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Operating Instructions

TOPAS 1000
Version 3.12

Faster completion of measuring tasks in power networks with a single tool.

Copyright 2001 by LEM Norma GmbH, all rights reserved / alle Rechte vorbehalten / tous droits rservs Printed in Austria / Gedruckt in sterreich / Imprime en Autriche Published by/ Herausgegeben von / Publi par LEM Norma GmbH. Liebermannstrae F01 CAMPUS 21 A-2345 Brunn am Gebirge Austria / sterreich / Autriche Dissemination or reproduction of any kind, or exploitation and notifcation of the contents of this publication without prior written approval, is prohibited. The right is reserved to arrange delivery dispositions and effect alterations without prior notification. LEM Norma GmbH accepts no liability for damage or loss of any kind resulting from printing errors or alterations in this publication. Neither LEM Norma GmbH accepts any liability exceeding warranty for damage or loss of any nature resulting from defective devices or devices of which the design states have been altered. Weitergabe oder Vervielfltigung jeder Art, sowie Verwertung und Mitteilung des Inhalts dieser Druckschrift ohne vorherige schriftliche Genehmigung untersagt. Liefermglichkeiten und nderungen ohne vorherige Mitteilung vorbehalten. LEM Norma GmbH bernimmt keine Haftung fr Schden oder Verluste jeglicher Art, die aus Druckfehlern oder nderungen in dieser Druckschrift resultieren. Ebenso wird von LEM Norma GmbH auerhalb der Garantiebestimmungen keine Haftung fr Schden und Verluste jeglicher Art bernommen, die aus fehlerhaften oder im Bauzustand genderten Gerten resultieren. Toute transmission ou reproduction, exploitation ou communication du contenu de la prsente brochure interdites sauf autorisation crite pralable. Sous rserve des disponibilits de livraison et de modifications sans avis pralable. LEM Norma GmbH n'est pas responsable des dommages ou pertes de quelque ordre que ce soit, dus des erreurs d'impression ou des modifications de cette brochure. En dehors des dispositions de garantie, LEM Norma GmbH n'est pas davantage responsable des dommages ou pertes de quelque ordre que ce soit, dus des appareils dfectueux ou modifis.

Packing
For a possible later transport keep the packing material. Use for shipping the original packing only. If the original packing is no longer available, our service centre will advise you with pleasure. The manufacturer doesn't accept any granting security for damage that might have been formed by an inappropriate packing.

Verpackung
Heben Sie das Verpackungsmaterial fr einen mglichen spteren Transport des Gertes auf. Verwenden Sie bei Versand nur die Originalverpackung. Sollte die Originalverpackung nicht mehr zur Verfgung stehen, bert Sie unsere Servicestelle gerne. Fr Schden die durch eine unsachgeme Verpackung entstanden sind, bernimmt der Gertehersteller keine Gewhrleistung.

Emballage
Conservez l'emballage pour un envoi ultrieur. N'utilisez que l'emballage d'origine. Si l'emballage d'origine a t perdu, adressez vous votre point de service aprs - vente. Le fabricant n'est pas responsable des dommages survenus lors d'un transport dans un emballage qui n'est pas d'origine.

Safety Tips and Cautions ..................................................................................................................................7 Decommissioning and disposal .......................................................................................................................8 Scope of Delivery ...............................................................................................................................................8 Operating Instructions - In Brief .......................................................................................................................9 Connecting the TOPAS 1000...........................................................................................................................9 Wiring Diagrams ............................................................................................................................................10 Software Installation.......................................................................................................................................11 Selection of Measuring Device.......................................................................................................................11 Ethernet .........................................................................................................................................................12 Serial Direct Connection ................................................................................................................................13 Modem ...........................................................................................................................................................13 On-line Mode..................................................................................................................................................13 Programming .................................................................................................................................................18 Templates for Standard Measurements.........................................................................................................20 Hardware Settings..........................................................................................................................................25 Manual Setting of Trigger Thresholds ............................................................................................................26 Close Settings ................................................................................................................................................26 Change Settings ............................................................................................................................................27 Retrieve Measuring Data ...............................................................................................................................28 Analysis..........................................................................................................................................................30 Measurement Examples ................................................................................................................................31 Harmon ..........................................................................................................................................................43 Ripple.............................................................................................................................................................47 Trans ..............................................................................................................................................................48 CBEMA ..........................................................................................................................................................49 Software Installation ........................................................................................................................................52 System Requirements....................................................................................................................................52 Installation under Windows ............................................................................................................................52 Network Settings ............................................................................................................................................57

