of

an aryan be wont'.
ofr. oi/e
ofr.

ARYAN V"
'heat'.

'burn' in GK.aiiior

oil

[olie)
'oil'

fr.

KK.

//w'/t'

(eat. oleutii).
fr.

GOTH. oig'^ement: deriv. of fr. oitidre a/'/s, ON. r/V/r, DU. <'^</, OHC. G. lat. tmgere vb. 'anoint ei(/ 'oath': teut. ai/a- fr. a preold ME. old OE. did (Jald) Teut. TEUT. t^Z/d;- in OIR. oe//i 'oath'; perh. base alda- r= osax. aid, ohg. g. \^(?/ in OHG. tw 'law'. a//, ON. aldr, du. tiz^c/ 'old'; cogn. oats ME. d/es plur. of rZ/t' oe. w. GOTH. <7^m 'old' and usalpan 'grow old'. A primitive teut. oblige vb. me. ob/il^e fr. and ARYAN \'~al' grow' cp. in goth ob/^i^'-er, LA'i'. obligare. alafi =1 LAT. alere 'nourish obtain fr. kr. obtenir. on ME. OE. on ^= GOTH. a//>r odd .MK. ^^(AA' 'distinguished, 'on', G. a/i OHG. ana, DU. aa//, special': loanword fr. on. oddi 'a ON. a (for *afi): cogn. w. GR.
d^A
OE.
d/>
:

oath ME.

==

ointment

me. oinemcut

triangle',

which also means

'an

')'(/,

SKR.

(Tf/a.

152

once
ones late Oe. dues
;

otter

once ME.
monly
OE.

an

eines.

= one
iR.

cknes)

(com- ^r/(?); GOTH, aurtja 'gardener' and genitive of OHG. orzon 'cultivate' point also to one; cp. G. einst OHG. LAT. hortiis. The r// of the E. word
orig.

ME. on oe. an

a Teut. base aina-z


ON.
einn,

= goth.
ein.
fr.

fr.

is

owing
ort

to a fusion of
-\-

ains,

(oe.

yard'),

oe.

j^eard

du. een,
den,

G.

aryan 'garden' (cp. yard and gardeii)


is

oino-s

may be
cogn.
me.

inferred

lat. unus
z/i//,

added

in

explanation of lat.
me. ordainc
fr.

(for oinos),
Of roc',

cymr.
fr.

or.

hortus

(=

TEUT. ort).

w. skr. e-ka 'one'.

ordain

onion whence
ajuin
fr.

onionn

also

flam,

oignon ordener lat. o r dinar e. anjocn- du. ME. ordrc fr. fr. ordrc
fr.

vb.

ordre = lat.

ofr.

o'DV.onJiiun: source lat.


,

nnidincni)

whence

also o^. ynne

'onion'

fr.

west-teut. *nnnjdnpnli earlier


gnlic

TEUT. unjon-.

ordinem (nom. or do). ordure (Shakesp.) 'excrement ME. ordure fr. fr. ordure. ore ME. or oe. dr 'brass' =^ goth.
ais

only ME.

oe.

'brass'
),

{iiiza-stnipa
eir,

'copper'brass';

dnlic 'unique'.

From^c?;/^.
oe.

smitli

ON.

ohg. er

wgs (infl. cogn. w. lat. aes 'ore, bronze',' tvose) 'juice'; perh. fr. a Teut. SKR. ay as 'iron. base wansa- in on. zw 'wetness'; origin me. originc fr. fr. originc. cp. MLG. wbse 'juice'. orison 'prayer' me. oreisoun fr. or conj. ME. or shortened fr. FR. oraison 'prayer': source lat. an earlier odr, which supplants oratio-neni. OE. odde or' under the influence orts ME. ortes plur. of a sing. of OE. dwdcr dhwceder =^ me. *ort OE. ^oret for '"or-dt; cp. lg. anther outlier 'either' ('one of two') ort 'what is left by the cattle or adv. 'ere'ME. or late OE. (j'are) in eating' and goth. uzcta 'crib
:

ooze me. wose

dr;

commonly
ere.

OE.

dr
fr.

me. Ir 'ere'.

prefix or 'out'

and

v^''''

"^ ^''^
fr.

See

ostrich
me. oreiige
ofr. orenge
o/>en
OS true he
r:=

ME.
fr.

ostrichc

ofr.

=
G.

orange

autruche; source

FR. 0/ange.

LAT. avis struthio 'ostrich',


oe.

whence
vogel
a

open
offen,

ME. p/^en

Teut. base opanaosax.

fr.

a OE. stryta

ohg.

strui,
it.

(g.

opan,

ohg. offan Strauss) and also DU. open, Other ME. other

struzzo.

oe.

gder

fr.

oa.opinn.

form Teut. base anpera-^= goth. anpar, of a participle and points to a ohg. g. du. a?ider, on. annarr
adj. has the
\

The

lost verbal root (eupl wepT).

cogn. w. LITH. antras,

SK.K.

antara

orchard me. orchard oe. orcerd and anya 'other'. du. older ort-jpard (^=: goth. aurtiotter ME. oter oe. otor gards 'garden ) adoption of lat. g. otter OHG. ottar, on. otr base ARYAN ?/;i^/;-<y- cogn. horttis (for the mute h cp. it. TEUT. \fotra-

=
:

ouch
w.

pack

153

water An ARYAN type uqno- is found in water- gr. tnvdg 'oven'. snake and closely allied to the over ME. p'z'er OE. o/er ^=. goth. Teut. group OSLOV. vydra, lith. u/ar, OHG. i^har, on. o/r, DU. tidra 'otter'. oz>er', ohg. ul>iri. cp. G. iil^er ouch ME. ^z/r//d' commonly nouche Outside of the Teut. languages, 'necklace, collar' fr. ofr. nouche GR. vnep and skr. updri 'above' prop, nosche (= OHG. nnsca). are cognate. ought :^ aught. owe vb. ME. owe oe. dgan ounce ME. oun(e fr. fr. once\ possess' GOTH, aigan, OHG. source lat. imcia whence also eigan 'possess' aryan \^ aik in inc h. SKR. i( possess'. ought me.

water; otter prop,

'the
'a

animal'.

Cp. gr. vi>Qa

GOTH, uinara: from the Teut. pron. uns\ cp. ns.

our

ME. otire oe.

j'lre

for *usre

gughte OE. dhte


oe.

is

the pret. tense of


me. gwen oe.
G.

dgan and
is

own

dgen
eigen,

part.

ohg. eigan

ousel ME.

gsel oe. psle iox'^otnsle

OS ax. egan.

The

vb.

ow^n

TEUT. amsla r= ohg.


ninsel 'ousel'.

amsala
earlier

G.

me. dune

out ME.
GOTH.

oicte
///,

OE.

lite
///,

lit

oe. dgnian 'possess' is a deriv. of the adj. otvn. gsnX me. oule OE. ule fr. a Teut.

OX.

OHG.
//(/

//^

G.

base
cull'-.,

?/7C'7f'^/(?/z-;

aus, uu. uit.

Cp. SKR.
ON.

'up, out'.

ON.

cp OHG. t7wila G. sw. ugla points to a

outlaw
lit lag

ME.

outlawe
litlagi;

late

oe.

fr.

cp.

lat.

GOTH. *ugg7C'alon-. sound-imitation.

The word

is

ox OE. <?Xrt; GOTH. OHG. ^^jv g. ochse, on. (?a.7 i.at. type ?/x/, DU. OS 'ox' Teut. base ohsan-, ultra-ticuni). ARYAN ukson- in SKR. uksan 'ox', oven ME. fh'en oe. ofen ^= ohg. CYMR. ^ir/;. oi'an G. of en, uu. oven, ON. ofn oyster me. oistre fr. ofr. oistre and GOTH, aiihns 'oven'; an oriFR. hiiitre 'oyster': source ginal meaning of the Teut. word LAT. ostrea, whence also oe. gstre, is preserved in OE. ofiiet 'vessel'. g. auster, du. oester.
ME.
fr.

ex /ex and see law. outrage me. outrage trage (= source a

ox

fr. ou-

aiihsa,

pace me.
FR.

pas

/d'^^

/<i.y

borrowed
'a

fr.

paquet\

LAT. passus
g.

step'.

history of the

pack

sb.

ME. packe =^ V)\].pak,


/<7<;/J,

source and group unknown. package formed by adding


hret.
/<7^':

ON. pakki,

it.

pacco, fr.

the fr. suffix -age

= lat.

-aticuvi

154
to

pact

pall

the sb. pack. packet pair ME. peir fr. fr. paire (= formed fr. the fr. daviym. paquet. SPAN, pai-, IT. pa7-o pajo) source pact adopted fr. fr. pacte LAT. /r/r 'alike', whence mhg. /(?/h\'V. pactum, whence also vv.patto, G. paar 'pair'. See peer. DU. G. pacht 'rent-contract'. palace me. paleis palais fr. fr. paddock ME. the ending- palais, whence also mhg. palas
:

/(^^(^/(^/l;''/&;

a dimin. suffix as in bul- (rare paleis) G. palast: lock, hillock. Primit. ME. /rt^/^/^ MED.-LAT. palatium.
-ock
is

source

'frOg'=SCAND./<?^/^/(?, DU. LG. FRIES.

palate
latu7n

fr.

the svnon. lat. pa~

padde

(g. schildpatf).

There

exists

(me. palit paldt from ofr.


yvE.

also LG. pad-hucke 'paddock', the palat).

second element of which


huckc

is

lg.

pale adj.
FR.

pdle borrowed

fr.

paddock'.

pale:
sb.

source

lat. pallidus
'stake'
fr.

page sb. ME. pdj:;e fr. ^\<. page (whence G. page). Source gr.
7j aid

'pale'.

pale

ME. pdl{e)
'a

lov 'a little boy'.


sb.

FR. pale 'stake or pole'.


fr.

page-

(of a book)
lat./4v^''^<^',

ofr.

lat. pdlus

stake'.

Source for the

page. Source

whence

rare OE. pal 'stake

see pole.

palfrey me. pal(e)frei palefrai page') and ohg. peine (rare) fr. ONFR. palefrei FR. palefroi. page'. pageant orig. 'the Source i.x'Y .paraver edits an extra movable scaffold on wliich the old post-horse' which is also the mysteries were acted' me. pdgent source of ouG. pferfrid G. p/erd earlier form pdgine 'pageant'. and IT. palafreno, svx^.palafren. Source med.-lat. pagina "scaffold The Lat. word is a compound of LAT. pagina 'a page also 'a GR. nagn and gallo-lat. ver edits plank of wood'. For the excres- 'horse' {rlieda is Gallo-Lat. for cent / \n pageant cp. parchinent. 'travelling carriage' and ve is a pail ME. pail OE. pceiel 'bucket' Celt, prefix) hence naga-ver edits =T>\:. pegel peil, \.g. pegel, whence was orig. the horse in reserve'. G./^^^/'water-gauge' is borrowed. palisade Shakesp. palisado pain ME. peine fr. fr. peine: FR. palissade, span, palizada, it. source lat. poe/ia, whence also palizzata. All equiv. and deriv. OE. pin E. pine. fr. LAT. pdlus 'a stake'. Cp. painim y\.Y.. painim heathendom' pale and pole. fr. ofr. paeninie lat. pagapall ME. pal OE. pcell: source nismus 'heathendom'. LAT. pallium. The adoption paint vb. me. painte peinte vb. cannot have occurred before borrowed fr. fr. peint, part, of the literary period of Anglopeindre ^='L\i'.pingere 'paint'. See Saxon, as we should expect an depaint. OE. form ''"pelle *pylle 'wrapper'.

also OFK.pagene {m&. pdgine pdgcnt

palm

parchment

155

ofr. cp. LAT. piiUa cannot be the source, teler') 'gasp, pant'; e. pantas (in falconry) as it never was the ecclesiastical pantais terminus technicus, but rather 'a disease of hawks'. pantaloons fr. f^r. pauialon. palliufn. word prop, meant FR. liand The palm 'inner part of the

Ijorrowed fr. trowsers worn by the Venetians paume. Source who were called Pantalonc after OFR. palme. LAT. pir/ma'' the palm of the hand' the patron Saint of Venice, St. (cogn. w. OE. /(>/! under feel^. Pantaleone.
AIE.

pau7ne palme:

palm 2
/ydim:
'a

pantry me. pan{e)trie fr. fr. sb. 'a tree' me. pabn OE. a bible word, lat. palma paneteric (derived fr. lat. panis
'bread').

palm-tree'.

paper me. pdper earlier papcr palsy ME. pal{e)sie oldest form lat. papyrus fr. papier fr. par Ic sic fr. FR. paralysic: source (cp. also taper), whence also LAT. paralysis 'palsy', which was In late oe. (ii''' G. uu. papier. used in OE. as paralysis. cent.), a rare paper (cp. ohg. pan ME. OE. panne ohg. pajfur^ 'papyrus is found. pfanna G. pfanne, on. sw. panna, paradise jme. paradis (parais) DM. pan: TEVT. panna is regarded fr. ofr. paradis (parais pareis) as a transformation oiLKT. patina paradis it. paradiso. fr.

(or rather *patna)

'a

basin'.

Source

lat. paradisus,

wlience

a pane, piece, on. sw. dan. dies, D\j. paradijs source lat. pannus paradis. The corresp. oe. term "a cloth, rag, patch'. panel w'as neorxnawgng. pannel me. panil 'a piece of paramour me. paramour 'lover, cloth' (= uu. paneel^ fr. ofr. Source the fr. concubine'. panel YV^. panneaii. Source a eat. phrase /(?; amour by love' (cp. me. type panellus fr. pannus. par fay 'b)' par dc by God'
,

pane me. pane pane fr. fk. pan


or pannel
:

'patch,

piece,

also OHG. OSAX. paradis G. para-

panier 'breadbasket' fr. ER. panier (= lat. panariuni 'bread-basket', whence also DU. paander, os.ax. paneri, OHG. ^/anari).
me.

pannier

my
fr.

faith'

and perhaps^.

parcel me. parcel prop. par(d fr. parcclle (l.\t. type '^particclla derived fr. particula).

pansy borrowed
derived
(cp.
G.

fr.

fk. pensie:
'think'

parch pierce

vb.
fr.

y\K.

prop, the same pcrche perce.


me. parcheinin
(du. perkamcnt
:

as
fr.
fr.

from

fr.

penscr

parchment
FR. parchemin

vergissmcinnicht
\^^'^^

as

the

name
pant
fr.

of a flower).
vb.

c*^w\.

OFR.

pantoycr

source lat. OFR. parcamin) panic pauntc pergamena {charta) parchment'. (cp. kk. pan- Tiie citv of Fcrvamon in Asia

156
JVIinor

pardon

pastry

was famous for the inpart sb. me. part fr. fr. part source vention of parchment. The ex- {= SPAN. IT. parte) part vb. crescent / in 'HY.. parchment is the LAT. pars-partetn. same as in tyrant; cp. pageant. ME. parte vb. fr. fr. partir =--

sb. .me. pardoun from LAT. partiri partire 'divide, -part partake vb. me. part take; pardon: source lat. perparty sb. donare 'remit a debt', whence cp. G. teil nehvieti.
.

pardon

FR.

FR. pardonfier.

^\,.

parti(e)

fr.

FR. partie,
G.

whence
du.

pare vb. me. pare


LAT. parare.

fr.

fr. parer

also

MHG. partie
IT.

partij;

partita

partei,

lat.

type

parish
parosche

me.
fr.

parisshe

ofr. paroche

earlier partita.

fr.

partridge me. per trie he

fr.

ofr.

paroisse: source i^m:. para'cia (gr. pertris,

whence
:

also

du.

patrijs

nagoiy.i'a), an ecclesiastical ter- (ouu. pertrise) source i^kT.perdixperiiieeni. minus technicus. parvis me. parvis fr. \<. parvis paritory see pellitory. park ME. park short for OE. porch of a church'; ident. w. The church-porch pearroc; ident. w. du. mlg. perk paradise. 'a park', oho. pferrih G. pferch is called in several languages 'an inclosure, sheepfold': source paradise (esp. the portico of a Celt, base parraka- (parrika-) St. Peter's church, Rome, was Cogn. w. called paradtsus). in fr. pare, it. parco. pass vb. ME. passe (pd(e) vb. SPAN, parra 'fruitwall, espalier FR. passer (it. med.-lat. for vine' and provenc. parran fr. passare 'step, walk fr. lat. passtis 'small garden'. passage me. passage parlour me. parlour fr. fr. 'step'.

parloir 'conversation

room

(fr.

fr,

FR. passage.

passenger
passagir
;

parler 'speak).

earlier

pas sag er

me.

parrot for earlier (15'' cent.) cp. messenger for the seconPierrot dary 71. perrot ^= fr. Perrut paste sb. ME. paste fr. ofr. (in fr. also used 'little Peter paste ^= FR. pate source late as a name for a sparrow). parsley me. persli earlier form lat. pasta 'paste'. pastern earlier pastroft reprepersil fr. FR. persil lat. petroselinum 'parsley' (cf. G. oe. peter silie). sents an unrecorded ME.*past(ii)parsnip late me. parsnipe pas- roun fr. the synon. ofr. pasturon
;

idpc

fr.

OFR. pasteiiaque
me. persoun

lat.

FR. paturon.
for pass-time,

piasiitiaca 'parsnip'.

pastime
ident. w.

an imipie'
fr.

parson

tation of the synon. fk. passe-te?nps.


sb.

pastry person, med.-lat. persona also OFR. paste' meant 'curate, parson'.

me.

paste'

(^earlier pastf'th,

whence

patch

peat

157

pay vb. ME. paie vb. fr. FR. DU. pastei) ODU. pasteide derived fr. l.KX. pasta t=z paste. payer ([)rop. satisfy, content' ^=
patch
\v.

ME. pacche; perh. ident.


'a

LAT.

/(?^<?/v "pacify'),
'pa}'

whence

also

LG. plakke

piece'.

DU. paaien

ME. path oe. pa^p ^= du. pad, OHG. pfath pfad G. pfad a way': Tent, base papa-, not cogn. w. GR. Tiarog a way SKK. /(///? 'a way", avest. /a/

path

lAi.

(plur. peas) fr. me. pcs(e), of which was considered me. to be the plural ending. pes points to oxfr. pels fr.

pea

the

JT

pais.

Source

i.at.

pisum

'a

pea'^

way'.

But cp.

OE.

pappan

'tread',

m.pedden vb. 'tread', ^WiG.p/ftten. {= pattern me. patroun borrowed DU. MLG. peis, MLG. pais) fr, iV. FK. patron 'pattern'. fr. paLx (lat. paxOFR. pais pause adopted fr. fr. pause pa eem) =:: LAT. paiisa. peach late me. pee/ie fr. fr. pave vb. ME. pave borrowed pee/ie for pesche it. pesca, LAT. fr. FR. paver 'pave' (lat. pavire Fr. the lat. persicum 'a peach'. beat'). word, G. pjirsich, nv.perzik, oe. paw sb. me. pane poue bor- persoc 'a peach' are borrowed. rowed fr. OFR. t>oue {== PROV. peacock ME. pc-cock and peaident. w. du. pauta 'a paw') hen MR. pc-hctine point to oe. poot, G. pfote: it is uncertain pea with the by-form pdwa 'peawhether the base pauta is orig. source lat. pavo-neviy cock Celt, or Tent. whence also org. pfawo G. pawn^ sb. borrowed fr. FR. nn. pauw, oyi. pd/u^l; cp. pan 'a pawn, gage, pledge'; pfau, FR. paon peacock". w. ofkis. du. pand, perh. ident. pear me. pe're oe. peru 'a pear' OHG. pfant G. pfand. ODU. pere, DU. LG. peer loanpawn'- sb. (at chess) me. paun

whence also oe. pisu. peace me. pes earlier pais

poun borrowed fr. ofr. poon word fr. the equival. \.x\:. pirum FR. source (whence also G. hirne^ paon peon fr. pion Cp. perry. IT. pedone prop, 'a footman (lat. poire 'a pear'. pearl me. pi^r/e fr. fr. per/e =^ pedo -neni). Cp. ox. ped-viadr OHG. p'erala G. perle, it. perla: pawn at chess. paxwax late me. pax-ivax source lat. pirula (for pilula 'a 'tendon of the neck'; cp. OHG. litde ball'?).

ivaltowahso, ofris. waldewaxe'n^xvus'

peasant

fr. fr.

fr. paysan;
fr. faisan

cp.

and wax for the second ment of tlie compound. The


E.

elefirst

pheasant

and see

part of

paxwax

(dial. e.

fax-

wax

is

obscure.

parehnient. peat for heat (see purse for the change of b to /).

58

pebble

penny

pebble
"a

sb.

me. pibhel-stgn

and

pellitory sb. late


fr.

]ME. paritorie

pubic -sign OE. papol-stdn popol-staii

FR. paritoire,
a LAT.

which goes back


*parietaria
'the

pebble-stone'.
vb.

to

type

peck peck
sure'.

a var. oi pick.

plant of the walls'?

sb. ME. pekke 'a measure';


'a

pelt sb. ME. pelt


(e.

'a

sheep-skin'
mlg.
a
ident. w.

perh. akin to fr. picotin

meadan.
fr.

peltry == DU.
fr.

pelterij,

peltrie
G.

R. pelletrie);

pedant
sw.
pidant^

pelz

OHG.

pelli-y

sb.

(:=

du.

g.
fr.

pedant)
IT.

borrowed

Rom.
IT.

ty\)& pellicia

Source

fr. pelisse,

pelliccia.

Cp. pilch.

pcdantr,

the ultimate

pelt vb. ME. pelte also pilte pulte, source of which is GR. naidiveiv the latter forms corresponding educate'. OE. piltan pyltan. Source to me. petegrcw pedigree late LAT. pultare 'beat, strike'? petigril: perh. adopted fr. fr.

pied de grue

'a

crane's foot'?
fr.

pen

sb.

peel vb. adopted Source lat. pellis

pame.
fr. peler.
feather'.
skin'.

borrowed fr. Source lat. pe^iua

fk.
'a

pen

vb. ME. penne oe. onpennan

peep' vb. 'chirp me. *pepe pipe 'impound, enclose': prob. conborrowed fr. FR. piper. Source nected with pound'^ and LG.
LAT.
pipare

chirp':

sound
vb.

gr. vmvil^eiv iopennen imitation for


;

'bar,

bolt*

i'lppcmien

'open'.

variant in form see pipe.

peep2
'the

look

penance
c[).

OFK.pipe/- 'peep'

pryingly';
/a pipe

penance

me. pcnaunce older pen'eance

du jour

fr.

ofr. lat.

poenitcntia 'peniten ce'.

pencil orig. 'a hair-brush' me. per borrowed penfH fr. ofr. pincel fr. pinceau fr. OFK. per peer fk. pair. Source a brush'. Source lat. penicillus LAT. par 'equal'; see pair.

peep of

day'.

peer

sb. me. pere

'a

painter's brush',

whence

also

peer'

vb.

'appear'

me. penoun pennon 'a flag, closely'. streamer' (for the secondary / of peevish adj. mr. pevisch peviche pennant see pageant, parchpeviige. The ending (cp. par- ment). Source i.kT. penna 'wing, tridge and paris/i) points to feather'.

short for me. appere


'pry'

= appear.

me.

pere

G. pinsel.

pennon pennant
fr.

peer^ vb. pireii look

me. pire =^ lg.

borrowed

OFR.

FR. origin.

penny

.\ie.

peni

plur.
E.

penies

ME. OE. pegge; akin to DAN. pig, .sw. pigg 'spike', lg. pigge 'peg.
sb.

peg

(contr. pens,
:=:

whence

pence)
,

OE. penij^ pennii^


1

osax.

penning pending pending penning du.

; .

people

pester

159

pamwg,

OHG. phantitic pfmting parauntre and per cas; haps is pfennig, ON. pen?iingr. the plur. of hap under happy pfenni/ig The word may be derived fr. (cp. paramour). pa ft, so that the form of the peril ME. peril fr. fr. pi^ril. pennies may have suggested the Source lat. pericitliun 'danger'.
G.

word or
ciated

it

may have been


the

asso*pafid

perish

vb.
fr.

with

base

under

pawn}
shilling

rowed

-ing cp.

For the suffix forms of farthing. 'perish'.


,

me. perisshe borthe stem of some the fr. verb perir

people MK. peple pdple borderiwig formerly periwigge perrowed fr. OYK.pueple fr. peuple, wicke borrowed fr. vv.. perruque (ud whence also G.pobel. Source lat. being substituted for fr. )
populus
peupel.

'people'

(cp.

also

dU.

cp.

also

G. perriicke,

DU. pruik.
the

periwinkle;

cp.

synon.

ME. pervenke oe. pervince. Source DU. peper, OHG. pfejfar lat. pervinca 'a twining plant'. pipor G. pfeffer, on. piparr: borrowed perry adopted fr. fr. poir^ (whence also it. fr. LAT. piper formed fr. a vulgar LAT.

pepper

me.

peper

piper

OE.

'perry',

pepe,

FR.

poivrc).

Cp.

oslov.

ptprii 'pepper'.

type *piratus 'perry, drink made of pears' il.A.T.pirjim nxidQX p e a r)

perceive

vb.

me.

perceive

fr.

person
fr.

me. persoun

OFR. perceverFK. apercevoir.

Source
fr.

FR.

personne.
\\\

borrowed Source lat.


'pert,

LAT. percipere 'apprehend'.

persona; ident.

parson.
plain,

perch'

'a

rod'
fr.

me. pirchc

pert adj. me. pert

the synon.

LAT. pertica 'a

Source clever, bold'; cp. odu. gepertich pole, bar? The group FLAAL pertig 'alert'.
pcrche.

perch'-

'a

fish'

rowed fr.
perca

perchance cp. perhaps. perdy (Shakesp.) by God' FR. par dieu 'by ME. parde

FR. perche.

me. pircJie borSource lat.

goes back
pertain

to vb.

fr. apert.

GR. nsQv.rj

a perch',

rowed

fr.

me. partine borOFR. partenir. Source

LAT. pertinere 'belong',

peruke

ident. w. periivig.
adj.

God'.

pervious

borrowed

fr.

perform
lier

vb. me. perfourmc earfr.

LAT. pcrvius 'passable'.

parfoiirne borrowed parfournir 'perform'.

Oi'R.

pest borrowed fr. fr. peste. Source lat. pestis plague'.

pester \b. short for impestcr eynpestrer OFR. fr. have borrowed 15''' cent.) and perchance entangle' fr. empetrer. the FR. preposition par (per) in 'pester, a pet sb. 'a tame animal of me. pera7<cntureimitation

perhaps

(late

me. perhappous

i6o
favored child' short
peat (me.
"^^pci).

pet

pile

for earlier

pickle

sb.

s\Y..

pikel =^ du.

petty adj. me.


FR. petit 'small'.

petit

adopted
(piiwe)

fr.

MLG. pckel G. pdket; prob. h. pickle, frequentative of pick 'pickout,


cleanse'.

picnic a modern word arising about 1700 and soon received 'an elevated space', into fr. (^piqueniqiie about 1740) an open gallery with rails', and GERM. {^picknickKhoviX. \i-j6). whence also du. pui ofris. pie ME. pie fr. fr. pie 'a broiled poie. Source lat. podiufn 'a remnant of a shoulder of mutton.

pew

sb.

ME.

pile

fr.

OFR.

piiie

balcony'.

pewet peewit
its

so called from
the
to

pie (in magpie) me. pic


pie

plaintive

fr.

ofr.

LAT. pica.
'a

cry;

earlier

by-form puet
source.

points

fr.

pewter
fr.

late me.

pmter adopted

piebald composed of pie magpie' and bald 'streaked'. piece ME. pe(e borrowed fr.
piece.

fr.

OFR. peutre {peaittre) a kind pier ME. pere borrowed'fr. ofr. of metal'. It stands for '^peltre piere, VK.pierre = LAT./^/r'stone'. SPAN, peltre, it. peltro 'pewter'; pierce vb. me. per^e borrowed cp. DU. planter. pierce'. ME. byfr. FR. perccr pheasant me. fcsaunt earlier form perche. FR. faisan it. fcsaun fr. piety adopted fr. fr. piiti fagiano. Source LAT. phasianus, 'piety' LAT. pietdtem; ident. w. GR. (paGiavog 'bird of Phasis in pity. Colchis', whence also ohg. fasdn pig ME. pigge.

G. fasaii.

phial vial borrowed


phiole
(kr. Jiole).

phiala, GR. (pidXr^

late me. pigoun fr. fr. Source lat. pipio{neni) Source lat. 'a chirper. See peep send pipe. du. 'a broad, flat, pike .ME. pike oe. pic

pigeon

fr.

ofr. pigeon.

shallow cup'. philtre borrowed


philtre.

pick,

G. pick

cp. pick.

from

fr.

pilch ME. pilche OE. pilie pylce


fur.

Source
'a

lat. philtrum,

Source med.-lat.
felt',

it.

GR.

ipiXxQOv

love potion'.

pelliccia

whence

also

fr.

phlegm adopted fr. VK.phtegnie. pelisse and ohg. pelli-^ G. pelz, du. Source lat. gr. phlegma a flame, pels 'fur (primitive source la'J".
inflammation, phlegm'. pick vb. ME. pikke oe. pician
LG.

pellis).

Cp. pelt.
sb.

pile

'

'an arrow' me. oe. ///

du. ////, OHG. pfil G. pfdl, picket borrowed fr. fr. piquet ON. pila) borrowed fr. lat. pilum picquet 'a little pick axe', dimin. 'a javelin', whence o^Vi. pile, span.
uu. pikken,
G. picket!.
:

(=

of OE. pic

'a

pike'

under pike.

IT.

pilo 'a javelin,

pestle'.

The

pile

pipe

i6i
Origin unknown.
in 15'^

corresponding" Goth,

word was
oe.

piloot, G. pilote.

arhwazna

cp. on. gr,

earh

The word occurs


Engl,
since
it

Germ, and
cent.;
in

LAT.

arcus.
'a -heap' UY.. pile
fr.

the

in

pile- sb.
castle
pier,

'tower,

Germ,
It.

appears
piloto.

first

the
It.

borrowed
pyramid
'a

fr. pile 'a

ofr. pile a mole'


trough',

form

Perh.

the

r=
'a

SP.\N. pila

pillar,

word became European through the commerce with Genoa and


sb.
fr.

VY.pila 'trough'.

Source 'LK^.pUa Venice. pimpernel See pillar. pier of stone'.


sb. 'a
fr.

fr. pi7)iprenelle

pile''

tumor' (now used pimpinelle.


lat. pila 'a ball'.

in

plur.)

pin
piti.

sb.

ME. OE.

///;;/

= du.
'a

lg.

pile^ sb.

'hair'

peil FR. poil

borrowed
SPAN.
'a
fr.

fr.

ofr.
pelo.

Source lat. penna


vb. me. pinche

pin,

nail'.

IT.

Source LAT. pilus


pilfer
pilfer'.

hair'.

pinch
fr.

borrowed
''^pin(trdo)

FR. pinccr.

borrowed

ofr. pelfrer

pine
'a

sb. me. pine oe.

'pine-tree':
fr.

pilgrim me. pilgrim borrowed ymo. pilgrim. Source med.-lat.

borrowed ir.'LKT.pmus pine, whence fr. pin (pv. pijfi),


IT.

SPAN.

pifio 'a pine-tree'.

peregrinus (late lat. pelegrhms), pine vb. me. ptfie oe. piniatt whence fr. pHerin, it. pellegrino, 'torment' on. pina, du. pij'nen, SPAN, peregrino, DU. pelgrim. OHG. pfinbn phion (g. peinigeii) G. DAN. pille prob. borpill OHG. pina G. deriv. fr. OE. pin rowed fr. the dimin. fr. pilule.

Source
pillar
piliere).

lat. pilula *a

pein.
pill'.
fr.

Source lat. /rt';^i7 (pronounc-

ME. pilcr

borrowed

ed pani).
pinfold; see pound'^. pint sb. late me. pinte
pinie
fr.

fr. pilicr

{^

SPAN, pilar,

IT.

Source med.-lat. pilare


'pillar',

fr.

pilarius (lat. pila)

whence
du.

(whence du.
:

pint,

lg. pinte

also OHG. pfilari G. p/eiler;

'can )

source lat. pincta.


sb. me. pippe
pfiffil,
:

pilaar
is

is

fr. pilier, but du. pijler

pip
G.

= du.

lq. pip,
fr.

lat. pilarc.

pips OHG.

borrowed

pillory sb. me. pilory borrowed


fr.

FK. pilori 'a pillory'.


sb.

vulgar lat. pippita (=r whence pituita) 'phlegm',


a
FR. p^pie, span, pepita,
it.

lat.

also

pillcA/'

me. pilwe

OE. pyle
,

pipita.

*pyluie

DU.

peiiluw

OHG.

pipe
:

sb. ME.

OF.,

pipe

Tiu.pijp,

pfuliwlin)

borrowed
shion'.

also pfuhoo G. pfdhl: LG. pipe, OHG. pfi/a G. pfeife, ON. fr. lat. pulvinus 'cu- pipa borrowed fr. med.-lat. pipa,

Cp. cushion.

whence
pilote
,

also the synon. FR. pipe,


IT.

pilot sb.

borrowed
it.

fr. "EK.

span, pipa,

piva.

Source lat.
1

SPAN.

piloto

pilota

du. pipare 'chirp'.

English Etymology.

ib2
pit
sb.

pit

plant

ME. ///

OE.

py^

(tt)

flat-fish',

whence

also du. pladijs,

DU.
fr.

////,

LG. ///// OHG. puzzi pftCZZi

G. platteise.

G. pfiltze:
.

TEUT. putjus: borrowed

plain adj. me. plain borrowed


fr.

i.ki piiteus 'a well, pit",


YY.

also

FR. plain (whence pozzo, SFAti. poza, FK.pliiiS pleiri) span, piano

whence

also
rr.

du.

piano.
even'.

and
pit'.

oiR. cuithe,

cymr. peten 'well,


OE. pic

Source
plain
fr.

lat. planus
sb.

flat,

pitch
OSAX.

sb.

ME. pick

=
/i?/z

me. pleine

adopted
it.

FR. plaine

span, plana,
lat. pldnm?i

ODU. pik DU.

/^/^,

OHG.

piano.
plain'.

Source

b'eh{hh) G.pec/i, on.


fr.

M': borrowed

LAT.

pix

(pic-)

'pitch',

whence
it.

also FR. poix,


'pitch'.

SPAN, pez,

pccc

plaint sb. me. pleinte


FR.
plainte

plai?itc fr.

(=

lat.

planctns

'lamentation').

pitcher
fr.

sb.

yx'e..

piccher

borrowed

OFR. picher. Source med.-lat. picdriiim, a by-form of late lat. hicarimn under beaker.

plait vb. u^.plaite 'fold' derived


fr.

OFR. plcit

(ploit)

sb.

'fold'.

Source hXT. plicare

'fold,, braid'.

pith sb. ME. pithe oe. pida cogwhence du. G. plan. nate w. DU. /// ODU. pitte 'pith' "LhT. planus 'flat, plane',

plan

adopted

fr.

fr.

plan,

Source

WestSee plain, SPAN. '/>lan, IT. piano. Teut. ha.s,Q pipan- is to be assump la n e. ed, perh. a teut. pipivon- inplane adj. borrowed fr. fr.

and MLG. pedik

'pith'.

whence

stead of

(jip^von-:

\Pgit'?

pla?ie

(^nhO. Source lat. planus 'flat, level'. pitancie) borrowed fr. FR. pitance plane sb. 'a carpenter's tool' 'meat, food, daily subsistance'. late ME. plane borrowed fr. FR.
pittance
sb. u^.piiaunfe

(=

SPAN, piano,

it.

piano).

pity

sb.

ME. pi/e

fr.

fr. pitiL

plane.
'a

Source

med.-lat. plana

Source
place

LAT. pieteitcm.

ME.

place

fr.

fr.

place

carpenter's tool'. plane-tree me. pldne{-tre)


fr. 'F'^.

= du.
fr.

plaza, Source lat. plaiea


SPAN,
'a

(=

IT.
-=-

piazza').

plaan-boom

plane.

Source

gr. TtXareTa

LAT, platanus 'plane-tree'.

street'.

G.

platz

and du. plaais

plank
,

ME. planke

borrowed

are also of Fr. origin. plague ME. (14'^ cent.)

Source adopted fr. lat. plaga 'an injury' MED.-LAT. planca whence du. whence du. plaag OHG. plaga plank, G. planke. G. plage and it. piaga, fr. plate. plant ME. plante oe. plant ^= du. OHG. pflanza G. pflanzc ME. plaice borrowed fr. plant, plaice
,
,

ONFR. planke FR. planche plage plancha piancd). it.

{=

span.

FR. plaise

OFR.

pla'ise.

Source (on. planta)


'a

fr.

MED.-LAT. platisa prop, platessa

whence

also

fr. platite

LAT. planta, span. ,

plash

pluck

163

planta, Yi. pianta.

'plead, fr. fr. plaider In me. we find plaide whence also DU. pleiten plaunte sb. vb. as adap- argue 'sue'. planter. tion of FR. plante please vb. me. plcse borrowed plantain ms,. plantain i^plauntain f) borrowed fr. 'SB.. p la /i tain. Source fr. OFR. plesir plaisir (fr. plaire Source lat. placer LAT. plantago (^plantagineni) 'a 'please'). pleasure (late me. 'please'. plantain'.

also

plash ME. plasche borrowed


ODU. plasch
puddle'.

fr.

plcsilre

is'*"

cent.)

fr.

the

fr.

DU.

plas

'water-

infinit. plaisir,

but influenced by abstract nouns such as fiature

plaster me. piastre plaister fr. whence OFR. piastre (^plaistre


,

leisure.

TiV.pleister^ cp. FR. platre.

GR.-LAT.
empiastro,

tf-ivXaargnv FR. cmplatre

pledge sb. me. plegge fr. ofr. Source plcge (jK. pleige) 'a surety', which IT. is related to OSAX. plegan ohg.
'be

'plaster'. p/legan

responsible

for,

LAT. emplastriim ^= med.-LAT. plastrmn 'gypsum, whence OHG.


pflastar G. pjfaster.

answer for' (cp. plight). plenty me. plente fr. ofr.

plentl,

source lat. plenitatem. See plier see ply. plat plot ME. OE. plot (tt). plight sb. me. plight oe. pliht plot. plate ME. plate borrowed fr. formed by means of the abstract OFR. plate plaite 'plate - armor, formative -/ from a vb. seen in whence oe. pUon 'risk' (ohg. p/legan 0. ingot, silver' VK. plat Source a pfiegen whence G. pjlicht 'friendly DU. plat, G. platte. MED.-LAT. plata 'plate of metal' care, interest'). fr. plot^ short for cofnplot (gr. TrXarvc).
,

platoon
platoon'.

fr.

FR. peloton

'a ball,

complot

'a

conspiracy'.
iME.

plot- sb.

OE. plot

{tt).

platter me. plater


'a

plate'

fr.

ofr. platel

plough
=pfliiog

fr.

plateau

also plph
oe.

plough plow OE. uu. ploeg, OHG. pfluoh


ME.

'waiter'.

play
plegian

vb.
play'

ME. plaic plcie

Teut.

and play

sb. jme.

This ON. plogr. group plohu- plogu- was borrowed by the Slav, (serb.G. pflug,

plaie pleie oe. plega.

other TEUT. languages have no such root as pl'eg play'. plea sb. ME. pli plai 'debate' fr. OFR. pie plai with the byforms plait plaid. Source med.LAT. placitiitn 'a decree, sentence'. plead vb. me. plede

The

RUSS. pltigu, lith. pliugas).