Reference Manual ................................................................................................... 63


Program Functions ..........................................................................................................................................63 File.....................................................................................................................................................................63 New ................................................................................................................................................................63 Open ..............................................................................................................................................................64 Save As..........................................................................................................................................................65 Delete.............................................................................................................................................................65 Print................................................................................................................................................................66 Exit .................................................................................................................................................................67 Settings .............................................................................................................................................................68 General Information .......................................................................................................................................68 Nominal and Limit Values ..............................................................................................................................69 Measuring Times............................................................................................................................................70 Hardware Settings..........................................................................................................................................70 Memory Management ....................................................................................................................................71 Recording Modes ...........................................................................................................................................72 Trigger Settings..............................................................................................................................................73 Automatic Selection of Trigger Thresholds ....................................................................................................74 Manual Setting of Trigger Thresholds ............................................................................................................75 Harmonic Trigger ...........................................................................................................................................81 RMS and Mean Value Trigger........................................................................................................................82 Instantaneous Value Trigger ..........................................................................................................................83 Ripple Control Trigger ....................................................................................................................................85 Transient Trigger............................................................................................................................................86 OK ..................................................................................................................................................................86 Close Settings ................................................................................................................................................86 Close..............................................................................................................................................................87 Return ............................................................................................................................................................87 Analysis.............................................................................................................................................................88 General Information .......................................................................................................................................88 The Analysis Dialog Box ................................................................................................................................89 Measuring Data..............................................................................................................................................90 EN50160 Data................................................................................................................................................91 Day Data ........................................................................................................................................................91 Free interval Data...........................................................................................................................................91 10-min Data ...................................................................................................................................................92 3-sec Data......................................................................................................................................................92 RMS and Mean Value Data............................................................................................................................92 Instantaneous Value Files..............................................................................................................................92 Event Data .....................................................................................................................................................92 Ripple Control Data........................................................................................................................................92 Transient Data................................................................................................................................................93

Analysis Functions ................................................................................................. 94


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EN 50160 Analysis.........................................................................................................................................94 Day, Free Interval, 10-Min and 3-Second Data..............................................................................................95 Harmonics ......................................................................................................................................................96 RMS Values................................................................................................................................................... 98 Unbalance......................................................................................................................................................99 Frequency ....................................................................................................................................................100 Ripple Control Analysis ................................................................................................................................101 Transient Analysis........................................................................................................................................102 Event Analysis..............................................................................................................................................102 Instantaneous Value Analysis ......................................................................................................................105 Diagram...........................................................................................................................................................106 Displaying Measurement Values..................................................................................................................106 The Diagram Icon-Bar..................................................................................................................................106 Mouse Keys .................................................................................................................................................108 Transfer...........................................................................................................................................................109 Selection of Measuring Device.....................................................................................................................109 Ethernet .......................................................................................................................................................109 Serial Direct Connection ..............................................................................................................................110 Modem .........................................................................................................................................................110 Initialising .....................................................................................................................................................111 Change Settings ..........................................................................................................................................111 Retrieve Measuring Data .............................................................................................................................111 On-line Display.............................................................................................................................................113 Event On-line Display...................................................................................................................................116 Transient On-line Display.............................................................................................................................117 Service ............................................................................................................................................................119 Calibration....................................................................................................................................................119 Self-test........................................................................................................................................................121 Set Time.......................................................................................................................................................122 TOPAS New Installation...............................................................................................................................123 Set Baud Rate at the TOPAS.......................................................................................................................123 TCP/IP Settings............................................................................................................................................124 Reset the TOPAS.........................................................................................................................................125 Modemstring TOPAS ...................................................................................................................................126 Login TOPAS User.......................................................................................................................................126 TOPAS Permission Code.............................................................................................................................127 Window ...........................................................................................................................................................128 List ...............................................................................................................................................................128 Print..............................................................................................................................................................128 Clipboard......................................................................................................................................................128 Options............................................................................................................................................................129 Select Language ..........................................................................................................................................129 User Management........................................................................................................................................130 Table ............................................................................................................................................................131 Diagram-Attributes .......................................................................................................................................131 Help .................................................................................................................................................................132 Frequently asked questions regarding the TOPAS 1000 analysis software ................................................133