OFR. plainer fr. pluvier.

plover ME. plover borrowed fr. Source

a LAT. type ^pluviarius 'rainy'. pluck vb. ME. plukke plokke


(^plicche') OE..

pluccian (OE. *plycc'a}i)

=. DU. plukken,
*pJlockd?i

OHG.

*pfiucchen

0. pfliicken,

on. plokka.

164

plug

pol

Source a lat. type


IT.

^piluccare

poach'

pihiccare, fr. iplucher.

Vulgar pocher.

vb. 'dress eggs'

fr.

fr.

poach ^

vb.

'intrude
fr.

LAT. *pilitccare

pluck') prop, 'pluck

(whence me. pilken into preserves' borrowed fr. hairs one pocher from poche 'a pouch'.

by one'
pilare.

is

an extension of lat.
ident. w.
(^pluck)

pock
pox'.

'sve..

pokke o^.pocc

= mdu.

pocke, du. pock, G. LG. pocke 'small


sb.

plug
G.

du.

plug,

LG. plngge

late

mhg. pjfoc

poqtiette,

pjlock 'plug'.

fr. ofr. dimin. oiovvi. pocke poche. See poke.

pocket me. poket

poignant adj. ^ik. poinani poinME. ploume oe. plume =; DU. pruim, LG. prume launt fr. FR. poigfiant. (Source point me. point plihne, OHG. pfruma beside pflihno lat. pungere). (lat. r changed to teut. /) G. fr. FR. point (source lat. pimcpfaume: early loanword fr. lat. tuni) 'point'.
i^plyme)

plum

prununi, whence also fr. pniuc, IT. prima. Cp. prune.

poise vb. ME. poise earlier


fr.

peise

OFR. poiser peiser


weigh'.

F^. peser

plumb
plumb iif/i.

fr.

FR.

plomb ^= lat.

'to 'to

Source lat. pensare


fr.

weigh'. fr. poison


'a

plume
pluma.

fr.

FR.

plume

lat.

poison ME. puisoun


'poison'
r=i

LAT.

potio(tiem)

plummet
fr.

^XE.plof/imet
'a

borrowed

drink'.

poke sb. ME. poke 'a bag' =^ ODU. poke, ON. poki. FR. pocke is plump adj. borrowed fr. LG. perh. an Engl, loanword. Cp. pock. plump, DU. plo7np. poke vb. vi^. poke {^pouke puckc) plunder vb. adopted fr. mdu. 'thrust, throw' =^ DU. poken, MLG. plunder c II g. plilndern 'rob, pnken. pillage'. pole sb. 'a stake' UE.pole O'E.pdl plunge vb. short for me. plounge: 'a pale, pole': source lat. pdlus borrowed fr. fr. plonger 'duck, 'a stake', whence G. pfahl OHG. dive', whence also du. plonzen. See pale. JMHG. pfdl. du. pluis G. plush sb. pole 2 sb. 'a pivot' the synon. plusch; borrowed fr. fr. peluche fr. pol lat. polus (gr. t/oAol,-) Yt. peluzzo. Source a lat. type 'a hinge'. *pilucia, an extension of lat. polish vb. ME. polisshe fr. fr.
FR.

plombct

plummet' dimin.

of

FR.

plomb

lead'.

'

pilus 'hair.

polir {poliss-^
pile 'bend'
'fold,

'polish'.

ply vb. me.


fr.

adopted
bow'.

fr. plier

bend,

poll ME. pol (II) 'head' := lg. ODU. polle 'head'; perh. ident. w.

Source

lat. plicdre 'fold'.

bowl}

pommel

port

165

pommel
fr.

me. pomel

borrowed
'the

'LA.T.popuhis 'poplar',

whence
oe.

also

OFR. p07nel FR. potnnieau


:

DU. popcl and

G. pappcl.

pommel of a sword
I,

prop, dimin.

poppy

sb.

ME. popy

popi-"^

AT.

pomutn

'apple'.
fr.

an older form -ang as in body, There are no Teut. equivalents. Usually considered fr. lat. to be borrowed fr. "LKV. papaver. p;>tidcrai-e 'weigh'. porcelain sb. == fr. porcelaine, pontiff fr. FR. poutif pontifc,
also fr. pof/ipe.

pomip whence

ME. potnpe

pap(Zi (about 800). The suffix / lat. pompa, (not producing umlaut) points to

pond

pond pondi. ponder vb. borrowed


ME.

holly.

LAT. pontifex.

DU. porselein, G. porzellan (since


FR.

pontoon
pontone
'a

fr.

ponton,

IT.

the

6th. cent.);
orig.

the
'the

base

is

pool
poel,

great broad bridge'. DU. sb. ME. OE. pgl

IT. porcellana. shell',

Venus-

'conclia Veneris'; this havto porce-

hG. pol,

one pfjiol

G. pfu/il;

shell was perh. akin to OE. piill pyll 'pool' ^= ON. pollr 'pool, pond'. transferred to that of the cera-

much resemblance lain, the name of the


ing

mic ware. fr. fr. poupe =; hinder part of porch sb. ME. porche borrowed source lat. portifr. 'S'!^. porche: a ship'. poor adj. me. pgvrc fr. ofr. cus, from which OE. portic and pauvre (source lat. OHG. pforzih are earlier loanpovre words. patipe)-) 'poor'. pope me. pope OE. papa ^= lat. porcudine occuring in the papa. The continental dialects 15"" 16"^ cent's in the forms differ from the lat.-oe. forms; porpentine porpoint antl porkcpin back to OFR. pore cp. OSAX. palws, DU. pans, mhg. which go espin (now porc-ipic^ =^ IT. porco MIh'S G. pap St. popinjay late sx^. popinjay earlier spino (porco spinoso^ 'thornbush papegai (== DU. papegaai, mlg. hog. pork 'flesh of swine' papegoie, o. papnga'i) fr. fr. pape- ME. pork 'pork, swine' fr. the gai OFR. papegay and papcgau s3'non. vk. pore {= hk^. porctis). Prob. derived fr. IT. papagallo. port^ sb. 'harbor' me. Oe. port

poop borrowed
puppis 'the

L.AT.

Low
^7,i^//(?

OR.
'

nanayug

arab.

^aOR.

'harbor

(PERS.

bapga).

The

Lat. portus
'city'.

name

psittaciis

agrees with
--^

fr. the equival. lat. {-^ FR. port, IT. porto') harbor, whence also ODU. port

^|'^tray.oc.

poplar
fr.

sb.

me. popUr{e)

DU.

popnlier, oux]. popeliet".

borrowed :=

Source

ofr. popUer tz= fr. peuplier. fr. peuple 'poplar'

a gate fr. fr. porte porta a gate', whence also OK. port ox port-i^eat 'b. gate
port'- sb.
L.AT.
,

DU. poort,

G.

pfortc.

i66

port

power

port^
fr.

sb.

'behavior'
:

me. port^
deriv. of

pound

me.

pound

OE.

pund

FR. port 'behavior

LAT. portare 'carry'. Port-wine orig. \vine G pfund, ON. SW. DAN. pund porf* GOTH, pund: borrowed in the of Oporto in Portugal*.

pound' (weight and money) OSAX. pund, DU. po7id, ohg. pfimt

'a

portray
portrait.

vb.

FR. portraire.

me. pourtraie

portrait

= FR.
post

fr.

second
(indecl.)

cent.

fr.

lat.

pondo
fr.

pound',
sb.

not

lat.

pondus 'weight'.
sb.

post^

a pillar' me.

OY..

pound

'^

'enclosure'
oe.

me.
'en-

DU. LG. post: early


postetn

loanword poiind (shortened


postis), fglde

in pon-, pun-

fr. 'LkT.

(nom,

^vci'g.

'pound').

pund

whence and FR.


postG. post,

also G. pfosten ohg. pfost


poteau.
sb.

'mail service'

pyndan ME. pinde 'impound, dam up the du. water' on. pynda 'shut in'
closure' with the verb oe.

FR. poste, IT. posta.

The

(e.

pinfold

uis..

pinfplde 'pound'

word is a native of Italy and was points to oe. pynda ft MB. pindc^. borrowed from there by the Yxoh. pc?i OY.. pennan is cognate, modern languages in the ib**^ if the base "^panjan goes back
cent.
post'^ sb.
G. 'a

military post'
fr.

to

an earlier form \fpand pund.

*pandjajt: teut.

posten,

DU. post
OE. pot

ir.

posto

pound
pi'inian

vb. 'beat'

UK.poune

oe.

guard, post'.

DU. LG. DU. puin 'ruin, rubbish'. (swED. potta, pout vb. ME. poute 'sulk' (oe. DAN. potte); akin to vk. pot pout sb. (a kind *putianl). CYMR. pot, IR. pOta. of fish) OE. puta or piite (in the potato imported in the second compound dleputan 'eelpouts'); half of the i6* cent, together cp DU. puit a kind of fish. The with SPAN, patata from America word is derived from the vb. (in Hayti the name was batata pout (teut. \r/?//) the fish has about 1530). name from its pouting lips. pouch ME. pouche 'bag' fr. ofr. its powder sb. me. poudre 'hairpoiiche i^poche) 'pocket'; akin to

pot ME.

(tt),

'pound'; perh. cognate w.

pot(tt),

ON.

pottr

poke. poult

powder'

fr.

fr. poudre,

whence

Source sb. 'chicken' {= pitllet^ also DU. poeder, G. puder. (^pulvis), whence late UK.pulte fr. V'H.potdet 'chicken' lat. pulverefn (^poule 'hen'). poulterer ex- Q. pulver, Yi.polve 'dust, powder'.

tended
toulletier.
is

for

fr.

ME. pultcr

fr.

fr.

power
fr.

ME. poutr

earlier poer

poultry

^\E. piiltrie

OFR.

poer

fr.

pouvoir\
deriv.

derived

me. piilter.

ident.
fr.

w.

it. potere

and

pounce

vb. see

punch.

LAT. potest potui etc.

praise

proud
'prick,

167
spur'.

praise
prcis,

sb. M'E.prais preis

fr.

ofr. prician)

Cp.

iVfflG.

ident. with price.


sb.
'a

pfrecken, o^.prikka:

pram
lighter'
LG.

flat-

bottomed

'V'EXiT.\j'~prik.

prickle

relation

me. prikcl

1.0.

pra/im, DU. praam;

oe. pricel.

pram, on. prdmr, sw. pram.

DAN.
the

of Slav, origin; cp. OSLOV. pramil belonging to


are

pram

laut-relation to

pride me. pride o^. pryda: umproud.


aiE.

priest sb.
G. priesfer,

prest oe. preost;

ARYAN \fper
vb.
iME.

'cross,

ferry'

ident. w. ohg. prist priestar mhg.

seen

in fare prance vb.

praimfe

vb.

ident. w.

the

E. prank vb. me. praiike] sound points to Fr. oi'igin.

osax. prestar, fr. pretre OFR. prestre: descendants of LAT. presbyter priest'. But there are discrepancies in the
for

prate vb.
i.G.

late

me. prate

phonetical
du.

development of the

praten
vb.

'prate',

dan.
fr.

prate
ofr.

'tattle'.

pray
preicr
LA'i'.

me.

preie

Rom. and Teut. forms. prime fr. fr. prime primus. primrose
pritfie

~
fr.

lat.
fr.
rosa

fr. prier pray' (source prccari 'pray).


vb.

rose

first rose'.
fr.

^= lat. prima

prince me.

prififc

preach

me. prcchc

fr.

fr.

prcchcr. Source church-LAT.//v/^dicare 'preach', whence also OE.

FR. prince (source lat. princeps principetti =^ it. principe^,

whence
print
prcnte
sb.
'a

also G. prinz du. prins.


vb. me. printe

predician
diken,
digo/i

on. prcdi/ia,
,

du. prc-

short for
cp. fr.

osax. prcdikon

MHG.

G.

ohg. preprcdigcn 'preach'.


fr.

imprente

fr.

FR. empreinte

stamp,

press vb.
prcsser ='pretty'

empreindre
ME. presse
prcssarc.
^pn^ti
.me.

ofr.

print';

lat. imprimere.
fr.

la'I".

prison me. prisoun


cunning';
prigione.

fk. prison;

pretty adj.

source lat. prehensio{nc7n) for prati

it.

and

'clever,

0E.//v<^/'/j 'tricky, deceitful'.

OE. sb. pru'tt plur. prattas

The privy me. prrc'c means (=^ lat. priva tils').


prize vb. M&.prisc

fr.

fr. privd

'trickery.

fr.

K.priscr;

prize ofr. cf. e. prise fr. VK.prix. prcic praie fr. proie (hence du. sb. 'taking or capture e. g. of prooi) 'prey". Source lat. praeda. a ship' fr. fr. prise seizure (du. price sb. ME.pris fr. ofr. pris prijs, G. prise).

prey

sb. mk. preie praie

fr.

---

FR. prix.
.

price
f^ricca

Source See prize.


.me.

eat. pretium

proud
(by-form

ME. proud late oe. prild me. prout late oe. /////
on.

prick sb.

prickc {prike) oe. prete');


'prick,

{prica)

spike'.

cp.

prudr

'proud',

dan. /r^/

prick vb. ME- pricke

i^prike oe.

'

Cp. the umlaut-relation /rzV/^. Source OFK.


'stately'.

prove

push

proud

Valiant"

=
\

(under pi-owess)

pull
'draw'.

vb.

ME. pulle

OE. pulljan

FR. preiix.
vb. ME. prove late OE. (c.
fr.

prove
probare,

pullet ME. polite


'a

fr.

-E-Bi.

pouleite

ooo) profian: loanword

lat.

whence

also

'SL.

protwer,

MHG. prileven G. pril/en, ON. profa pulpa 'pulp'. and also me. preve pro^ve 'prove'. The sb. proof is derived fr. pumpion {dixnin. pumpkiti) earlier pompoun fr. FR. pompon (:= the vb. (cp. ME. preve prceve DU. po7?ipoen) 'a kind of gourde'. ER. prcu7-e). prow ME. "^proue fr. fr. prone Source lat. pepo {^ fr. pipon, IT. pepo tie poponc). {\x:.priia proda, hkT.prora)

young hen', cp. poult. pulp sb. fr. FR. pulpe

lat.

'prow'.

punish vb. jme. punisshe fr. fr. ofr. of punir i^puniss-') 'punish'. OFR. prou proud late oe. priid purblind me. purblind orig. s. under proud. 'blind as 2l p7irl OE. /r means proxy sb. earlier prockesy for the bird 'onocrotalus'; cp.'feWED. procuracy; cp. proctor late me. purblind. proketour LAT. procurator(em). purchase vb. me. purchdfe fr.

prowess me.

prouesse

fr.

protu'ssc 'prowess',

abstr.

sb.

prune
prune
^--

sb.
i^XT.

pry

vb.

''^preowian,

evident in with the

plum. purge ME. prie oe. *pnwan purger. the root of which is purple oe. beprman vb. 'wink pourpre
eye'

me. prime pi-{mum\ cp.

fr.

fr.

FR. pourchasser.

vb.

ME.

purge

fr.

fr.

ME.

purpre fr. LAT. purpura.

fr.

preo7C'ot/i7e'il

'twinkling of the eye'.

purpose

vb.

psalm puck
OE. plica

sb.

i\ie.

psalm

OFR. pourposer

=
fr.

ME.

fr.

purpose fr. proposer

lat. 'pro])ose'.

psalmus; already oe. salm.


sb.

short

for me. poulie piirs:


FR.

purse MU.purs loanword


bourse
;

late oe. (c.1050)

ofr. borse bursa.

'demon, hobgoblin' =r
;

cp.

la.t.

puki imp' cp. oe. piicel pursue vb/ me. pursue fr. ofr. 'demon', north-fries, puk 'misporsuir fr. poursuivre (source chievous sprite with large eyes'.
ON.

pudding
borrowed

LAT.

prosequi)

'prosecute'.

ME.
fr.

pudding
fr.

prob.

fr. boudin 'black-

pudding' (cp. j\iE. cuuing conin under cony). puff vb. ME. puffe OE.

purvey vb. me. porvcie fr. ofr. (lat. FR. pourvoir OFR- porvoir providere) 'provide'.

push vb. ME,, posse pusse iposshe) '^puffian. aside of oe. pyffan 'blow': teut. push' fr. FR. pousser (=: lat. base puffon puffja?t. pulsare) 'strike, thrust'.

put

quencli

i6g
(cp. OE.

put
potian

vb.

ME.

piite

putte

vb.

fr.

OFR. bouter "thrust'


fr.

tlirow, push, thrust' OE. (c.


'thrust';

perh.

looo) purs 'purse' borrowed purse).

OFR. borse under

quail
guaille

sb.

me.
FR.

quaile
caile

fr.

ofr.

=-

quail';

cp. IT. quagUa.


LAT.
qiiaccola,

Source a vulgar

whence

also

du.

kwakkel =-- ODU. quackele 'quail'. quaint adj. me. qiieiut, earlier form coint (quoint) 'famous, wellSKR. gnd oir. ben, known, clever, neat, elegant': gr. yvvT] loanword fr. OFR. coint neat, OSLOV. RUSS. SERB, zena PRUSS. See the following fine' LAT. cognitiis 'known'. gena 'wife'. quake vb. me. quake oe. cwdcian word. vb. 'quake' cp. oe. cweccean queen sb. me. qum oe. cwen ODU. quecken shake queen, distinguished lady'; base 'move'

(= ohg. qu'eua kona, GOTH, qino); cp. late OE. cwenefugeV^Si hen-bird' fr. the equiv. on. There was a genuine kvenfugl. oe. corresponding cwine 'bad woman'. The group rests on a teut. qenon- 'wife' arvan gena cp.
kz'enna

',

one's head': teut.

\'^qak.

qoni for qdni


k7Jdn

--=

GOTH, qens, ON.

qualm

me. qualm 'death, pesti-

kvckn,

lence, torture' oe. cwealm death, pestilence': derived fr. the teut.
\f^ qel in oe. cwelan vb. 'die'; cp. quell.

TEUT. qeniSK.R. j'dni

qudn 'wife': aryan. geni- (= 'wife') is of the same

OSAX.

me.

qiiele

root as TEUT. qenon- (see quean)

=
fr.

ARYAN gena.

quell vb. me. quelle oe. cwellan querelle LAT. querela a com- 'kill': derived fr. the str. vb. oe. cwelan me. qu(le 'die' (cp. qualm). plaint'. quash vb. me. quasshe vb. fr. They belong to the teut. ^Tqel OFR. quasser FR. casser break'; in G. qual =^ oHG. osax. qudla source LAT. quassare 'to shake'. 'torment, torture': aryan V~ S^^ oslov. zali quaver vb. derived fr. me. in LiTH. geld 'grief qudve (oe. *'cwdfiaii) vb. 'tremble'; 'suffering'. cogn. w. .MK. quappe vb. 'tremble'. quench vb. me. quenche oe. quay earlier spelling keie late civencean wk. vb. 'extinguish' me. keie fr. fr. quai. derived fr. oe. d-cwincan 'be ofris. kwinka quean me. queue oe. cwene exstinguished' woman': perhaps a scand. loan- 'vanish'. It is doubtful whether word cp. ON. kona G. plur. oe. cwinan 'to be exstinsiuislied' is

quarrel

.me.

querele

fr.

question

quoth

connected with
ktvijnen 'wither').

e.

quench
fr.

(du.

question me.
q lies lion.

qucstioun

'copy book'. Latin quatertium fr. 'collection of four leaves' (= it. quaderno 'a quire of paper', oe.
kohief)

= FR. cahier
late

Source a

quick
'living,

adj.
alive'

me. quick oe. cjvicu

eivdterfi)

osax. du.
(g.

qtiik,

quitch-grass (also quick-^rass


couch-grass)

OHG.

MHG.

quec

quecksilber

me.

*quicche]

oe.

'quicksilver'

and
ON.

er quicken
o.

vb.
(for

cwice

'quitch-grass'

answers
G.

to

'quicken,
quecJi)

refresh)
fr.

keck

DU.

kzaeek,

lg. queke,

quecke

'pert',

kvikr

kykr

'quitch-grass'.
fr.

The name
'alive'

derives

lYX>'\:.\f qiq

ARYAN\r_^?^- in lat.

teut.

quiku-

(under

vivo {vixi-victu7n-vivere).
exists

There quick), because the weed seems an aryan doublet giw in not clearable.

GOTH,
'alive'

qius

(stem
'living,

qiwa-^
alive'

adj.

quite
quit.

adv.

me.

quite

fr.

fr.

SKR. Jiva, lith. gywas,

LAT.
GR.

vivus
|J?/og

(cp.

'life').

See

quite h-

g r a s s.
quill sb.
ident.
\v.

iME. quille

= westphal.
qili-.,

quiver vb. derived fr. the adj. ME. quiver, late OE. cwifor 'lively, brisk, eagerly'; cp. OFR. quivrer
vb. 'awaken, encourage'.

qtiiele 'quill':

teut. base

perh.

mhg, kil G. kiel 'quill'. quiver sb. me. quiver fr. FR. quilt sb. ME. quilte fr. ofr. cuivre\ ident. w. fr. coivre cuivre: LAT. culcita 'cushion, late Latin base cucuruni, whence ctdlie also OE. cocor, ohg. kohhar g. pillow'.

quince
coifi

me.

coine quine

fr.

OFR.

k'ocher 'quiver',

du. koker.

quoth {(juoth he 'he said) of modern 'E. quince belongs prop, 3'' sing. pret. ME. quoth earlier Source lat. quath OE. cwcBd pret. of me. to the plural). cotogna cydonia it. ohg. que the oe. czv'cdan str. vb. 'say,

= FR.

coing 'a quince' (the ce

kutina

G.

qtiitte

OE.

godcpppel;

speak'

= GOTH, qipan,
,

on. kveda,

DU. k^uee ODU. quede corresponds

quedan 'say': to MHG. quiten =-- G. quitte. ARYAN sTget (by-form ^frt' in skr. quire (of paper) sb. me. quair gad 'speak'?). Cp. bequeath quaier book' fr. OFR. quaier (du. and bequest.
OS>hy..qu'edan

ohg.

rabbit

rat

171

R
rabbit
cogn.
w.

odu.

robbe

raisin me. reisin


'a

fr.

ofr. raisin

robbcken 'rabbit'; perh. identical w. DU. rob, G. robbe 'phoca'? race^ ivie. rp- o^.rcksl or bor-

G.
'a

grape, whence also T>\j.rozijn, rosine. Source lat. raccnms bunch of grapes'.

rowed from ON.

rds 'a running': DU. rake me. rake oe. nica TEUT. base resa-. raak\ ident. w. OHG. rehho G. race- 'family' fr. fr. race rechen, ON. reka: teut. base rakoiiSPAN. PORT, rijza; source arab. r'ekon-, derived fr. the str. vb.

rds 'origin'.

race 3
also

'root'

fr.

ofr. rats
the

= lat.
(fr.

GOTH, rikan

'gather'.

radix. -

From

radish == DU.
ime.

same source rpm


radijs

ram

sb. me. oe.

du. rat?t TEUT. base ranima-; perh. cogn.


{f/i7n)

= OHG.

ram
jsihg.

(^f/if/i)

OE.
:

radis^.

w. ON. raf/ir 'strong


rafter

rafter

oe.

rafter;

formed by same root

suffix -tra-

from the

ramsons
san plur.
:

as on. rdf 'roof and OHG. rdvo 'rafter'. Cp. the Aryan \^reph in gr. 6()8(p(o OQO(fog. rag ME. ragge (late OE. *ragg inferred from the adj. raggii shaggy'): borrowed fr. ON. rpgg

me. ramsen OE. hra?nteut. base hramusan-

also in G. (dial.) raniseii,

swed.
further
onion',

ramslok
allied
IR.

'bear-garlick';
to

erem

gr. y-oc^uvur

cymr.

e?-af 'garlick

LITH. /eermusze 'wild garlick'.

'shagginess'.

rage me. rage

fr.

fr. rage ^=

range vb. fr. fr. ranger. ransack vb. me. ransake fr. on.

rawisaka prop, 'search the house': LAT. rabies. ON. rami 'house' (= goth. razn, rail ' ME. rait reit fr. ofr. reitle 'house); for source LAT. regula, whence also OE. rasn rcen ON. saka see seek. G. riegel OHG. rigil, odu. rijchel
;

am

'bar,

rail'.

ransom
soen)
fr.

:me.

rail- ME. rail oe. hrce^. 'a gar-

FR.

raunfoun (du. ranfon (=

raiit-

lai".

ment'; ident. w. OHG. hregil 'a redeniptio-neni) garment': TEUT. base hrag{i)la-. rap vb. ME. rape 'rush, hasten' rain me. rain rein OE. r'eyi OHG. ON. hrgpa vb. 'hasten'; cp. OLG. regan G. DU. regen, on. regn, DU. rapen, mhg. raffen 'seize": GOTH, rigns: teut. base regna-. TEUT. base hrapon. rape sb. jvie. rape (= du. raap^ Cp. Lith. roke 'drizzling rain'.
I

raise vb. inie. reise borrowed fr. ON. reisa 'raise': causal of on.
risa

fr.

rat
G.

LAT. rapa ME. rat

'turnip'.

oe.
ratta,

GOTH.

reisan\

cp. rise.

rattc

OHG.

rat (ti) DU. rat

=^
rot\

172

rate

ident. w. fr. rat, it. ratto. History

ident. w.
G.

goth. redan, ohg. rdtan


vb.
advise",

of the group unknown. rate fr. fr. rate =^ lat. rattirn. rather me. rather oe. hrador prop, 'quicker, sooner': comparative form of OE. hrade 'quickly'; cp. the oe. hro'd, on. adj. hradr 'swift', OHG. hrad, du. rad 'quick' fr. a teut. base hrapa-.

rateu

on.

n/^^f^r

'counsel,

consult*,

read meant

orig. 'to read a riddle' (cp. riddle^, then 'to interprete the runes' (on. rdda gdtti 'read a

riddle'

dream'
runes'),

rdda draum 'read a rdda riuiar read


adj. me. r(di

Akin to OIR.
rattle vb.

crothivi

shake'.

me. ratele

vb.;

cp.

skr. has a corresponding Y~rrt^//2 'perform'; cp. also OSLOV. raditi.

OE. hrcptcle sb. 'rattle wort'


l^G.

and

ready

(oe. *rcedii

rateien vb. 'rattle',

G. rasseln vb. 'rattle ':

= ARYAN
{^\~ krot

extended fr.) oe. rcede 'ready' teut. \f hrat OHG. reiti 'ready'; cp. GOTH.
rar-^eln

mhg.

y^.^rrt^^/

in GR. y.gaSalvio garaids

= on. greidr

'ready'.

As

prop, meant 'ready for 'rattle'?). a journey' (g. fahrt'), perh. a raven sb. me. rdz'en oe. hrcefn TEUT. base raida- 'journey' may ON. hraffi; cp. ohg. hraban be the source of the group; cp. G. rate, du. raaf: teut. base IR. riid 'passable' and see ride hrabua- hrabn-; perh. fr. an and road. ARYAN \f kro kor in lat. corvus, realm sb. me. rialme (f-ialme) GR. v-OQCti raven'. fr. OFR. reabne (fr. royaunn^. ravish vb. me. raviss/ie vb. fr. ream late me. reme fr. ofr. raimc fr. raf/ie] cp. SPAN, resma, FR. rariss- in ravir 'to ravish'. ohg. ital. risnia (g. ries) ream of raw me. ra7ci oe. hreaw hrao hro G. roh, du. rauw, ON. paper'. Source ARAB, rizvia 'a hrdr: teut. base hrawa-; perh. bundle'. cogn. w. SKR. krura 'sore' and reap vb. me. ripe oe. riopan LAT. cruor 'blood'. vb. fr. a TEUT. v^''^ cut' in ripe; ray see roach. cp. OE. ri/"/(?r 'sickle' and see ripe. reach ^ vb. me. r(che oe. rckcean rear vb. me. rire OE. nhan fr. a TEUT. type raikjan in ohg. vb. ohg. reran vb. 'raise' fr. reihhan G. reichen vb. 'reach', du. a TEUT. base raizjan] cp. rise
in

GR.

xgotaXiCnv vb.

G. fertig

reiken.

and raise

for \fris.
earlier reisoun

reach 2, retch
oe.

hrdcean;

OE. hrdca

me. rcche teut. \'~hrdk in ON. hrdki 'spittle'


vb.

rear adj. me. rere oe. hrer.

reason me. resoun


fr.

FR. raison := lat. ratio-nem.

and OHG. rahhison'to try to vomit'. reave {bereave) vb. me. rcvc read vb. me. rede oe. rddan OE. r(afian vb. OHG. raubon vb. on. rdda 'read'; prop. G. rauben, goth. (bi)raiibdn 'de-

173

o^.raufa (see also robe): in ON. hrckll derived fr. a primitive str. vb. NORTH-FRIES.
spoil',

'a

weaver's
me.

rod',

r(7?V?/.

OE. hereofan, ON. rjufa 'to break'.

rehearse

vb.

rehcrfe

fr.

Cp. SKR.\r//^/. receive vb. me.


recever
for

receive

fr.

ofr.

OFR. reherfer. rein sb. me.

FR. recevoir.
{recche) short
rdceati'.

;r2>/^

fr.

ofr. reine
redina;

FR.

r^nc

(cp.

rrAL.

reck vb. me. recke


OE.
recean

earlier

TEUT. base rokjan in on. rcekja, OSAX. rokian, OHG. ruohhan 'have
a care
r'ecenian
for'.

source lat. retincre 'restrain'). relieve vb. me. releve fr. fr. relever lat. relevare.

rely vb. from lat. re (as in recall, remind, rcne7ci) and


E.

reckon
G.

vb. vb.

=
in

me. rekne

OE.

j^e-

lie 'to

rest
fr.

OHG.
in

rehhanon

rechnen 'reckon', du. rekenen;


v^ri'-i'

sb. me. remenaunt OFR. retitenant 'remnant'.

remnant
rend

cp. the TEUT.

OHG. rahha
cp. OE.
'friend\

'subject, thing'.

vb. me. rende oe. rendan

-red
ship'

suffix

haired',

vb. 'tear, lacerate'


vb. 'tear, break'.

= OFRIS. renda
cp.

feondrddeii

freondrckden

(Jiiwrceden

orig. -raidin in

under hind) GOTH, ga-raideins.

rennet
'run,

sb.

fr.

the vb. me. renne


run';

make
^

to

under

red read

adj.

short for me. red OE. run. rennet teut. rauda- in goth.

sb.

fr.

fr. reinette.
fr.

rauds, ohg. roi G. rot^ du. rood,

renounce
^
j

vb. me. renounce

renown me. ON. raicdr 'red ; cp. OE. reodan FR. renoncer. ON. rjoda vb. redden' and renoun fr. FR. renovi. ruddock (f-itst). There is a rest sb. me. reste oe. rest: teut. correspondingARYAN \/~ riuih base rasti-, cp. ohg. rasta 'rest, reudh in GR. t(jvii(j6g, SKK.riidhira, a measure of distance goth. on. rgst 'a mile'. OSLOV. riidru, LAT. ruber 'red', rasta 'a mile Tliere is a TEUT.\^r^ in goth. LAT. rufus, IR. ruad. razn 'house', ON. rann reed sb. me. red oe. hreod (cp. OHG. hrioi G. DU. riei: teut. base ransacJi).

retch vb. see reach^. teut. ribb ME. ribbe oe. ribb reocan 'reek, smoke' =^ ON. rjiika, r/^/^?- in ON. ri/, ohg. rippi: OHG. riohhan G. riechen; cp. OE. ARYAN \^r'ebh in OSLOV. RUSS. r^r' rjV, ON. reykr, ohg. ;'<?/? G. /y/';'(? 'rib'. ranch, du. ;v^^ 'smoke' fr. a teut. rhythm see rime. me. bisshopbase rauki-. -ric in bishopric
hreuda-.

reek

sb. me. rek sb.

fr.

the vb. OE.

reel

ime.
fr.

*hr(ihil

oe. hreol; prop. riche oe. bisceoprice; cp. OE. r/^V a TEUT. base *hranhil 'reign' ^^ goth. ;y/^'/, ohg. rihhi
/r/^'

174
G. reich:
fr.

teut.

rik-

= goth.
rijs/)

reih

'king'.
fr.

rice sb. ITAL.

fr. n'z
G.

(du.

ridge me. rz^/i? oe. /^rjv^^ (genit. hrycgei) ^= teut. hrugja- in OSAX. hruggi, DU. rz^^, ohg. hrucki G.
rr/Cw/

r/'so,

rm: source

GR. 6()vCa 'rice'. sb. 'back'. rich adj. me. w/i^ fr. fr. ric/ie; rife adj. me. oe. ri/" 'abundant, ident. w. OE. rk'e 'powerful', OHG. on. rz/";- 'munificent, DU. r?jk, ON. r/kr, frequent' ri/i/ii G. reic/t, abundant', ODU. rijf 'copious', GOTH. re/h. Originally a deriva-

'back', on. hryggr: preTEUT. krnkjo-, cogn. w. IR. crocemi

tive of
ric.

rive 'abundant'. GOTH, rdks 'king' under LG. right adj. me. right oe. rihi riches sb. me. richessc =^ OHG. OSAX. reht derived fr. fr. earlier '^reht fr. FR. richesse: on. rittr, goth. G. DU. recht, riche ^= teut. riki 'powerful'.

TEUT. rt'/^/aLAT. rectus DU. rook, on. 'a heap' 'right, straight'), prop, participle hraukr {kroki) 'a heap': teut. fr. a verbal v^r^i^ in laI*. regere base hrauka-, akin to on. hrilga rule'; cp. SKR. rjii 'right, 'to 'a heap' and IR. criiach 'heap'.
rick hr{ac
si),

short

for me. rek OE.

raihts 'right, straight':


fr.

an ARYAN

r'ekto-

(=

straight'.

ME. ridde prop, reddc righteous transformed fr. ME. OHG. hrettan G. rightwis oe. rihtwis OE. hreddan OHG. rM/"retten: teut. base Jiradjan from 7j'knowing the right'; see an ARYAN \fkrath in skr. (rathay. wise. 'loosen'. rim sb. jnie. rime oe. rima rioma riddle sb. me. m//<fjr OE. mZrA 'border, margin'; probably cogn. DU. raadscl, OSAX. w. OE. rand, ON. rgnd, OHG. rant 7-ckdelse rcidisli G. rt;/^^/ 'riddle"; cp. OHG. G. DU. rand 'border, margin': teut. TEUT. ran-do- for ram-do- (as 'riddle': rdtussa rdtisca sfrad red under read. Perh. (Z n d for ARYAN samdho-) riddle 2 sb. 'sieve' me. r/V/^/^'/ r/zz^/ belongs to the same ARYAN
rid
vb.

.y

for

OE. hrhider

OHG. hritara
in

\j'~r'em.

G. rczV^r 'sieve':

ARYAN y^/^r/
GR.

LAT.

cribrmn
in

'sieve',

xfjivw

and

goth.
'clean'

hrai-ns,

OHG.

r^//

rime^ sb. me. rim 'verse, song' borrowed about 1200 fr. OFR. rime, whence also mhg. rhn G.
reim, du. rijm (properly 'verse').

G. rein

(prop,

sifted'?).

ride me. ride oe. rldan str. vb. Source LAT. rhythmus. rime''^ sb. me. rime oe. hrifn ritan G. reiie/i, DU. rijden, 'hoarfrost'; ON. r/^rt'l TEUT. V"rlir/= pre-TEUT. DU. rijtn, ON. hrim gallo-lat. reda 'carriage' doubtful, whether ohg. hrifo G. r^zV/A in verediis\ox^^ (undQr palfrey) reif, OSAX. hripo, du. rijp 'hoarand IR. riadaim 'I go'; see ready. frost' are cognate.

= OHG.

rind

175

rind
rindo-

sb.

me.

rhide
fr.

'bark of a tree'
(r'endd-)

OE. rind riviera sea-shore: deriv. from a teut. base LAT. rtpa 'bank'. roach late me. rpche points to OHG. rinta G.
I

oho. a fr. source (cp. swed. rokka, rani G. rand and OE. rand 'border, DA^. rockc 'roach'); the synon. ray goes back to fr. raie margin' under rim. lat. raia 'roach'. ring sb. me. rin^ oe. /iringroad me. rode 'journey, road ON. hrifigr, ohg. hring ring G. teut. DU. ring: teut. base hringa- OE. rdd 'journey, road' (hrenga-) fr. a pre-TEUT. V~/^r6'^A base raido- (oN. reid 'riding') in OSLOV. krqgu 'circle' and fr. the verbal v^r/;:/ in ride. roar vb. me. rare oe. rdrian kraglil round'. OHG. reren mhg. reren vb. ring vb. me. ringe OE. hringan vb. =^ ON. hringja 'ring the bells'. 'low, bellow': teut. base r air an}
linde 'rind'; perh. cogn. w.
[

rip

vb.

ryppan HG. rupfen TEUT. base ruppjan\

ME. rippe

{I'lippe)

OE.

or raizan

'to

tear':

roast
a

cogn.

w. rostir
G.

= fr.

vb.

me.

roste

fr.

ofr.

roiir 'roast'.
raiistjan

GOTH, raupjan,

ohg. rouffen

teut.

vb.

raufen, OE. rypan ripan

and perh.

rosten G.

rosten 'roast';

Source ^r-z oHG. cp. ohg.

allied to S'K.^.\frtip 'break'.

MHG.

rost G. rosi 'gridiron, grate'.

rob vb. ME. robbe fr. fr. rober. ripe adj. me. oe. ripe 'mature, ripe' west-teut. ripi- in OSAX. robe sb. me. robe fr. fr. robe. ripi, DU. rijp, OHG. riffi G. reif\ Source a teut. sb. rauba'mature, ripe'; derived fr. the OE. rc'a/ 'spoil, clothing', OHG. teut. verbal V~^?/ 'cut' in e. reap mhg. roup(b) 'booty, spoil'. Cogn. and OE. rifter sb. 'sickle'. There- w. reave. fore ripe orig. meant 'cuttable, robin := fr. Robin the name

tit

for reaping'.

Robert.
str. sir.
^

rise vb. ME. rise OE. risan


vt).

rock
fr.

sb.

ME. rock late OE. rocc

ON.

risa,

ohg. risan

(stdnroccy.

move up, rise': teut. verbal \^;7i-, whence also rear'


vb.
'to

borrowed about lOOO ITAL. onfr. roc (fr. rochc)

rocca.
rock''^

Source celt, rokka-1


vb.

and raise.
risk sb.
fr.

fr. risque

=
on.

ME. rocke

late

OE.

ital.
rZ/rt

'

roccian 'shake, swing, rock'; cogn.

GERM,
'tear'

risico.

w.

rive vb, me. rive

rijven 'grate,

G. reiben, DU. XE\il.\f rukk. teut. verbal rod ident. \v. rood. \'^wrih in ODU. MLG. wriven 'rub', roe sb. 'a female deer* me. rp river me. river fr. fr. riviere OE. rd earliest form rdha 'river, stream'; ident. w. ital. ohg. rcho: teut. base raihan-\
j

fr.

?_)'-('/^/
I

OHG. ruckan G. riicken, ON. 'to pull roughly and hastily':

ohg. riban
rub':

'

176
ident. w.
ree,

roe

row

ohg. reh
rd
fr.

G. reh,

on.

DU. teut. base


fishes'

ON. rota 'grub up'; cp. MHG.


G.
riissel.

ri'ie"i^el

ME. rpp OE. rap ^= TEUT. base raipa- in on. reip, short for late ME. rgune; properly DU. reepy ohg. G. ;r//"hoop, ring, on, hrogn^ ohg. rope'; perh. cogn. w. gr. Qai^oc. OE. *hrogen rogan G. rogen with the by-form 'bent'. ohg. 7-ogo'. TEUT. base hrognarose sb. ME. rose oe. rose (byform riise^ borrowed fr. lat. (Jirogan-')
raiha-.
roe''^

rope

sb.

sb. 'the

spawn of

=
fr.

rogue

sb.

fr. rogue.
fr.

rosa,

whence

also

fr.

g.

rose

ofr. roler ohg. rbsa. rosemary sb. me. rosmarine fr. FR. ronlcr: source lat. rotulare. ofr. rosjuarin (fr. romarhi) rood ME. rode OE. rod (obi. LAT. ros marifius (prop, 'marin rikic^ 'cross', original meaning dew'); cp. G. rosmarin. on. rotten adj. me. rote/i 'a rod or pole'. Ident. w. OSAX. roda, DU. roede, ohg. ruota G. rotinn: partic. of a verbal \^r/^/ rute and w. E. rod. teut. base reut in oe. rotian, oSAX. rotbn, rodo-, pre-TEUT. rddha- or rata-. MHG. ro-^':.^en vb. 'putrify'. rough adj. me. rough {I'ou^ roof ME. rpf OE. hrpf: teut. OHG. ruh G. rauh base hrbfa- in on. hrdf 'shed', OE. rilh OFRIES. hrbf 'roof, DU. roef 'rough' (du. ruig 'rough'): TEUT. pre - teut. rtiko-, 'cabin'. Perh. allied to roost. base i-iihapre- cogn. w. LITH. raukas 'wrinkle'? IR. cro 'roof points to a round vb. 'whisper' me. roune TEUT. form krdpo-. runian, riinian oSAX. rook sb. ME. rgk OE. krpc OE. ON. krokr, OHG. hruoJi: TEUT. OHG. runen G. raunen 'whisper': derivative of teut. riinb- 'secret, base /iroka-, pre-TEUT. krago-. mystery' under rune. room sb. ME. roum oe. riim

roll vb, ME. rolle

= =

OHG. nh/i
ON.
in

G.

rauin

rum

GOTH,

DU. ruim, rums 'room'


,

TEUT. ru-ma- fr. an ARYAN \'^rz2 LAT. riis {ritris) 'open country'. roost sb. ME. rpst OE. hrpst DU. roest 'hen-roost', osAX. hrbst 'roof; prop, hrbfsta- and cogn. w. roofl root sb. ME. rote late oe. rot

round adj. me. round fr. FR. rond (oFR. roond^i.k.i. rotundus), whence also G. rund, du. rond
'round'.
sb. me. rpwe oe. raw 'row' a TEUT. base raiwb- orig. raigwb- cogn. w. jfflG. rihe G. reihe Vow' and the str. vb. OHG. rihan

row

fr.

^xe.-T^\2i.\frikh string': 'rank, ON. reikh in skr. rekhd 'line'. rot: TEUT. base wrbta-, cogn. w. row vb. me. rpwe oe. rcnvan mhg. ON. roa, DU. roeijen E. root vb. OE. wrptan 'grub up'

borrowed

fr.

the

equival.

rowlock
riiejen
'to

rye

177
rinnan
G.

row"

common

base OHG.

rinnen

str.

vb.

a strong verbal Y^r<5 in rudder run'. rune the teut. word for the OE. rodor =^ ohg. ME. rather ruodar G. ruder, du. roer 'rudder': old characters in writing oe. TEUT. base rd-J>ra-. lat. ri-fnus ON. riin with the orig. meaning
:

'rudder'
to the

and or. i-()e-rf.i6g belong 'mystery, secret' (goth. ohg. rund) ident. w. oiR. riin 'secret'. same ARYAN-y^r^ re. rowlock rollock sb. prop, Cp. round vb. for the root.
:

oe. hrung (obi. goth. hrugga 'staff', hg. LG. runge, du. rong 'spar, bolt': oars. ruddock sb. me. riuidok oe. TEUT. base hrungo-. ruddiic 'red-breast'; cogn. w. rust me. rust roust oe. rust fr. ruddy me. rodi ricdy (oe. '^riuii-^ a TEUT. base rusta-; ident. w. and OE. rudii. 'red HG. LG. rost fr. a TEUT. base reddish'

hole

for

rowing';

cp.

o.

/oc/i

rung me. runge

and

OE. lir/oe me. orlock 'hole of hrunge)

color';

cp. the adj. red.


adj. ime. riide
fr.

rusta-

rude

fr. rude
i

derived with st- formative from the ARYAN \~rudh (in E.


:

LAT. rudis 'rude'.

(for *rudjd) 'rust'. on. hryggva vb. rush sb. ME. r usshe oe. rysce; 'distress, grieve': base a strong ident. w. lg. du. rusch 'rush, v&x\i'A\.\'~ hreuw. reed'. Cp. ruth.
riwivaii G. reuen,

rue vb. ME. rewe oe. hreowan LAT str. vb. =^ OSAX. hreuwan, ohg. riizda

red and ruddy), whence also robis^o 'rust' and OSLOV.

rue

sb.

FR. rue

(a plant)

jvie.

riie

fr.

rush

vb.

ME.

rousche

G.

LAT. ruta

'rue'.

rauscheni\inG. riischen, du. ruischen


,

rule ME. reule earlier riule fr. ODU. ruuschen OSWED. ruska OFR. reule riule: source LAT. rush': TEUT. base hriiskoti} There regulij, whence also oe. regol, occurs also OE. hryscan.

OHG. rtgala

G.

regel,

fr. regie.
'trunk,

ruth
fr.

sb. ME. reuthe:

extended
sb.
str.

rump
MHG.
G.

late me. ru7npe\ ident. w.

more

primitive

OE.
vb.

rumpf, DU.
parallel

ro7iip

hreow; cp. OE. hreowan


rue'

body'-

under rue.

rimple

rye sb. me. rie oe. ryj^e: teut. base rugi- in on. rugr 'rye'; OHG. w. ODU. roinpel 'ripf)le': derived rocko G. roggen and oSAX. roggo fr. the TEUT. verbal \^ hretnp in 'rye' point to a teut. parallel OE.^'-^///'KW/^ 'wrinkled' and OHG. base ruggan-. Outside of teut., rimpfan str. vb. 'wrinkle'. OSLOV. riizi 'rye' (base rugi-) run vb. me. rinne (part, ironne) and lith. rugial 'rye' show the OE. (rare) rinnan (mostly yrnari) same base as oe. ry-^e and on. ON. ri/ma, goth. rinnan 'run'; rugr teut. base rugi-.
to

rumple

form

me.

OE.

hrympek

and

ident.

English Ety.mologv.

12

178

sable

sand

sable
fr.

sb. me.
sable\

sable

OFR.
zobel:

ident.

sake sb. me. sake oe. i^^?^// ^= borrowed w. mhg. TEUT. base sako- in ohg. sahha
G. sache,

G.

source

a slav. word,

DU.

artia/C'

'matter, affair'

Russ. soboli
G.
,

'sable'.

sabre saber fr. fr. sabre sublja, SERB. RUSS. sabd Source and HUNciAR. szablya. history unknown. sack sb. 'bag' me. sakk OE. sacc ^= GOTH, sakkus, du. zak. TEUT. Sac G. sack OHG. MHG. base sakku- borrowed tr. lat.
:

perh.

based on the TEUT. verbal

sakan 'content, rebuke'. sale ME. sale oe. salu;


sell.

hence
earlier

sallow
"^salge

sb.

ME.

salwe

OE. scalh {*sealg-)

= ohg.

rEUT. base salho-; cp. ON. selja 'willow' (base salhJdn-~). Prob. cognate w. lat. salix (base saccus, whence also IXAL. sacco, salic-) 'willow' and gr. fXi'y.rj. sallow adj. me. sahce o*:. sea /a Source HEBR.-Phenic. ER. sac. salo =- DU. zaluw, on. sglr 'yellowsak.
salaha:

sad ME.

.f.r?^/'sad,

quiet, serious';
'satiated' corre-

ish',

the ident. OE. sponds with

jr^/

OHG. salo base salwa-.


base
saltain

'sallow':

teut.

OHG.
is

sat

G.

satt,

salt sb. ME. salt oe. sealt: teut.

OSAX.

sad,

ON. sadr, goth. saps

'satiated'.

There

an

aryan
;

salt,

OHG.

G.

\^ sd 'satiate' in lat. satur-satis w. LAT. sal, cp. OIR. salami and oiR. sathach 'satiated'
GR. a-f,i^vm
's^vtiate
.

goth. ON. oSAX. Cogn. salt'. GR. ale, OSLOV. soli.


salz
salt'.

salve
(inti.

sb.

me. salve

saddle
ON.

:me.

sadcl oe. sadol ==

jYr?//V)

oe.

sealf

sgdull, OHG. satul g. sattcl, j-^?//v, DU. zalf ; OE. sealfian E. salve vb. DU. zadel: teut. base saditla-, vb. perh. borrowed tVom a non- Cognate w. the aryan \f selp TEUT. language which might have solp in SKR. sarpis 'butter' formed a sb. sadtilo- from the srpra fat', CiR. iXnoq, 'oil'. same sb. me. same OE. sam set. ARYAN \~ sed in sit safe ME. sdf earlier saiif: loan- GOTH, sama, on. samr, ohg. .^.tw; the same': pre-TEUT. soma- in LAI", salrns; word fr. FR. sauf GR. ofWQ, SKR. .yt/OT(Z 'the same cp. save. sample sb. me. saiimple earlier sail sb. jNIE. sai/ sell oe. siiiel OHG. ^6^^/ G. segel, DU. 2^/7, asaumplc fr. OFR. essemple fr. lat. exemplum. example ON. .ff^^/: TEUT. base segla-. osax. sand sb. me. oe. sand me, seint saint fr. fr. saint sb. .><?;/(/, OHG. sant G. .fd;!^/, du. srt'^/, LAT. sanctiis. saint

OHG. salba G. cp. GOTH. j-<?//w;

"

sap

scoff

179
sb.
'shell'

teut. base sanda- for ON. sandr samda-, cp. pre-TEUT. samadho-s in 6r. ai.ia&o<; sand'. sap sb. ME. sap oe. seep MLG. OUU. JT^/, MHG. OHG. Saf G. i-cz/V 'sap': TEUT. base sdpaborrowed fr. lat. sdpa mast'. satin sb. me. satin fr. fr. satin: source the vulgar lat. seta 'silk'
:

scale ^

me.

scale:

loanword fr. OFR. escale FR. icale. Source OHG. scala under shell.
scale'OE.

(of a balance)

skdle:

loanword

fr.

me. late ON. skdl


ident. w.

'scale

of a balance';

(in sfd

G.

scidc

ohg.

sida

OHG. osax. skctla 'bowl'. scarce ]ME. scars fr. ofr. escars scarso ital. khars^ (fr. OE. 'scarce source lat. excarsus

'silk').

excarpsHS

fr. ofr. Saturday me. saterday earlier scarlet ident. w. DU. escarlate (fr. icarlate~) Saterndai oe. Sceternda;i zaterdag, ofris. saternesdag ,west- G. scharlach, du. scharlakcn (mhg. PHAL. Sdterdach: adaptation of scharldt, ODU. schaerlaet'). Source LAT. Saturni dies. Cp. the names pers. sakirldt. scathe vl). me. scathe fr. on. of the other days of the week. sauce sb. me. sau(c fr. fr. skada\ ident. w. oe. sceppan Hence GOTH, skapjan vb. 'harm. The sauce: source lat. salsa. TEUT. \^ skap corresponds to an sausage fr. fr. saucisse. savage adj. :me. sauvage fr. fr. ARYAN \^ skdth in GR. doy.7]itr}(^

selected scarldt me.


.

sauvage
fr.

lat.

sih'aticus.

'harmless'.

save vb. me. save


FR.

sauver
sb. me.

earlier sauve

scatter

vb.

me.

scaler e:

lat.

salvare

word of the

12'''

loancentury fr.
?

Cp. safe. savour fr. ofr. lat. sapor-em 'taste'. savour saw sb. ME. sa7cie OE. sage OHG. saga, lg. sage, du. saag, ON. spg; cp. the ablaut-variation OHG. sega 'saw': derived fr. an ARYAN \'" sek sok (in lat.
'secure.

savor
'

ODU. scateren 'scatter' scent vb. properly


me. sent sb. 'scent')
'smell'

sent

(late

school me.
scple^

= LAT. ^ ohg.
a

fr.

ofr. sentir
scdl
g.
(infl.

sentire.

scple oe.

scuola

schule,

DU.

scola

j^^ar<? 'cut'),

whence

also OE. secg


!

sword' and E. scythe, saw- sb. ME. sawe oe. sagu g. sage ohg. saga: 'saying' derived fr. the TEUT. verb sagain OE. secgan me. sein sain E. say and ohg. sagen G. sagen; perh. cogcp. on. seggja say' nate w. LiTH. sakvti vb. 'say'.

loanword fr. lat. medieval pronunciation scoLi), whence also fr. kole and ital. scuola.
school:
(in

scissors
fr.
1

ME.
cisoires

sisoures

(isoures

ofr.

'scissors'

(fr.

a'seaux).

scoff ME.
[ I

sco/;

cogn.
vb.
12

w.

the

equiv. ohg. scop/ sb.


schof\
cp.

and ofriks.
'scoff,

ON. skopa

mock'.

Source and history un-

i8o

scold

see

known; the E. word probably not genuine Anglosaxon. scold vb. iME. scglde; cognate w. OHG. saltan G. scheltcn vb. 'scold'. Probably the E. word is not genuine English, but borrowed fr. abroad. score ME. score late OE. sco7'twenty': loanword fr. on. skor 'notch' source the teut. \f sker in shear. scorn iME. scorn earliest form (about 1200) scam: borrowed fr. OFR. escarn 'scorn'. Source OHG. seem 'mockery'.
:

scythe me.
'sickle'

slthe

oe. sipe siipe

=^ on. sigdr 'sickle': Teut. base sigipja-, derived fr. a TEUT. \fseg in ohg. s'egansa G.
sense 'scythe';

cp. sa'ic.

sea
got.
seo
G.

me.
sai7ijs,

sc

oe.

see

ident. w.

ON. sdr,

see

seaP
sceau.

sb.

seal 2
OE.
selah,

du. zee: ME. sc'l fr. OVK. seel YVi. Source lat. sigillum. (the animal) sb. me. s(lc
(pi.
sel,

ohg. olg. base samii-.

seolh

seolas)

mlg.
s'elha-.

on. selr:

ohg. Teut.

base

seam

sb.

'suture

me. scm oe.

scour vb. ME. secure. seam =1 on. saumr, ohg. mhg. scourge sb. 'whip' me. scourge soitm G. saum du. zooiti"*. Teut. fr. OFR. escurgc (whence also base sau-ma-, derived from the FR. escourgde icourgie) 'a scourge'. same root as the vb. se7(:i. -scrape vb. me. scrape fr. on. seampstress me. setnster oe. sca.

scrdpa;
G.

cp.

mlg.

du.

schrapen mestre

schrappcn.

scream vb. me. scrcvie vb. fr. on. skrdma \o scare, terrify'. screw sb. fr. ofr. escroue, modern FR. scribe
I'eroii.

'a woman who sews seams'. sear 'withered' me. ser oe. sear ^= DU. zoor 'dry', ohg. sor. search vb. me. serchc cerche
fr.

vb.

OFR.

cereher

(=

FR.

chercher^.
fr.

Source lat.

eireare.

sb. me. sesoun (seisoun) OFR. seson fr. saisoii: source scrip sb. :me. scrippc fr. on. lat. satio-nem '(time of) sowing'. skreppa. seat sb. ME. scte borrowed fr. scurf me. late oe. scurf bor- on. sckti 'a seat derivative of rowed fr. on. skurf (= SWED. the TEUT. \f set in sit and set. DAN. sktiri)) skorf cp. ohg. sedge sb. ime. segge oe. secg: seorf G. sc/wrf, du. schurft 'scurf. Teut. base sagja- also in ODU. TEUT. \f skerf skorf in oe. sceor- MLG. segge. \f sah sag in ohg.
s crib a.
fr.
:
,

sb.

me. scribe

lax.

season

pan

sahar 'sedge'. Perh. cognate me. oe. sci/tel 'a with a reduplicated GALLO.-LAT. dish, bowl identical w. ohg. si-sc-a 'sedge' IR. seisg. scuTjyla G. schussel, du. sc hotel, see vb. me. se oe. seon conON. skutcll 'dish'. Source lat. tracted for *s'ehan ohg. olg. scutula scutella. sehan G. sehen du. zien: westscuttle
sb.
;

to scrape'.

ISI

TEUT. TEUT.

scha7t

ARYAN \~ SCq and LG. egge\ therefore selvedge in LAT. sequi, GR. eneodat, skr. compound of self and edge, persac 'follow'. The original mean- haps in imitation of early du.
\(~ S'chw

GOTH,

saihan.

DU.

zelfkant,

G.

(dial.)

self-end

ing of the TEUT. verb probably selfegge. send vb. me. sende (prt. se/iie') was to follow with the eyes'. see sb. 'seat of a bishop' me. OE. seiidan (prt. saide) \vk. vb. on. senda, GOTH. sa7idjan lat. sede-m sc fr. OFR. se 'seat' DU. zenden, OSAX. sendian, OHG. seat'.

Derived fr. seed -ME. sed {sc'd) oe. s^l seed sentan G. senden. OHG. sat G. iaat, DU. zaad GOTH, .y//^/, OHG. i-/////, OE. iv/ oir. stH 'way' (aryan {goth. seps in vianasips 'man- 'journey' sontejo vb.). kind') Teut. base se-di-\ for base setito- sb. sennight prop, 'seven night \'~ sc cp. sow seek vb. me. sekc oe. secan oe. seofoii nild; cp. fourtJiight. sermon me. scrmonn fr. fr. (scceaii) == GOT. sbkjan, ox. sa''kja, OHG. suohhan G. siichen, du. zooken. sermon. ARYAN \f SClg serve vb. me. serve borrowed in TEUT. v'" .f^/5

in

oiR.

sdighn

'I

seek'

(lat.
oe.

the

12'*^

cent.

fr.

fr. servir

(=

sai^lrc ?)

'LP^r.servire).
\i).

Derivative servant

seethe
scodan

'boil'

str.

vb.

me.

.ft'7//<?

on.

sjoda,

me. servaunt fr. fr. servant and service me. servise fr. fr. scrviec
(lat. servitium).

OHG. siodan
In GOTH.,

G. siede/i,

du. zieden.

we

find only the deri-

set vb. me.


vb.

vative saups sb. 'sacrifice' (prop,


'a burnt-offering'),

.y^/A'

oe. settan wk.

GOTH.
G.

satja?i,

on.

.r^'i^'^',

teut. \^ seup DU.


seldom

2^//^;/,

osax.
setzen'.

settian,

OHG.
satjan

ARYAN \^ sent, seldom adv. me.


OE.
seldan

sezzan

teut.

seldcin)

adv.

prop.
on.

causal
settle
'to
fix':

vb. vb.

to sitjan

j'//.

me.

setlc
fr.

oe.

setlian
'a

sjaldan,

ohg. j-iVAw/ G. selteriy du. zehkn adv. Cogn. w. goth. y/A/aA'/'-^jT

derived

oe. sctl

seat';

cp. GOTH,

sitls,

ohg.

.>"t';;<//

'wonderful'.

self pron. ME. OE. self jv/Z' G. sclbsi., i)U. s^"^, ON.

G. sessel.

OHG.

seven num. me.


prop.
g.
.f^^/(?;/

sjtil/r,

GOTH.
OE.

sMa: Teut. base


ME.
sclle

selba-.

.JzV/'if/?

GOTH. OHG. sibun DU. zeven. Oldest Teut.

seven oe. seofone

sell vb.

(pret. solde^

form seplun in Lex Salica. Ident.

GR. f77Ta, skr. 'to give' w. LAT. septefn, bring an sap tan. sever vb. ime. severe fr. OFR. off"ering on. selja to liand over sevrer =^ lat. separare. MHG. sclleii. se^v vb. ME. si'ive oe. seoician selvage, selvedg c cp.thesynon.

sellaii

(pret. salde)

GOTH,
,

saljnn

to

I82
shoian;
syja,

shackle

shaw

cp. goth. siujan, on. TEUT. languages. OHG. simvan 'to sew': teut.- (skal-da-).
\l~ siw in

Base

skal-zaa-

ARYAN
sh' 'to

LAT. sucre, SKU.


me.
sc hackle

shambles
LAT.

me. schdmel 'bench'

sew';

cp. seam.
oe.

OE. sceamol 'stool':


scavielluvi
,

shackle
scedcol 'a

sb.

borrowed fr. whence also

skgkull 'pole of a carriage', teut.

OHG. OSAX. sca^nal G. schemel. shame vb. me. schdme oe. scedmu OSAX. skania, OHG. scania G. skak in shake. \f shad sb. me. schaddco%. sceadda. scham; cp. goth. sik skanum 'to oe. sc'edmian. Perhaps an orig. teut. skadan- shame'
bond';
ident,

w.

on.

'herring'
if it
isle'.

is

found

in Scadin-avia,

shank
ca\

vb. me. schanke oe. sceanfr.

originally

meant

'herring's

cp. G. schenkel 'shank'


*scenkil.

a
G.

Cp. yet m. gael. sgada?i lost OHG.


]Me.

Cogn. w.

'herring'

schinken 'ham' OHG. scinko 'shank',

shade, shadow

schdde sliad-

we

oe. seeadii obi. sceadwe: Teut.

is perh. a doublet by the side of OE. sceanca.

which

base skadwa- in du. schaduw, OHG. skato gen. skaiwes, G. schatten, GOTH, skadiis; cogn. w. oiR. scdth 'shadow': pre-TEUT. \^skdi. shaft sb. jNIE. schaft oe. irV^?// OSAX. shaft, OHG. JTCt;// G. schaft, ON. i-/'^7//: teut. skafta-

shape
ident.

vb. me. schdpe


OE. scieppan

w.

gtr.

vb.;

goth.

(ga)skapjan 'to create', ohg. scep-

fan

'to

create' (g. schaffett)

TEUT.

\^skap.

share

sb. 'part'oE. jrV^^r//;

cogn-

w. shear.

share sb. 'plough-share' ME. prop. a 'shaven' pole; cp. shave and GR. oy.ijTTTpor 'staff, sceptre' schdre oe. scearn ^=^ OHG. scar a G. pfugschaar: teut. \fsker 'cut" av.antov 'staff'. shag 'rough hair' oe. sceacga in shear.
'hair';

cogn. w. ON. skegg 'beard.


vb. me. schdke oe. sc'edcan

shake
str.

vb.

ON. skaka; cp. oSAX.

ON. ska/pr, uu. scherp, osax. skarp, OHG. scarf G. scharf adj.
'sharp'.

sharp

adj. me. scharp oe. scearp

skakaii 'to

go away'.
(prt. scholde)

TEUT. verbal \f sk'erp in


str.

shall vb. ME. schal


j-/C'<i/

OE. sceorpan

vb.

to scrape'.

OE. sceal (prt. sceolde)


(skiilda),

goih.
(scolda)
i-/Ja/.

shave

vb. me. schdve oe. scedfan

OHG.
DU.

JT^^z/

G.

soil (SO/te),

C(//,

ON.

GOTH, skaban, ON. vb. str'. skafa, OHG. scaban G. schaben, du.

Cogn.
liable'.

w.

LiTH.

skelc-ti

'to

be schaven\o shave': teut. \^ skab cogn. w. LAT. scabere 'to shave

shallop see sloop.

andprob. w.

gr. ay.dnzco 'to dig'.

schalwc 'not deep' Cp, shaft. shaw ME. schawe oe. scedga with the byform me. schcdd; not found in oe. nor in the other 'thicket, small wood'; ident. w.

shallow

3>ie.

shawm
ON. skagi 'promontor}''
\v.

G.

shield

and cogn.

skogr 'wood' and jNIHG. sc/huih' 'piece of wood'. shawm me. schahny borrowed
ON.
IV.

schon, GOTH, skauns: teut. base skaii-rii-, verbal adj. 'to be looked at' fr. \^sk(ru in show.

sheep
{scedp)

FR.
G.

(dial.)

chale/nie,

whence
fr.

= osax. skdp,
G.

sb.

me.

schep

oe.

seep

also
mella.

schahnci;
fr.

standard
type

OHG.
skcpa-

scdf

schaf:
ME.

du. schaap, Teut. base


oe.
sc'ete

cJialuvieau

a lat.

cala-

(skapa-).

sheet
ME. sche;

sb.

Scheie

umlaut-deriv. of oe. sccat goth. skaiits responding to OE. hco (fem. of 'fold of a garment' he), but phonetically to oe. seo 'hem of a garment', ohg. scoz. g.

she

functionally cor-

(scyte),

the). of the article se sb. me. schcf oe. sccaf: teut. base skauba- in on. skauf, OHG. slou/>, du. schoof. Cogn. w. OHO. scobar o. schober rick' (of

(fem.

schoss

sheaf

corn). All derivatives of the Teut. \f sktib in shove with the


orig.

meaning
vb.

'things

shoved

together'.

shear
str.

vb.

=
in

me. schcre oe. sccraii

OHG.

sccran

DU.

G.

'bosom, lap'; oe. scyfe represents a TEUT. type skautjbn-. teut. \' skcut in shoot. shelf me. schelve oe. scylf MLG. ODU. sche//, ohg. sce/b; cp. on. Hlid-skjalf. shell sb. ME. schelle oe. sccll obi. scelle: teut. type skaljb- in DU. schel, ON. skel 'shell' and in goth. skalja 'a tile'; cogn. w. OHG. scald G. schale 'shell'.

scheren, on. skera:


in

arvan

\'".f/('tV

shepherd

sb. me. schepherd o^.

LiTH.

skh'-ii 'separate',

cogn. scip-hyrde prop,

compound

of oe.

OR. xeioaiv shear'. siip 'sheep' and oe. hyrde e. hejcp. vb. me. schcthe oe. scedp 'one who tends a herd'; obi. icedpe: fr. a teut. skaipjo- GOTH, halrdeis, ohg. hirti G. hirte ohcj. sceida o. and see herd. in OSAX. slicdia,
w.

\~ ker sheath

scheide, du. scheede: orig.

that
w.

which Separates'.

meaning Cogn.

schir-i-eve oe. scii'-j^erefa;

sheriff sb. me. scherefe earlier I^' part

shed

GOTH, skaidan with the shire', oe. ^erefa E. reeve is dan ohg. derived fr. teut. roba rofa byform osax. skcdan sceidati o. schciden 'u^ separate': OHG. ritoba ruofa 'number'? which is shide sb. me. schide oe. scid TEUT. \^ skaip skaid compared to gr. OxiXsiv, skk. ON. skid, OHG. scit G. schcit thin

vb.

.ME.

schcde oe. seed-

of the oe.

compound

see under

= =

(///(/,

LAT. schidere 'to cleave, cut'


\^skhid}').
sb.

board';
'shield'

ident.

w.

OIR.

sciaih

(arvan sheen

See shide.
adj.)
adj.

(ARYAN
sb. ME.
.fr/A/)
:

base

skciio-).

(prop,
(sc'y/ir)

me.
'fair'

Cogn. w. sheath.
shield (byform
schehi oe.

schetie oe.

scene

scdd

osax. ohg.

skoni

DU. schoon

teut. base

skeldii

84

shift

shop

GOTH, skildus on. skjgldr, scindula, by form oi scandula 'shingOHG. scilt, DU. G. schild. Perh. le); but the phonetic anomaly cogn. w. LITH. skcUu I split'. is not yet explained. shift vb. ME. schifte oe. sciftaii ship sb. ME. schip oe. scip ^=divide' ON. skipta, DU. GOTH. ON. OSAX. skip, OHG. Scif 'to schiften 'to divide'. G. schiff: common Teut. base
in

shilling
sailing
skilling,
^=^

sb.

me.

schiUing

oe.

skip a-.

schilling:

GOTH, skilliggs, ON. OHG. oSAX. scilling G. teut. base skillingaperh. akin
bell'.
jve'//i3'

shire
vincia'.

sb.

(obi. scire)

me. schirc oe. scir ohg. skira 'propointing


fr.

more
to

orig. sk'ellingo-,
G.

shirt
to

sb.

me. schirte
'''scyrte;

OHG.

sckelU

an OE.

deriv.

the

The common

Teut. name of adj. OE. sceort == short, as the coin properly meant 'the shown by G. schurz 'shirt' a.side tinkling money' (for the suffix of mhg. schurz 'short'. ON. skyrta -ing in names of coins see penny OE. ^'sc'yrte represents a teut. type skurtjon-, but OE. sceort a and farthing). shimmer vb. me. schimcrc oe. base skoria-. See short. sciviorian: deriv. of OE. scima shoal 'crowd' me. schgle oe. skcifna 'light' sceolu OSAX. skola 'troop'. light' =: GOTH, cp. G. schi/ni/icrn aside of OHG. shock vb. ME. schocke fr. fr. schno 'light'. Cp. shine for the choqiier 'give a shock. shock sb. ME. schocke 'heap TEUT. \^ski. OE. "^sccocc is lost, shin {shiiihone) sb. me. schine of corn'. {schincbgn) oe. scina (scinebdn) but inferred from :^^TG. schoc r= OHG. scina (mhg. schinchein') 'heap' schocke 'shock'. Cogn. G. schienc (schienbein), DU. scheen also w. MLG. hockc 'shock of corn'. {scheenbeen). oe. scic shin' shows shoe sb. ME. schg OE. scegh more primitive (pi. sceg-s for *scghas) Teut. evidently the root-form ski: separate oe. ohg. base skoha- in GOTH, skbhs, ON. sci-na. skb-r, OHG. sciioh G. schuh, du. shine vb.ME. schine or. sci/nrn str. schocn. Perhaps derived fr. a GOTH, skeinan, on. skina, TEUT. \f skeh skc(g)w in goth. vb. ohg. OSAX. sklnan G. scheincn, DU. skewjan on. skdva 'to go teut. equivalent. schijnen.: all shoot vb. cp. ME. schgte vb. ski-na-n rests on a \'~ ski as OE. scebtian 'to dart, derived fr. shown by oe. sci-ma ohg. sci-i?io tlie primitive ME. schete OE. sceo-

GOTH, skei-ma light'. shingle sb. me. schingcl;

tan

ON. skjota,
G.

oSA>'. skeoian
schiesscn
:

ap-

OHG.

scio"4i'i

DU.

parently identical w. G. schindel schietcn: teut. \^ skeut skiit. OHG. scintilla (loanword fr. lat. shop sb. me. schoppc OE. sceoppa

shore

shut

i5
skiira

cognate *booth, hut'; scypen 'shed for cattle',

w.
G.

OE.

GOTH,

'storm',

ohg.

schopf scdr G. schauer, on. ,f/^/^r. shred sb. short for me. schr{dc schiippen 'shelter'. shore sb. me. schorc: fr. the OE. scread (obi. screade) 'shred, piece' cp. oe. scr(admig 'shred I'EUT. \^ sker 'shear, cut'.
;

teut. short adj. me. schort OE. sceort: and scrcadian 'to pare' base skorta-\ cp. ohg. scurz fr. \^ skraud in ohg. scrota /i 'to cut, a base skurtu-'. loanword fr. lat. pare*; perh. cogn. w. shroud.
:

* ex-cur tus, as lat. curtus

is

predu.

shrew
:me.

sb.,

shrewd

adj.

fr.

person' schrcwe sb. 'bad schrcwed adj. 'wicked, bad'; kort, ON. korU- (see kirtle for and shirt for G. the corresp. OE. scr^'awa means OE. cyrtil 'shrew-mouse'. Origin and history schiirze) shot sb. ME. schot OE. lesceot 'a of the group unknown. shriek vb. me. schrike (oe. missile': deriv. from the teut. scrkiiiii) cogn. w. shrike sb. \'^skeui skut in shoot. shoulder sb. .me. schulder oe. oe. scric 'a bird's name'. Cp. sculdor; G. ON. skrikja 'to titter'. cp. du. sclioudcr shrine sb. me. schrin OE. serin; schulter (ohg. scultirrci).

served in

G.

OHG.

liU7-z 'short',

shout shove
sciifaii

vb. me. schoute.

ident. w.

= on. skufa, du. schu'wen:


w.

vb.

me.

schouve

oe.

DU.
no,

schrijn:

ohg. scrhii G. schrcin, loanword fr. la'1\


also ital. scrigschrinke
vb.

scrinium,
FR.

whence
(ic7in.

ident.

goth.
\'~

skiuban,

ohg.

sciohan G. schiebeir. teut. \^sktib


SK.R.

^to

= ARYAN skubh\ ksubh be agitated' seems to be mk. schovel cognate. shoi'e/


\'^

shrink

vb.

me.
str.

sb.

ODU. schrinken; cogn. w. swed. skrynka 'a wrinkle': teut. \^ skrcnk.


{for)scrinca)2

OE.

oe. sceojf;

cp.
(;.

du. schoffel
schaufcl.

and

shroud

sb.

me.

ohg. scufala

scriid 'garment'

= on.

schroud

oe.

skriid 'or-

show

vb.

lesce'au'iii/i

sponding
to
tical

look,
witli

See shred. schcwe late oe. nament, dress'. show'; the correshudder vb. me. schudere (oe. schuddcrn LG. sccaivian means ''scudoria/i) oe. du. behold and is iden- (whence G. schauder/i)
ME.
to

OHG. \schudden 'to tremble'; cp. ohg. skou7c>oti g. schaucn du. schouwen: scutisoti 'to shudder'. teut. \'~ skau sku (see sheeii) in shun vb. ME. schiinc oe. sciinian GOTH, skuggwa 'looking glass'. wk. vb. 'to avoid, abhor' perh. Cogn. w. the aryan v^'^''' '^^?^'' deriv. fr. a teut. \^ skcn 'to flee in eat. caverc 'to take care', away' in on. skynda to hasten', GR. Y.ohlv 'to beget'. OHG. scuntan 'to urge on'.
the
equival.
'

shower

sb.

.ArE.

schour oe.

irV/r

shut

vb. me. schuttc OE. scvttaii

i86

shy

sin

DU. schutten 'to shut in, to OE. i'tw/ ohg. /zrt G. seihen 'to the guttural of block up': Teut. base skutjan filter, strain' cogn, w. shuttle sb. me. schitel which may have changed to a Teut. base labial {sif for slJu). OE. scytels bar, bolt sigh vb. ME. sighe points to skutisia-, \^ skciU skui in shoot. shy adj. me. sc/iey OE. scn)/i an OE. *sihhicin cogn. w. the me. sike oe. i/V<?. (^sceog-) 'timid' =r mhg. schicch equivalent root sik slhh looks like (g. scheii), DU. schinv: Teut. base The
,
:

skeoha-

sciuhan

ohg. sound-imitation. sight sb. me. sight earlier ME. sick adj. short for ME. sek OE. sighthe oe. lesihp: deriv. of the on. sjilkr, TEUT. \^sehf in see. seoc ^= GOTH, sinks sign sb. ME. signe fr. fk. OSAX. siok, ohg. sioh g. siech., silk ME. si/h OE. wcV6- fr. an DU. ziek: TEUT. seuka- adj. 'ill, sick' by the side of the str. vb. earlier ^^siluc; cogn. w. ON. sil/ii: GOTH, siukan 'to be ill', whence source lat. sericum (whence the verbal noun goth. saii/its, also on<. sirie and oslov. selkii 'silk'). OHG. suht 'illness'. sill sb. ME. sille oE. syll obL sicker (Scotch) adj. me. siktr OHG. sihhur G. sichcr, syllc: Teut. base .y//^'J- borrowed OE. sicor O'iky.. siki/7-, DU. zeker: loanword fr. LAT. solea 'sole of the foot', base sikfrra-) fr. lat. whence also goth. sulja 'sole (Teut. ON. syll is an OE. sectiriis, borrowed during the first of a shoe'. Cp. sole. centuries of the Christian era. loanword.
skeuha,

whence

'to frighten'

(g. scheuefi).

i7|i,'-//f'.

borrowed

oe. seli^ seli' adj. ME. OHG. 'happy, fortunate' also OHG. sihhila G. sichelux}. sikkel. saHg G. selig, du. zalig 'blessed': side sb. me. side oe. side (obi. secondary extension to goth. ON. scell 'iiappy' sidnii) ON. sida, ohg. slla G. sels 'good'

sickle

sb.

ME.

sikel oe.

sicol:

silly

fr.

lat. secula, whence

(sdlii)

DU. zijde: Teut. base sid- (cp. OE. seel sb. 'happiness'). jon-, perh. connected w. OE. sid TEUT. \'~sel. silver me. silver oe. siolfor ^=on. sidr long, wide' adj.
seite^

'hanging down' ? siege sb. inie. sege fr. fr. siege. sieve sb. me. sive oe. sife (oldest OHG. sib G. sieb, form sibi~) DU. c^^v/ 'a sieve': Teut. base sibi-, connected w. the vb. sift. sift ME. sifte OE. siftan =^ DU.

GOTH.

silubr,

OSAX.

siliibar,
,

OHG.

ON. silabar G. silber^ DU. zilver ident. w. o.SLOV. sirebro silfr;

RUSS.

serebro,

lith.

sidabras.

Source

and

history

uncertain.

sin sb. ME. sinne oe. jjw/ obi. synne: base simjb- for an earlier
swuijoin ohg. sutitea G. sihidey OSAX. sjmdia, DU. zonde; cp. yet

ziften,

There

LG. (g.) sichtcn exists a teut.

'to

sift'.

\f sih in

since

skew

187

sip vb. ME. sippe', deriv. fr. OE. ON. synd fr. a base simidjo- (the suftixal). Cogn. sype 'absorbing', which is verbal dentals are noun to OE. siepan', see sup. w. LA r. sons (sont-is) 'guilt)''.

since with the more original sir, sire me. sire fr. byform (Shakesp.) sithence me. whence also on. sira.
sithens
j'

sirrah,

fr.

sire,

prop, sithen OE. sippan', spelt in 16'^ cent, sirrha serr/ia, of the me. form points to orig. sir, ah or />sir, the additional is of adverbial origin (cp. once, ha. Tlie orig. oe. form was twice). sister sb. me. sister is regarded sip-pan (cp. the identical goth. as a distinctively Scand. loanresting on pana-seips 'later') The oe. word fr. ON. systir. the -oe. adverb sip 'later', which equivalent sweostor swiistor me. is a comparative to goth. seipus suster is not responsible for the ON. sidan corresponds to 'late'. modern phonology. The Teut. OE. sippan; cp. OHG. shi G. seit swestr- sunstr-; cp. goth.
,

base

is

OE. sip 'later'.


sb. me. sinave OE. {sionu

S7vistar,
fr.

OHG. swcster

G. schwester,

sinew

uu. zuster.

The
sw'esr,

pi.) sioneowe,

which results
sinewb-

mon
in

Teut. word
svasr

of the comis excrescent.

Teut. base
cp.

or

s'eneivd-\

Aryan base
SKR.
vb.
'^svesoi-),

(nom.

S70csdr')

OHG. scnawa G. sehne, du. zenuw. cogn. w. skr.