TOPAS V 3.10 NEW FUNCTIONS...................................................................... 138


EN 50160 .........................................................................................................................................................138 Harmonics ....................................................................................................................................................139 Absolute values for THD, THDI, THDcap and THDind.................................................................................140 Analysis of parts in the yt- and bar-chart view ............................................................................................141 Comfortable Selection for the display of Transients and Oscilloskope Data...........................................142

New Features in Version 3.12 .............................................................................. 143


Delta RMS Values...........................................................................................................................................143 Definition: .....................................................................................................................................................143 Note: ............................................................................................................................................................143 Where are delta RMS Values available ? ....................................................................................................143 Switch for Harmonics, Flicker, EN50160 on Delta Voltages.......................................................................144 Trigger:.........................................................................................................................................................144 Active, Reactive Harmonic Power and Harmonic powerfactor:....................................................................144 Attention:......................................................................................................................................................144 EN50160 Report: .........................................................................................................................................144 Diagram Export to Word, Excel and Web Bowser.......................................................................................145 Note: ............................................................................................................................................................145 The protocols look like: ................................................................................................................................145 Level time diagram.........................................................................................................................................145 Measurement: delta1.def .........................................................................................................................145 Measurement Period: 14.02.2001 03:35:10,000000 - 14.02.2001 11:35:10,000000...............................145 Excel like grid for Events ..............................................................................................................................146 Offline Configuration Facilities.....................................................................................................................146 What can be changed:.................................................................................................................................147

Scale factor: .................................................................................................................................................148 Alarming / Watchdog .....................................................................................................................................149 GPS Option .....................................................................................................................................................150 Digital I/O Option............................................................................................................................................152 Configuration of digital I/O ...........................................................................................................................152 Triggering on digital inputs ...........................................................................................................................153 Online mode of digital Inputs .......................................................................................................................154 Offline mode of digital Inputs .......................................................................................................................155

Summary EN50160 ............................................................................................... 156


Definitions.......................................................................................................................................................156 Application of EN50160 .................................................................................................................................159 Characteristics of Low and Medium-Voltage ..............................................................................................159 Line Frequency ............................................................................................................................................159 Intensity of Supply Voltage...........................................................................................................................159 Low-voltage Variation...................................................................................................................................160 Fast Voltage Variation..................................................................................................................................160 Flicker Intensity ............................................................................................................................................160 Voltage Dips.................................................................................................................................................160 Short Interruption of the Supply Voltage ......................................................................................................160 Long Interruption of the Supply Voltage.......................................................................................................160 Temporary Overvoltage between Outer and Ground ...................................................................................161 Transient Overvoltages between Outer and Earth .......................................................................................161 Voltage Unbalance.......................................................................................................................................161 Harmonic Voltage ........................................................................................................................................162 Interharmonic Voltage..................................................................................................................................162

Hardware Documentation TOPAS 1000 .............................................................. 163


Basic Unit........................................................................................................................................................163 Block Diagram..............................................................................................................................................163 Inputs ...........................................................................................................................................................163 Frequency Response ...................................................................................................................................164 Linearity....................................................................................................................................................165 Accuracy of Measurement .......................................................................................................................166 Common Mode Modulation ......................................................................................................................166 Temperature Drift .....................................................................................................................................166 Aging ........................................................................................................................................................166 Noise ........................................................................................................................................................166 Nominal Data ...........................................................................................................................................166 Sampling ..................................................................................................................................................166 Measuring Intervals......................................................................................................................................167 Data Memory................................................................................................................................................167 Ports.............................................................................................................................................................167 Power Supply ...............................................................................................................................................167 Safety ...........................................................................................................................................................167 Degree of Protection ....................................................................................................................................167 Operating Temperature Range ....................................................................................................................167 Dimensions and Weight...............................................................................................................................167 Display .........................................................................................................................................................168 Sensors ...........................................................................................................................................................168 General Information .....................................................................................................................................168 Accuracy of Voltage Sensors .......................................................................................................................168 Accuracy of Clip-on Probes..........................................................................................................................169

General

Safety Tips and Cautions


Please read this chapter carefully. It will familiarize you with important safety tips and cautions when using your TOPAS 1000.