ON.
sin,

lat.
oe.

soror

(for

lith. sesu

'sister'.

snava
'sinew'.

'sinew'

or

w.

gr.

]vic,

sit

ME.

sitte

sittan

str.

:= DU. zitten, OSAX. sittian, sing vb. ME. singe oe. sing an OHG. sizzan G. sitzen: westteui. vb. OHG. OS AX. sing an str. sittjan fr. TEUT. sitjan (= ON. oldest Teut. G. singen DU. zingen sit/a); cp. GOTH, sitan: strong form GOTH, siggwan (= ON. verbal \^ set sat [whence a causal teut. sytigiHT) all s}'nonymous. vb. satjan under set), aryan
vb.

related to is \/~ sed in LAT. sedeo, gr. stoiiui oracle': "speech, SKR. \^ sad 'to sit', The cor- (t'cJoc 'seat'), ARYAN v^ s'eng/na. Cp. OSLOV. sesii, Lrrn. shti. resp. causal is represented by
\/^ s'eng7ci

sangw

GR.

o/<(/)?;

singe

^lE.

senge oe. sencgean

settle
fr.

and

soot.

a Teut. ground-form sang(w)jan OHG. scngan G. scngcn 'to

six
I

se/is
I I

:me.

oe.

six
sai/is,

fr.

a
on.

i'eut.

GOTH,
.ft'/&.f

ohg. osax.
sex
f^
:

singe' prop,

'to
j7/2^<'

make

to

sing'.
str.

se/is

G. sechs, in

du.

srj-,

sink
vb.

OHG. sinkan G. sinkcn DU. cp. SKR. sas. sketch sb. zinken; oldest form goth. w^v''/^-''
'

vb.

OE. sincan

ARYAN
I

LAT. sex,

GR.

=
late

DL".
fr.

sc/iets,

g.

(=
'to

ON.
sink'.

S'okh'il)

TEUT,

\^SCn/i7C'

s/iizze

borrowed
vl).

ital.

schizzo.
'to

skew

.ME.

skewe

skill

leiglit

slip away';
'to

cp. odu. schouwen vb.

schlage7t)

du.

slaan

shun

TEUT. \'"slah sloh


cp. ON. skil 'discernment'

= aryan

ON.

sld:
.y/;?/^

skill sb. ME. skil 'reason' bor-

rowed
{skilja

fr.

vb. 'to separate').


sb.

skin
arises

me. skin late OE.


fr.

skiiiii

slaughter and sledge. slay sb. (a weaver's reed) oe. 'percussorium' cogn. with slej^e the TEUT. \(^ slah =^ slay vb.;
sld

borrowed
fr.

ON.

skinn,

which ON.

bar,

bolt'.

a Teut. base skinpa-, whence derived ohg. scintan G. BRET. schinden wk. vb. 'to skin'.
scant 'scale' rests

sled short for

me. slcde
sledi
'a

borG.

rowed
schlitien,

fr.

ON.

sledge';
slito

corresponding to OHG.

on an arvan

du. slede 'sledge'.

Tlie

shnto-.

group
sb.

rests

on the teut. \^ slid


me. slegge oe.
sb.

me. scarmisshe fr. FR. escarviouche\ cp. ITAL. scaramuccia, o. scharmiltzeL The group
rests
nieii) .

skirmish

in slide.

sledge-hammer
slecg

(obi.
:

slecge)

'sledgeslagjo-

on ohg. scinnan

(g. schir-

hammer'
deriv.

Teut.

base
in

fr.

\^ slah

slay;

cp.

skirt sb. ME. skirt fr. ON. skyrta farther relations see shirt'; 'a under kirtle and shirt.

ON. sleggja, du. slegge slei 'mallet'. sleek adj. me. slik borrowc;d
fr.

ON.

slik-r 'sleek,

skull sb. ME.

senile

(scolle).
fr.

DU.

slijli):

teut.

\'^ silk

smooth' (^= in OHG.


(slcpe)

sky
ON.

sb.

ME. skie
;

borrowed
found
oe.

slihhan G. schleichen.

not "cloud OE. (but OSAX. skion).


sky

in

sleep vb. me.


slepan (sldpan)

slepe
str.

oe.

vb. =: GOTH.

slack
'languid,

adj.

me.

slak

slrz-c

slepan (pret. saizlep), oSAX. sldpan,

slothful'

=: ON.

slakr,

OLG. base

slak,

OHG.

slaka-.

sla/i

sVdck': Teat,

DU. slapen, ohg. sldffan G. schlafen. Cogn. w. G. schlaff OHG. sldf


'lax,
I

Hence

slake

vb. me. slake OE. sldcian 'slacken'. slaughter sb. ViY.. slaughter: bor-

loose, remiss',
slide'.

teut. \r slap
peril,

ARYAN sf slab

in

lat.

labi 'to
j

sleet sb. yv..slet\ oe. '^slet Cslyt) ON. sldtr umlaut-relation to form *slahtr. Der. not found or its oldest MHG. slbz, (g. schlosse 'hail): the TEUT. \^slah in slay. fr.

rowed

in

i'^

cent.

fr.

slave sb.

du.

slaaf:

loanalso
'the

Teut. base

slauti-,

whence
oe.

also

word
G.
'slave'

fr.

FR.

e.sclave,

whence

sklave.

Source iTAL. schiavo


OR.
'

DU. sloot, FRIES, slat. sleeve sb. me. sieve


(slyfe):

slefe

E6y.)MlJt]i'0i,

Teut. base slaubjd[n-) in

Slavonians, Slaves'.

ODU.
(part,
slaiii)

sloove 'veil'.

slay vb.
OE.

ME.
(part,

sle

slc'a?i

slcej^en)

str.

vb.
(g.

GOTH. OHG. OSAX. slahan

sleight sb. me. sleighte earlier ME. slehpe: borrowed fr. on. sliigd 'slyness', which is abstract for-

slice

slow-worm
cp. ON.
'to
slit,
slita,

189
OSAX.
slitan str. vb.

mation
s/('/i

to

the adj. sly ^= me.


iME. slice fr.

ON. sld'gr.

slice sb.
'a

ofr.

esc lice

DU. slijten, ohg. sli"^ein G.schleissen: teut. \^ slit 'to tear.


sld-//),

shiver,

splinter'

source
oe.

the

TEUT. sfslit in slit. slide vb. ME. slide


str.

sloe sb. me. sip OE. sld (infl. prob. contracted fr. oe.
(infl.

vb.

= MHG.
in

slidan

*sldlie

*sldhati)

ohg.
slee,

sliten

'to slide';

sleha

G.

schlehe;

cp.

du.

TEUT. \f slid under sled\

aryan swed.
'slipper'

sldti,

DAN.

slaaejt 'sloe'

\f slidh
(cp.

lith.

slidus

OE.i7c//?-/^r'black- thorn'.

and Doubt-

ful whether lith. slyvas 'plum' oe. slidor 'slippery'). slight adj. ME. slight; oe. *sliht and OSLOV. russ. slizui 'plum' not found, but may be inferred fr. are cognate. sloop sb. fr. DU. sloep: source the corresp. GOTH. i'/f?//?/'.f 'smooth', whence also E. OHG. y/t'///" 'smooth, flat' {G.schlecfit FR. chaloupe

'bad'

ir////V///

"simple") du. skclit,


,

shallop

G.

schaluppe.

smooth': Teut. base sleh-ta- prop, slih-ta- fr. the verbal \f silk in sleek (on. slikr 'sleek, smooth'). ohg. slime sb. me. oe. slif/i
on.
slittr
'flat,

slot sb. 'bar, bolt' late me. slot

DU.

LG.
'shut'

Slot^

OHG.
fr.

sloz,

G.

sehloss;
\'~ sltit
sltiten,

derived

the
G.

teut.

in DU. sluiten, LG.


slioi^yin

OHG.

schliessen

:mhg.

slim
:

o.

schleim

du. slijm,
sll-niafr.

(cp. G. schliissel ohg. slu"^il

on.

slif/i

Teut. type
sf^sli,

OSAX.
rests

sbitil 'key),

teut. \f slut
sklhd,

an
LAT.

ARYAN
li-nius

whence
sliiige
str.

also
vb.
'to

on

an

aryan \^

'mud.
ME.

sling
(oe.
fling'

vb.

*slitigan

not recorded)
str.

ON. slyvgva
cp.

vb. 'to
sb.

cogn. w. LAT. claudere 'shut'. sloth sb. ME. slguthe with abstr. sufflx fr. the didi]. slow; cp. the umlaut-relation OE. shkop mk.
s leu the.

cast, fling';
'sling',

mhg.

slinge

DU. sUngcren vb. 'to toss'


slingan
'to

slough
slidi

sb. 'mire' .me. slough OE.


.

and

ohg.

swing'.

mire

TEUT. \f slengw
belongs to the
'to

(slenhivl).

slip vb. me. slippc oe. '^slyppan


glide'

slow

adj.

.ME.

slinu

oe.

sld7ci

OSAX. OHG.

sleo

blunt',
s/jor

du.

str.

vb. oe. sliipan sleeuTO 'sour',

on.

blunt':

sneak';

cp.

vb. 'to slip'


schliipfen 'to

DU. slitipen 'to Teut. base slai7va-, perh. cogn. GOTH. sliupan str. w. LAT. laevus 'left' gr. Xaiog. slow-worm sb. prop. .me. sltiand ohg. slupfan G.
,

slip'

\^ slt(p
luhricHS

perh.
-ME.
slitaii

related
slitte

Teut. verbal wor^n sip - 7i.'urm OE. sld - 7c<yr//t w. ident. swed. to lat. 'blindworm'
;

slippery'.

sld (ofjiisld),

NOR\\'EG. slo (ormslo)

slit vb.
slite

dcriv.

fr.

me.
slit';

blindworm.
with
slo7ci

Not compounded
sld'ic,

oe.

str.

vb. 'to

OE.

but

resting

go

sluice

smelt

on a TEUT.
cp.

slaiha- 'blindworm';
slckas,

LlTH.

PRUSS.
Du.

s/ayx
g.

'rainworm'.

sluice
Sihleuse:

sb.

:^

sluts,

of the group unknown. doubtful whether late OE. snacc ON. snekkja (kind of ship) is cognate.
history
It
is

small adj. me. stnal (infl. snmle), source ofr. escliise (fr. icluse) fr. a low Lat. type ex- OE. s?nal {ix\^. smala): Teut. adj. smala- in goth. smals, OHG. OSAX. clusa 'a floodgate'.

slumber
quentative
'slumber',
OE.
slii-nia

vb.

me. slomere
slounic
fr.

fre-

S7nal

G.

scJmial.

of ME. derived
,

vb.
sb.

OHG.

S77iala-77o-

to

on.

S77iali

S7/ialaz,

"''ihu

the
cp.

'sVieep'

points

gr.

ui^Xor
;

'slumber';
lg.
vb.

DU.

'sheep'

and

oir.

t/ii'I

'beast

cp.

sliiinie7i

sluimere7i

sliinieren

also OSLOV. fnalu.

(g.

schlmnmerii)

OE. slii-fna sb. 'slumber' rests

an
to

ARYAN

\'^slu in

S77iall prop. smallage sb. on ache; ME. ache is fr. ache 'parsgoth. slawan ley'. Source lat. apiu77i 'pars-

'slumber'.

cease, be

silent'.
sli

ley'.

prop. sUi smalt sb. fr. DU. S77ialt ^=^ G. schtnalte, fr. S77ialt: source ital. slei (Orrm sh'/i under sleight) borrowed fr. ON. sldgr adj. 'sly, s77ialto, which is of Teut. origin cunning'; ident. w. the non-um- (cp. MHG. S77ielze/t G. scht7ielze7i). smart vb. me. s7/ierte oe. smeorlauted DU. sluw lg. silt (g. schlmi), As Seen by ia7i a Teut. strong vb. ^^ OHG. SWED. DAN. slug. the adj. S77iiTzan 'to smart'; cp. du. st7ia7-t 'sly', G. verschlage?! OHG. s>7ie7'zo G. schmerz rests on the teut. %/" slah in sb. sb. 'pain': teut. \f s/nert preslay} smack 1 sb. taste' me. smak teut. S77ie7-d cogn. w. lat. 7tiordere du. sfnaak; oho. 'to bite', GR. aufgdaXeo'c' OE. smcec sb. smear vb. me. s7/ic)-e vb. fr. igijsmah; cp. the vb. OE. sniaccan on. sf/ijpr 'to taste' ODU. smaken ofries. the sb. OE. S77ieo7'o S7}iakia] cp. OHG. smacken sfueckett 'butter', OHG. ospc^. s7tiero\ aryan schnecken 'to taste', west- \^sm'e7- also in goth. S77iair-p7G.
sly adj. ME.
(sly)
: :

TEUT.

\'~'

sviak sinakk.
'a

'fatness'

and
OIR.

in
S77ii7-

lith.

S77tarsas

smack''^ (Shakesp.) sb.

loud
ivihg.

'fat'

kiss' cp. G. schmatzen fr. smatzoi prop. Sf/iackeizen

and smell

'marrow'.

sb.

ME.

smcl cogn.
s77iolde7-e

w.
vb.

LG.

s7)ioulde7'to

vb.

ME.

Sfnacke/i

'to

smack the
sb.

lips.

burn with a

stifling

smoke'

smack^
fr.

(a

fishing-boat)

ODU. MLG. sviacke (du. si/iack), also the equivalent G. schuiacke, fr. semaquc, ITAL. semacca, SPAN, zwnaca. Source and

cp. the sb. ME. smolder 'a stifling smoke' and the vb. du. s77ieule/7
'to

whence

smoulder'
vb.

lg.

S77ia'le7i.

smelt
.ME.

not

(see

77ielt)\

found in borrowed

oe.
fr.

smelt

igi

SWED.

sf/idita r=r
,

DAN.

sf/ielte,

du.

OSLOV. smykati
smiikti "to

se 'to creej)',

LITH.

smelten ohg. sm'elzan G. LG. schmelzen 'melt cp. ital. sf/ialto

glide'.

^
AV.

FR.

</ot^?/7

'enamel'.

The

teut.

\f smelt
smelt
OE.
smelt:

is

\^ntclt
sb.

probably connected under ?nelt.


(a kind of tish) me.
ident.
\v.

s?/ielt;

dan.

du.

cp.

NORW.

sfnelta

(name

of various kinds of small fish). smooth adj. me. smpthe late smile vb, me. smile (oE. ""smyJa/i}); cogn. w. the non-umlauted OE. smiid with the umlauted byMHG. swielen sftiiereii 'to smile' form OE. smede; mlg. smdde reand the frequentative e. smirk presents an OSAX. ''^s?nothi fr. a OE. smearcian 'smile'. Teut. base smanpi-.

sb. me. smoke oe. smoca smoke'; cogn. w. OE. smic 'smoke' (base smauki-) and the str. vb. OE. smeocan 'to smoke'; cp. DU. smoken (base *smukdii) and smook sb. (base *sfnauki-) TEUT. \'~ s?nuk, perh. cogn. w. LITH. smaukii 'to choke'.

smoke

sb.

smirch

vb. 'to besmear' deri-

smother

sb. me. smorther


suffix)

(^P>'(i;

vative of stiicai-.

smirk see under


smite
str.

smile.
s?nita7i

vb.
lg.

smeitan, du. stew'. smoulder vb. me. ohg. sfnvyyjn smolder e vb. rest on me. smolder, schmeissen 'to cast': teut. which is ident. w. me. smorther. G. \^ smit 'strike, beat, smear'. snail sb. me. snail oe. sntep: smith vb. me. smith oe. smip Teut. base snaglacp. mho. ON. sf/iidr, DU. smid, OHG. snegel, ON. s?tigill 'snail'; cogn.

vb.

ME. smite oe.

being an abstract smorian "to choke, DU. r.G. smnren G.

OE.

sufifocate
sch7noreii

GOTH,

'to

stnijten,

smite?!,

smid G. schmied; cp. goth. aiza- w. OHG. siiecko G. schnecke (i-G. smipa 'coppersmith'; cogn. w. snigge^, me. snegge. ohg. S7nidagism'idi^^Q. geschf/teide, snake sb. me. snake oe. sndea\
I'he dental is for- cp. the equiv. on. sndkr snokr, There is an aryan LG. snake. Teut. \^ snak in ohg. mative. snahhan 'to creep'. \f smi in GK. Gi-u-Xrj af.avvr,.
DU. gesmijde.

sb. me. snare borrowed on. snara 'a snare, halter"; ident. w. ohg. snar(a)ha oe. smock sb. ME. smi)k oE. sfnocc snearh 'noose, snare' fr. a Teut. 'smock, frock, shirt' on. smokkr; base snarhon-; cp. the str. vb. cp. OHG. smocko 'shirt': deriv. ohg. siier(a)han .mho. snerhen 'to fr. the TEUT. Y^ smug in OE. bind tightly'. Probably cogn. smiigan, on. smjilga 'to creep w. ohg. snuor g. schnur a lace, through a hole', MHG. smiegcn cord (goth. snorjfl). G. schmiegen. arvan \'~ sintik in sneeze vl). me. snese (oe. sneosb.

Smithy

seems

to

be

the

snare

SCAND. smidja OHG. smitthd).

{=

OE.

smippe,

fr.

ig^

snipe

sole'

ident. w. nccse me. nese any way related with the Teut. ON. hnjosa and w. oe. fneosa/i. word-group, is uncertain. snipe sb. me. s/iipi-; ident. w. sob vb. ME. sobbe (OE. *sobbian) : ON. 7nyri-S7iipa 'a moor-snipe' and frequentative of a teut. \'^siib in
jiv?//)
;

^=-

cogn. w. the equiv. ohg. sn'epfa OHG. sf//t'a sigh, a sob' siifteon G. schnepfe DU. suep snip (ital. (g. seufze7i) 'to sigh'. sgneppa is of Teut. origin). sock sb. ME. J<7^-^ OE. .f^^^: loansnite see under snot. word fr. LAT. soecus (= fr. socquey snore vb. me. snore vb. with ITAL. socco) whence also ohg.
,

the frequentative snort me. snorte;

cogn. w. G. schnarchen, DU. snorken snurken 'to snore, snort.

MHG.

SOC,

ON. Sokkr.

snot vb. me. snot oe. "^esnot corresponds 'mucus of the nose' =^ du. snot\

sod sb. ME. sgde: probably borrowed fr. mlg. sode\, which
to

ofries.

sdtha

'sod, turf: Teut. base sanpdn-\ cogn. w. snout sb. me. snoutc perhaps related to seethe. ODU. sniite DU. snuit and w. soft adj. adv. me. softe Ihort for ^= snite vb. me. snite OE. snytan ON. snyta 'to wipe the nose'. Cp. OE. spfte adv. by the side of the

G.

scJinaiitzc,

schndutzen.

snow

sb. ME.

umlauted adj. OE. snow OE. sndw OSAX. sdfti adj.


sneer snjor,

GOTH, snaiws, ON.

OHG. senfti

sdfto adj.

sefte\ ident. w.

sa77ifto

adv. adv.

DU. sneeuw, ohg. S7ieo G. schnee: (g. sanft sacht, du. zacht), ground' me. soile fr. Teut. base snaiwa-, derived fr. soil sb. the ARYAN \f snigh in ohg. smwati OFR. soel ^=- FR. sueil: source G. schneien, OE. sniivan 'to snow' LAT. solea. LAT. ningere lith. snigti, soil'- vb. 'to defile' me. soile fr. AVEST. sniz 'to snow'; cp. or. FR. souilier.
'

vi(f,-a

'snow'

IR.

sneehta

and

lat. 7!ix
7i(if

7ti7j-ei,

solace
solaz

cymr.

'snow'.
snegic

sb.

me.

solas

fr.

ofr.

LAT. solatium.
sb. me. soudionr

LITH.

S7ii:gas

and OSLOV.

soldier
souldier

properly

'snow' correspond completely to

fr.

ofr. soldier (FK.soldat).

Source ofr. soiilde 'pay for soulS7tai'iva- fr. S7iaigwa-. SO adv. ME. so prop, swp oe. diers', whence du. g. sold. Source swd GOTH, .fa/d', on. svd (ohg. LAT. SOliduS {= ITAL. Soldo FR.
TEUT.

so

DU. zoo^.
.C/^.f.

Cp. the derivative


sus
(g.
so/ist^,

soil)

'piece of

money

i'^/cV/

and MHG.

sole^ (of a shoe) sb. me.


oe. sole

sole

^= OHG. sola G. so/ile, du. zool: Teut. base sola, borrowed soap sb. ME. sgpe oe. jv//^^ OHG. seijfa G. j-yi?: Teut. base fr. a LAT. type *sola, represented saipoii-. Whether lat. sapo{ne7n) by FR. sole, ital. sno/o, span. =- FR. savon, ital. sapone are in suela 'sole of a shoe'. The vulDU.

sole^

soiind^

193
is

gar-LAT.
LAT. solea,
'sole' is

sola

has

supplanted which
sulja
\j'"

participle of the

aryan

whence goth.

borrowed. sole^ (a flat fish) me.


ident.

sole fr. fr.

gr. fCr/, LAT. est, G. isf) with the suffix out- in GR. (pEQovv- (cp. toot Ay
es 'to

be' (skr.

dsti,

sole\

w.

sole^\

cp.

lat.

GOTH
SKR.

sun/is 'true'
j"c//iv/

corresponds to

soldi

'sole-fish'.

'true'.

some pron. me. sum sof/i OE. sui sore adj. me. .yf/r oe. sdr fr. a =1 GOTH, sums, ON. sumr, OHG. TEUT. adj. sai-ra- in on. .yJ/-;-, sum ARYAN base sj?no- in gr. ohc. ser, du. s^^r 'sore, wounded';
:

ai-iod^sv,

SKR. samij.

cp. GOTH,
scr (g.

sair

sb.

'pain',
'to

ohg.
hurt).

son
^=^

sb. ME. sone suuc OE. suf/u

7'ersehren

vb.

sunu, OHG.

GOTH. SUnuS, ON. Sit 11)', OSAX. Cogn. w. lat. sae-7'us 'wild' and sitn G. sohn DU. s^^a/: oiR. sai-th 'pain'. Cp. sorry. Teut. base sunu-. An aryan base fr, ofr. sorrel (plantname) siuiu- is evident in SKR. sunu-, sorel (fr, surelle), which is deOSLOV. synii, lith. i-?/;??>^ son'. ohg. rived fr. FR. sur 'sour Cogn. w. GK. vine, 'son' fr. an siir (see under sour^.

ARYAN base
suth 'foetus'.

and w. There occurs


suyu'to

OIR.

also

sorrow
infl.

sb. me.

a SKR. \f sit bring forth'.

beget, bear,
Sin^^'.

sorge: Teut.
sat'irga,

goth.
in

sorwe oe. sorg base sorgo- in ohg. sorga G. sorge,

song

vb. aiE. OE.

Teut.

DU. ZOrg, ON.


LITH.
j/r^/z 'to

JTf?/-^'^ :

ARYAN \^ SiTg/l
'to

base sang{w)a- also in goth. saggws, on. spngr, du. zang, G. sang. Cp. i^>/^^

sergiti
suffer'.

heed'
oe.

sorry
deriv.

adj.

me.

sgry

sdri^

soon adv. me. sone oe. spna; as shown by goth. siins-ako 'soon',
.?.<?'

earlier sdre"^: Teut.


fr.

base

TEUT. saira-

sair-ag-,

sore.

OK.spn-ai^ a compound of oe. sot sb. me. sot late oe. (c. iooo) (=^ OHG. OSAX. ^a) and d {= sott; borrowed fr. fr. sot, whence goth. aiiv OHG. u)); cp. ohg. i^ar also DU. zot and mhg. sot; cogn. w. IR. suthan "a dunce'. sar-io and goth. .$//.? 'soon'. ODU. soul sb. ME. soule prop, sgule soot sb. ME. OE. sot teut. saiwON. .y^/; derived fr. the OE. sdwol infl. sdwle soct TEUT. \j'^ set 'sit, set'; cogn. w. alo- in GOTH, saiwala, ohg. sHa OIR. suiile (base *sdiluf), ltth. (for *sewla') G. seele, osax. .yr/<r7, ui". s:/<f'/. Cp. GR. foA.o^^ 'movable'. jY'f/zV, OSLOV. saiila 'soot'. sound ^ adj. 'healthy' me. sound sooth adj. true' me. spth OE. OSAX. a Teut. base sanpON. prop. Isound OE. lesiind fr. saniir ohg. .vv/z/^/, osax. soth; gisund, OHG. gisunt g. gesufid, cogn. w. GOTH. sunjis (for *sundja-'). DU. gezond; probably cognate w.

.f.(^)!5

TEUT.

j-f^^/-

answers to skr.

sat,

LAT.

.f(7w/i'

'healthy'.

English Etvmology.

194

sound

speak-

sound (of the sea)'-' sb. me. cogn. w. GR. Ona^r] 'a blade of sound OE. sund\ orii^inal wood or metal'. the meaning- of the oe. word is 'a span vb. me. spanne oe. spannaa swimming' which affirms connec- str vb. ohg. spannan G. DU. tion w. swim: Teut. base sunda- spannen to extend'. (ON. sicnd^ for '^swunida-. span-new adj. me. span-newe sound ^ sb. 'a noise' me. soiui fr. ON. spdn-nyr] on. spdnn (cp. fr. FR. sou: source lat. soiius. spoon) means 'a chip, shaving'.

sound
sour
saner:
si)ras,

-^

vb.

fr.

FR. sondcr.
oe.
siUsih-

ad).

ME. sour

=
G.

spar

sb. ME. sparre (cp. the vb.

oe. lespearrian 'to shut, bar)

ON. siirr^ DU. zuur, ohg.

OHG. sparro (whence

g. sparrefi),

aryan base
OSLOV.
sb.
syrii

siiro- in

LITH.
fr.

raw,
sours
l\t.

rough'.
fr.

DU. spar, ON. sparri: Teut. base spar r on-.

source
source

me.
fr.

spar 2
sparkalk.

sb. oe. spcer-stdn;

cp. G.

(deriv.

surgerc).

spar 3 vb. ME. sparre ^. ofr. silf" Teut. base esparer fr. iparer. sunp- in ohg. sundati 'from the spare adj. me. spar infl. spare south' (= OY,. Sudan, o^.sunnaii). oe. spar (infl. *spdrd) in the Probably alUed to OR. voxoq compound spa^r-hende (original -- meaning having spare, thrifty (for *(T)'r)rot,^) south-wind'. southern me. sothcm oe. siiderne hands') and in the vb. sparian corres[)onds to ohg. sundroni 'to spare'. Teut. base spara- in Tr-= ON. sudrd'nn. on. sparr, ohg. spar (g. sparsow vb. ME. smve oe. sd^van savi) cp. ON. spara, OHG. sparon spar en 'to spare'. Outside str. vb. =- GOTH, saian, ON. sd, G. DU. zaaijen, OSAX. sdjan, ohg. sden of teut., OSLO v. jt^J^ww 'thrifty' G. sdm ^=- ARYAN verbal v"" ^^ and or. CuaQvoc, rare, lacking' in L.A.T. sero (ground-form '^'stso') are cognate. -sevi-satuui, osLOV. se-ti lith. spark sb. me. sparke oe. spear ca: silti 'sow' and in lat. sc-men Teut. base sparkon- in DU. spark, OHG. sd-mo G. same. Cp. seed. LG. sparke; cogn. w. lat. sparsow^ sb. ME. sowe earlier suwe gere ? Cogn. w. TEUT. suge OE. sugzi. sparrow sb. me. sparwe oe. spearwa =^ GOTH, sparwa Teut. sii 'sow' (under swinc^ and w. m. cp. OHG. spare suig 'a pig". base sparzvanspace sb. me. spd(e fr. ofr. (g. Sperling). espacc; source lat. spathwi. speak vb. me. spcke oe. specan OHG. spehhan with spade sb. me. spade oe. spddu str. vb. OHG. infi. spadan; ident. w. on. spadi, the byforms OE. sprecan DU. spade, 0.SAX. spado, o. spaten; sprchhan G. spreehen, DU. spreken,
sb. ME. south oe.

south

ON. sudr,

DU. zu/d:

spear

spit*

195
OE.
=^-

OSAX.
verbal

spr'ekan;

\j^ sprek:

west-teut. strong ing in spek, perhaps espeler


on. spraka lith. spragiti
'to

Cognate
fr.

w.
'to

Ofr.
spell'.

ipeler

connected
crackle'
crackle'.

w.

and

'to

du. spelt, spelt sb. OE. spelt OHG. spelta spelza'. loanword fr.
late
LA'i'.

See speech.
sb. me. spp-e

spelta

(=

ir.

spelta,

spear
ident.
G.

oe. spere;

FR. ipca litre).

spend vb. me. spende oe. *spenda/i w. ON. spjpr, OHG. spl'r DU. speer and cogn. w. lat. (in the sb. spending and in the covix^onwdi'S,d-,for-spendati) loanspams 'a dart speck vb. me. specke oe. specca word fr. LAT. i^//i;^^W<;7(?vb. 'spend', ohg. cp. DU. spikkel. whence also G. spenden 'a spot, mark' speech sb. me. speche oe. (rare) spentan. spew vb. ME. speive OE. spiwan spec (spcet) with the common bytbrm oe. sprd'c: Westteut. base ^= OHG. OSAX. spiwan o. speien, spdki- spraki-; derived fr. \r spek GOTH, spehvan str. vb. (on. spyja, uu. spuwen) strong verbal \P~ spiw sprek in speak.
:

speed
spo-di-

sb.

me.

oe.

sped pro-

as in LAT. spuere, lith. spiauti 'to

perly oe. spchi


in

DU.

fr. a Teut. base spew'; cp. the cognate \^ pju oSAX. spod 'success', in gr. TXT.VUV, OSLOV. pjuti'^, spice sb. ME. spife fr. OFR. ohg. spuot sfocd 'speed'
,

'siici;ess'

(whence
:

G.

sputen

to

espice

(fr.)
sb.

lat. species.

make

verbal abstract to the str. vb. oe. spgwan 'to succeed ;= OHG. spuon to succeed',
haste')

spider
fr.

me. spither in Kent,

for spinder OE. "^spinnire;

derived

spin.

which arc
spejati
'to 'to

spike sb. ME. spik 'an ear of w. OSLO v. SKR. sphdy corn' fr. lat. spica. spill vb. ME. spille late oe. spillan increase': aryax \~sphe spho.
cognate
succeed",
sb.
'story,

spell
spell-^

me. oe. saying'

spel

(infl.

fr.

ON. spilla; ident. w. oe. spildan,


'to spill':

(see
spUl
,

also
'tale,

ohg. spildan
spiipjan.

Teut. base

gospel)

=^

GOTH.
'a

myth', ox. spprll

saying

ohg.
:

spel 'a narrative' (du. spelleii vb.)

str.

spin vb. ME. spinne OE. spinnan vb. ^=^ GOTH. OHG. spinnan,
,

ox. spinna: all spella-, assimilated g. du, spinnen The str. vb. teut. pre-TEUT. sq-etlo- ^-= equivalent. oiR. sc^l, CYMR. chwedl 'a story'. spinnan rests on a \^ spen in ohg. Derived from the aryax \^ seq spindle me. oe. spinel aryan spinila. (cp. say^ 'to say, tell spirit see sprite. suffix -etlo- as in gr. {'/trXov.

Teut.

base

for sqedlo-,

spit* sb. me. spite oe. spitu spell vb. .ME, spelle 'syllabicare (Orrm spelldrenn 'syllabi- 'roasting spit' r^ ohg. spiz,, DU. care'); not found in this mean- spit (iTAL. spito, FR. ipois repre'3*

spit^

spur

derived fr. sent a teut. spiUis) the TEUT. adj. spitu- in OHG.
;

not
pi.

found
splottas

in
'a

oe.

(where

splof

spiizi G.

spitz.

spotte

spot); cp. ODU. DU. spot a blot'.


sb. ME. spouse
;

cp. mlg. Scandin. loanword; sprot g. sprotte, DU. sprot. Sprawl vb. me. spraule oe. cp. DAN. spiitte; cogn. w. du. splijten MHG. spliTjCn G. splcissen spreawlian fr. a TEUT. sprauwalon. spread vb. me. sprede oe. {^e)(whence G. splitter^. spoil vb. ME. spoile fr. FR. spo- sprddan 'to extend' =^ OHG. G. spreiten, DU. spreiden\ cieriv. fr. licr (lat. spoliarc). spoke sb. ME. spoke oe. spdca the str. vb. OHG. siritan 'to beOSAX. speka du. speek, oho. come extendi d'. spring str. vb. me. springe OE. speihha gl speiche. All equivalent; springan osAX. OHG. springan, Teut. base spaikon-. sponge sb. me. sponge fr. ofr. ON. springa (ital. springare is a esponge (fr. sponge); source lat. TEUT. loanword) teut. \'^ spr'eng spongia, whence also osax. spunsia sprang, perhaps related to gr. anigyBdii^oj 'to make haste. DU. spoils. sprite sb. me. sprite fr. fr. spool sb. (not found in me.
OE.

spit- vb. ME. spitic 0.. j^espyttan; ident. w. on. spytta with the byform spyta, LG. spy ten, G. speiitzen see spout. spite sb. ME. spit for despit; see despite. spleen sb. fr. lat. (or.) splen.
;

spouse
sponsa.

fr.

ofr.

espouse (fr. ipouse)

source lat.
cogn. w.

spout
spit.

vb. ME. spoute;

sprat

sb. me. sprot (pi. sprottes)


;

sprot (pi. sprottas)

split

vb.

OE.)

W.

loanword fr. DU. OHG. Spuolo G.

spoel] ident.

esprit;

ident. w. spirit.

Source

Splde
:

(iTAL.

LAT.

spiritus.

Teut. sprout vb. me. sproute (oe. is of TEUT. origin) DU. spi'uiten, lg. base spolon-; doubtful whether '^sprutan) spriiten, ofries. spriita 'to sprout'; cogn. w. spin. spoon sb. me. oe. spgn fr. a cp. G. spriessen: TEUT. \^ sprtit TEUT. spdnu- {spam-) in OHG. spreiit. spur sb. ME. spure OE. spura span 'a chip, splint', DU. DAN. spaan 'a chip', on. spdnn sponn (spora); ident. \v. ohg. sporo (g. Cogn. sporfi), DU. spoor, on. spori (ital. 'a chip' (cp. span-new). sprone fr. ^peron are of teut. w. MHG. spd-t 'a chip': \fspe. sport sb. for disport as spend origin) Teut. base spuron- sporo?!-. for dispend] me. disporte vb. fr. \f~ sp?r in OHG. osAX. oe. spiirOFR. se desporter 'to amuse one- fian 'to kick against' under spurn and in G. spur du. spoor oe. spor self. spot sb. ME. spot pi. spottes] a foot-track
spuola

spurge

stammer

197

stain sb. OFR. espurge (source desteindre LAT. expurgare). stair sb.

spurge sb.
fr.

short for me. spoiirge

loanword

me.

^/^/^

fr.

ofr.

lat. dis-tingere.

me.
stck^er

i'/tzr

spurn
naii str.

vb. ime. spu7-ne oe. spilr- stiier vb. 'to kick against'

OHG.

OS AX.

spurnan

'to

against':

aryan \f spsiagainst', gr.

in

stcger DU. stciger kick TEUT. ground-form staigir, derivlat. ed fr. the Teut. verbal \'" stfg in

OE.

properly odu. olg. 'stair': west-

sper-nere 'to despise', lith. sp}rti


'to

OE. stigan, OHG. stigan G. sttigcn,

stijgen 'to climb'; cogn. w. 'to march' skr. Cp. spur. nTci/f-iy spy vb. ME. spie fr. ofr. espier, i'//^/; 'ascend' (cp. lat. ve-stigium which is of Teut. origin ohg. 'a foot-track'). spchon G. spcihen ODU. spien stake sb. me. i-/',^^ oe. .y/^z^rt (aryan \P sp'ck in lat. conspicio, ODU. stake DU. i-ZfriT/^, swed. speculum, skr. \'^spa(). stake; cp. ofries. .tA?/' "stiff, G. square sb. me. square fr. ofr. stachel 'a prick, goad'. I'sguarre *a square'. stalk 1 sb. ME. stalkc, a dimin. squire sb. me. squire es- form with suffixed k of me. ^-/c/Z?;

kick

a-naiostv,

SKR. sphur.

DU. GR.

q u i r e. squirrel sb. me. squiriliox sciirH fr. OFR. escurel (= fr. icureuW) source a lat. type scurellus {scuriolus) for LAT. sciurus 'a
;

cp.

OE.
G.

stela,
jt///,

ON. stil-kr
also GR.

'a stalk',

OHG.

rrrfAfo'i'

'a

handle'.

stalklan

vb.

ME. stalke]
;

is

frequentative suffix
to leap'
stall sb.

cp. OE. styl-

squirrel'.

(oe. *stealciari).

Stable
establc

sb.

me. stable

fr.

ofr.

(= fr. itable); source LAT. siabulum 'abode, stable'. stable'^ adj. me. stable fr. ofr. establc -^ lat. sta bills 'stable'. staff sb. me. staf (pi. staves) OE. stcrf (pi. std/as) ON. sta/r, DU. sta/, OHG. G. stab; cp. ohg. staben 'to be stiff' and the adj. eastfries. staf 'stiff', also lith.

ME. stal oe. steall fr. a Teut. base stalla- in on. stallr, OHG. jT/;?/ G. .?/(?//, DU. i-^^/ 'stall,
stable (iTAL.
'stable
stallo'\iVa.cfi

stalla

are

of

Teut.

origin).

stCbas 'staff

ARYAN base stadhlo- in' lat. stabulum 'stal)le'. stallion sb. me. stalloun fr. ofr. estalon (fr. 6taloii) ital. Stallone: of Teut. origin (teut.

stdbas stobras; skr.

stalla-

'stable'

under

stall).

^f stabh
stag

'be
sb.

stiff.

stammer
late

vb. me. stamere deriv.

ME. me.

stagge
stage

oe.
ofr.

fr.

OE. stdtnvr adj. 'stammering';

stagga 'a stag'.

cp.
fr.

DU.

stainercn-stamelen,

stage
(Stage
static uni)

sb.

stamalon;

\r

sta?n

^~

FR.

itage

(lat.

type 'stammering' stammer', ohg. stamen 'stammer';

ohg. ON. stamr stama vb. 'to


in

stamp cp.

state

also
G.

GOTH,

staimns

'stam-

SKR. star, gr.

doTj]Q, All

lat.

Stella

mering'.
stu?n

Cogn. W. OSAX. OHG.


stunivi

(for '^sterulal).

equivalent.

'dumb'.
'^statn-

Starboard
statnpfdji
fr.

sb. me. sterbgrd short

Stamp
piari)
G.

= DU. stmnpen, onG.


are

vb. ME. sta7iipe (e.

for oe. steorbord] cp. on. stjorbordi

'starboard'
steer'^.

and

oe. steor

under

stamp/en

(iTAL. stmnpare

iHaniper

of

TEUT.

\P stamp cogn.

teut. origin) w. or. arsii^\^.stau/iche

starch

sb. me. '^sterche oe. stereo


:

^fiv 'to stamp".

umlaut-derivative with palatalisation of stark.


G. Starke)

(=

stanch, stau/u'/ivh.
vb.
fr.

OFR. estanchcr.
vb. me. stamie oe. standan

= ON.

stare vb. me. stare oe. starian


star a,
fr.