Warning
To avoid electric shocks and fires when operating this unit, use only the original accessories provided by the manufacturer.

Warning
Clip-on probes may only be used in accordance with their safety or voltage category. In principle, the applicable regulations for work on power systems apply.

Warning
Topas is a protection class one measurement device. Before connecting the measuring channels ensure that the instrument is connected to protective earth. The connection of the protective earth must not be removed before the measuring channels have been disconnected from the instrument.

Important
The TOPAS 1000 may only be operated and installed by authorized personnel. This measuring instrument may only be used by qualified staff in compliance with the Technical specifications in conjunction with the safety instructions and regulations set out below. During use any additional legal or safety requirements applicable to the type of application must also be met. The same applies to any accessories.

Important
Do not open the TOPAS for cleaning. Do not use any corrosive cleaners and do not immerse the TOPAS 1000 in liquid.

Caution
Do not open the device under any circumstances! Opening the device can lead to electric shock! There are no user-serviceable parts inside this unit. Leave all servicing to qualified servicing personnel.

Important
The perfect and safe operation of this device depends on appropriate transportation and storage, professional installation and assembly, and careful operation and maintenance.If it becomes apparent that the device cannot be operated safely anymore it must be put out of service immediately and protected against accidental activation. Safe operation is not guaranteed anymore when the device displays visible damages has been exposed to unfavourable conditions (e.g. storage outside the admissible climatic limits, dew, or similar) for some time, or heavy stress during transport (e.g. falling from great height even without visible external damage, or similar)

Important
W hen operating electric devices some of their parts necessarily carry dangerous voltages. Ignoring the safety instructions may therefore result in serious health hazards or damage to the equipment

Important
Qualified staff are persons familiar with the installation, assembly, commissioning and operation of this product and have the qualifications required for this job, such as Training or instruction / authorization to switch on/off, earth and mark circuits and devices / systems according to the safety engineering standards: Training or instruction according to the safety engineering standards with regard to maintenance and use of appropriate safety equipment. First aid training.

Remark
Please allow warm up time at ambient temperatures below 5C before measuring. See technical data operating temperature range.

Attention
It is not allowed to connect all 8 channels to one phase to common mode signals more than 230V at the same time. It is permitted to use all voltage and current input channels up to the highest defined common mode voltage. In case of a protective conductor break a leakage current of >3mA is then prohibited.

Attention
Flashing channel LEDs (long period active, short inactive) are indicating a range overflow. The measured input value is exceeding the highest range limit. This has to be taken into account while evaluating the measured results to prohibited danger and destroying of the input circuits.

Topas 1019
Before connecting to the power supply the aditional connector for the earth wire at the back side of the device must be connected to earth.Vor dem Anschlu an die Netzversorgung mu der getrennte zustzliche Schutzleiteranschlu auf der Gerterckseite verbunden werden.

Topas 1019
An aditional switch for all wires of the power supply must be installed at the coupling point of Topas 1019. TOPAS 1000 is suitable to monitor One., Two-, Three-, Six- and Multiphase sytems.

Symbols

The following symbols are used:


Ground connection

Warning about other danger(s) (Attention, see documentation !)

CE mark

Decommissioning and disposal


For a fee, the manufacturer will dispose of unused devices.

Scope of Delivery
The basic TOPAS 1000 package contains the following: 1 RS 232 cable 1 9/25 SUB D converter for RS 232 1 Ethernet cable for connection to HUB with white and metallic connectors 1 Adapter for the Ethernet cable 1 Ethernet cable, transposed with red connectors 1 power cable

Operating Instructions - In Brief


Connecting the TOPAS 1000
The TOPAS 1000 can be connected to any wall outlet with an alternating voltage of 45-65 Hz, 100 - 240 V using the supplied power cable. First, connect the power cable to the respective input socket connector located at the top of the Power Quality Analyser and then connect the power cable to the power source. Connect the clip-on probes and/or the voltage taps to the socket connectors of the input channels located on the lefthand and on the right-hand side of the housing. When connecting the sensors, the label of the cable box must face to the front of the device. Subsequently, the cable box is secured by turning the bayonet catch clockwise. A maximum of 8 sensors can be connected. An Ethernet port as well as a serial port are available for communication with a personal computer. The Ethernet port is usually used for communication with the TOPAS 1000. The port is located on the left-hand side of the devices surface protected by a cap that must be removed from the connection socket prior to connecting the Ethernet cable. The serial port should only be used when communication via Ethernet is not possible. To connect the serial port, the cover at the top of the device must be removed by PUSHing on the marked area. Subsequently, the cable can be connected to the port. After connecting the correct cable, communication between a personal computer and the TOPAS can be established. The Analyser is equipped with a Twisted Pair Network connection. Use only the supplied cables for connection. Regarding a point-to-point network connection, both cables must be connected in series using the supplied Ethernet cable adapter. Use only one cable when connecting via a hub. The connections must be made in this fashion, since a cross-connected network cable must be used with a point-to-point connection. However, do not use a cross-connected cable when connecting to a hub.

The TOPAS 1000 is now ready for operation. Just lift the toggle of the ON/OFF switch and place from O to I. Ethernet connection Serial port 8 electrically separated input channels ON/OFF switch Input socket for power cable Power LED Channel LED

The TOPAS has 1 power LED indicating the supply status. The 8 channel LEDs indicate the status of the input channels. Power LED Permanent light means power supply within limits. Flashing indicates that the power supply runs via the internal battery. Channel LED Short flashing means undermodulation and no measuring signal, respectively. Short extinguishing means overmodulation. Permanent light indicates that the correct sensors have been connected, and that the channel is OK. Fast flashing indicates that the sensors are connected incorrectly or that no sensors are connected.

Wiring Diagrams
Caution! When connecting the Power Analyser, only use the power cable supplied with the device. Connect the sensors according to the arrows shown in the wiring diagrams, i.e., in the direction of the current. Use channel 4 as control channel for external triggers. Transients are recorded in the 3-conductor delta measurement between r and the device mass. r = red 4mm connection conductor of the voltage sensors

BLACK Connector

RED Connector

Single Phase Measurement

TOPAS 1000

4 Wire 3 Wattmeter Method

L2 L3 L1 L1

TOPAS 1000

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3 Wire Delta Connection


!
L2

!
L3

L1

TOPAS 1000

4 Wire Connection with Neutral C ti


L2 L3

L1

TOPAS 1000

Software Installation
A detailed description of the software installation follows this instruction manual.

Selection of Measuring Device


Communication with the TOPAS 1000 is realized via Ethernet, serial direct connection, or modem. For creating the link to the TOPAS 1000, the menu Transfer/Select Station must be called first.

Then, click the appropriate button to make your selection with respect to one of the ports described below.

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Ethernet
A network can be comprised of several analysis computers and several TOPAS 1000 units. Using the menu item Options/Stations, several devices can be registered in a so-called Station list.

By clicking the Transfer/Select Stations button, a port and the desired measuring device contained in this list can be selected. The TOPAS can either be contacted directly or via its station name.

It is also possible to identify the TOPAS 1000 by means of the five-digit serial number combination.

The serial number is located on the name-plate at the back of the device.

An example for a valid serial number is PQA74485. This number must be entered in the following text box. Normally, the Ethernet is used for communication between the TOPAS and the analysis computer.

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Serial Direct Connection


The operating software must be given the necessary information about the serial port and the baud rate used when communicating with the TOPAS 1000. The serial port should be used only when communication via Ethernet is impossible.

Modem
The communication via modem requires the selection of a serial port to which the modem is connected, as well as of the baud rate. Furthermore, either tone or pulse dialing must be specified, and the telephone number must be entered.

On-line Mode
Once the voltage and/or current sensors have been connected, and the TOPAS 1000 has been started, the measurement can begin. In on-line mode, partial results can be called at any time. To activate the on-line display, click on the Transfer/On-line button.