Stand

(prt. oe. me. StOiP)

derived

ohg. star en to stare'; an adj. stara- in skr.


hard':
'to

GOTH. OSAX.

iV/z/ra'fast, hard', GR. arfpfo'c

standan, on. standa, OHG. stantan


"to

ARYAN \f

sta

stand'

in

ohg.

stand': a strong vb.,

common
;

stdn sten G. stehen, du. staan, lat.

to

teut. stare, GR. lordvai, SKR. stJid. the Teut. languages stad; the nasal of the stark adj. me. stark oe. steare verb is orig. characteristic of ^r OSAX. MHG. G. stark; cp. on.
Sj'^stap

the present tense).

standard

sb. me.
fr.

DU. sta/idaard^

= FR.
fr.

(witli umlaut) sterkr and goth. standard (= gastaurknan "to become dry' ofr. estandart ARYAN \^ strg in LiTH. strigti 'to

ita7idard

(ital. stendardo

become

stiff".

fr.

LA'i'.

extender e
sh.

spread

out').

starling
of
w.
oe.

sb.

me. Stirling short


starling"

stang
\v.

ME. stange

loanword

for oe. stdrling: dimin. formation


stch-

ON. .y/w/i,'" gen. stangar] ident. org. stanga G. stange, uu. stdng and the umlauted oe. ste/ig 'pole, stake'; source the vb. Oe. stingan 'to stab, pierce' see sting. stanyell sb. (Shakesp.) oe. stdnproperly 'rock-yeller' cp. li'l/a
; :

'a

stdra G. staar 'a starling'


OE.

=^ ohg. cogn.
;

steam
;

=^-

lat.

stiirniis.

str.

start vb. ME. sterte (oe. *steortan vb.) cp. odu. du. storteny
sturzen G. stiirzen: teut. y'"
starve oe. steorfan

ohg.

stcrt start.

ye/I.

Starve vb. me.

staple sb. ME. stdpel oe. stdpol


'a

prop

= DU. LG.

str.

vb.

stapel,

ofries.

ster7'en,

'die(ofhunger') =r du. osax. sterban, OHG. stcrban


str.

stapul

block'.

G.

sterben

vb. 'to die';

cp.

star sb. me. stcrre oe. steorra ---. OHG. os.'\x. st'crro, odu. mlg. stcrre: Teut. base sterron-', ident. w. GOTH, stairno ON. stjarna (hence me. sternc), OHG. sterno Cogn. w. (g. stern ohg. stern').
,

ON. starfi 'stiffness',


bestarfen 'be
,

east-fries.

stiff".

The

original

meaning of the teut. \^sterb was


probably 'be
stiff.
fr.

State sb. ME. estdt


j

ofr. estat

fr. itat ^= LAT. status.

stny^

step

'99
'

Stay
l-R.

vb. ME. state

fr.

ofr. estayer

steer

sb. me.

ster oe.

.y/e-'f?-

=-

ctaycr.

staystaga-,

sb. oe. skey.

Teut. base
DU.

whence

fr. itay; cp.

ON. stjorr, OHG. OSAX. ident. j'/Zi^r G. DU. stier 'a bull' w. ON. pjorr (dan. /yr) aryan

GOTH,

stiar,

LG. stag.

base (s)teiiro (osLOV. turii 'steer'). Stead sb. me. stcde oe. stcde fr. But Gk. vtiKQOc corresponds to a Teut. base stadi- =^ goth. staps OIR. tarl> (aryan base tarwo-., 'a stead, place', OHG. stat (o. stadt not Cdgn. w. steer).
'town), ON. stadr 'a place': abstract formation of the aryan v'" sia 'to stand (see stare); cp.
w.

steer- vb. :me. siere oe. steoran the umlauted byform stiran =^ OHG. stiuran G. steiier/i, DU.
cp.

LAT.

statio,

SKR.
me.

sihiti'di

standing'.
(late oe.

sturcn\
for a

on. styri

'a

rudder';

steak
fr.

sb.

steike
:

staecan vb.

to roast')
"a

on. steik
roast'.

steak'

non-umlauted root-form see borrowed under starboard, teut. \^ ste/ir - steikja also in goth. stiurjan 'to confirm'.

'to

stem sb. me. stem oe. stann stefn a stem of a tree': ablaut-relation vb. =^ GOTH, stilaii on. stela, to on. stafii, OSAX. stamn OSAX. OHG. stelan o. stehlen uu. OHG. stain Q.stanivi du. statu: teut. stattitia-. stelen: teut. \~ stcl, perhaps ident. ground -forms st'cmita\~ sta w. GR. arsgtod^at oxeQidy.tiv cogn. w. iR. tamott\\(txii
steal vb. me.
stele

oe. ^/^Vcw str.


,

'bereave'.

'to

stand'

under stare.
sb.

steam

sb. me. strm oe.

jAvw

fr.

stench
fr.

me. stench oe.


stattk{w)i-;

stctic

a Teut. base stau-maEAS'iFRiES.

{\i\:>.

stoovi,

stom):

\^

stau,

a tuet. base not stink.


vb.
'to

see

found elsewliere. steed sb. .me. stede


stallion':

oe. steda 'a

step vb. OE. steeppan steppan str. cp. DU. stappen, OHG. stapfon
;

Stod

umlaut-derivative of oe. E. stud.

step'

and

oe.

jY<;^^

.y/c<'y'^

'a

step, pace';

probably related to

steel sb. ME. ste/e oe. jV*?/^ (style): osLOv. stopa foot-track'? The umlaut- formation by the side of root seems to be nasalized in the equival. OHG. stalial g. stahl, staitip. DU. staal, ON. i'/'<//: Teut. base Step in stepfather ste p7nother
stalila-

and

(for oe.

style') stalilja-;

etc.

ME. step-fader,

-nioder short
;

ident. w. opruss. stakla- 'steel'.

for OK. steop-feeder, -ntodor

iilent.

steep adj. ME.


ident.

step oe. stcap adj.;

w. ON. stjtipfadir, -inodir


stiof-fater,
stiefnttittcr
:

--

OHG.

w.

OE. stcap ~-r on. staitp

lu'aker'

under stoup.

Umlautstaiipila-;

-miioter

G.

rater, stief
stetipa-,

Teut.

base

dcriv. steeple me. stepel oe. stepel


stypel (fr. a

whence OHG.
vb.

bist.tifen OE.

dstypan

Teut. base
'a

'bereave,

deprive

(of pa-

cp. ON. stopull

steeple').

rents)'.

200
stern' adj. me. sterne oe. styrne: Teut. base stinti- prop, sternu-, cogn. w. LAT. strenuiis. stern 2 sb. ]\ie. sterne fr. on. stjorn 'a steering'; see starboard and steer vb. stew vb. ME. stilwe vb. fr. the G. stube', see sb. OFR. estnve

stool

OSAX.

stinkan

G.

du.

stifiket?

TEUT. \'~ stemj

pre - teut. stengw {tengw in GR. rayyog 'rancid'). stir vb. ME. stire oe. styrian vb.; ident. w. the ablauted ohg. storen
G. storen, DU. storen, ofries. stir a:

west-teut. bases sturjanstaurjan; \f star also in storm?


stirrup sb. me.
stirop
sti-rgp OE. stij^-rdp; ident. w.

sio2>e.

steward
the
I

sb. are. stiward (since


;

properly OHG.

cogn. w. oe. sti{-^- stega-reif G. stegreif{pv. steegreep), The first ON. stig-reip. Second element of 'house -holder'. the compound is teut. raipaelement is ident. w. sty. roap; for the i^* element (Teut. stick sb. ME. sticke oe. sticca OHG. stecko G. stecken Teut. base stiga- \^stlg^ see stair. stikkon-, derived fr. the verbal \f stitch sb. ME. sticche OE. slice Teut. base stiki- 'a stik in OHG. stchhan o. stechen. early stici: stiff adj. short for ime. oe. stif pricking' by the side of oe. stician 'stiff' on. stifr, du. stijf, G. 'to prick'; cf. OYLQ.st'ehhan G. stechen stcif\ cogn. w. LITH. stipti 'to be- (ohg. stih G. stick sb. 'pricking'), come stiff and LAT. stipes 'a pole'. OSAX. stekan du. steken. arvan stile sb. ME. stile contracted \rstig in GR. ariy^ia ariCa cf. from OE. stigolxvA. stii^ele OHG. SKR, \'^tij 'be sharp'. stigila 'a stile'; derived fr. the Stith sb. ME. stith borrowed fr. ON. stedi 'an anvil'. TEUT. \^ stig under stair. still adj. ME. OE. stille OHG. stock sb. ME. stock OE. stocc
linta

2"' cent.)

OSAX.
stille;

Stilli

G.

stilt,
fr.

DU.

Stil,

OFKIES.

'trunk, log, pillory'

DU. stok,

deriv.

the

V:^V,i.\'~ stell

'to

stand

firml)''

in the factitive

OHG. G. stock, ON. stokkr: Teut. base stokka- for stukka-; teut. \^
sink in
'to

DU. LG. stoken, me. stoke cogn. \v. skr. /y 'push'. stone sb. ME. stpn oe. stdn stilt sb. ME. stilte; ident. w. ohg. stelza G. strlze, DU. stelt\ all equi- GOTH, stains, ON. steinn, OHG. G. valent. .y/^///, OSAX. iV(?/? DU. steen Cogn.
vb. OHG.
G.

stellen 'to

place'

and

in OHG. stollo 'post'.

stab

sting vb.
str.

:me. sti/ige

oe. stingan

\v.

OSLOV. stena
GR.

'a wall'

stentnu =

vb. :

stiiiga;

cp.

GOTH. OHG.
teut.

{us)stiggan,

ON.

rocky',
stone'.

Cxwv oria 'pebble-

stiingon stungen
\'~ste//g

Cp. stanyel.

'to

sting':

under

sta//g.

str.

Stink vb. ME. stiuke oe. stiueaii vb. = GOTH, stigqan, OHG.

GOTH. stool sb. ME. OE. Stpl ON. stdll, DU. stoel, OSAX. stol, OHG. i'/wr'/ G. stiihl: Teut. base stb-la- deriv. fr. the ARYAN \^st/id
stbls,

stoop

stravv-l)erry

20I
adj.

'to

stand'

under stead. Cp. also


'table',

straight
str etch.

me.

str eight

oe.

OSLOV.

stolil

gr. oTfjXt]

(d)streht] part,

of OE. streccean

'column'.
OE. stiipian 'to curve

stoop vb. ident. w. me. stoupe strain vb. me. streine fr. ofr. downwards' estraindre LAT. stringer e and n= ODU. stuipen 'to bow', on. stilpa straiiuK. streitix. ofr. estreit (fr. ctroit^ LAT. str ictus. swED. stupa 'to fair. me. strand strand sb. oe. stop vb. .ME. stoppe (oE. for-

stoppian\o stop up, close') ident. w. DU. stopper!, OHG. stop/on G.


,

= shore' =

ON.

strgnd

(gen.

strandat') 'margin, edge', du. lg.

and w. ital. stoppare 'to G. strand 'shore' (fr. itrain of stop up with tow'. Source low Teut. origin). LAT. stiippare (lat. stuppa 'oakum') strange adj. ivtE. straunge fr. ofr. estrange (fr. itratige) source stork vb. ME. st07 k OE. store
stop/en

DU. stork, OHG.


siorkr
;

i-/cr/& G. storc/i,

ON.
'a

i.AT.

extraneus.

cogn.

w.

GR. rooyog

large bird'.

storm

sb. me. oe. storm

= on.
;

OFR. estr angler

strangle vb. me. strangle vb. fr. lat. strangular e. strap sb. me. oe. strop ipp):

storm (oHG. G. stiirm^ loanword fr. LAT. struppus 'thong, derived fr. \f star in stir or fillet', whence also du. lg. strop cogn. w. LAT. sternere 'to strew'. and FR. ^tropc. story sb. me. stork fr. ofr. estoire straw sb. me. straw oe. streaw LAT. historic. (with the byforms me. str( oe. on. stoup stoop ME. .fA^/^: borrowed strc'a) Teut. base strawafr. ON. stpup 'beaker, cup' stoop stra, DU. str00, OHG. stro G. stroh; 'a gallon': the sb. (teut. stmipa- cp. the vb. strew oe. strewan, 'beaker') rests on the adj. staupa- stre^an GOTH. straujan, OHG. =- steep. strouwen G. streuen, du. strooien stout adj. me. stout h. ofr. estout; 'to strew'. TEUT. \f strau derived
stoniir, DU.

ident.
st(>h

w.

du.
:

stout,

ohg..

g.

fr.

the

'proud

source lat.

stultus

I'vai

OT()(6i'i'vjiii

ARYAN \f ster in gr. ornosvand lat. sterno

'foolish'.

(stravi

stratum), osLov. streti


cp.

stove sb. oe. stofa 'a bath' =r 'to spread out'; OHG. stuba 'a bathing-room' (g. stramen 'straw'.
stuhe 'a room'),

esp.

l.at.

du. stoof; ident.

straw-berry
OE.

sb. me. straiv-berie

'a

not cogn. w. Probably connected w. uncertain. Cp. stew. LAT. fragurn 'straw-berry ARYAN stow vb. me. stpwe OE. stpwian base sraghwoTeut. base 'to restrain'; derived fr. OE. stow strawa-; the 2"^ elementin straw'a place' lith. stoi'a 'place'. berry might be explanatory.
istuba

w. fr.

dure and

osLOV.

streaw - berie ;

room'.

Source

and

history straw.

202
Stray
csU-aier
(j=z
;

stray

study

vb.

me.

straie
fr.

fr.

OFR.

estrif,

derived
sb.

lat. strata

= osax.

street).

on a Teut. sb. ohg. strit G. streit. Strike vb. me. strike oe. strican
rests
strid,

which

Streak
'a line';

me. strike oe. strica


'a

cp. goth. striks

str. vb. 'to rub, wipe' OFRIES. stroke strika, DU. strijken, OHG. strthhan

with the pen' and strike.

G. streichen\
\'~ strfg

stream
^T=

sb. me. strcm oe. strca?>i


stroiitn

OHG.

(g.
:

stroni),

DU.

strigq

in

teut. \i~ strlk, kkyk^ lat. strigilis OSLOV.


,

stristi

'to

shear'.

Cp.

stroke. strooni, ON. straumr Teut. base string sb. me. oe. streng fr. a strau-nia-, derived fr. the ARYAN TEUT. base strangi- in on. strengr, \f sru 'to flow' =: SKR. \~ sru 'to DU. streng, OHG. G. Strang; cogn. flow'; cp. GR. Qieir, oiR. srut/i w. the adj. strong. sriiaim 'stream' (lat. 'river' strive vb. me. strive fr. ofr. frit men: ARYAN flfmiai instead o^'^ estrii'er vb. (ofr. estrj/ under sron-nien-). strife). Street me. strete oe. stret street Stroke sb. me. str ok and stroke

infl. strcete (whence on. strckti is vb. OE. strdcian fr. \fstrik under borrowed) ^- osax. strata, uu. strike. straat, ohg. strazza G. strasse strong adj. me. oe. strong fr. "WEST-TEUX. strata^ fr. lat. strata TEUT. base strangii- in OHG. strung (sc. f'/i7) prop, 'a paved way',
:

whence
(OIK.

ital. strada

= fr.

strengi

G.

DU.

streng

(g.

sich

c'tn^e

anstrengen
stringer e 'to

vb.)

cogn.

w.

LAT.
.

srdth) 'a street'.


sb.

strength
fr.

streiigduiGoiYi.

draw tight, compress Stub sb. ME. stubbe with the *straggi^a) derived umlauted byform oe. stybb 'a
me. streugthe oe.
stub';

strong.
ofr. destrcsse.
strec-

stress sb. force' short for me.


distresse
fr.

cp. LG. stubbe, du. stobbe, ON. stubbi and GR. OTVvoq 'a stub, stump'. ARYAN \f stup, nasalized

Stretch vb. me. s/reec/ieoE.


cean
{\>ii.Yt.

in

strehtunditr straig/it)\
j

stump. stubble

sb. ME. stable stnble


;

fr.

ident. w.

ohg. strecchen G. strecken, OFR. estouble DU. strekken: teut. type strakkjan; stiipfala DU. cp. OHG. strackcn 'be straight and vulgar LAT.
i |

OHG. G. stoppel: source stap(i)la instead of


ident.

w.

DU. LG. strak 'straight' LAT. stipula 'stubble'. stud sb. short for ME. OE. stod (g. stracks 'immediately'). strew see under straic. 'a stud' (cp. the umlaut-derivaON. stod, OHG. Stride vb. me. stride oe. stridan tion steed) vb. ^ mlg. strlden 'to stride' stuot. Cp. OSLOV. Russ. stado, \'^ strtd. LITH. stodas a herd of horses Strife sb. me. strif fr. ofr. Study vb. ME. siudie prop, stildle
the
adj.

stuff

203
fr.

vb.
r

fr. OFR. estudier (fr. LAT. studere. stuff sb, fr. OFR. esioffe

itndiei-)

OFR.

sotil (fr.

subtil)

=
fr.

LAT.

subtilis.

FR.

succeed

t'foffe

(whence also
sb.

G.

staff',

DU. succeder

vb. me. suefede

fr.

lat. suceedere.
vb. ME. sucoure socourc
^=^

stof).

stump

succour
ME.

stump

stomp\
fr.

OFK. soccorre

j^xi.sueeurrere.

ident. w. DU. stomp,


AKYAi^j

probably \^ stum />:


ON.
stii/r
sti'ifi

OHG. G. stiniipf: connected w. stub:


st/i(m)p,

such
s7Liue/i

also in

pron. me. suck earlier swich OE. swylc swilc: Teut.

'a

stump'.
stiuie
;

Stun vb. ME.


sturnan
'to

stone

resound' cp. umlauted on. stynja 'to groan", G. sto/un, DU. steiicir. KiviPsXi\f stm sten in gr. oxivHV. OSLOV. stetijq, SKR. Stan 'to groan, resound'. Sturgeon me. stourl'eotm fr. fr. ( sturgeon; source a teut. base
sturjon- in

OHG. by OE. GOTH, swaleiks the l'^' element the of the compound rests on so =^
base
stvulik in
(g.

OSAX.
;

sulik,

sulih

soldi)
,

as

shown

OE. swd.

short for me. souke vb. with the byform OE. OHG. siigan G. saugen ; cogn. W. LAT. SUgCre ARYAN sf SUg stlk.
vb.

suck

OE. silcan

str.

DU. steur^
geon'.
w. stir.

OHG.

sturio

(g. stohr,
'a

sudden
soda in
fr.

adj.

me.

sodein

prop.

OE. styiia

stur-

fr. soudain
vb. ME. suffre

(LAT. type

Doubtful whetlicr cogn.


fr.

'''subitanus for subitaneus

'sudden').
soffre
fr.

suffer
ME.
stotc stute

Stutter vb.
cp.

vb.

FR.

souff'rir

(LAT. suffer re).

sugar sb. me. silgre siicre fr. G. stotteni 'to stammer'. All derivations of v^ staut in GOTH. FR. Sucre, whence also ODU. striker siautan, on. staiita 'to beat, strike' DU. suiker; cp. G. zucker fr. ital.
=^ OHG.
stoz^yan

G. stossen.

ARYAN

zucchero.

\^ (s)tud
SKR.

in LAT. tundere 'to beat',


'to

sum
FR.

sb. me. sumfnc

somme

fr.

\~ tud

strike'.

somme.
sb.
fr.

stie

Sty' sb. OE. stij^


w.

('sty
infl.

for
jV/;^^

swine') me.
'a 'a

pig-sty';
pig-sty',
(S7dn)stia

ident.

ohg.
,

stla

ON.
'a

j// (svin-stl)

SWED.

sty'.

Sty^ sb.
OE.
stlge,

('stv

stij^end;

in the eye') cp. equivalent w. lg.

NORW.
fr.

stig.

subdue
sudl'ic

vb. me. subdue properly

OFR.

souduir
sotcl

LAT.

subdiicerc.

me. suvier somer a Teut. hdiSQSumaruin OSAX. OHG. sumar g. sommer, DU. sooner, ON. sumar. Cogn. \v. AVEST. ham, OiR. sam, cymr. ham ha/, ARMEN. atnarn all equivalent. Cp. also SKR. samd 'year'. summit sb. fr. fr. sommet (rests on LAT. summus). summon vb. me. somone fr. OFR. somoner (L.A.T. submonere 'to
OE. siimor
:

summer

subtle adj. ME.

sutel sutil

remind

privately').

204

sun
infl.

sb. ME. sunfiesotmeoK. sitnne

sun?ian

= GOTH,

siintw,

OHG.
s<7;r.

OSAX. simtia O. so/ine, TEUT. base sunnbn-.

DU.

supper
sure
fr.

sb. me.

i'^,?;-

super

fr.

FR. sottper.

adj. me.
jr//fr

Cp. dinner. j-/7r properly


j-/?/-

i'^Z/r

smr fr. (^ lat. secf/rns, whence also sicker). surgeon sb. me. surgen [surgein)
OFR.
fr.

OFR. cirurgicn (lat. type chiHence surgery me. siirgeric lat. chiritrgia. swaddle vb. me. szvathele OE, siva'delian vb. derived fr. OE. \'~ svar 'to sound ? , swcedel 'bandage'; ident. w. the sw^art adj. me. swart oe. sweart GOTH, swarts, ON. svartr, DU. umlauted ohg. swedil 'bandage'; zwart, OHG. swarz G. schwarz\ see swathe. swain sb. me. yyjfvw/prop. swcin: Cogn. w. LAT. sordes (properly borrowed in the 1 1^^ cent. fr. ON. '^svordes^ 'dirt': aryan \P sword. sveinn; ident. w. oe. sis.Hln 'man, swath sb. ME. stvath oe. swce/^ 'footprint, track' (with the bywarrior', OHG. sivein 'servant'. sw^allow sb. (the bird) me. form OE. swadu track'); cp. swade, G. schwaden, szvealwe sii'alowe OE. OHG. MLG. swat sivalawa G. schivalbe; ident. w. DU. zwaad 'a row of mown grass': OSAX. swala, ON. svala 'a swallow': Teut. base swapa. if for swathe vb. me. swathe oe. swaTeut. base swahnjon-;
7'urpanus).
\

sb. me. swarde oe. swear swearde 'the skin of bacon ODU. zwaerde, mhg. swarte G. schwarte 'skin of bacon' on. svgrdr 'skin'. The modern E. meaning 'green turf is due to Northern influence; cp. on. jardar-svgrdr 'earth-sward', grassvgrdr 'grass-sward (and mlg. gru'nswarde, dan. gr&tis7)(cr^.' swarm sb. me. swarm oe. swear fn ON. svarmr OHG. sivarm G. schwarm (du. Z7verm) all equivalent. Cp. the skr.
infl.

sward

^swa/gwon-, cogn. w. GR. rtAxv'wj'? swallow vb. ME. szvel(o)zve earlier

dian; cp.

swaddle.

OSAX. OHG. swelgan {swelhan) G. schwelgen, DU. zwelgen (on. (prt. ME. oe. swo?-) str. vb. =r svelgja) Teut. verbal \'" swelh OHG. OSAX. swerian G. schworen, SW'elg, ARYAN \'~ swelk. DU. zweren, on. sz'erja str. vb. sw^amp sb. cogn. w. ohg. g. cp. GOTH, szvaran. The original sump/, DAN. SWED. suvip 'a swamp'. meaning of the teut. \^ swar swan sb. me. oe. S7m?i fr. a was probably 'to declare, as on. svanr\ cp. shown by the derivative answer. TEUT. swanaOHG. swana G. schwan DU. zwaan. sweat vb. short for me. szve/e Cogn. w. LAT. sonare (properly oe. swcktan; derived fr. oe. swat '^svonare^, SKR. \f^svan 'to sound'. ME. swgte (e. szvcat sb. influenced
:

swelgen OE. stuelgan

str.

vb.

swats (Scotch) 'beer' OK.szaata; derived fr. \f swot under sweet. swear vb. me. sw're oe. swerian

sweep

swoop

205
vb. ME. S7e'wiwe oe. S7vim-

by the vb.
ON.
S7'eiti,

S7C'eai)

DU. zwcet,

swim
ma/i

vb. oSAX. OHG. TEUT, \i^ stvait {swit in G. schwiizen siuimniaii str. vb. G. ichiviiiunen', aryan \f swoid ident. w. on. symja (for orig. OHG. swizzari) swim': swid in SKR. \'~ svid to sweat', *s70iifnjafi) 'to teut. to \'~S7i'em (sum under sund). GR. (J^jw'g 'sweat' Idiitv

OHG.

S7aiz.

G. schweiss:

str.

sweat', LAT.
'sweat',

swine sb. me. oe. s7C'm =^ LETT, sjvidrs 'sweat'. OSAX. OHG. s7mn G. sch7Joein DU. sweep vb. ME. swepe oe. swdpan Z7i.njn ON. S7'in, GOTH. S7vein : 3^ p. sg. pres. t. stvdpd'lo sweep': Teut. base S7Vina-, properly siiTEUT. \^ swaip under s^uoop. -ina-, derived fr. aryan sti 'a sweet adj. me. oe. sivetc adj. pig' in OE. OSAX. OHG. sii 'a sow'
i-?/^/*?;,

(orig. *svoidos)

with

the

non-umlauted
(me.
Site

adverb
adv.)

LAT.

sii-s,

GR. i-q ov-g.


in

The
is

OE. swote

adj.

suffix

-if/a,

teut.

S7aina-

diminutive as shown under osAx.s7m//, DU.s^W, oiiG.s(7a)tw:,p chicken, maiden. See also so7v. G. siiss: Teut. base swoti-, orig. swing vb. ME. swinge oe. S7vinswotic- (cp. GOTH, silts sweet), gan str. vb. == OSAX. OHG. S7uinARYAN base swadii in skr. svddii, gan. G. sclnvingen. sw^inge me. GR. ftJt'? 'i]dic, LAT. siuwis (orig. S7venge OE. swencgean 'to beat, *su(7itu-is). Cp. s7C'ats. shake' causal of S7aing: teut.

ident. w. on. satr (orig. *svdti-),

str.

swell vb. ME. S7vcllc OE. swcllun vb. OSAX. OHG. S7vcllan

\^s7C'eng sivang (s7'aug7a in goth.


afs7uagg7i<jan ?)

G. sc/i7iiellen,
str.

vb.

DU. Z7vellen, ON. szi'clla TEUT. verbal \f swell


sb.).

swink
can
.sir.

vb. ME. S7vinke oe. S7mnvb.

(also

in

goth. Hfs7vallems
vb.
str.

Ident. w. S7vingl
earlier

swerve
S7veorfan
ident.
Z7uer7'cn,

me.

S70crve

OE.
file";

swoon

vb. JIE. s7VOU7ie


fr.

vb. to scrub,
S7ihiirhan
,

S7vggnien; derived

w.

oSAX. S7ver/an,

goth.

SV'crfa

\f sTverbh

TEUT. \/'" .J7f/tV7^ in RUss. sverhcti^


itch'.

dswogen 'choked'; allied to ARYAN GOTH. gas7i>dgjan swogatjan 'to OSLOV. sigh', OE. s7C'pgan 'to sough, sigh
,

DU. ON.

ciple OE. y:s7iwgen

the p. partiin a swoon'

svriiheti 'to

ARYAN
OE.
j-7f'//?

\'~S7C'0gh

S7('dgh

in LITH.

swift adj.
'to

ME.

(oe.

S7'agvti 'to

sound'.

S7iHftT)\ p. participle of oe. STulfaii

swoop
sw^ord
(s7t'urd)

vb. ME. swgpe oe. S7vdpan


sb. UE. swe'rd OE. s7veord

move

quickly' =^ on.
suffix
/t*

i?^z/c/,

(identical w. sweep).
OSAX. OFRIES. s7C'erd, DU. Z7vaard, ON. sverd, OHG. S7vcrt

formed by
r<?/^/,

loiid^.

(see ^A/, Cogn. w. DU.


G. sclnveben.

Z7veveti,

OHG.

s7C''el>cn
.yrf'/Vi'

sw^ill vb.
(3**

ME.

oe. sunllan

G.

sch7oert:

aryan base

S7verdho-

p. sg.

pres.

t.

S7eult'd).

(in

LAT. sorhiis 'service-tree'?).

table

taiT}'

table sb. ME. table


'chess-boai'd'
;

fr.

FR. table
tcefcl

tame
(infl.

adj.

DU. OHG. zabal tatn, OHG. sam G. zahm: Teut. board') cp. also G. DU. tafel. base tama- (hence derived GOTH. tackle sb. me. takcl\ ident, w. tamjan 'to tame' ^^ ON. te?nja, MLG. takel 'equipment (g. swed. OHG. zfmmefi). ARYAN \^ dom in takel, DAN. takkel'). LAT. domare 'to tame', gr. d(X(.iav, tadpole short for toad-poll. SKR. daindy 'to tame'. tail sb. ME. tail oe. tmj^el =rrr tan vb. me. tatine oe. tanniaii ON. tagl vb.; cogn. w. FR. tan 'oak-bark' OHG. zagal 'a tail", (lat. tannare in the 8 'a tail', GOTH, tagl 'hair'. cent. tailor sb. me. taillonr fr. OFR. -- FR. tanner; cp. DU. /a^;^'bark'). tailleor ^- FR. taillcur. Hence e. taivny fr. tanuL take vb. ME. take late OE. tang sb. (sea-weed) fr. dan. (ii'^ cent.) taeaii borrowed fr. tang =^ ON. pang (pgngull).
tdffia^
=

^^ LAT. tabula (whence OE.

me.

tdtne

oe.

/</w

on.

tamr,

'^

ON. taka str. vb. taking the place of OE. niman (under niinble)\ cp. cast ^~:r ON. kasta supplanting- oe. 7veorpan (under warp). Ident. w. GOTH. /tvCv?/; str. vb. 'to touch': TEUT. \f tik tak; pre-TEUT. \/~ ileg dag} tale sb. ME. tale OE. talu OHG. zdla DU. taal language G. zahl; cp. ON. tal 'a tale'. Cp. the TEUT. verb taljan in OE. tella?!. ME. telle E. tell - OHG.

tap
'a

sb.

me.

tappe
srt/^/f?

oe.
G.

/<;?//<?

tap'

=^ OHG.

zap/cn,

DU. /<;/, ON. tappi (fr. /<?/' /^/(;// are Teut. loanwords). taper sb. me. taper oe. tdpor: properly */^?/>;', loanword fr. lat. papyrus, which appears in Rom.
dialects as 'taper',

tar sb. ME. terre; cp. oe. teoru 'tar' and DU. (g.) teer, ON. tjara ident. w. lett. darwa
(tyrwe)
;

zcllan {c\\.GOYYL.talzjaii).

Hence
;

tar'.

The group
=^
tree;

rests

on Aryan
'tar-

derived
(OE.

talk

vb.

me. talke vb.


/'

dei'U

tar

orig.

'''talcian

''^talccia/i)

is

Teut. base probably oe. tar{w)dn also in ODU. taruwe j^eteel 'swift, prompt' with tVie l)yCogn. w. skr. DU. mlg. iarwe. form geaiol{lic) 'swift'. Ident. w. dilrva (a kind of grass) and OHG. gizal: Teut. base ga-tala-. LITH. dirva 'held'. tallow ]VIE. talugh earlier *^?/// tarn sb. me. terne fr. on. tjgrn ^^ MLG. talch (g. tal^, du. talli), (g. tjarnar) 'a tarn, pool". ON. tolgr. Cogn. \v. GOTH, tul- tarry vb. me. tcrie oe. terian ter-^an 'to vex' du. lg. tergen gus 'fast'?
tall

suffixed as in hark.
adj. me. tal;

wood'. tare sb. me. tare;

tart

teen

207
g.

tart sb. ME. tarte

fr.

Ofr. tarte
taart,

zouf/i

zaimi).
'.

Root the same


tp-e oe.

-^
G.

FR.

tourte

(whence DU.
task{c)
fr.

as in

team

torte).

tear vb. me.


ME.

tcran

str.

ofr. tasque ^= fr. tache; source LAT.


sb.

task

vb.

taxare,

tatter
fr.

also tax. a Scand. loanword ON. tgtrar pi. tatters'; already


sb.

whence

GOTH, gatairan to break'. ARYAN \'~ der in skr. dar 'to burst, break asunder', gr. dioeiv to
=::
flay',

LITH. diiii

'to

flay'.

tear sb. me.


ta/ir-

ter oe. tear:

'jeut.

ME. iatcTid 'ragged'.

ohg. zahar (g. tattle vb. fr. ME. tatere vb. zdhre) cp. onorthuaibr. teehher taw, tcto vb. ME. iave; OE. and according to Verner's law tdwian teawian means prop, preGOTH. tagr. ARYAN base dakru pare and corresponds with uu. in GR. ddy.iiv, WELSH daigr (pertoiiwen to curry leather', ohg. haps SKR. a(ru and lat. laerhna zomven 'make, prepare', GOTH. are cognate). All equivalent. iaiijan teut. \~ tau\ see 'do': tease vb. (me. t(se) oe. tiksan tool.
in on.
;

tar,

tawny
tax vb.

see tan.
fr.

'to

fr.

taxer

r^-

lat.

taxare; ident. w. task.

CHINESE
17'''

tea sb. r^ FR. td, G. t/iec: source td; the word became European in the 2'"'^ lialf of the
cent.
sb. me. tcche (prt. taughte)
(prt. tcehte)
\

pieces to tease the non-umlauted byform me. ipse (oe. '^tdsan or teut. strong verbal *tdsian^.
pull
to
,

(wool)

with

\~ tais
= DU.

in

teezen.

OHG. zeisan 'to tease' Cogn. w. teasel

(plantnarae)

me.

tesel

oe.

tdsel

teach
OE.

OHG.

zeisila

'thistle'.
tete
//'//

t(Bcean

token

OE.

tdcen]

teat sb. me. cogn. w. ident. w. oe. cp. ohg. zeigon

fr.

fr.

tette\

mhg.

g.

G. zeigcn.

akv.an

\^ dik.

zitze.

team^ sb. 'family me. tnn oe. ted vb. fr. ON. tedja\ ident. w. tiam 'family, offspring' r^ mlg. OHG. G.(dial.) zetten 'to spread'. As torn 'progeny' (with the um- shown by the p. participle goth. lauted vb. teem \\^. ta?ie oe. un-gatass 'undisposed', there exitanan tpnan to teem) Teut. sted also a str. vb. *tadjan. arvan base tati{h))na- fr. \ftfih in GOth. \^dat in OR. datboiiai 1 divide,
:

tiuhan

ohg. ARYAN \f duk


,

ziohan

G.

ziehen.

distribute'.

teem^ vb. 'to bring fortli' see the following word. team. team'- sb. (team of oxen) me. teem- vb. to empty' see toom. tnne Itane oe. \etyme 'team of teen sb. me. tcne oe. teona oxen'; derived fr. teut. tau{h)tna- 'suffering, insult' =-= OSAX. tiono
in LAT. diico.
'rein,

See

bridle' (in ON. tauf/ir ohg.

'injur v'; cp. ofries. tiuna 'to hurt.'

; : ;

208
tell vb.
tellan

tell

that

ME.

telle (prt. tglde)

oe.

(prt.

idlde)

under
me.
fr.

tale.
fr.

terror sb. fr. lat. terror{em).

fr.

terreur

tempest
OFR.

sb.

tempeste

tempest

tempcle.

Source vulgar
te?npestas.

lat.

tempesta

for

temple
fr.

sb. me.
templii?)!.

tet/iple

oe. tempel

test sb. meant properly in alchemy 'a vessel for testing gold' and rests on me. test{e) lat. testa, whence also FR. ttte ofr. teste 'head' with the borrowed

LAT.

e.
fr.

testy.
sb.
sliort

temples
tevipora

me.

temples

temples (fr. tempe^ plur.

ofr.
lat.

tether

for me. teder

the temples'.
vb.

doubtful, whether genuine lish or of Scand. origin.


ON.
tjckir

EngCp.
:

tempt
teniptare.

me.

tempte

vb.

fr.

OFR. tempter (fr. tenter)

=^ lat.

= OHG.
me.

ziotar "a tether

Teut. base
tetter
sb.

teiidra-.

a ten num. me. 4' rests on an Teut. base tetru- =? aryan unrecorded OE. 'teon, instead of dedrii-. Cp. OHG. zitarok 'tetter' which an umlauted tyn is found. and SKR. dadru 'a kind of lepTeut. base tchun tehan in GOTH.
oe.
teter
fr.

tai/mn,

osax.
G.

tehan,
zehn.
tVfi'xa,

DU.
Ident.

rosy', LiTH. dedervine 'tetter'.


//>,

OHG.
ojR.

stVw/z

w.

SKR. da(a, OR.


^/(^/V//.

-teen the article the. -/tvz^ OE. thane sb. me. thein (the modern (in thirteen etc.) me. as -tene -tyne is the inflected form spelling a instead of ai is of Scotch origin) The suffix in rain of the numeral ten. -ty (in tiventy etc.) represents oe. pejpn: Teut. base p'egna- in the sb. GOTH, tigus 'decade' (in ON. pegn, OSAX. thegan, ohg. jus saihs tig ON. sextigir^ cp. OE. tliegan 'a thane, warrior' (in the OHG. drr^ug sehzug Bavarian dialect 'a male child'). pritii sixtii For the g Ident. w. GR. XHY.vov 'child' G. dreissig scchzig. GR. in GOTH, tigiis cp. ^iv.dq ARYAN \ftck in GR. TiKtio (aorist

lat. decern,
suffix

than

conj. me. thanne oe.

panne
fr.

OHG. mhg. danne; derived

The

= =

'decade'.

i-TfX-Ol).
adj.

tender
tendre;

me. tcndre
tener.

fr.

fr.

thank
cian

vb. me. thanke oe.

pan-

wk. vb. ^= OHG. tense sb. fr. ofr. tens (= FR. dankon G. DU. danken, on. pakka Root as in think. lat. tempus, 'to thank'. temps) that pron. me. that oe. pcet tent sb. ME. tente {= DU. Z^;?/) vulgar lat. tenia; OSAX. that, OHG. daz G. das (dass) fr. ofr. tente ARYAN form to-d (fr. the stem c\). lat. tentoriiwi. SKR. tad, GR. term sb. me. tcrjne fr. fr. terme; to under the)

source lat.

poucian

source lat. termimis.

TO (for *TO-d)

cp. LAT. istud illud

tliatch

thine

log
fr.

aluui

show

the

as

neutral

borrowed

ON. pykkr {pjgkkr)

the corresponding OE. /?VVV would thatch sb. properly and dia- have changed into me. *thicehe lectical thak ME. thak or. j'cec E. *thiteh. Perhaps me. thieke OHG. dah G. dach, ON. pak: is blended w. oe. piece org. Teut. base paka-. Cp. the \vk. dieki G. dick DU. dik. Teut. base vb. TEUT. pakjan in OE. peccean piqu- ^=r: ARYAN base Hgu- in OHG. dcckan G. dccken, DU. OHi. ting 'thick'. dekken. ARYAN \^ teg in lat. thief sb. ME. thef (pi. thercs)

ending.

= =

teg ere,

orayfi),
'to
'a

cogn. skr.

\v.

\f steg

in

gr.
5'/^^/z

sthag,

lith.

piiibs,

roof',

cover'; cp. gr. reyog ov:'yo<; OIR. /("^'- 'a house'.


;

(pi. peofas) goth. ON. pjofr, OHG. diob G. diet, DU. dief: Teut. base peiiba-, by Verner's law changed fr.