The window Oscilloscope Refresh appears.

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By clicking on the Hardware Settings icon, a respective window is opened for configuring the TOPAS for the on-line measurement.

number of points (samples) of the measurement The input channels are free configureable. Not used channels should be set to off, to increase the transfer speed. The number of measuring points affects the data processing speed, as well as the frequency resolution for the spectral analysis. Number of points 1 024 2 048 4 096 8 192 16 384 32 768 65 536 Frequency resolution 6.25 Hz 3.125 Hz 1.563 Hz 0.781 Hz 0.391 Hz 0.195 Hz 0.098 Hz Measuring time 160 ms 320 ms 640 ms 1.28 s 2.56 s 5.12 s 10.24 s

Click on the Oscilloscope button to start a new on-line measurement. To load the measuring data, click on the icon . By clicking on the icons in the icon bar using the mouse, the quantities to be displayed can be called. Only active icons can be selected. They are NOT dimmed to assist in distinguishing them from passive icons.

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After selecting the input channel, followed by clicking on one of the display types, the recorded measured quantities are displayed. It is possible to display Level-time diagrams, determine frequency spectra, or display the RMS and mean values for a measuring interval.

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The mean and RMS value list can be used to check the correct connection of the sensors. In this case, the clip-on probe was connected incorrectly.

To display several measurement values simultaneously, select Add channel, and clicking the Display type button.

, followed by clicking the desired Input

For a detailed description of the functions provided by the Analysis Window, see the Analysis menu item.

Clicking the button Events in the window Oscilloscope Refresh displays those events that occurred at the current time. The measurement values are recorded whether a trigger threshold was reached or not. This function controls the current signal level and helps when setting trigger thresholds.

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Clicking the

icon provides a detailed list containing all recorded data.

The Event On-line Display meets the functions of a multi-functional multimeter, and displays the currently present measurement values. It is a useful tool for setting trigger thresholds.

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Programming
To start the programming of a new file, click on File/New or the icon .

The Settings Window appears. You have the option between automatic or manual triggering. A description of the measuring job can be saved in the text field.

Generally, the presettings of the TOPAS 1000 that are saved in the .vdf files are used.

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These settings can be adjusted to the job requirements by opening the settings windows on the right-hand side of the page. A detailed description of the individual dialog windows is given in the reference section of this manual.

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Templates for Standard Measurements Flicker.vdf

This trigger detects voltage fluctuations. It responds when the absolute values have been exceeded or fallen below and when changes in voltage occur between two periods > 5V. It may be necessary to reduce the level to the smaller value according to the measurement conditions. For this example, only the trigger RMS value has been set. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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Harmon.vdf

This template features the limit values according to EN 50160. When a voltage limit value is exceeded, the recording is triggered. Checking includes the 25 harmonics and 3sec values which are recorded. This trigger setting is used to record the exceeded limit values with respect to voltage harmonics. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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PC.vdf

This presetting is used to find problems regarding computers, voltage dips, or voltage fluctuations. It responds to undervoltages in phases, changes in voltage in the neutral conductor, changes in the curve forms of phase voltages in the neutral conductor, as well as voltage transients. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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Rundst.vdf

This example shows how a trigger could be set for a ripple control system. The mean frequency and the bandwidth must always be set accordingly. Typical settings for the mean frequency and the bandwidth are:

Meanfrequenc 187 387 1125 2000 Bandwidth 2 6 15 25


The level of the ripple control system must be adjusted to the current conditions. Using the left mouse key, sections of the presented filter curve can be zoomed. To return to normal view press the right mouse key.

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Trans.vdf

This setting detects fast actions within the network. The trigger responds to fast changes in voltage (overvoltage and undervoltage), and the trends of transient values, RMS values, and instantaneous values are recorded. This type of recording is chosen to obtain information about the cause(s) of a disturbance. A transient over 50V triggers sampling values of individual sampling points over 358 V.

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Existing parameter files are opened using Open file or the icon

Hardware Settings

By using Hardware Settings, the user can specify all channels, measured quantities, measuring ranges, and if required, scaling factors. It is also possible to change the measuring system from Voltage/Current to Voltage/Voltage and vice versa. The window is closed using OK or Cancel. To accept the changes select the OK button. The changes are not accepted if you select Cancel.