OE.

peof

vb. ME. thdwe oe. pdwian original *peufaas shown by OHG. douwcfi G. tanen, DU. OHG. dim'a 'theft'. dooien, ON, peyja'. \'~ pan paw thigh sb. ME. thcigh earlier properly *p(7gw, ARYAN \^ taq in theh OE. peoh org. diah, DU. GR. TTjutii' to melt? \dij, on. PJo: Teut. base peuha-, the article ME. //Jt' late OE. /t' ARYAN base teukocogn. w. (oE. of animals, influenced by the inflected lith. taitkas 'fat stem pa- in t/iat). ARYAN base marrow', OSLOV. tukU 'fat'. toin SKR. /-OT GR. TC-r, thimble sb. me. thimbel short SKR. ta-d GK. TO etc. Cp. than, for thitnel oe. Pyniel 'thumb-stall': that, their, there, they. of OE. puma diminutive
,

thaw

cp.

j-t'

theft sb. ME. thefte short for /^y?^ prop, pefthe: abstract derivation fr. thief. Cp. the um-

/// li

m b.

lauted OE. pyfp infl. pyfpe 'theft' OFRIES. thillfthe. their pron. me. their(e) borrowed fr. ON. peira. then me. theTinc OE. pcrnne ident. w. than. thence adv. me. thennes extended for tlienne thanne =^ OE. patione prop, panon OHG. dannan. there adv. (g. von dannen).

ME.

there

ther

oe.

OHG. dar
me. thei
il'*'

(g. ihi).

per peer they pron.

borrowed in the on. peir. thick adj. me. thieke probably pii
they,
fr.

cent.

thin adj. me. thinne OE. pynne OHG. dunni G. dimn, DU. dun, ON. pnnnr: Teut. base piumuproperly punu- pumvARYAN base ionu in SKR. tanu, la'j-. tenuis, cymr. teneu; cp. gr. aryan rm'unq (all equivalent), "V^ tm in SKR. /'iJ'^ 'to stretch', o^.pennan, org. dennan G. dehnen, GOTH, panjan 'to stretch out', thine thy pron. me. thin oe. GOTH, peins, on. //>//,-, //// OHG. din G. </'//, DU. ^///'; TEUT. pina- formed by suffix -ina- (cp. SKR. tavakina 'thine') fr. teut.

==

thou.
14

Knglish Etymology.

thing

thousand

sb. ME. thing oe. ping ON. ping, OHG. G. DU. iii7tg: Teut. base pinga- pcnga-\ probably itient. w. QxOTVi. peihs 'time' LAT. teinpus (for "^tenquiisT). think vb. me. thenke [thenchen) OE. pencean (3'^ sg. prs. t. pencp') GOTH, pdgkjan, ON', prkkja, OSAX. thcnkian, Ohg. dcikan G. denkcn. Cp. GOTH, pugkjan =1

thing

^-=

stem pa- in //^a/. Cp. GOTH, papro 'thence', ON. padra


the
'there'.

=
=

thole sb. ME. thol oe. pol ill): Teut. base polla- in on. pollr, DU. dol, G. rudderdolle. ary.\n

base
'to

tilno-

{=
fr.

skr.

tii}j.a

'quiver'

for *tulnd)
lift

V~/^/ r= skr. \'^tid


tollere.

up',

LAT.

diliiken,

OSAX. thunkian, ohg. liunkan G. OE. pyncean 'to seem'. TEUT.


in lat. (Praesb.

thong sb. ME. thong orig. thwong OE. pwong 'thong'; cp. ON. pvengi.
\j'~

pwang.

AKYxy.\^ tongitmg)

thorn

nestine) fongere 'to think'. third .see three.

me. thorn oe. porn ON. porn, OHG. G. (/c-t;/,


sb.

DU. doom; cp. GOTH, paiirnns. thirst vb. me. thirste oe. pyrstan Ident. w. OSLOV. //-/// 'thorn'; and thirst sb. from the vb. cp. SKR. trna "grass'. thorough ME. thorow oe. porh; the sb. is me. thiirst oe. pi/rst OHG. G. orig. preposition -= oe. purh, TEUT. purS-tU-

OHG. duruh G. durch, goth. teut. pairh. thou jjron. me. /A^/^ oe. //^ verbal \f^pers in GOTH, gapairsan paiirsus dry' GOTH. ///, OHG. //// (g. dll) be dry' 'to lat. i^/r/7 G. ARYAN ground-form tii in (oE. pyrre ^= ohg. Cp. diirr^. ARYAN \'~ters trs in skr. tu GR. XV, SKR. tu-am.
durst, DU. dorst;

cp. on. porsti,

GOTH, paurstei

sb. 'thirst',

=
'.

/;'i

'to

be

thursty'

/"/'jvi

'gree-

thine.

dy',

though conj. ME. though earlier GR. Ttgfffh'w, LAT. torreo. thoh: Scand. loanword of the thirteen, thirty see three. this pron. ME. //?/> earlier ///^'j" 11"* cent. (on. po orig. *poh).
/<'j;

OE.

masc.
ident.

//j
\v.

neutr.

/tw
G.

fem.

OHG.

^/("-.j"^

Corresponding to oe. pcah cp. OHG. doh GOTH, pduh


;

=
G.

dieser,

du.

^/i^Si?.

The

article

DU. doch.

thought sb. ME. thought OE. the (teut. /- under that) is extended by goth. sai lo', as lepoht: Teut. base ga-panhtu-, shown by ON. (runic) sa-si this derived fr. \j^pank in pink. thousand num. me. thousand here' (jrw'-j-/ fem.).
thistel oe. ptstel DQ. c//iV^/, lg. ON. pistil! distet, OHG. ^fo/// G. distel. thither adv. me. thider oe.

thistle sb. me.


,

thouseiid
diisunt
G.

OE.

ptisend
du.

OHG.
///-

--

tansend,

duizend,

ON. pus and pilshund, GOTH. sundi; in the Lex Salica,


find thus-chunde\\\oy\?>'6Xv(^
.

we

pidcr (orig. pceder')

derived

fr.

Teut.

thrall

throng

21

base ptis-hundhu7id =r
tils

compound of third me. thridde oe. pridda hundred with an ARYAN corresponds to goth. prid/'a,
,

ON. pridi, DU. derde, ohg. dritto G. dritte\ cp. SKR. trtiya, L.A.T. tiikstantis ^= OSLO v. tysqsta 'thou- iertius, osLov. tretiji. thirsand' correspond to the Teut. teen ME. threttene short for oe. thirty me. word. preotene (pryttyne). thrall sb. me. thral (pi. thralles) thritty OE. prittr^ P^'^^^S ^= ohg.
great,
(cp.

much'

skr.

iuz'i

'much',

tavas

'might').

lith.

late OE. prcell


fr.

{prM) prop, prall


(Teut. base

driziic

0. dreissig

(see under

Z^*?;

ON. prcell
\

'a thrall'

about the oe.


zwanzig vierzig
//;r/^5-

-/^j

=^

prahlla-^

cogn. w. ohg. drigil 'a slave' and w. goth. pragjan 'to run' OR. rox-yfiv 'to run'. thrash, thresh vb. me. thresshe OE. perscan str. vb. goth. priskan, ohg. drcskan G. dreschett (du. dorschen), ON. preskja. teut. ^f presk (iTAL. trescare is of Teut. origin) cp. lith. traszkiti

etc.).

thrice ME.
;

o.

-zig

in

extended for an older form


(thrhvo),

prie OE. prii^a (priwa) ^^ OSAX.


/'-^;'^'i5'

ofries. thria

see

tjciee.

threshold

sb. me. threshivoldo^.

'to

rattle,

clap'?

perscwald mostly p'erscold; ident. w. ohg. drisctifili, ON. preskjgldr. Probably not cognate \v. thrash. thrice see three,

thrave sb. me. thrdve thrcve: a thrift sb. ME. thrift fr, ON. prift. Scand. loanword cp. ON. prefi, The str. vb. thrive me. thrive DAN. trave 'a number of sheaves is borrowed fr. on. prlfa-sk 'to thread sb. me. thrcd oe. prml thrive'. ON. prddr, ohg. drat G. draht, throat sb. me. thrdte oe. prdtu DU. draad. The dental is suffix. OHG. droi^ya mhg. droi^i^e'ihrote
; .

Derivative of \f pro. (pre) in oe.

prdwan
threat

(g. erdrosseln 'to throttle')

ident.

throw.

w.

olg. strata, du. strof.

akyan

sliort for me. pr{t ground - form (s)trudd-. rrAL. cogn. w, oe. priitian strozza 'gullet' is of teut. (Langoprcatian wk. vb. to threaten'; bard.) origin. cogn. \v. oe. pr(a\an wk. vb. throe sb. 'pain' me. thrihce fr. 'to threaten' OHG. drewen the wk. vb. oe. pr(kaian^= ohg. drotmien (g. droheti). druoen 'to suffer' (Teut. \f prpu<). three num. me. thre oe. preo throne sb. for me. trdne fr.

sb.

oe. prrat;

(f.

n.

/// ra.);

ident. w.

goth. OFR.
{

trone.

prcis,

ON.
^//-tv:

prir,

du.

^/r/c,

OHG.
tri-

throng sb.
fr.

me. throng oe. \eprgng

the str. vb. oe. pringan SKR. A/ (nom. trayas), gr. r()tTg, OHG. dringan G. DU. dringen; ident. LAT. //V'jT, OIR. //-/, OSLOV. RUSS. w. GOTH, preihan, ON. pryngva //-/', i,ith. trys. The ortlinal 'to throng': teut. \r pring prenh,
drl G.
in

ARYAN base

14*

212

throstle

tight

ARYAN V"
trenkti 'to

trenk
shake'.

tr'enq

in

LITH.

'to

thursday me.
late

sound', see under stuti). thorsday thursday


OE. puresdeei oe. pimresdcej^
G.

prgstle

throstle sb. me. ihrdstil oe. cogn. w. lg. drdssl (oSAX.


;

= OHG. donares-tag
donder dag
,

donnerstag,

on. porsdagr. prgsir ON. (goth. *frastiis) Early translation of lat. y^zw 'throstle'; cp. also lith. strdzdas teut. punara- was the god 'throstle'. of thunder, corresponding to through adv. ident. w. thorough: ON. porr 'Thor'. ME. thuruJi OE. />urh =^ ohg. duruh thus adv. ME. thus oe. pus =-OFRIES. thus, G. durch, DU. dorch, goth. palrh. OSAX. DU. dus throw vb. ME. thrmve oe. corresponding to OHG. sus. Forms
fr.
^//^'.s'.

*thrdsta/a

^/ramsiala')

and w. DU.

prduian ^= OHG.
draaieti)
:

str.

vb.

'to

twist,

turn
(du.
in

drden
teui".

G.

drehen

of the article the. tick (of a bed) sb. not found


in ME.
fr.

sT pre
hole'

(also in

nor
ti/h

oe.,

thread) =^ aryan
GR.
"to

\'~trc{tere)

XQfi-(A.a

pierce'

'a

DU.

= OHG. ziehha
theca,

probably bq^rowed
G. zieche
;

xtQBiv
'auger'.

source lat.

whence

also

xiohXQOv

FR. taie 'a tick'.

thrush
base

sb. (a bird's

name)

me.

thrush short for OE. prysce (teut.


priiskjoti)
;

cogn. w.
short

ohg.
for

ticket sb. fr. FR. etiquette. tickle vb. ME. tikele. tide sb. ME. tide 'season'
////

drosca (base prauskon-^.

(gen.
zeit:

//V/<?)

'time, hour'

^ on.
form

oe.

thud

sb.

(Scotch)

tid,

OE. pgden 'whirlwind'.

G.

OSAX. tid, DU. tijd, OHG. zit Teut. base ti-di-, cogn.

thumb
dumo
G.

sb.

ME. thombc
OE. pilma

older piime

ihnvd^e

w. OE. ti-nia
tithende

time.

Hence

ohg.

tidings ME. tidinges older


fr.

daumeti, du.

duit/i,

swed.

on. tidindi 'tidings' (:^


OE. tiitm

tumvie (on. piimall 'the thumb of a glove') teut. hase pu-f/iatt-.


:

DU. tijding, G. zeitung).


tie

vb. ME.
tie,

tie

td^an

It

rests

on an ARYAN
strong
in

adj. tu-nwtiima

wk. vb. to
fr.

connect'; derived
chain,
s^'^tinig

'thick,

avest.

(SKR.

tiitufnd)

'strong';

cp. lat.
tu.

= Teut. base taugo:


teuh 'to
pull,
'to

OE. teag 'bond,

tunicre 'to

swell'.

ARYAN \^

draw',
lead';

rope' tauh cogn. w.


cp.

me. thunder older form thoncr thuner Oe. punor =^ OHG. donar G. doiiner, du. donder (cp. ON. porr for *potir the god of thunder). ARYAN \'~ tsn ton in tonitru, skr. tan LAT. tonare "to sound', OE. punumio resound, creak' (by form \f sten in skr. sta7i
sb.

thunder

LAT. diicere
ziohan
t^ah').

ohg.
(prt.

G. Ziehen,

OE. teon

fr.

tight adj. ME. tij^ht borrowed ON. pittr (therefore also me.
:

- mhg. dihte (g. dieht) Teut. base pihii- pinhti-. Cogn. w. thicks
thiyii)


tike

'a

today

213
in

tike
bitch'.

sb, ME.

tike

fr.

on.

tik

= base tundrjonG.

ohg. zuntira
tinder,

zunder\

cp.

du.

on.

Teut. verbal \^ land tiind in GOTH, tandjan, OHG. ziintan G. OE. ti-^ele tegula, whence also ohg. ziagal ziinden, oe. ontendan 'to kindle'. tine (of a fork) sb. me. oe. ti??d G. ziegel, DU. tegel tichel (cp. fr. 'prong, spike' ^^= on. tindr 'a tuile, ITAL. tegolci). till vb. ME. tile older tilien OE. spike', MHG. zint: Teut. base tindaProbably connected w. tilian 'to till land, to work'; cogn. tender-. w. OHG. zilon G. zielen 'to aim tooth (Teut. base tanp-').
tile sb.

ME.

tile

contraction fr. ti\le\ source lat.

tiindr.

at',

OSAX.
till,

tilon

tiloian,

du.

teleii

tire vb. me. tire oe. tyran with


tere

'to
tils

cultivate' (cp.

GOTH, ga- the non-umlauted byform me.


OE.

adj. 'fitting').

tear inn.

till

prepos.

xME.

oe.
-

///

(in

tit

see titmotise.

Northumbr. dialect) on. /// tithe sb. ME. tithe; prop, ordinal 'till, to'. Cogn. w. GOTH, gatils OE. ti'^eda {teogoda teopa) 'tenth'; see teti. and OHG. zilon under till vb. titlark see titmouse. tilt sb. late me. telt 'a covering' title sb. ME. title fr. ofr. title for an earlier form teld (under the influence of tent^ =^ oe. =-- FR. litre: source i.at. titulus.
letehl 'a covering, tent'
;

ident. w.

OHG.
telt

zelt gizclt G. zelt "tent",


,

ghetelt \Qn\!
/elila-

oisi.

tjalil:

odu. Teut.

not
is

titmouse sb. (a bird's name) connected w. mouse; the second element of the compound

ME. mpse oe. nuise ^^r: du. mees., OHG. meisa g. 7neise 'a titmouse' terial for building'; cp. GOTH. (FR. m/sa7ige is of Teut. origin). timrjan 'to build', ohg. zimbar The first element of titmoiise 'material for building, edifice Cas of titlark) is ON. tit 'a. small

base

ga-tdda-.

timber

sb. me. oe. timber 'ma-

zimmer 'room'
gr.

OSAx.

ti7nbar
timb?-.

bird'.

'edifice',

du. ti?nmer, on.


da/iietv 'to

Cognate w.

build'

to prep. ME. OE. =- OSAX. to adv. (


f

to
//

prep. adv.
prep.), OHG.

douo^

edifice',
il(>f/i/i

lat.

domus zuo adv.


toe,

zi

prep.);
tpde

cp.

DU.

'house', OSLOV.
da/(i-.

'house', skr.

zit.

time
fr.

sb. ME.

tif/ie

oe.

t/ma

toad
(see

sb.

ME.

oe.

tdd-iie

ON. timi time': Teut. base ti-niou-

the

\'~

ti

in tide.

on. d.an. tin sb. me. oe. tin DU. tin, OHG. zin G. zinn: common

tadpole^; there are no further connections. toast vb. ME. ipste fr. ofr. toste ^ LAT. tosta (fr. the vb. tor r ere).

today ME.
OSAX.
te

to

Teul. base tina-. tinder sb. me. tinder oe. tvndre:

dage.

tomorrow

For tonight
me.
to tiight

day oe.

to dce^e

to

214
moriue oe. to nwrgne te naht 'tonight'.
(pi.

toe

tower

cp.

osax.
OE. id

probably derived fr. the teut. \/~ tau\o make' (see under tazc).

toe sb. ME. to oldest tail)


zeha
G.

(pi.

tori)

OHG.

form tdhcE zehc: Tent, base


]me.

toom
fr.

adj. me. oe. torn loanword on. tomr 'empty'; cp. osax.

ton/i tbmig,

OHG. zuoniig 'empty'.


a Teut. base tanpohg. zaiid (zan
;

taihon;

cp. DU. teen, ON. td. tggedere oe.

tooth
in
G.

sb. me. toth (pi. teth) oe.


fr.

together adv.
togiedrc;

top (pi. tep)

cogn. w. gather.
sb.

osax. du.

tand,

token

me. token or. tdcen:

zahn), ON. tpnn

ablaut-varia-

Teut. base taikna- in ohg. zeihhan G.zeichen, osax. tckan, du. tecken; cp. GOTH, taikns (base taikni-). Pre -Teut. base do'igno- doignicogn. w. GR. dfrTyua by the side
of
E.

tion GOTH, tunpiis.


dont- d?nt- in skr.

ARYAN base
dat

danta,

GR. odnvr- (nOoi'c,'), 'LkT.deni- {iiens)y LITH. dantis. ARYAN \^ ed 'to eat' see under ^<;/; the form of the

Of/V.i'f/u.
^//^-i? (

ARYAN

\'^ dik (dig) in

LAX.

dlgnus ~ prodigmm).
root.

Aryan word
participle.

(cp.

sooth) is'^resent

teach OE. tdcean belongs to

the
Zol

same
sb.
(II)

topi
toppr
tuft
,

c;b. j^E.

OE. top (pp) ^= ox.

toll

ME. OE.
---

tol (II)

= OHG.
/tf/;

DU.

top
:

G. ZOll,

OSAX. DU.
OE.

cp.

of hair')

(oHG. G. zopf a Teut. base toppa-

OSAX.

tuppa-.
/6'//'/t'

tolna

'toll'.

Source lat. tclonium in a vulgar form toloneujn for teloneum. Cp.


OE. tolnire ohg. zolandri tolonarius (tclonarius)

top'- sb. (a child's toy) ME. OE.


top
fr.

lat.

(pp); phonetically differing the equiv. lg. dop, ohg. topfo


top/.

G.

tomb

sb. ME.

FR. torn be

A.'w/''^

toumbe

fr.

torch
torche,

sb.

JIE.

torche

fr.

fr.

LAT. iumba.

tomorrow

see today.

tongs sb. ME OE. Zf'/z^'-^ (tange) -- OHG. zanga g. zange, DU. A^w^'',
ON. /fi/;^: Teut. base tango-nthe ARYAN \f~ dak in skk. ^/c?^GR.
(Va'xj'ttv

fr.

whence also du. toorts. touch vb. ME. toiiche fr. fr. toucher, whence also DU. toetsen. tough adj. me. tough ge. toh fr. TEUT. '^tanhu-, whence also DU.
taai,

OHG. zdhi

G. zdhe.

'to

bite'.

cogn. w. OE. letpng adj.


tact with'

tongue
,

ME. tongc tunge oe. tnnge

letenge
;

'in

Perhaps conto'.

'close

towel sb. ME. touail fr. OFR. OHG. zunga G. Teut. base toaillc := FR. touaille. Source an DU. /(^w^. zunge tungbn- fr. pre -teut. ddnghd- in old Teut. word cp. ohg. dwahilla OLAT. dingua (= LAT. lingtid). G. zivehle 'towel', teut. \fpuhih in GOTH, pwahan =- 0. p7o(an tonight see today. str. vb. 'to wash'. too ident. \v. /c*.
=z GOTH, tuggo,
tool sb. ME. OE.
/p''/

ON.

/ti/;

tower

sb.

MK.

tour

late

oe.

-;

town
(11"' cent.)
tilr
fr.

truncheon

215
fr.

fr.

tour.

treat vb.
tractarc.

fr. tralter

= lat.

Source lax.

iu/ris.

town
original
OE.
in

sb. ME. totm oe. inn; the

Teut. base trewa-, derived fr. an aryan enclose Cp. on. fi'm, du. tuin, dru doru in skr. di u daru 'wood', OHG. sihi G. zaun 'fence, Viedge'. GR. iigrq 'oak' Soqv spear', Cogn. w. OIR. (hm 'fortress' (in OSLOV. drirva drevo 'wood' CELT, place-names as in Augusto- cogn w. tar and trough. diiiiiini) tripe sb. me. tripe =r du. //// trace sb. me. trd(c fr. fr. trace fr. FR. tripe. (source lat. tractiarc). trouble vb. short for me. trouble: trade sb. original meaning 'path' loanword fr. fr. troubler.
is
//'/?/,

meaning
\vk.

fence'

seen

tree sb. :me. tre oe. treo OSAX. tn'o, on. /;-^:

= goth.

iyiid/i
.

vb. 'to

fence,

fr.

the vb. tread.


vb.
fr.

trough
late

sb.

me. trogh oe. troh

trail
trce-^lian

probably derived fr. ARYAN drutraitor sb. me. traitour fr. ofr. 'wood' under tree. traitor (i-r. traitre) =r lat. tratrout sb. me. troute (for troughief)
trailler,

me. ofr.

traile

oe.

trog

== ON.

OHG.

G.

DU.

trog:

whence Teut. base

tioga- tiuga-,

also uu. LG. treilen.

ditorievi).

oe,
vb. me. iranipe

truht:

early

loanword

fr.

tramp, trample
LG.

LAT. triicta

FR. truite.

trampen
sb.

trampcln;
trappc
late

cp. oe.

truant
triiauud

sb.
fr.

GOTH, trwipan to tread.


trap
trccppe

fr.

me. triiant tiuand a

prop. vaga-

me.

bond'.

truce sb. ME. treii'cs plural form of ME. trewe 'truce' - oe. treojva travel vb. me. travaille fr. fr. 'confidence, faith'. Derivative travaillcr. of the adj. true me. trewc ok. treachery sb. me. tr(c}uric ~^etreoive ^e try we ohg. t,iuwi triccherie fr. fr. tricheric (iR. gitriuwi G. (ge)treu. osax. trimv.\ t richer vb.). cp. GOTH, tri^gws ON. trvggr tread vb. :\ie. tr^de oe. tredan 'true'. Cogn. w. OPRUSS. dru7C'is str. vb. osax. tredan, du. tredcti, 'belief druwit 'to believe. OHG. tr'ctan g. tretcn; cp. goth. ARYAN \f dru. See truth and trudan, on. troda 'to tread'. trust.
fr.
-

loanword fr. source OHG. trappa.

trappe

TKUT.

\~ tr'cd trod. treason sb. me. traisoim


-
fr.
tra/iiso/i:
ii

trump
fr.

sb.

me.

trumpe trompe

ofr.

fr.

FR.

trompe, wlience also ODU.


sb.

traison

source trompe.

LAT.

aditioincfn).

truncheon
fr.

treasure
tresor
:=.-

sb.

me. trespr

fr.

tronchoun
FR.

fr.

me. trounchoi/n ofr. tronchon


---

lat. thesaurus.

iron(otu

2l6

trust

twine

turn vb. short for me. tourne trust sb. ME. h'nst fr. on. trgust 'confidence' (= ohg. trost G. late OE. tilrnian fr. fr. tourner. trost 'consolation'): Teut. base turtle sb. me. oe. turtle (= trausta- fr. an ARYAN base drouz- OHG. turtulatuba G. turteltmcbe)
da;

coj^n.

w.

ir.

druit

(base

fr.

l.at.

turtJir.

druzdi-) 'firm, trustwortli)''.

tusk

sb.

me.

tusk

tuseh

short

truth
'faitli,

ME.

treuthe

fidelity':

treowp for oe. tusc {tusc); probably Teut. abstract forma- base tunska-, derived fr. teut.
OE.

tunp- {tanp-) tooth. ti-jie. twelve num. me. oe. twelf (infl. try vb. ME. trie fr. fr. trier. DU. tobbe, me. twelve oe. twelfe) ^= goth. tub sb. ME. tubbe LG. ttibbe 'a tub' cogn. w. ohg. twalif, ohg. zwelif q. zwblf, OSAX. The word ziibar G. zuber. Source lat. tubus t7velif, DU. twaalf. 'a pipe, tube? rests on the num. two; the 2"*^ OHG. zockbn element (cp. lith. dvylikd WtXve) tuck vb. ME. tukke zuckcn : intensive formation of \/" occurs again in GOTH, ainlif tuh in GOTH, tiuhan ohg. ziohan ohg. einlif (see eleven). (see under tie). twenty me. twenty oe. twenti]^ Tuesday sb. me. Tiwesday oe probably contracted for *tweTiwcsdce-^ -- ON. Tysdagr, G. (Ale- lentil^ ohg. zweinzug (g. zwanzig, mann.j Zistag: translation of lat. DU. twintig). - twice adv. me. Martis dies. The Teut. god Thv tunes prop, twie OE. twiyi {tiimva
tion to

=
.

corresponds to Mars. OE. Tiw ON. Tyr rests on Aryan deiicos


'god'
(in

tu-wd)

twig

sb.

ME.

tti'ig

pi.

twigges;

cogn. w. OE. twi (pi. twiyi), OHG. zwi and also w. ohg. zitng G. cp. ON. tnnrr 'the gods'). tumble vb. ME. tumble tomble zweig, DU. twijg. Probably confr. OE. tu/>ibia/t to dance, tumble'; nected w. the numeral two cp. DU. tninielen fr. ODU. tiimen. (aryan stem dwi-). tun sb. ME. tuime tohiie oe. tunne tw^ins pi. ME. twinnes oe. -^ DU. /i?/?; ident. w. ohg. tunna ytwinnas; ident. v^. on. tvinnr
skr. deva
,

lat.

^^/^//.f;

G.

/<?//^

and FR.

tonne.

and

history
sb.

of the
_ME.

cleared up yet.

turbot
turbot.

Source 'two and two'; cp. OHG. zwinigroup not ling G. zimlling, DU. tweeting 'a twin' and lith. dvynii 'twins'. All tiirbut fr. fr. derived fr. the ARYAN stem c/zw,-

see two.

turf sb. ME. ///// torf ok. ///;/" ON. torf, ohg. zurba, DU. turf 'peat Teut. base turb- torb- fr. an ARYAN base drbh- djrbh-; cp. .SKR. darbha 'bunch of a-rass'.

twine
sb.

vb. me. twine vb.

OE.

thread'
ident.

twin

'linen,
tivijji,

fr. the twisted

DU.

which
,

is

du. w. mho. g. zwirn tweern: Teut. base twizna- fr.

twinckle
\'~t2tns (see

up

217
:

w. the

under ticist), cogn. G. zwicken (cp. OHG. zwecchon) num. i7cio. Teut. ground-form *twikkJon} twinckle vb. me. twincle oe. twitter vb. me. twitere ohg.

twincUan.

twist vb. ME.


twist
sb.
;

twisic vb.

fr.

oe.

'rope' =: odu. twist teut. \^ tivis as in G. zwirn 'thread'; see twine. twit vb. short for me. at-wlte OE. cet-witan str. vb. 'to reproach';

'thread'

cp. OE. ed-wit sb. 'reproach'

and
DU.
OE.

GOTH,
OHG.
wite,

idweitjan vb. 'to reproach',

firwiT^T^an G.
'to

verweisen,

verwijten

reproach'

and

OSAX.

tvlti,

OHG.

wh^T^i 'pu-

nishment', GO'^'A. raweitan str. vb. twitch vb. ME. twicche (without
palatalisation twicke) OE. twiccian

perh. a reduplicated west -teut. ^twittmron? (teut. \'^t7ns?). orig. twain masc. tw^o num. two f. n. ME. twein two OE. iwd (tii n. for ^iwii orig. tweT^en *twp) cp. OHG. zwene zwd zivei, OSAX. twene two (two) twe, GOTH, twai twos t7va. ARYAN Stem duo- divo- in lat. duo, GR. (Jd'o (but Jff/'Jfxa for *J/ojc)fXM), SKR. dua dva. tyrant sb. me. tiraunt (with excrescent / as in pageant) fr.
zwizziron G. ziiitschern
;

OFR. tiran

=--

LAi'.

tyranmis.

u
udder
OE. uder
sb. me.

= ORG.

tidder short for


iitar (g. euter),

late

OE. un-

OE.
G.

<?;/-

goth.
fr.

and-,

OHG.

////-

ent-.

ODU. OFRIES. OSAX. uder ; ARYAN base tidhr- in SKR. udhar, lat.
iiber;

uncle
07icle

sb. -ME. une/e onclc

fr.

(^= LAT. avunculus^.

Cp.

cp. GR. ovihto.


adj. ME. us^ly
;

All equi-

also aunt,

nevew,
,

niece.

valent.

under
fr.

prep. me. oe. under -=

ugly

'dreadful'

cp. ON. ugga 'to fear'.

ON. uggligr GOTH. OSAX. undar on. undir, ohg. untar G. untcr. DU. onder
,

umpire

prop, tiumpire (as

auger Two
fr.

for orig. nauger) ME. nom?ipere

OFR. nonper.
OE.

prepositions are form: lat. inter, SKR. antar and lat. ////)-a skr.
different

blended
ad/ids.

in this

un-^ prefix (of adjectives) me. :^ G. ohg. GOTH. U?l////w.


lat. in-,
:

up
tip;

prep. adv. me. up oe.


aw/",

z^/)/;

ident.

GR. av- a-,

ident. w. ohg. tif G.


iup.

osAX.

SKR.
pn-,

a/!- a-

ARYAN ground-form
,

cogn. w. SKR. na GOTH. OHG. ni, OE. ne

un 2

prefix

goth. Cogn. w. oe. ufan 'from 'not'. above' OHG. ohana osax. otnxna (of verbs) me. un- 'from above'. See above and
cp. the ablaut-relation

lat. ne,

2l8

urchin

very

and over.

2ipon

me. upo?i OE.

use

sb. ME.

/Vi'^

fr.

FR.

?IS

=-

upp-on; cp. ON. upp a. urchin sb. me. irchoun


irt'fOfi

LAT. us us.
fr.

ofr.

usquebaugh

sb.

fr.

ir.

nisge

(fr.

hcrisso/i)

source
^=^

vulgar LAT. ericio{7tcm). crkius 'hedge-hog (the


E.

a beatha 'water lat. zvhisky.

of

life';

ident. w.

word was
G. igr/,

OE. i^el

genume
OHG.

4'^//

cogn, w. or. ^^Tiwc).


ME. us (07(s) OE. lis for in G. OHG. GOTH. UHS,

us pron.
TEUT. OSAX.
U/iSi/s
,

DU.

ous.

Cp.

6'r

short for ME. oiitemeste umlaut) ytemest; ident. w. outmost. utter vb. ME. uttre outre derived fr. ME. outc vb. 'to put out' OE. liiian 'to put out\ Source out.
OE.

utmost
(w.

and

7l'(\

vain

adj. aie.
7'(h!US.

7'ciin.

fr.

LAT.

vale sb. ME. vdl

fr.

OHG. fa?! G. fass, DU. vat: Teut. base fata-. Cogn. w. 'LYIh. pudas FR. va/e 'a pot' and OHG. fa'z^'^on G. fassen
fr. rain
'to

and valley me. valeie Source lat. 7'aUis.


valiant
FR.

fr.

fk. vallce.

contain'.

vaunt
vaUauiit
fr.

adj.

;me.

vb.
:r:=

fr.

vb. short for ME. avaunte OFR. avanter (fr. vanter^

vaillaiit.

late

lat. vanitarc.
sb. ME. vel
fr.

valley see vale.

veal
'a
little

ofr.

v'eel

van ident. w. fan. vane sb. (a wether-cock) me.


(Kent.) vane

(fr. vcait);

source

lat. viiellus

calf.
fr.

(else)

fane

OE.

fdna

rztr

OHG.

fano

{gund-fano)

veil sb. ME. veile lat. velum.

ONFR.
fr.

veile

me. veneisoun fr. lat. venatio{nein). venom sb. me. venbn fr. OFR. evanescere. vcnim -=^ lat. venemmi. vanquish vb. me. venquisshe verse sb. me. vers fr. fr. vers; fr. OFK. I'einquir (vcinquiss-) OE. ME. fers is loanword fr. lat. =r FR. vai/iere; source lat. znn- versus with the medieval proeere. nunciation of LAT. V as /". vat sb. ME. (Kent.) vat (else) very adj. :\ie. verrei verrai fr. source fat OE. feet =^ OSAX. on. fat, OFR. V(rai (fr. vrai)
sb.

G. fahne, DU. vaan., GOTH, fana: Teut. base f'anan-, c<ign. w. LAT. pannus 'cloth'. vanish vb. me. vanisshe fr. OFR. vanir {vaniss-)\ source lat.

vein
-----

sb. jme. veine

fr.

veiiie

LAT. vena.

venison

OFR. veneis07i

vessel

wade

219
adj.
/' is
fr.

LAT.

type
sb.

veracus

for

lat.
j '

vinewed
instead

(the

initial

verac-c7n.

of

due

to Kentish

vessel
veissel
vascclltini

me.

^rsse/

(fr.

vaisseaji)

vintage sb. transformed fr. me. which rests on FR. ver,~ (fr. vesce) lat. vicia, whence daiige LAT. 7'indemja (whence also OHG. wicka G. wicke DU. wik. OHG. wiutitttnta vintage').

(vas cuius

fr.

ofr.

influence)

oe.

lat.

become mouldy'

(y)'/?/';^

fynegian 'to 'mouldy').

7'as).

vetch sb.ME.

vecche

fr.

ofr. vcche vinddge,

vex

vb. ME. vcxe

fr.

fr. vexer

:= LAT. vexarc.
vial {phi a I) sb. me.
yf(7/^
7'iole fr.

viol sb.

fr.

fr.

viole

-- ital.

SPAN. viola\ source a late lat. fr. viiula, whence also fiddle.
rvVt'

(ofr. viole).
sb. me. LAT. vitinm.
e'4"^
fr.

vice

fr.

virgin sb. me. virgine


virgine.

fr.

ofr.

victory
vie tor ic

sb. me. victorie fk. victoire.


sb.
in

fr.

OFR.

virtue

si),

me.

vertil fr. fr. vertu.

visage
fr.

victuals
OFR.
vitaille
iuaille.

(me.

7<i((rinr)

visage.
fr.

vision
vision.

sb.

me.

visage

fr.

fr.

sb. me. visioun

the spelling
FR.

vic-

FR.

Source lat.
sb.
fr.

victualia.

vixen

sb.

(?-

instead

of/due

to

view
= lat. vigor
vigour

vue.
fr.

vigil sb. ME. vigilc


vigilia.

sb.

I\1E.

7'i^onr

(fr.

vigeur^
?//

Kentish influence) oe. */yxen FR. vigile Teut. base fuhsinjo{g. /iielisin)^ derived fr. teut. fnhs- folufr. ofr. under fox {-injo- being fem. lat. sufflx as in G. got/in, grdjin etc.).

vigor-evi.

vile adj. -Me.

fr.

fr, f//

voice

sb. ME. vois

(fr. Voix^

lat. -,'iUs. voutch vb. ME. vouche fr. ofk. villain sb. me. vilciii fr. ofr. voucher (=; lat. vocare). viltin lat. villanus. vine sb. me. vine fr. fr. ev^v/^? vow sb. ME. vou fr. ofr. vou (fr. VOeu') LAT. votutn. LAT. vinea. Cp. wine. vinegar sb. me. vinegre fr. fr. voyage sb. fr. fr. voyage; cp. vinaigrc - LAT. vinutn acre. For ME. vid'ge 7't'dge fr. ofr. veiage. the 2'^^' element cp. eager. Source l.vt. viaticum.

fr.

ofr. vois

LAT.

7>0X.

w
wade
(prt.

vb.

:me.

wade

Wiht) str.

vb.

oe. loddan

uu. waden,
(g.

ON. vada,

ohg. watan str. vb. waten wk. vb.) teut. \~wad^


:

220

wafer

wand

ARYAN V^
'to

7vddh

ill

LAT.

go'.

wafer
waufre
w.
^wd/Icz).

sb.

me. wd/re
fr.
gaiifre;
G. waffel

vddere vb.). Cp. also OE. weccean, OHG. weckan, OSAx. ivekkian, du. wekken, GOTH. wakja?i 'to awake', aryan fr. ofr.
ident.

\^weg
arouse'

in LAT. vegere 'to


(z'igil

excite,

DU. wafel,

(oSAX.

'awake

The group prop, meant e^4''(7j(' 'to incite'. 'honey comb' as in fr. and is (and 7vait). walk vb. ME. 7ualke\ intensive derived fr. a Teut. word (OHG. aiabo G. wabe\ \^web in tveave). formation (cp. lurk, stalk) of ^vag vb. ME. wagge (oe. *wag- OE. 7veallian 'to wander' OHG.
giati)

and skr. See 7vatch


)

derived fr. \fweg (in oe. tvallon G. 7vallen. wall sb. ME. 7(7^'/ (pi. 7cial/es) wag') see wagian 'to move OE. yc'^i?// (pi. 7i>eallas) =- du. way. wage sb. ME. wage fr. ofr. ?(;'<?/, OSAX. 7c/t?/ (pi. zvallos) not source a vul- found in ohg. (but ti. a't?// ^oage (fr. gage gar LAT. tvad'mm for lat. vadium borrowed fr. LG.). Source lat. (influenced by a teut. - goth. vallum 'a rampart'. wall-eyed adj. fr. oe. 7vealde/i"(Oadi pledge' under wed^. 'a waggon ^b. fr. du. ivagen; i'^e ~- ON. vald-eygdr 'wall-eyed'?
,
;

ident. w.

waiu.
fr.

wallow vb.
wisoft
'to 'to

wail
fr.

vb. ME. waile wcile; derived

7vian 'to wallow';

ME.
vci;

wei 'woe' (loanword


see 70 oe). sb. me. wain

ME. wahve OE. 7vealcp. GOTH. 7oalwallow' and zvahvjan


lat. volvere
'to
roll'.

ON.

roll'.

Cogn. w.

wain

Teut. base wagnu- in G. DU. icagefi (on. vagii)


\'~7Lii'g/i

hH^IV) ohg. wagan \fwehv woht),


oe. wceyi:

(gR.

ARYAN

ARYAN

walnut

sb.

me. 7valnote walnute

as

in

lat.

vehiculum,

OE. 7vealh-hnutu

ON.

valhnot,

GR. o/jK,

oiR. fin

'wain'.

See DU.
in

7valnooi G. 7valnuss (not

found

way.