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Manual Setting of Trigger Thresholds


Normally, several trigger functions can be released by one event. As a rule, one should not try to use too many functions, but those that best describe the event in question.

A detailed description of the functions featured in the Settings Window is given under Measurement/Settings in the reference manual.

Close Settings
Clicking on OK completes the parameterization. To save the set data, the menu item Save file as must be selected.

If a definition file has not yet been saved, the following dialog box will appear:

If you are trying to overwrite an existing file with Save the following message will appear:

If you do not want to save the changes, close the window using Nein.

If you click on the Initialize button, all data stored on the hard disk of the TOPAS is deleted, while a new measurement is started simultaneously with the settings entered last.

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Close closes the Settings Window. The changes will not be saved. Clicking Cancel returns to the Settings Window.

Change Settings

The settings for trigger conditions, recording modes, memory management, hardware settings, and the CBEMA display cannot be changed during an ongoing measurement using the Change Settings function. Once the changes have been entered into the parameter file, it can be transferred to the measuring device by clicking the OK button, followed by answering the next question with OK.

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Retrieve Measuring Data

The command Download Measurement Data transfers the results from the measuring device to the analysis computer. A transfer of measuring data can be performed at any time during an ongoing measurement. After clicking Download Measurement Data, a target directory must be entered in the window shown below. The entry is confirmed with Done. The name shown in the field File Name is irrelevant for this procedure.

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The window indicates the source directory and the target directory including their data content. The result files to be transferred are selected and copied into the directory of the analysis computer (target directory) using data size to be copied is indicated in the window The portions already copied are indicated in the window . . Copying can be terminated using Cancel. . The

In case several result files have been highlighted for copying, they can be individually deactivated by another click .

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Analysis
To perform an analysis, the program must be told which measuring data is to be analysed. Using the icon , call the dialog box File/Open. Highlight the file to be analysed with the cursor and confirm with OK. The file is loaded into the dialog box Analysis. The associated result files are loaded simultaneously, and various analysis functions are featured in the dialog box.

Zoom in - to increase the time range between the red cursor lines Zoom out - to undo the last zooming action The entire data record is redisplayed Deletion of the data record between the cursor lines Reorganize data structure (must be performed after deletion) Selected data quantity

Position left cursor

Position right cursor The selection window shows the different measuring systems that work independently and parallel to each other. The blue bars indicate at what measuring time data is present. It is not necessary to copy all measuring data stored in the TOPAS 1000 to the PCs memory. The data structure provides for a good summary of the network conditions with only a small amount of data. It is possible to import more detailed data to investigate specific events within the network. The desired time range can be either selected with the two red Cursor Bars or it can be directly entered into the Cursor Windows. The Cursor Windows indicate the start, end, and the duration of the selected time period. Clicking the icon target directory. returns to the Data Transfer window. A new set of event data can be selected and copied into the

Subsequent clicking on the icon analysed.

positions the user in the Analysis Window where the selected data can be

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Data Permanent automatic recording of all data for the analysis of the network quality

Recording Options Automatic

Permanent recording of standard violations and capture of all trigger events Harmonics from voltages and currents Voltages and currents with different time resolution, Ripple control telegrams Transient

Automatic
Manual

Automatic Manual

Automatic
Manual

Automatic Manual

Measurement Examples
The examples given below are also included in the demonstration data of the software. EN50160 1.Open file 2.EN50160.def 3.OK

In this example, both cursors must be placed at the margin of the selection window. Using the left mouse key, click on the point in the cursor line and drag the line to the margin.

31

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1. EN50160 2. EN50160Protocol

The graphic summary pursuant to EN50160 indicates the percentage of measurement values within the limit values. If less than 95% of the values are within the limit values, the criteria for the network quality have been violated. Regarding network frequency 100%, a single exceeding of the limit values would cause a violation. The red bars indicate that the limit values have been exceeded longer than permitted. The EN50160 Text Protocol provides a text summary of the measurement values indicated by means of the red and green bars.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

10-min Harmonics Mean values THD Time

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This diagram shows a daily profile of the THD. In the morning, the THD increases due to electronic office devices (PCs), and decreases during the course of the afternoon when the devices are gradually being turned off. The distortion factor increases again in the evening due to TVs and energy saving lamps. These devices are turned off around midnight and the THD reaches its minimum values.