OHG.).

waist sb. AiE. 7vdst\ doubtful (teut. {7valnut prop, meant 'French whether allied to ^oaxl wait vb. ME. waitc fr. ofr. nut'; cp. lat. nux Gallica source a vulgar lat. FR. gauge). waiter walrus sb. ^=^ du. 7valrus 7valvb. wactare, der. fr. OHG. wahta GOTH, wahtito 'a watching'. ros, G. 7valross, dan. hvalros; cp. For the root see wake and ON. hrosshvalr (whence oe. horsSee hwo'l): lit. 'a horse-whale'. waic/i. wake vb. me. wake oe. wdcian whale. -= OSAX. wakojan, du* waken, wan adj. me. 7ciau(/in) oe. 7C'an7i ON. r'a^^rt", OHG. itiahhen G. 7vachen (7Vonn). wand sb. me. zcand fr. on. wk. vb. (only GOTH, waka/i str.

The former element 7valha-) see under Welsh

wander

oe.

was
wckrloga
:

221
'traitor'

vgnd

(gen.

vandar)

goth.

(=
lie

OSAX.
'a

wandus
7va))tal

'a rod'.

Cogn. w. LITH.
oe.

tvdrlogo)
'faith,
liar'

compound

of oe. wckr
-loga
').

or w. tvind vb. ? wander vb. me. wa/uh'e

(OE. leogan

agreement and under

wandrian; cp. MHG. G. wandern 'to wantalori) waHdcln (oHG. Cogn. w. wend vb. wander'. wane vb. me. ^vdne oe. wdnian OHG. wanon, on. ?w 'to wane, diminish' derived fr. teut. wana- 'lacking' in oe. wan, ON. GOTH, wans vanr, oHG. wan 'lacking' (cp. DU. wanJwop 'de-

warm

adj. me. warm oe. wearm OSAX. OHG. G. DU. warvi, ON.

varmr

(cp. GOTh.
:

warmjan

'to

make warm') Teut. base wart?iafor ARYAN base ghw'ernio- in gr.


dnjunc
'warm'.
((feof.icg)

LAT. fornms

warn

vb. me.

warne oh. wear-

nian war{e)nian ^= OHG. warnon spair' and G. walunuitz 'want of G. warnen 'to warn'. wits'). Cogn. w. SKR. ima 'wan- warp sb. me. warp oe. wcarp
ting'.

weorpan me. werpe ^^ GOTH. du. wapan osAX. deficient'. wanton me. wan- tvairpaii toun prop, wantgwcn for '"^wan- werpcn, OHG. werfan G. werfen
w^ant
sb. me. 7vant
fr.

derived
str.

fr.

OE.

ON. vant neutr. of vanr lacking,

vb.

'to

throw'

togen

oe. iogen

is

participle of

str.

vb.

'to

throw'.

ARYAN

teon (see

team)

to educate'.

\/~7i:'<?r^r(."'

in SKR.

vrj\o remove',

me. (since 12'*^ cent.) werrc fr. ofr. werre source ohg. we, ra (fr. guerre) 'vexation' (ohg. osax. werran str. vb. 'to bring into confusion or disorder'). ward sb. iME. ward oe. tveard 'watciiman, guardian' :=^ osax. ward, ORG. G. wart (on. vgrdr ARYAN \j~ war see for *wardus)

war

werre

= du.

sb.

OSLOV. iresti (vrugq) 'to throw'. warrant sb. me. waraunt fr. OFR. war ant (fr. gar ant). wart sb. ME. werte'. umlauted on. byform of OE. wcarte

odu. warte, OHG. zvarza Perhaps cogn. w. OE. G. warze. wearr 'callosity, wart' and l\t.
varta,

verruca 'wart'.

under wary.
me.

w^ary

adj.

extension
'cautious,

w^arden
OFR.
w.

sb.

war

warddn

fr.

wardein

OE. wa'r

of me. aware'

GOTH,

zvars,

OSAX. war 'cau-

(gardein)

ident.

w^ardrobe me. see guard. wardergbe fr. OFR. warderobe (fr.


garderobc)

guardian;

(oHG. giwar G. geiciahr) ARYAN V~ avr also in GR. naar


tious'
'to

observe'.

were (we) me. (I, he) Avare sb. me. 7C'drc oe. 7cidru was-were OE. wces-weron (wceroh): 'merchandise' =^ du. jcaar G. forms of the preterite of oe. wesan du. wezen, ohg. wesan, ware, ON. z^ara. sb. 'a sb. for me. warhnve GOTH, wisafi warlock (g. wesen

was

222
being').

wash

SKR. uks 'grow up, get strong', Cp. ox. GR. ds^fiv 'wax'. wax sb. ME. 7>ax oe. 7c>eax wash vb. ME. wasshe OE. wascan ^= ON. vaska, OHG. 7vascan G. ON. 7'ax, OHG. zf^^c/ij' G. wacks, ARYAN \<'^wask in IR. DU. 7fvm-. Cogn. w. LITH. waszwaschen. kas, OSLOV. RUSS. voskti. faiscim, w. gwasgu 'I press'. me. way wey wei OE. wdps way sb. ^A/'asp sb. me. 7'rt;j;z!'^ oe. OSAX. OHG. l&eg G. DU. 7^^j fr. a Teut. base wafsa- in OHG. weg, ON. 7'^<^T, GOTH. 7vigs 'wav' wafsa; cogn. w. lat. ?^^</<'7, lith. Teut. base wega- (allied to lat. 7Y?/.y 'breeze', OSLOV. ?wc^'^vasp'. via 'way'), derived fr. the teut. ARYAN \r7vebh in weave; ivasp sfw'eg in oe. wegan 'to carry' orig. weaver'. OHG. wegan 'to move', goth. waste adj. ME. rcf/j-/ fr. OFR. gawigan; ident. w. lat. vehere wast (cp. FR. ^c?^v- 'to make 'to carry', GR. hx^n>, sR:r. vah Source lat. vastus, 'to carry': ARYAN sfwegh also waste'). influenced by teut. wosii 'waste' in wai/i. (oE. weste, OHG. wnosti G. wilst pron. ME. OE. 2ve :r= goth.

ARYAN

\~7oes

in

SKR.

vas 'to stay in a place'.

WQ

fr.

an aryan wastu-

in oiR. fas,
7(iU'is,

OHG.

G.

7<y/V-,

OSAX.
:

wi;

LAT. vastus 'waste').


can
vb. ME. zvacche OE. *w(scthe pres. partic. waccende) 7= OE. 7vdcian under tvake.
(in

watch

ident. w. SKR. vay-am 'we' ARYAN ground-form icei fr. a stem 7ae- in

ON. vdiT

'our'.

weak
veikr

adj.

ME.
ident.

-weik

fr.

ON.
7'd'^,

^Arater sb. me. ludter oe. wceter :r=r oSAX. watav DU. watcv, OHG.
,

veykr;

ME. wok

= DU. week,

w.

OE. ladc

OSAX.

wa--iir G. wasser: west-teut. OHG. 7^/^ G. weich. TEUT. \f Wlk =^ base watera-; ident. w. goth. in OE. wican 'to give way Cogn. w. ?i7t7 OSAX. wlkan, ON. vikja , OHG. {-v;///. ON. 7i''a/^, Cogn. w. and outside of teut., w. gr. 7vihhan G. iveichen. OSLOV. RUSS. GR. iX5/' 'to give way', lat. SKR. ?^^/(a;/Z, rjfriO,

vnda 'water'.

ud. 7'/m- 'change', aryan \f7vig 7vik. weal sb. :me. wele oe. ai'tVrt watol wattle sb. me. watel OE. riches' ^^'prosperity (7veoIa) hurdle, tile'. riches' 'happiness 7/Vtf wave sb. derived fr. the wk. OSAX. wola G. 7vohl 'welwave me. lodve oe. ivdfian (oHG. 7vela vb. 'wave, fluctuate'; cp. ox. vdfa fare). Cogn. w. well ^.nd will. w^ealth ME. 7velthe extension 'to vibrate to and fro'.

ARYAN \'~wod:

of

wax

sb.

wahsan wean sb. me. 7vnie oe. 7oeuian str. vb. G.wachsen^ T>\5.wassen\ cp. GOTH. 'to wean a child prop, 'to acARYAN sTweks uks in custom'; ident. w. osAX. wennian. wahsjan.
OHG. OSAX.

me. waxe OE. weaxan

weal

DU. 7veelde.

weapon
(g. geicidhneii) ,

week
in

on. venja
fr.

\o ac- tveevil) also


adj.

w^eb web' vr^aii'fiv 'weave'. waiia- in on. vanr 'accustomed' me. oe. 7iieb (bb) fr. teut. 7oabja(cp. oug. giwon OE. 5<?7iw;; 'usual'). in OHG. 7i>eppi, du. 7t'f/^, on. ?'o^r weapon sb. me. wcpen oe. wxpcn "a web'. ON. viipn, OSAX. wapan, du. wed vb. prop, 'to engage' me. wapcn OHG. waffan o. eco/^i? 7iiedde OE. 7veddiaii goth. gn(goth. wepna plur.). ON. vedja. 7vadjdn 'to pledge' wear vb. me. were oe. iterian Derived fr. the sb. OE. 7i<t:dd wk. vb. 'to clothe' GOTH. goth. 7vadi, OHG. 7vetti 'a pledge' ii.'asjan to clothe', OHG. %vp-ian, and cogn. w. lat. vas vadis 'a on. ewy^r 'to cloth': teut. \~7vaz pledge'. Further relations see was (also in goth. was-ti 'gar- under gage and 7vage. w^edcustom'.

Derived

the

gr. v(fij-vffoc

=
,

ment'),

ARYAN
'I
.

\fw^;s in LAT.
SKR.
Vi7S

f'^J"-

lock ME.
lac
gift,

7uedlflk

OE. 7vedldc (oe.

^V 'garment',
ivvvf.li

G&.erj-d^tjJ^ clothing',
'to

offering).
sb.

clothe',

clothe

me. 7c<(Ty oe. 7veni OSAX. 7vbrig 'tired', OHG. 7vuorag 'intoxicated': TEUT. \'~7fvr? or wozl w^easand sb. me. wcsend oe. 7i.'ci>scnd umlauted byform of OE.
adj.
(7C<(crii)

weary

r=

me. 7vegge oe. ec^^C' (g. 7C'eck), DU. 7^'z]^, ON. veggr : Teut. base 7vagja-; cogn. w. LiTH. 7oagis, LETT. 7C'adsis

wedge

=r OHG. wecki

'a

wedge.
see
7iied.

wedlock

WednesdayME. 7vednes-day um-

lauted byform of OE. PVodttes-dcei LG. 7tiddnesdach, du. 7voensdag\ prop, 'day of Woden': translation 'veins of LAT. Mercurii dies. Tlie Teut. w^easel sb. me. 7Lihci oe. 7vesule god Woden (ohg. PViiota/i, on. OHG. 7ciisula G. 7mesel, du. ivezel Odiiui) is identified w. Mercurius. 'weasel'. Perhaps cogn. w. lat. weed ^ sb. (plantname) me. 7ved 7'isio 'bad smell', whence ofr. oe. 7oeod -T= OSAX. 7(.vV'^/ 'weed'. 7' o is on foumart'.
7vdscnd 'throat, gullet' ofries. waseride 'windpipe', OHG. 7aeisiwt

weather
r^ OSAX.
7v'etar

sb.

:\ie.

7vc'der oe. 7ij'edcr


i

w^eed
oe.
7i.>ed

sb.

'garment me.

7vedar,

du.

7vedei',
:

OSAX. 'c?//, OHG. 7vdt 'clothing, base 7aedra-, aryan base 7aedhro- garment': Teut. base 7vi-di- fr. in OSLOV. 7<edrit clear' (weather) an ARYAN \f 7oe to weave' in - vedro 'clear weather. SKR. 7!d 'to weave'. weave sb. .me. 7c>i;7>e oe. 7v'efan week sb. me. 7veke 7oike oe. 7oicu -= os.\x. 7t<ika, on. vika, OHG. str. vb. -r ON. 7'cfa, DU. we7'en, OHG. 7C''eban g. 7i.iebcii. aryan -y^ 7&ehha 7vohha G. 7voche 'week'; cp. 7vehh uhh (see 70 asp, 7vafer and GOTH. 7viko 'order, succession'.
G. 7vetter,

on. vcdr

OHG. Teut.

7V:ed (infl. -^)

= ON.

7s.iede

7>dd,

'

'

224
Derived
'to
fr.

ween

were

\^ %vtk in OE. wican vlaga 'humidity', lith. vilgyii way' see under iveak. 'to moisten', aryan \fiv3lg. du. ween vb. me. wene oe. wenan well adv. me. oe. wel (prop, wd'iion) 'to hope, expect' zee/, OSAX. we/, ON. z>e/; cp. ohg. == GOTH. wenja7i, on. vcma, ohg. we/a wo/a G. wo/i/ (goth. zoai/a). wdn(n)a/i G. wdhnen: derived fr. Origin doubtful, but connection
give

oe.

wen
G.

(tadti) sb.

hope'
zuin,

wan

wahjty

ON.

wens: Teut. base wan-.

weep
wepe

vb. prop,

str.

vb.

ohg. w. wea/ and wit/ certain. well sb. ME. we//e oe. zve//e goth. zve//ii (zay//e zuy/Za): Teut. base umlaut-relation of oe. zva//Jbnme.
:

wcp) OE. wepan zvivpan OSAX. OHG. zval/an str. vb. 'boil, GOTH, wopjan \vk. (prt. toeop') flow'. ARYAN \fwe/ zva/ in OE. vb., OSAX. wopian, OHG. wuoff'an
(prt.

Zi'ea//an

str.

vb. 'boil,

flow'

MHG.
ivop.

tvilefen

'lament',
'to

on.

dpa

zvy/m 'boiling,
lirini 'flood',

flowing'
wt'//a

skr.
zve//e

(orig. *vdpa)

cry',

teut. \r

'wave'
Z'i/iiis

OHG. OSLOV.

^.

v/ima,

lith.

'wave'.

w^eevil sb. me. ivevel wivel oe. Welsh adj. me. zvels/i oe. osAX. wibil, ohg. e/:'//;//, zvylisc umlauted fr. a teut. ON. yjill: derived fr. the teut. zva/}ns/ia-\ derived fr. OE. Wea/Zi \fweb in weave; cp. lith. wa- 'foreigner', prop, 'a Celt' (cp. From the same balas 'weevil',
7vifel

root also
ON. viptr.

weft me

oe. zveft

=^
on.

wa/nuf).

The corresponding

adj. OHG. zva/liisc

sb.

Wa/a/i

means an inhabitant of a Rosb. ME. wcixjit


*vcehi\
fr.

weight
vcbU
orig.
fr.

mance

cp.

'weight'

OE.

wegan

oe. wiht rests on (see way>). Vo/cue.

country, teut. Wa/hathe Celtic tribe name

weird sb. 'fate' cp. me. zuii-de wen sb. me. zveit oe. zvenn 'tuoe. wyrd 'fate' .=: on. tird, osax. mor' DU. zven, LG. wene: Teut. wurd 'fate'. Derived fr. teut. base wanja- (perhaps cogn. w.
w'erpan
^^-

OE.

weordan,

OSAX.

zv

u n df)
sb.

w'erdan, ohg. w'erdan

G. werden,

wench
lation

me.

zvenc/ie

older

ON. vcrda, goth. wahpan 'to become'. ARYAN \j^wert\\\ lat. fV7-/f / f

wenc/ie/ prop, 'infant'; ablaut-re-

of oe.

zvince/ 'child

to turn',

SKK. rr/

'to

turn'.

wend
fr.

vb. (only in the prt. zvcnt)

me. zaende prt. zvenie oe. zvcndan wcnde\ orig. meaning 'to turn' goth. zoandjan, osAX. wolkan, OSAX. wulka, ohg. wolka wendian, ohg. zven tan g. wenden. G. wolke 'cloud'. Perhaps cogn. Causal of wind. were see zvas. w. OSI.OV. vlfignkii 'humid'
sb. me. welkne welken

welkin

umlauted byform of me. wolkne osax. ohg. OE. woken 'cloud'

prt.

west

whey
h(7v)uosto
G.

225
husten,

west
7'CStr,

Sb. ME. OE.

west
(fR.

=
fllU'St

ON.

DU.
/;7i'r7j,-

//^^nV

DU. G,
adj.

7ai'St

of 'coughing',

teut.
in

\r

=r
IK.

Teut. origin).

ARYAN
7e>ei:

\/~ kds

SKR.

Xvpy,

wet
7t'tV

uuet

short for ME. w^'t OE.


ON. vdir, ofries.
fr.

casad, LITH. Zwt'// 'to

cough".
7ciiolc

whelk
7veolc

sb. cp. ME. 7vitk oe.

Teut. base wetaroot as water.

the

same

(older wiluc) 'whelk'

= DU.
h7i.ielp
,

7vulk 7oelk 7villok.


7{.ielke.

Ident. w. ofr.

wether
z:-

weder GOTH. 7viprus, ON. vcdr, OSAX.


sb. me. to ether oe.
7vcthctr,

whelp
7i<elp,

sb. ME. 7vhelp oe.

7oit/iar

DU. 7vcder
7vidder.

7v:er,

'whelp, cub'

on. hv'elpr
7v'elf.

DU.

OHG. widar
'calf.

G.

Cogn. w.
7}atsa

OHG. h7&clf

LAT. vitulus 'calf and skr.

when
fr.

conj. me. 7iihen o^.hwcenuc


in 7uho.

stem hwaOE.

whale
OHG.

sb. me.

7i.'Iial

hwanone older OHG. hwandn. w^herepron.-adv. me. wMr{e)o^. {7V(;/z ON. hvalfiskr). Cogn. w. GR. 71 'Ar'(^ 'monster'. Cp. 7valriis. hwdr (me. whore late oe. hnuir) OSAX. OHG. h7mr mhg. 7C'dr g. w^hat pron. me. 7vhat OE. h7vcet OHG. /^7<:'a5 G. 7e>dS, DU. 7iV7/, 700, DU. 7vaar: teut. base h7CHr OSAX. hwat; cp. the Teut. stem (cp. GOTH. har)\ derived fr. stem h7va- under ivho. /wv?- under who.
OE. /i7me/{p\. hwdlas)

= on. hvalr,
du.

(pi. 70/idles)

whence
tvhanene

adv. me. 7vkenne-s prop.

7<:'a/

(g.

walfisch,

7Ci^//-

hwanoti

vb. ME. 7vhette oe. h7vettan DU. sharpen' := ON. hvetja ohg. hwezzan G. 7vetzen 7fv/V^, OHG. 7veizzi G. wcizeti. Cogn. 7vetten, teut. h7vita- (in me. 'to shaipen': Teut. ground-form w. 7vhite we find 7i'/'/^ 'wheat' by the side h7vatjan. Cogn. w. on. hi'atr, OSAX. h7vat, OHG. hwa-^ 'sharp' of 7vh(te). w^heel sb. me. 7oh(l oe. hweol TEUT. \fh7vat. whether pron. me. 7vhether oe. (w. tlie byform hive07ool hweogol) GOTH. hzh'I, DU. h7vceder 'which of two' ON. hjdl {{or *h7'Jdl) teut. base hapar ; corresponding by abrwV/ (ofries fiat): (for h7v'cg7vla-) and laut to OHG. hwcdar 'which of h7veiilah7veh7vla-, ARYAN base qeqlo- in two'. GR. Tivre()og (skr. katara)

= GOTH,

wheat

sb. me. 7vh(te

oe. hivcete

whet

hwaiteis,

ON.

hveiti,

DU.

'to

SRK. cakra
'wheel'.

'wheel',

GR.

xt'xAoc

'which of two"
allied to
is

is

more

closely

By the side of the reword qe-ql-o- cp. duplicatetl


w^heeze
vb. me. 7ohcse oe. hivesan

orig.

goth. oe. The word comparative to stem


in 70 ho.

OSLOV. kolo 'wheel'.


(for *h7c<d'saii) 'to

h7va-

(h7C'L-)

w. oe. hivosia ,

wheeze'; cogn. DU. LG. on. //^ijV/, oiKJ. huy hole du.

w^hey

sb. me. 7i>hey


7tiei

oe. /m-r/^

(byform
15

meg.

hid).

English Etymology.

226

vhich

wide

which

pron. me. which oe. hwylc

form ^hwilic) hwilik] hikiks, OSAX. GOTH, cp. OHG. hyelih o. welch: Teut. base hwilika- (hwelika-) and for OHG. hwdih a base hwalikaDerived fr. stem hwa- hw'e- under
(prehistoric

w^ho pron. me. who prop, who


OE.

hwd

GOTH.
G.

ba-s\

cp.

OHG. hw'e-r
hwc-, also in
in

7vcr

stem hwa-

what and hoic and which, whither, whether. AkYAN base qo- in lat. quo-d,

who. while

SKR. ka-s who', Lrrn. ka-s who'. whole adj. me. hpl oe. ha I sb. me. while oe. hwil (hence the abstract formation goth. hails, on. heill goth. h-eila, ohg. health) infl. hwile OSAX. hwila, G. wcile, DU. wijl. (see hail), ohg. g. heil, osax. ON. hvila 'bed (cp. OHG. hwilm hel, DU, heel: Teut. base haila-

'to rest')

points to connection
'quiet'
rest'.

\v.

(whence
holy).
kailo-)

derived
Ident.
cp.
sb.

Jiailaga-

^:^-

LAT.

c/iiietus

and OSLOV.
\'~ qt.

w.

osi.ov.

cclii

pociii 'to

ARYAN

'complete,
;

whole' (ground-form

whine
str.

vb. me. whine oe. hwinati

OPRUSS.

kailustikan

vb. 'to

make
'to

a shrill sound'

health'.

ON

hvina

whiz\

whore
stitute'

whisky ident. w, usque Imugh. whisper vb. me. whispere oe.


hwispriau
'to

ON. hora, OHG. huora 'adulteress'; cp. goth. hirs


'adulterer'.

me. oe. hore

'pro-

murmur'

cp.

OHG.

Aryan

-yT

kdr

'to

hwispalon G. wispeln. tation ? or cogn. w. wYdsXXe. vb. me. Jnc'istUati; perh. akin

Sou.nd-imi- love' in oir. cara 'friend' caraim I love (Gallo-LAT. carisa whistle?
whistle

oe.

'prostitute')

to icihisper.

whit
w^hite

ident. w. wight.
adj.
lit.

and lat. t^f^/v/jr 'dear. pron. me. whi oe. hwi on. /??'/: instrum. of the stem hwa-

why

(short
'white

in

Whith'eits,
7C'eiss:

in

what.
sb.

snuday

whit OE. hivit ON. hvitr, OHG.


(veta 'white'

Sunday') ME.

wick
DU.

GOTH,
g.

oe. weoce

= ohg. wiohha.
=

short

for

me. 7vek(
'LG.weke,

hzoiT,

Teut. base hwita-, cogn. w. skr.

\'~ (7>it 'to

shine'.

ARYAN s/^ k7C'i(i kwit. See also wheat and whittle. whither pron. IVIE. whider OE.
;

Teut. base weukon, perhaps reduplicated for ?i't'zvkon, as made probable by the G. (tlial.) equiv. oe. wecca 7C'icke cogn. w. mhg. G. wickel? w^icked adj. extended for me.
wiek:
;

wicke. hwider; cp. GOTH, hadre whither wicket sb. MK. wikiH fr. ONER. derived fr. the stem Imva- hw'ewiket (fr. guichet), whence also in who. whittle sb. short for me. whitel ODU. wiket (du. winket). on. w^ide adj. me. oe. wid OE. hwitel 'blanket derived fr. Vidr, OSAX. Wld, DU. wijd, OHG. IV hit c.
;

widow
icU G.7i>dt: TEUT.
?t'/(/(?-,

2.27

lat. sik'aticiis fr. lat. w^ilderness (cp. siha 'wood'. v^ widow sb. i\iR. 7vi(he.ie oe. widewe DU. G. 7vilde7-uis) extension of goth. widnwo, ohg. :me. 7C'ilda'ne 'a desert. (wiuimce) -wile sb. ME. (fr. 12'^ cent.) 7c>llc witawa G. witwc, OSAX. widozva, ident. w. DU. wcdiiwe. Ident. w. the equiv. fr. OFR. 7Ciile (glide) SKR. 7'idh(17'a, LAT. Vidua, OSLOV. guile. will vb. ME. 7tnlle (prt. 7volde) vidova, OIR. fedh: ARYAN base

perhaps sau7>a^e
un.

participle of a lost verbal

7C'idha7va.

OE. 7villan (prt. 7vo/de)


:\IE.

goth.
7villian,

wield

vb.

ycvA/c oe. ~^e7veldan

7viljan,

on.

7'ilja,

{y7vyldan)
'^gaivaldjan.

wk.

vb.

fr. fr.

Derived
OHG.

teut. the str.


(g.

vb. OE. 7(.idldan 7i.<caldan

^= GOTH.

OSAX.
7i.<altcn)

7C'ald(1/!,

7i.Hiltan

'to

govern".

ARYAN \f

7oilJan DU. Tinllen: ident. w. osAX. (prop. Tveljaii) 7vcllian, OHG. 7vellan (g. 7Vollen) ARYAN \f teut. 7valjari. fr. a 7vel u id in lat. vcl-le, osLOV. voliti,
;

oSAX. Teut. base

7tv// in
ij).

Perhaps cogn. w. rtv/Zand 7vcal\ also goth. 7tialjan 'to choose' valdyti 'to govern'. ON. OHG. 7vellan G. 7C'ahle>i, ohg. wife sb. ME. OE. 7vif skr. OS.\X. tmf, DU. 7C'2j/, OHG. 7t''/<? G. tvahl 'choosing', 7'if, 71-7/^ vr 'choose'. Cp. the G. 7(iieil>: Teut. base 7viba-. \^7!ar No equiv. connections outside following word.
also

LAT. 7'alere\o be strong'; OSLOV. 7'IcJSt/, LITH.

LITH.

velyti.

All

equivalent.

of TEUT. (ati older word for 'wife' will sb. ME. 7ville oe. 7villa sec under quccii). woman OSAX. OHG. 7Vlllio, DU. 7vil G. ME. 7uuvimixn prop. 7i.i'ntnnan (pi. 7ville, GOTH, vilja, ON. vili: Teut. 7C'it/imcn) ok. 7inf~mann (pi. 7vif- base 7mljan- for 7V'cljan-, derived cp. osLOV. vtcnn) lit. a wife-man'. fr, \f7vcl in 7vill vb. wight sb. ME. 7viyit OE. 7viht volja sb. 'will'. willow sb. ME. 7C'i/7c>e oe. 7C'yIig 'thing, creature, being' =r oHG. OSAX. 7viht thing, being' (g. du. (infi. '^7vils^'e?); ident. w. i)U. tvi/g

7cicht)\

cp.

GOTH.

7vaihts thing'.
-

'tiling'

and ON, vdttr being,

ODU. Teut. MHG.


7vi7ipel

LG.
7(.'/4'^<'.

7vilge

osAX.

ivilgia,

base 7Vihti- for ivchti ident. w. OSLOV. vesti 'thing': aryan base
7vekti-.

wimple
7C'h/ipel

sb. me. oe. 7C'it/>el oe. 'neck covering' rT= du. g.

OHG. 7vimpal. Source and unknown (OFR. guimple TKur. 7L'ii/>ja- (plop. 7C'clpja-) FR. giiimpe are of TEUT. origin ; GOrH. 7C'///(/S, ON. ?'////', OSAX. see gimp). OHG. 7C'/7d/ G. DU. 7cu7d. Probably win vb. me. 7vinnc oe. 7viniian GOTH. Jvi/imm 'to vb. connected w. 7vold oe. 7vcold str. OHG. G. 7i'ald 'wood', as FK. suffer', OHG. OSAX. 7C'in>iivi 'to

wild

adj. ME. OE.

7iiilde

fr.

=
=

history

15'

221

wind
str.

struggle' (g. gewinnen, ViXS.itnnneti), ON. vinna: Teut. verbal \f wenn, cogn. w. SKR. van 'obtain, acquire'.

vb.

(g.

win ken)

'to

give a

sign'

ME. winke str. vb. 'wink'. winnow vb. me. windive oe.

wind

sb. ME. OE.

wind ^^ OSAX.
o.

zmndivian; ident. w. OHG. ivintbn (for *7vini7von) 'to winnow'; cp.

DU. wind, OHG. wint vindr, goth. winds:

wind, on. GOTH, winpi-skaiirb 'a winnowing Teut. base fan', LAT. vetitilare 'to winnow'. Aryan All cogn. w. wind sb. winda- prop, zviindow^insome adj. me. win-som oe. lat. vcntus, skr. base wentoohg. wun7ii-sam (o. Derived fr. the wynn-su?n vata 'wind'. wonnc-sarn) derived fr. oe. 7C'ynn ARYAN V" zve in oe. tvdwan OSAX. OHG. 7C'//nnia (cp. G. GOTH, waian, du. waaicn, ohg. WiUTi G. wehen 'to blow'; cp. lith. 7vonne) 'joy'. w^inter sb. me. oe. 7vinter OSLOV. vctru 'wind' vi'Jds 'wind', vejati 'to blow', skr. sj'^va 'to GOTH. 7mntriis, OSAX. OHG. 7vintar Cp. DU. G. 7ainter, ON. veitr: Teut. blow', GR. arirrjc 'wind'. base winir-. Perhaps cogn. w. wi n doiv.

=
:

windan GOTH. OSAX. windan, ON. vinda, ohg. win tan G. du. TEUT. \fwend wand. 7vinden windlass sb. (machine forraising iieavy weights) transformed fr. loanword fr. ON. ME. windas vind-ass prop, 'a winding pole'. window sb. me. windgwe bor-

wind

vb. ME. windc oe.

CELT, vindo- 'white' in oiR. find


'white'
?

str.

vb.

wipe
and

vb.

]ME.

zvipc

OE. 7vipian\

cp. LGo 7vip

sb. 'wisp vipja

of straw'

GOTH,
sb.

'garland'

7tnp.

7veipan 'wreathe',

teut. \^
oe. 7vir

wire
virr,

me.

LG.

FRIES.

7mr;

rowed
Ht.

fr.

ON. vind-auga 'window',

'armlets

'wind-eye'.

See wind

sb.

and

eye (on.

aiiga).

goth. wine sb. me. oe. icin wein, ON. vin, osAX. ohg. unn g. wein DU. wijn : Teut. base wina-, early loanword fr. lat. Teut. base wha- (for 7vit-to-), znnuni (cp. vine and vintage), derived fr. the ARYAN \f 7vld in GOTH. 7Vait, fr. GR. okV, skr vcda whence also ital. vino
,

OHG. 7viara 'wire of metal', which according to Plinius' Hist. Nat. 1 is a Celtic word. on. wise adj. me. oe. 7vis ViSS, GOTH, weis, OSAX. OHG. 7VIS DU. 7vijs. (oHG. 7visi G. 7vcise)

on. cogn. w. and lat. viriae

OSLOV. vino. OE. 7i.uit, OHG. 7vci-^ G. 7veiss. See wing sb. ME. winge short for 7f'/A wise sb. ME. OE. 7inse =^ osAX. older wenge: loanword fr. ON. OHGt wha G. 7veise, du. ec^'i': vdngr. wink vb. me. winke OE. wincian Teut. base 7cnsd-n- (fr. ^//w^' ital. wk. vb. 'blink, wink' OHG. winkan ^^wa of Teut. origin). Probably
vin

and

OIR.

////,

,'ish

wolf
7vidcrfliia 'adversary')
7'idr,

229

'to

connected w. the ARYAN \'~wid know' under 7(i'ise 7C'it.

on. vid

wish
OE.

vb. ME.

7cuss/ie

loysccan

WHiiskjan
'to wish';

fr.

short for Teut. base


G.

OHG. wimsc{i)an

wUnschcii, DU. wcnschen, on.

mkja

cp. SKR. ranch 'to wish':

OSAX. 7vith 7vidcr, ohg. 7mdar G. 7s.'idcr, GOTH. 7vi/ra. wither vb. me. 7vidre vb. fr. 7V eat her (me. 7s.i(der). withy sb. me. 7vitfn oe. 7i.'idi~^ cogn. w. OHG. 7i''ida G. 'willow
;

ARYAN \fw3nsk'^ wisp sb. ME. wisp


;

7ocide,

on.

vidja

and gr.

'txsu,

(not found in OE.) perh. ident. w. ON. Tisk, OHG. wise G. wisch 'wisp of straw'?

LITH.

zil-vitis,

POL. wit7va, pruss.

7vit7ao 'a willow',

aryan
and

\/~7v'i

in

LAT.
viti

wit
know'

vb. ]ME.

GOTH. OSAX. witan, on. vita, DU. weten, ohg. wi7^z,an G. wissen. The l^' and 3^ p. sing, were ME. W;?? OE. 7'c7/ =r GOTH. Wait, ON. m/, OSAX. ?CV/, OHG. weiT, G. wciss, corresponding to skr. veda 'I know, he knows', gr. o?Ja Oft)f. See also witticss.

ivite

OE. witan 'to

LITH.
("infl.

vi-tis

vimen
7'yti 'to

OSLOV.
plait'.

twine,

witness
7mtness

sb.

me.

7vitnessc

oe. as

-e)

'testimony';

GOTH.
ness',
'to

7veit7vdds

and on.

7'itni 'wit-

derived fr. the teut. know'; see wit vb.


sb. me.

\,^

7C'//

wizard
ME. w/s

zcisard

trans-

formed (under the influence of

=
,

7c>ise)

fr.

'^7vischard:

ofr. 7i.'ischard (guis'intellect, understanding' =r oSAX. chard) 'prudent, cunning". giwit, OHG. 7i72s/ (g. 7c>itz) 'underwoad sb. ME. 7i<gd oe. 7i<ad Standing', ON. znt 'intellect': de- DU. 7veede ohg. 7veit g. 7vaid: rived fr. 7vit vb. Teut. base 7vaida-, pre -Teut. witch sb. ME. icicc/w OE. iviccea 7vaita-; cp. lat. vitnun 'woad'. 'wizard' 7C'iccc witch' ident. AATOe inter] ME. 7(.h} oe. 70d inw. FRIES. LG. wicke 'witch' GOTH. 7Vai, on. 7V7, OHG. LG. ter]. zvickcr 'wizard' (lg. 7vicken vb. 'to OSAX. 7ve G. 7veh du. 7e.iee. Idcnt. predict' OE. 7viccian 'use witch- w. LAT. 7me interj. woe': grountlcraft) and probably cogn. w. oe. form AkViVN ivai. wij^iian 'practise divination wold sb. .ME. 7Vgld OE. 7C'dld 7viiUre 'diviner' ODU. wijche- {7v(ald in 'Weald of Kent") fr. lare, DU. mlg. 7vichelcn 'practise a Teut. base 7valpu- ; cj). o.sax.
sb.
JME.

wit

Wit

(tt)

OE.

(lC}7Ciitt

loanword

fr.

divination',

teut. \P ^vikk
'elm'
fr.

7vig.

witch-elm
for
oi';.

sb. me. 7vicchc short

7iiucc

a Teut.
oe.
7c>iti

base

icikjo//.-.
]Mi-:.

wood', I3U. 7Ciond ON. 7ud/r plain, field pre-TEUT. 7Cia/tH-s, c;()gn. w. .'^kk. 7'dta (for *7'dita?) 'garden'? See

OHG.

G. 7aa/d

'wood',

with prep.
prep, 'against'
(in

7C'it/i

wild.
w^olf sb. ME.
OE. 7iimlf fpl.
7C'ol/ (pi.

short

for

ividcr

compounds

like oe. 7vidersaca

7i'ulfaS)

7volves)

GOTH.

230
osax. word, DU. woord, ohg. g. wort: Teut. Teut. base worda-, pre-Teut. base 7vidfa- wolfa-, aryan base base wardho- in lax. verbufn, uolqo- in SKR. vrka, OR. Ai'xoc, OPRUSS. wirds\yox:d\ lith. vardas ary.an \^ wer {wre) in LAX. lupus, LITH. vilkas OSLOV. 'name',
ivjilfs,

ON.

tllfr (for *vu!fi-)

7Cin//;

cp. OHG. G.

rc'fl//:

vltiku.

All equivalent.

GR. sigsir

'to say'

Qtjua 'word'?

work sb. i\iE. 7i:ier/i oe. we ore see wife. OSAX. OHG. tverk'G. DU. zverk, sb. ME. Wimihe oE. ivdmb GOTH. ohg. on. 7ierk ; Teut. base werku-, {UHmth) 'stomach' waniba, on. tuunb, DU. iva/u 'belly, ARYAN base w'ergo- in GR. soyov. ARYAN \f 7eierg in GR. j'i&C'f//' 'to stomach' Teut. base ^vaDibo-. ooyavov 'instrument', skk. wonder sb. me. wonder oe. do' ivnndor osAX. wniidar^ OHG. vrjana 'labor cp. Q,oiYL.7vailrkjan, oe. 7vyr^eafi vb. ON. undf. OHG. 7vurkan lonntar G. wundcr See 7vright. 'to work". Teut. base wundia-.

woman

womb

adj. for :\IE. ivoncd p. parworld sb. me. 7vorld 7vcrld oe. osax. 7v'ero!d, of ME. wonc OE. wunian 7vorold 7veorold 'to be used to'; cp. OE. r^ewuna DU. 7i>ereld, ohg. 7v'eralt (nvorolt) 'custom, use' and ON. vanr, ohg. G. 7oelt, on. v'ergld. First element giwoii G. gc7C'idi/it 'accustomed. of tVie compound {7ver-ald-) is
ticiple

wont

.See

wean.
vb.
j\iE.

woo
'to

Wijwc OE. 7vogian

TEUT. oSAX.

woo'; no further relations known. 'I'EUT. \^7coi^\ SKR.

man' in GOTH. 7i'air, OHG. oe. 7iier, ON. ZUTr (aryan base 7C'Iro- in L.A.T. 7'ir,
7C'era-

7ura,

LITH.

f'/vv/jT

'man).
is

wood

sb.

ME.

7Ciode

OE.

Wudu

2'"^

part

of

the

compound

wood', TEUT. aid/" in (JOTH. aids world', OHG. wiiu 'wood' (also in ohg. OE. i'ld (eld) 'period, age'. Teut. witu-Iiopfd G. wide-hopf): worm sb. ME. 7iwrm for 7iiurfn base widu-, pre-Teut. base widlm- prop. 7virm OE. 7oyrm fr. a Teut. in CELT, vidii- (gall. Vidu-CassesY, base 7vur7ni- in oSAX. OHG. G. 7VU 711, GOTH. 7vaurms\ ident. w. cp. OIR. fid 'tree'. wool sb. JNIE. wollv OE. wull intl. LAT. vermis 'worm'; cp. ON. ormr 7vulle GOTH, wulla, on. uU (for *7(.'orf>h!z) and GR. (lonng
ox'vjc^.widu

=^ON.

"oidr 'tree,

(for
icudle:

''tHiIl')

cp.

OHG

wolla

G.

(for

/(;o'.Oj,').

ARYAN

Teut. base liuillo base wj'/td in SKR.


7'ilnii

loollo,
liriia,

wormwood
OE. 7ver7n(id

sb.

{7Von/i()d)

transformed fr. OHG.

osLOV. 7'lu/ia, LiTH. cogn. w. LAT. z'iilus

'wool';

7V'er77iuota (7c>or77!Uofa).

Formation

velius 'fleece'

and

origin

unknown.

and SKR.

\'~

7'/'

(var)

to cover'.

word

sb. ME. OE. 7VOI-d

waurd, ON.

c;/7/(for '^vord),

w^orse compar. adj. me. 7C'orse GOTH. 7vurse older 7i<irse OE. 7vyrsa osax. OSAX. 7cirso fr. a Teut. base

worship

wrinkle

231

whsizatt-

goth. wairstza

str.

vb.

OHG.
ME.

7(iirsiro.
7c>(>rs/i

7ciorst
orig.

superl.
-icirstc

persecute'),
7crrken,

GOTH. 7vrikan osAX. 7tireka>i,

('to

du.

ivurstifr.

OE. -ivyrsta
7oirsist(JJ!-

in

ohg. rehhati (for *7C'r'c/irevenge. 'to riichen G. a TEur. superl. ha/i) goth. 7oairsis(d, ARYAN \f7vreg urg in lat. urgcre
'to

OSAX. OHG.

jmrsisfo.

urge',

SICK,

f'/y

'to

remcn'c'.

w^reath sb. me. 7vr{the oe. cogn. w. 7vrithe. 7onypschipc OE. nieordscipc: derived 7i.'rdp wren sb. me. 7vrenne oe. 7vrenna\ fr. 7vorth. wort' si), (a ])lant) me. 7vort ident. w. oSAX. wrendio and prowiiri older 7i'v>7 OE. 7vyrt fr. a bably w. OHG. OSAX. {7v)ren!W a Teut. base wiirti- in GOTH, ivailits, stallion' (medieval lat. 7varannio^. wrench sb. me. 7(.<rench 'deceit' ON. urt, OSAX. 7i.nirt, ohg. g. 7vurz 'plant, herb': ARYAN \"7V3rd in OE. 7cnnc 'deceit, trick' fr. a LAT. radix (for *2Taciii'-) see Teut. base 7vranki- (also in MHG. rank 'trick' G. rdnke plur.). under roof. wort- sb. (a kind of drink) The modern E. meaning 'twist, ME. ic'ort 7C'uri for 7C'irt OE. 7C>yri sprain' seems to be older than ON. rvV//-, mhg. 7i'/rs the metaphorical sense in me. for *7i'iri See also 7vrong. wort': TEUT. ground-form 7inrtiz OK. and g. \A/retch sb. me. zvn'cche oe. (pre-TEUT. base zverdcs- 7ii'erdo<;'). worth adj. me. 7vorih 7vurth 7vreccca 'outlaw, exile' ;=: OHG. OK. 7vyrde\ umlauted byform of osxTi.7vrekkio (g. recke 'warrior'); GOTH. 7vairps, derived fr. \'~7vrek in goth. 7i.<rikan OE. 7i.<eorp OSAX. 7v'erth, on. 7''erdr, ohg. "persecute' (see 7vrealz).
^A/orship sb. me. 7vorschip older
;

7C'cri/

(g.

7f'<;7):

ident.
7oerts

w. lith.
'worthy'.

wright
7vyrhta

7'crl(7s,

OPRUSS.
sb.

\vound
7i'v/7/^/infl.

ME.

7vundc

= oSAX. 7vunda,

7vounde

oe.

ON. iind Teut. base 7vundd-. Cogn. w. the adj. goth. 7vunds root see 7vork. =r OE. IC'lilld, OSAX. 7VUnd, OHG. wring vb. ME. 7vri/ige. oe. 7vrinteut. \'~zvun, gan str. vb. 'to press out' 7(.<nni g. 7<:'W. ARYAN \f7v3n in GOTH. 7mnnan DU. LG. 7t>ritigen, OHG. ringan, (for to suffer, feel pain' (see 70 in)} *7i'ri/igan) 'to press out' (g. ringai). wrath sb. me. 7vrathtlic sliort wrinkle sb. me. 7vrinkcl oe. ODU. 7vrinckcl\ cogn. (Teut. base tvrinkle for OK. zarcpppu w. MHG. riiuke and ohg. riinza 7C'i (lipipp ,: umlaut-abstract ofOE.

OHG.

7VHiita

g. 7vunde,

(for *7uind)

osAX. 70urhtio, ohg. 7Vurhto (mhg. -Tviirhte) 'worker'; derived fr. teut. 7vurht-ivjan-\ cp. goth. 7vaurst7vja 'worker' by the side oi 7vaurst7(.' 'work'. For the

sb.

aiE.

ivrighte

oe.

7crd/>

adj.

7i.<roth.

(for *7tirunka

'^7vrunkza).
7:<rist

wreak

vb. :me. 7vri'k( oe. 7Circcan

wrist

sb. ME.

oe. 7oyrst

232

ye
G. rist [ior *7vrisi), on. rist

me. wrong (wrang) cent.) wrang borcogn. w. G. reihenMRG. rlhe 'wrist ? rowed fr. ON. rafigr (older write vb. me. write oe. writan *z'ra7igr) 'wrong, unjust' prop, str. vb, OSAX. wntan, on. 'awry, perverse'. Probably fr. rita 'to write'. Orig. sense 'to the same root as ivrench (teut. engrave, scratch, tear, split' in \f~wrank ivrangY OSAX. 7vritan ohg. riT^'z.an w^roth adj. short for me. wroth (for '"^wriyi^aii) G. reissen. Cp. OE. wrap (see also wrath^ GOTH. 7&ri/s a stroke of a pen'. O.SAX. wrethy on. vrddr reidr, TEUT. \^'~writ. ODU. wrced 'wroth'; orig. sense writhe vb. me. writhe oe. wi idan in OHG. reid (for ^tvreid) 'curled'.
I

= MHG.
SWED.

wrong

adj.

Z'r/jiV

'instep, wrist';

perhaps late OE. (ii

''

str.

vb.

'to

twist'

OHG. ridan,
twist'.

\Pwrip
writhe.

'to

twist' in -aireath
^

and

ON. rida str. vb. 'to wind, Cogn. w. wroth.

wry

fr.

me. wrie vb.

'to

twist'.

jachtschip; du. jacht

prop. OHG. garwa G. gar he, du. corresponds ge?-w 'millefolium'. to G. jagd 'hunting (ohg. jagon yawl vb. me. iconic by the side of goulc vb. (change of j G. jagen 'to chase). unexplained) source ON. yard' sb. me. ^erd prop. i(rd oe. and on. gaula (gpiila) 'to bellow'. leard 'fence, enclosure' gardr Teut. base gar da ar Y an yawn vb. me. gdne gone OE. hdi?,(ighorto- in lat. hortus [GK.;(6p- gdnian (the phonology of the TO^) 'garden'. Allied to garden. ME. word is dark) ohg. geiiion (a measure) me. (g. gdhncn) derived fr. oe. toyard'' sb. ycrde oe. yrd {jjrd) 'rod, rood' ytian str. vb. 'to yawn' ON. OHG. gcrta G. gertc 'a rod, gina; cogn. w. ohg. gicn giwcn switch'; cp. GOTH, ^azds 'a stick, 'to yawn': akyan \f~ght in lat. goad' -= ON. gaddr 'goad' and hiarc, OSLOV. zijati, lith. zioti

yacht

sb.

fr.

t>u. jaclit

= =

.i,"-

LAT.

hasta

'a

sj^ear'

(common

'to

yawn'.

base ghazdha-).

ye pron.

me.

j^e

yarn

sb. me. icrn prop. i(rn oe.

prehistoric jiz

OE. le

fr.

DU.

gij,

osax.

^earn ;= on. ohg. g. garii (du. gi, ohg. /; (for *Jir) G. ////; garen^ perhaps cogn. w. O'i^.gp, n oldest TEUT. form jdz in goth.
;

'guts'

and lith.

sa;vA/ 'entrail'

jiis

'ye

Ident.

w.

.skr. yiiy-ani

yarrow

sb. me. i^arwe oe. -^ear^ve

'ye':

auyan stem iw -yu.

year

yolk

233

yea
*^e)

= osAX. OHG. Jd G.ja


goth. ja

adv.

me.

,5/

OE. ^ed

(for
'yes';

rests

on the

equiv. oe. atnore


G.

=.

oldest form

'yes'.

OHG. amero
(ylpa/i)
str.

ammer.
jflpe
'to

yelp vb. ME.


vb.

OE.

yilpan

yes ME. yes oe. j^ese for *y:<iswd prop, 'yea so' fcp. me. nese
fiir

boast'

= ON.

gjalpa, OHG. gclpfan.

fie-swa).

yes see yea.


ean vb. me.
'to

yean
oe.

older

aic

yesterday

adv.

me.

-yesterday

ea/iian

(j^e-eania/i)

yean':

OE. leostrandcei (lystrandcsi) prop,

derived fr. a TEUT. aima- (for only geostra{n) ohg. gestarim lat. agniis, agwna-) 'lamb' G. gestern, du. gisteren (gisterOIR. lian: ARYAN base aghno-. avond)\ cp. goth. gistra-dagis year vb. me. yr oe. ler dear with the sense of 'tomorrow'. for *lcBr) ^= OHG. y^-'' G. yV?/', Teut. base g'estra-, cogn. w. on. DU. ja(ir,OK. (fr, Gom.jer: Teut. /-^<ri/- and lat. heri\ gr. /."^tg hase jera-; cogn. w. the ablauted and SKR. //iv/j- yesterday' point

GK. (bong 'year' wga 'season' and w. AVEST. ydre 'year

an ARYAN base ghyes day


to

'yester-

yearn
ME.

vb. 'desire' me. yerut

fr.

yet adv. me.


"^it

jft

yc'rn

oe.

j,eorn

'desirous'

(lyt,

pi);

ident.

short for oe. w. ofries.

(whence also the umlauted oe. ieia eia 'yet'. GOTH, gairns, yew vb. me. ew oe. eoio in< oSAX. OHG. gan 'desirous': teut. n= OHG. iwa g. eibe, ON. yr: Teut. \r g'er in OHG. g'crbn G. begehrcn iwa-, ident. w.
li'rnan 'desire'}

OHG.
yell

g'er 'desirous'

girl

(g.

gier) sb. 'desire',


in

aryan \fgher borrowed DU.


origin.
ylllan
y:llc

OHG. iha
{pldan)
vb.
str.

base

oe. eoh 'yew'

yew', fr. //"(whence


ijf)
is

of

SKR. hary vb. 'desire'.


vb.

Teuf
'yew'.

Cp. also cymr.


vb. 'to pay*
,

yw

ij^illan)

ME.

oe.

yield vb. me. ^elde oe. leldan

OHG. gcllan
'to

G. gellen,

DU. gillen, ON. gjalla Cp. si any ell.

resound'. gildan, ON. gjalda


str.

'to

pay':

goth. OHG. g'eltan teut. \^ gild.

yellow
(infl.

adj. me. lelwe oe. \eolo


fr.

yoke

sb. me. 10k (pi. ipkes) oe.

g'elwa- in osAX.

a Teut. base 5^^V (pi. leo'cu) GOTH. y/^, oho. ^f/c g. ^^'/<^, ON. ok (for */'<?>^), DU. Juk, OHG. DU. geel: aryan base ghelwo- in /(?/! G. yi^^r^: Teut. base joka-, LAT. hclvus 'light yellow', aryan ARYAN base jicgo- in lat. jiiguin \~ghcl also in ON. ^'///r 'yellow', GR. Lvyov, SKK.yugd'yoke. aryan GR. ;ifXf{;o'c 'green', OSLOV. zelenu yfjug in GR. Cfvyi'vui, lat. 'yellow'; from the same root jungere, skr. jv^/ 'to yoke'. also gold (and glow}). yolk sb. me. iplke (iclke) oe. yellow-hammer la bird's name) ^eoleca for teut. g'el{%v)ukaiileolw-)

234

yon

yule

derived fr. teut. gelwa- r= yellow. yon pron. me. ion ion OE. lepn (see beyond); cogn. w. goth. jains, OHG. jener G. jener. yore adv. me. ig7'e oe, ^edra {\>Tow. jara) prop, 'of years' gen. plur. of OE. ^edr := year. yow pron. me. ^ow ace. dat. of '^e (= ]'('), OE. cow ace. dat. of ^c ( j('); ident. \^. oho. OSAX. <7/; OHG. iir. ARY.'^N base /w under ye. young adj. me. y)ng V"ig oe. yong (prop, jung) ^= GOTH, juggs, OSAX. OHG. G.Jling, T)\i.JOng, ON. (for *jungr): TEUT. Junga-, ////i,'/' contracted fr. juwungolat. JHvenciis SKR. yiwafa 'young ARYAN base Jiiwynko- (ablauted byform in CYMk. ieuanc 'young'). Cogn. w. 'Lk.'X. jtivcnis, SK.K. yiwan, osi.ov.jnn/}, wrn. Jdunas young'.

youth sb. ME. y)uthe older piwede for yigede oe. jugod (^eogod) OSAX. jiigud fr. a base jugunf- in oUG. jugtmd G. Jugend: teut. jiigunp- probably for jiiwunp- cp. LAT. jiivcn-t-a (and GOTH, junda contracted for *;wundd) derived fr. AKYA.'^juwenin LAT. juvenis, skr. ynvan etc. yule sb. me. ipl fr. on. jdl\ ident. \v. oe. j^dol (contracted

fr.

leoliol)

"Christmas'.

Cogn.

\v.

'november' on. ylir (oe. Giiili in Beda). Teut. base jenla- (in on. jot) diwd jiulja- (in GOTH, j'nikis) oe. leohhol 'Christmas' points to teut. j'ehwla- (by the side of jeula- for jegwla-); probably related to ON. // 'snow-storm' (teut. base jehwld). Hence Yule 'the time of snow-storms' and goth. jiuleis 'the month of snow-storms'.
Jiuleis
:

GOTH.

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Der Verfasser des vorlieg'endeii Werkes hat es unternomraen, auf Qrund der zerstreuteii EinzelforschuM^'ea und seiner eigenen niehijahrigen
Studien
eiii etymologisches Worterbuch des deutschen Sprachschatzes auszuarbeiten, dag dem g-esreiiwiirtigeii Staiide der

Wissenschaft entspricht. Er hat es sich zur Aufgabe g-eniacht. Form und Bedeutuiig jedes Wortes bis zu seiner Quelle zu verfolgeu, die Beziehungen zu den klassischeu Sprachen in gieichem Masse betonend, wic das Verwandtschaftsverlialtnis zu deu iibrigen germanischen und den romanischen SeJbst die Vergleichung niit den entferntoren oricntalischen Spraclie (Sanskrit und Zend), den keitisphen und slavischen Sprachen ist in alien Kiillen h.jrangezogen, wo die Korsfhung eiue Verwandischaft fe^tzustellen verniag und wo diese Verv/andtschaft zugleich Licbt auf die CJrzeit des
.

Verwcrtung der neuesten Forschungsergebnisse auf Oebiete der germanischen Etymologie; die VeriuderAufuahme einer grossen Anzahl solcher Fremdworter, welche geit demlG. Jahrh. aufgekomraen slnd.und seitdeni eineu unzweif-ilhaften Bcstandtcil der deu'^^schen Sprache ausntaclken. In den meisten K alien ist es dera Verfasser gelungen, genau festzustellen, wana und auf welchem Wege das einzelne Fremdwort in unsere Sprache eingedrungen und damit Machweisungen zu bieten, welche ausserdemsprachliclien, ein hohes culturgeschichtliohes Interessu beanspruchen. (Ankiindigung des Verlegers.)
dera
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Das

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Eigenschaften anerkanntermassen den ersten Platz umer alien ahnlicheu Werken ein. Eine ncue Auflage bediirfte keiuer besonderen Empfehlung, wenn nicht das bewahrte Hilfsmittel seit seinera ersten Erscheinen und
Tor allem seit der vierten Auflage in mebrfacher Beziehung ein verandertes Aussehen erhalten hiitte. Dass die Forschungen der letzten zehn Jahre, an denen Kiuge sc'ber einen bedeutenden Anteil gehabt hat, gewissenhaft verwertet, dass zahllose Verbesserungen und Erganzungen im einzclnen vorgenommen sind, braucht nicht besonders versiehert zu werden jede Seice zeugt von dem unermiidlirhen Streben, zu bessern. Unsicheres zu stiitzen oder durch Neucs zu ersetzen. ^moglichst viele Ginzelheiten in den Zusiimmeiihaug der grossen Sprachbewegungeu ein;

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Beini Lesen dieses Buches fiihlt man sich oft von einein Hauche frischen, friihlichen Studentenlebens beriihrt, und selbst das anscheinend so trockene Wijrterbuch reizt durch seinen manchmal recht huraoristischeu Eg war in der That eine daiikbare, Inhalt zu einem herzlichen I,achen. fieilich audi recht schwierig-e Aufg'abe, das fUr die altere Zeit so sparliche

und vielfach sehr versteckte Material zu sammelu und daraus

in

grossen

Ziigen eine Geschichte der deulschen Studentensprache zu entwerfen, die uni so grosseren Dank verdient, als sie nicht nur der erste umfassende und auf wirklichem Quellenstudium beriihende Versuch der Art ist, sondern auch mit grossem Geschick sich auf jeneni Grenzgebiet zwischen popularer und streng wissenschaftlicher Darstellung bewegt, das einzuGerade auf diesem Gebiet hat haiten nicht jedem Gelehrten gegeben ist. sich Kluge durch sein musterhaftes etymologisches Worterbuch grosse denselben Weg betritt er jetzt init gleichem Erfolg Verdienste erworben auch in der vorliegenden Schrift, die ihre Entstehung zumeist den Ar." beiten zu jenem anderen Werke verdankt. Li'ti'r. L'entralhlatt iSgj. Nr. 2S.
; . .

Prof. Kluge hat mit vielem Fleisse, wis die zahlreich eingestreuten Belegstellen beweisen, sowie gestiitzt auf eine ausgedehnte Lektiiro und auf eigene Beobachtung die Sprache der Studenten in alter und neuer Zeit nach ihreni Ursprung und ihrer Verbreitung dargestellt und seiner Abhandlung ein reichhaltiges Worterbuch der Studentensprache beigegeben.

das Buch als Beitrag zur deutschen Spiachgeschichte und Lexikographie von grossem Werte, so ist es auch fur den Akademiker, der die eigenartige Sprache seines Standes nach ihrer Entstehung und Geschichte kennen und verstehen lernen will, ein iuteressantes Bucli und besonders zu Dedikationszwecken geeignet, wofiir wir es bestens empfohlen haben Akad. Alonatshefte JSps -^- i^^ni. wollen."
Ist
"''

In Kurze erscheint:

Kluge, Friedr., und Friedr. Lutz, English Etymology. A select Glossary serving as an Introduction
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the

history
S.

of the
4.

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234

M.

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gjiajrimilian unb jeiste S^ird)eniprarf)C uitb i^o(^?^)3rall)e. i.'uK)er unb bie beutjdie Spvad)e. - Sc^riftftefler unb uc^= Cberbeutjcl)er 93tunbnrt in ber rf)lm'i,s. (Scl)rift)pvnci)e unb Satein 9ciebcrbcutid) unb .'podibcutidi. mittclbeutici)cv aVort?d)ati.

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bic bcutfcfje S^nirfie ""& itjre @f)d)irf)te ift, n)ic mnu mit P5cnufltl)uunci Uia()vnet)nieu fdnn, auncn= blirtltd) lebbaftcr benn jc. 2'ie Sdivift .Stluiics, in Uicldier bie Uiid)tiflften, fiir bie iJAilbnng unjevcv neul)od)bentirt)en Sd)riitiprcid)c maBfiebenben aiiomentc ciemcinbcrftilnbiid) fae)pn)d)eu luevbeu, bnvf bat)ev nuf einen

Sn

tcbenbigc ^ntcveJie ber Oicliilbeteu

fitv

au?acbel)nteu baufbaren Seferfrei ved)nen." (@d)tuab. JJJcvfuv ll. 9(bt.

i.

5?(.

b. 9. S)e3. 1887.)

Sd)iin ber eaenftnub nn Jid), ben l)ier cin nnd) Uieitercn Streiicn bereitS' bnrd) jcin 'trefftidie-:- tfti)nu>Uuii)d)ee' 'ilHivtevlindi ber beutjd)en ebrnd}e" befanuter (elel)rter uiriU lilof, mit ber .S'lberlnifinfeit be ^adjmanues, ionbevn and.) mit bent (ik'jri)id unb Weidjuinrt einev neUmnbten Sd)riftfteUers bel)nnbelt hnt, jollte nml)! biunnd) (uuu'tlian jein, bem 3^iid)lein nnter ben nid)t iH'lthvten Arcunben bev bentidien 5|)rni^e iiiebbaber unb - Miinfer An erloerben. Tenn bcifi bie >yrnrtcn, beren it^cnntnuntunii ben onbiUt biijer 5dirijt au-jnind)t, in ben 'i^ereid) be ^utevefjeC' bev biiber diebitbeten jiUlen, bvnudit beni nid)t erft bemiejen Sn irerben, ber tucir,, mie treu lU'vabe bie Weidjidite niiierer 2prnd)e, me)r U'ol)! ali, irc(enb etU'as nnbere^s, ben Manipf unb ben 3ieii uujere-> '-iHilt;*= turn's Uiieberibieflclt. Tieje ^Innnfiuui^, bun ber be*? iu'rfafjerv ^^ebaublung unb S)nvftellunq bielfad) erft rcd)teS i.'id)t unb bode ill^arme empiangt, ift eg, lourin biejeniqen yefer einen befonberen ;)iei,5 unb iADV.'jUiT be Cudjeg crbliden luer'ben, meldje iieluoljnt jinb, bie ucrtdiiebenartiiicn
in nnjerm .suilturteben, tuic fie fid) in i.'itteratnr unb SVunft, nub SKeliaiun tunbfieben, uidjt flefLinbert fiir fid), fonbern in il)rer jfecc^felmivfunq ',u betrad)ten, bie ein,^iiic 9lrt, luie fid) nn* bod) erft bn iBerftciubnisi fiir Slk'rt nub irncinieite eincc> jeben ein,ielnen berjelbeii
a.*orfli1nfle

'^Solitif

erfdjliefit i\u liK-ld)em ciftc ber i^evfaffev feine ''Jlufciabe erfnfU i)nt, bejcidinet er feiber, Inenn cr im i^inliuute fiiiit, bnj? nnd) fein 4<iid)[eiu 3cuflni-5 bnbini nbleflen fDltc, lt)a'5 ben (Sntluidluun^flnnfl unfrer 9Jatiun fleljemmt, Wa^ ibn bcfdileuniflt unb flefijrbevt" bnbe; ce Iniil 5eiflen, lunrum ;^arob (iSrimm unfrc Sd)riftiprnd)e einen broteftnntifd)en 3)inleft flcnannt l)nt, hinrum erft fcit 1580 i.'utl)cre Sbrari)e eine autovitatibe

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ift."

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..Jiidit mit bent 'Jlniprnd)e, cine bollftcinbinc (cfd)id)te ber beutid)cn Sprad)e sn bieten, tritt .U Uuu' nuf, cr tnill in einer ;Kcibe unbcrbunbencr 9Uirfntu'" nnr viinninieniaffen, lim-J ,'>iid)leute bor nub fcit ^nfob ftrimm fiber ciii bmiv ibrtid)Hii)ienjd)attlid)e 'l>riib(enie ermiltelt baben." Tiefe 9Iuffiitie aber fiiiien jid) bon felbev ;,u eiiieni innerliib .'lUfammenbaniienbcn @nn,U'"iii fi'bnf! mir bier in bev Jbnt, eine bi'dift an-,iel)enbe Xari'tellung

feiueu 'Jlutnniicn nm bie ber ycben'CnU')dlid)te unferc? ''Ja'ubLH'bbenttd) *Wcnbe be* fiinf.H'bnten unb fed),^ebnten ^'^nbrbunbevtC' bi'c ,^nr ^i^einiinbunii fcincr ?(lleinbevrfd)nft um bie 93iitte bev iid)t',ebnten ^'^abvbunbevU- buv

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Das grosste Interesse der Faohmanner
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denen Aufsaizen dieser iieuen Lieferung- [des Gruudrisses] wohl Klu^es Vorgeschichte der aUgermauischPn Dialekte erwecken, da es der erste in Deutschland gemachte Versuch ist, niit Bpnutzuiig der in den letztea Jahrzehnten g-elung-eneu Entdeckung-en und ang-estellten Einzeluntersuehungen ein Bild von der urgermanisohen Sprache und ihreu grossen Gruppeii zu zeichnen Sehr dankenswert ist die Einleitung, in welcher die Beziehungen der germanischen zu den Sprachen der benachbarten Volker dargelegt werden, vor alleni die Liste der Entlehnungen aus dem Lateinischen, ebenso die Verwertung der germanischen Wijrter riimischer luschriften, der malbergischen Glosse, denen man sonst nur selten in !^rammatischen Darstellungen begegnet. Hehizel, Zeitschr. f. d. osterreicJi. Gymnasisn iSgo S. 440.
. .

Mit Meisterschaft hat Kluge die noch schwerere Aufgabe gelost, die Vorgeschichte der altgermanisehen Dialekte", d. h. die aus der Sprachvergleiehung erschlos.fene alte.'.te (vorhistorische) Gestalt der germanischen Sprache auf 100 Seiten so darzustellen, dass neben den als slcher zu betrachtendea Ergebnissen der bisherigen F<.rschung auch noch schwebende

Fragen und kiinftige Aufgaben beruhrt werd^. L. Tobler, Litterahirhlatt f. germ. u. ro7n. Philologie iSgo S. ijj.

Kluge liefert eine Vorgeschichte der altgermanisehen Dialekte dieser Abschnitt durfte fiir den Benutzer des Buches mit zu den vollkommensten gehiJren. Der Verfasser stellt hier zusamraen, was sich aus
der neuesten idg. Sprachforsehung nn einigermassen gesioherten Resulfiir die alteste Geschichte des Germanischen ergeben hat. Dabei geht er auch solchen Fragen, welche bisher noch kaum angefasst worden sind, niclit aus dem Wege und vermag uns hier recht schalzbari' Ergebnisse seiner eigenen Forschung vorzulegen. Ref. erwahnt. ohne auf Einzelheiten einzugehen, die Ausfiihrungen viber den Einfluss fremder Sprachen auf das Germanische, iiber den Accent, die Chronologic der Lautentwiektaten

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Es ist sehr erfreulich, dass wir nun ein Buch haben werden, welches wir niit gutem Gewissen demjenigen enipfehlen konnen, der sich in das Studium der deutschen Sprachgeschichte einarbeiten will, ohne die Moglichkeit zu haben, eine gute Vorlesung i'lber deutsche Grammatik zu horen; in Wilmanns wird er hierzu einen zuverlassigen. auf der Hohe der jetzigen Forschung stehenden Fiihrer finden. Aber auch deni Studierenden, der schon deutsche Grammatik gehort hat, wird das Buch gute Dienste leisten zur Wiederholung und zur Erganzung der etwa in der Voilesung zu kurz gekommenen Partien. Jedoch auch
. . .

der

Fachmann

darf die

Grammatik von W. nicht unberiick-

Betracht kommenden Fragen sind und unter voller Beherrschung der Literatur erortert. Und nicht selten werden Schliisse gezogen, (lie von der gewohnlichen Auffassung abweichen und zum Mindesten zur eingehenden Erwiigung auflfordern, so dass niemand ohne vielfache Anregung diese Lautlehre aus der Hand legen wird. Besonders reich an neuen Auffassungen ist uns die Lehie von den Konsonanten eischienen. Aber auch die i'lbrigen Teile untei denen die bisher weriiger oft in Grammatiken dargestellt, Lehre vom Wortaccent hervorzuheben ware verdienen Beachtung ..." PF, B., Literarisches Centralblatt i8^j Nr. ^o.
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Bis zur Mitte des elften Jahrhunderts. Erster Band Erster Teil: Die stabreimende Dichtung und die gotische M 10 1894. Prosa. 8". XXIll u. 34:-! S. Ergiinzinigslieft zu Band I: Die altsachsische Genesis. Ein
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Beitrag zur Geschiclite 8. X, 71 Verskunst.

der
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l895-

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S.

Z we iter Teil: Die endreimende Dichtung und die Prosa


der althochdeutschen Zeit,
Der
II.

8^,

XX, 652

1897.

M. 16.
(Schluss-) Band
1st

in

Vorbereitung.

Koegel hat eine Arbeit unternommen. die schon wegen ihres dankbar begriisst werden muss. Denn es kanii die Forschuug auf demGebiete der altdeutschen Litteraturgeschichte nur wirksamst unterstiitzen, weun jemand den ganzen vorhandenen Bestand von Thatsachen and Ansichten genau durchpriift und verzeichnet, dann aber auch Beides an alien schwierigen Punkten niit eigeiier Untersuchung einsetzt. hat K. in dem vorliegenden ersteu Bandf fiir die alteste Zeit deutschen Er heherrscht das bekannte Material vollstandig, Geisteslebens gethan. er hat nichts aufgenommen oder fortgclassen. ohne sieh dariiber sorgfaltig Kein Stein auf dfem Wege ist von ihm unumgeRechen.schaft zu geben. wendet verblieben. K. hat aber auch den Stoff vermehrt, einnial iudem er
r, .
.

grosseii

Zieles

selbstandig alle Hilfsquellen (z. B. die Sammluugen der Capitularien, Coneilbeschliisse u. s, w.) durchgearbeitet, neue Zeugnisse den alten beigefugt, die alteu berichtigt h;,t, ferner daduroh, dass er aus dem Bereiche der iibrigen germanischen Litferaturen herangezogen hat, was irgend Ausbeute fiir die Aiifhellung der altesten deutschen Poesie versprach. In alien diesen Dingen schreitet er auf den Pfaden Karl Miillenhotfs, dessen ." Grosse kein anderes Buch als eben das seine besser wurdigen lehrt Ar/ioH E. Schcnluiih ii Qfsterreich I.iteraturblatt Ii,g4 N>: /d.
. . .

Koegel bietet Meistern wie Jiingeru der Gcrraanistik eine reiche, vor allem aber sei es der Aufwillkomniene Gabe mit seinem Werke merksamkeit der Lehrer des Deutschen an hoheren Schulen empfohlen, fur die es ein unentbehrlichcs llilfsmittel werden wird durch seinen eigenen Jnhalt, durch die wohlausgewahlten bibliographischen Fingerzeige und nicht zum weiiigsten durch die Art und Weise, wie es den kleinsten Fragmenten ein vielseitiges Interesse abzugewinnen uiid sic in grossen geschichtWie es mit warmer Teilnahme Ifchen Zusammenhang zu stellen versteht fiir den Gogonstand gearbeitet ist, wird es gcwiss auch, wie der Verfasser wiinscht, Freudo an der nationalon Wissenschaft weckcn und mittelbar auch zur Belebung des deutschen Liieraturunterrichts in wissenschaftlichoationalem Sinne beitragen." Beila^e zJ4r Allgem. Zeitung iSg4 Nr. zSl,
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Prothese und Aphaerese deg H im Althochdeutschen von M. 3 H. Garke. 8. X, 126 S. 1891. LXX. Studien z. Gesch. d. italien. Novelle in der engl. Literatur 1. 8. 100 S. 1892. M. 2 50 des XVI. Jahrh. von E. K o e p p e LXXI. Judith. Studies in metre, language and style with a view to determining- the date of this old-english fragment and the home of its author. By T. Greg. Foster. 8. X, 103 S. 1892. M. B LXXII. Der althochdeutsche Isidor. Facsimileausgabe des Pariser Codex nebst kritischera Text der Pariser und Monseer Bruchstiicke. Mit Einleitung, grammatischer Darstellung und einem ausfiihrlichen Glossar herausgegeben von Georg A. Hench M. 20. 8. XIX, 195 S. mit 22 Tafeln 1893. LXXIII. Zur Entwickelung der historischen Dichtung bei den Angelsachsen von Daniel Abe gg. 8. XII, 126 S. 1894. M. 3 LXXIV. Studien iiber das deutsche Volksbuch Lucidarius und seine Von Karl SchorBearbeitungen in fremden Sprachen. M. 6 50 bach. 8. XII, 277 S. 1894. LXXV. Die Spraehe der Langobarden. Von Wilh. Bruckner. M. 8 XVI, 338 S. 1895. 8. LXXVI. Huchown's Pistel of swete Susan. Kritische Ausgabe von M. 3 HansKoster. 8. 98 S. 1895. Von LXXVII. Studien iiber die altesten deutschen Pastnachtsspiele. M. 6 50 Victor Michel s. 8. XII, 248 S. 1896. and the Localisation of the LXXVIII. Place Names in the English Bede M. 2 Mss. By Thomas Miller. 8. 80S. 1896. LXXIX. Die Fruhzeit des deutschen Minnesangs von Eugeu Joseph. M. 2. 50 8. Vlll, 88 S. 1896. I. Die Lieder des Kurenbergers. LXXX. Quellen zur Geschichte des vorshakespeareschen Dramas Von Alois B r a n d I ca. 40 Bogen (unter der Presse). LXXXI. William Browne. His Britannias Pastoral's and the Pastoral Poetry of the Elizabethan age. Von Frederic W. MoorM. 4 50 man. X, 159 S. 1897 JLXXXII. Quellenstudien zu den Dramen George Chapman's, Philip IX, Massinger's U)d John Ford's. Von E mil Koeppel.

LXXXIII

Mk. 6 229 S. 1897. Lydgate's Fabula duorum mercatorum aus dem Xachlasse des samtlichen Ilerrn Professor Dr. J. Zupitza, Litt. D. nach Handschriften herausgegeben von Dr. Gustav Schleich. M 6. 50 1897. VIII, XCI, 154 S.

Becker, Ph. Aug., Jean L


Dichter Frankreichs.

em a ire,

der erste humanistische

l89,3- M. 12. XII, 390 S. Fischer, Rudolph, Professor der engl. Philologie an der ick u n g der Universitat Innsbruck, Zur K unst en t

Kl. 8.

von ihren ersten Anfangen bis zu M. 5l893. 8. XIII, 192 S. Shakespeare. Kahle, Bernh., Die Spraehe derSkai;den, auf Grund der Binnen- und Endreime, verbunden mit einem Rimarium. M. 7. 1892. 8. VIII. 308 S.

englischen TragSdie

Solmsen, Dr. Felix, Studien zur lateinischen LautM. 5.50 geschichte. 8. VIII. 200 S. l894Tappolet, Ernst, Ober die rom anise hen Verwandts cli

Mit besonderer BerUcksichtigung der frana f t s n a m e n. Ein Beitrag zur verzosischen und italienischen Mundarten. 8. VII, 178 S. mit 2 Karten. gleichenden Lexikologie.
1895.
^^-

^--

24

Verlag von

KARL

J.

TRUBNER

in

Strassburg.

5I?affpere>
giinf 3[^oiiefungen au bent ^^adjfafe
Don

^crn^arb
gjJit

reii

J>rinF.

bem

23tlbni6 be 93erfafferg, rabiert boii 2B. trau^fopf

rflc

unb
1893.

jhjeite ^luflagc,

tleiu 8.

166 @.

2R.

2.-, gebuuben

3??.

3.

3n{)oIt:

rfte SBorlefiing; S)er icf)ter unb ber aJJenfd). 3roeite SBorlefung: S)ie 3itfol9e fon {)af)pere SBerfeii. SSierte2)ritte i^orlefunij: ^affpere al ramotifer. j^itnfte 23odefung: @f)affpere al tomifdier jDtdjter. 58orIciung: {)affpere oI Svagiter.

Es ist ein hoher und herrlicher Geist, der aus dieseii philosophische Flaminende Begeisterung Vortragen spricht. Bildung uiid strenge Wissenschaftlichkeit, feinstes Verstandniss die sicli das sind die Vorziige und Naclifijhlen des Dichters
,

hier miteinander vereinen."

Seemanns Litterar. Jahresbericht 1893.


die Art von Wissenschaft, nur im Augenblick auf das kostliche Buch i'lber Shakspere" verwiesen, das aus deni Nachlasse von ten Brink, eines der hervorragendsten Gelehrten unserer Zeit, durch die Sorgfalt Edward Schroders zuganglicli geworden ist. Was psychologische Synthese und nachfi'ihlende Aestlietik zu leisten vermag, dari'iber helehrt dieses kleine Werk besser, als es der weitlaufigsten Theorie gelange."

wie

Bedarf es eines Beispiels wir sie uns denken so


,

fijr

sei

Anton E. Schonhach
Dieses Buch

in

Vom

Fels

zum Meer 1893/94 Heft 1.

und BiLdung,
genannt.

4.

ten Brinks ist bei Schonhach (Uber Lcaen Aufl.) unter den besfen deutschen Prosawerken


KARL J. TRUBNER

Verlag von

in Strassburg.

25

Geschichte der Musik


in

England.
Von Dr. ^A^ilibald Nagel.
Erster Teil. Zweiter Teil.
8".
80.

VII, 154 S. VII, 304 S.

1894. 1897.

M. M.

4.
8.

Das Ergebnis der Untersuchungen N.'s lasst "sich in den Satz zusammenfassen: die Entwickeiung der englischen Musik zeigt viel starker als in anderen Landern volkstiimliche Einflilsse. Sie aussern sich gleich stark in den Theorien der englischen Tractatisten, wie in den Conipositionen, soweit sie erhalten oder heschriebfen sind. Sie aussern sich, mochten wir hinzufiigen, auch in der neuesten Zeit und das ist der Standpunkt, von dem aus
.
. .

die englische

Musik auch nach dem Tode Handel's Bedeutung


Literarisches Centralhlatt i8g4.

gewinnt.

..."

Nr. 32.

Anfangs 1893 begab sich Dr. Wilibald Nagel, der geistvolle und scharfsinnige Musikgelehrte, der bekanntiich vor einigen Jahren sein Domizil in Zurich genommen hat, nach England, um fi'ir seine damals schon begonnene Musikgeschichte dieses Landes an Ort und Stelle weitere Studien zu machen und das Werk zum Abschluss zu bringen. Von dieser hochverdienstlichen, wissenschaftlich l)edeutsanaen Arbeit, welche mit H. Purcells^Leben, d. h. mit dem Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts und dem epochemachenden, aber bereits durch Chrysander ausfuhriich dargestellten Auftreten Hiindels in England ihren Abschluss finden soil, liegt nun der erste ohne die Anmerkungen 128 Seiten umfassende Teil vor. Derselbe behandelt ini Wesentlichen die Musikgeschichte des Mittelalters d. h. die Zeit von den ersten Anfangen musikalischer Kunstpflege in deivi Inselreich bis inigefiihr

Ende des

15. Jahrhunderts

wie griindlich der Autor die Quellen beherrscht, sondern auch wie erfolgreich er heniiiht gewesen ist,
und beweist nicht
nur.

wissenschaftliche Genauigkeit]undScharfe mit moglichst anziehender und gemeinverstandlicher Darstellung zu verbinden Doch man lese das Buch sell)st, das eine bis dahin ziemlich dunkel

gebliebene Fartie der Musikgeschichte in das ihr gebuhrende Licht setzt uiul wesentlich dazu beitragen wird, das lang verbreitete Vorurteil zu zerstreuen, als wiire den Engliindern von jeher der Sinn fiir holiere Musik abgi'gangen und batten sie keinen wesentlichen Teil an deren kiinstlerischer Entwicklung genommen". A. A^. Schweizcrische 3/usikzeitwig 1894. Nr. ij.

26 Verlag von

KARL

J.

TRUBNER
QaUt
a,

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Strassburg.

itl^e,

%ar\

($rof. a. b. Unttj.
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.).

^ovb
1886.
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VI, 516 .

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I.

f^amitie imb ^iiibbeih

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eniia.
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VIII. StaDeittia, $ifa, unb SScitebig. IX. riedienfanb. X. Qnx (ii)axaU

XL

93l)roii'

teCuitfl iu ber yUteratur.

XII.

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^rojefe

"lib 3lbfcblii'ffe.

2lnbangc:
Si)roii.

I.</