1. 10-min 2. Harmonics 3. Mean values 4. THD 5. Cumulative frequency

35

In addition to the time trend, a cumulative frequency function can be displayed. This representation works well as a supplement to the trends. The percentage of levels exceeding the respective quantity (here THD) is indicated. This representation shows the percentage of measurement values that exceed, e.g., the THD level 3.2%(approx. 10% of the green phase). It also shows that 50% of the values (between 40% and 90%) of the green phase are between 2.0% and 3.0%.

1. 2. 3. 4.

10-min Frequency Mean values Time

36

in this representation, one can see that the changes in frequency are very small. The maximum fluctuations are approx. 0.05 Hz. With respect to the interconnected grid, these measurements are not very meaningful. However, these measurements can be important in cases of emergency power supplies, or with regard to insular operation.

It is visible from the cumulative frequency diagram that the majority of the frequency values has deviations smaller than 0.02 Hz. It also becomes evident that the 50Hz value is at 50%.

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1. 2.

Events Event summary

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Detailed event summary. The events can be sorted by clicking on the keys.

Flicker 1.Open file 2.Flicker.def 3.OK

The objective of this measurement was the location of the cause for severe flicker in an office. The line voltage was recorded using a RMS value measurement with 20ms time resolution.

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1.RMS value 2.V 3.Mean value 4.Time

The voltage trend shows that voltage dips of approx. 9 V are present. These voltage dips are no major problem, however, they occur every 0.7 seconds and cause severe flicker. The eyes highest sensitivity with respect to flicker is 8.8 Hz.

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1.Add 2.A 3.Mean value 4.Time

One can see that by adding the current the voltage dips match the current increases very well. Furthermore, the relative changes in voltage are approx. 4%, however, the relative changes in current have a magnitude of several hundred percent. With respect to a disturbance source, the relative changes in current are much bigger than the relative changes in voltage. It is irrelevant if currents and voltages increase or decrease. In addition to displaying the RMS value, it is also possible to show the trend of the instantaneous value.

1.Oscilloscope 2.IL1 3.Time

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The trend of the current shows that this load is a device with oscillation package control. In our case, it was a singlephase heating device with approx. 2 kW connecting power. Temperature control was performed by means of an oscillation package control system. The device heated with two to three periods every 0.7 seconds. This example shows how quickly the cause for a disturbance can be found, and once you have the cause it is almost always possible to find a simple remedy. In this case, only this load needed to be separated from the phase of the light. Afterwards, the flicker was gone, and the remaining loads were not affected by these voltage dips. In this particular case, the short-circuit power at this point was too small for the operation of the device, however, in most cases, increasing the short-circuit power is almost never possible since this would remedy all network reactions.

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Harmon

1. Open file: 2. Oscilloscope 3. UL1 4. Time

Harmon.def

Currents may be added to the display of the voltage trend. 1. Add 2. Oscilloscope 3. IL1

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Here, the values of both current and voltage are represented. For displaying the spectra of voltages or currents, the following is necessary:

1. Add 2. Oscilloscope 3. IL1 4. Spectrum

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This is a current spectrum. The voltage spectrum is displayed in the same manner. An active power spectrum and a reactive power spectrum are also available. This graphic also shows the direction of the power flow.

1. Oscilloscope 2. Phase1 3. Active power spectrum

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The spectrum of the active power is displayed.Using the zoom feature, the desired section can be displayed.

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Ripple

1. Open file: Ripple 2. Ripple control 3. V 4. Time

This diagram shows the telegram-style trend of the voltage, current, active power, and power factor. All kinds of disturbances within the area of ripple control systems can be tested with these tools.

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Trans
1. Open file 2.Transient 3. UL1 4. Add 5. UL2, UL3, UMP , ,

These transient disturbances occurred in a large uninterrupted power supply system. The overvoltages caused the failure of one computer. The measurements proved influences in the power supply. The cause of the above disturbance was a load connected to the uninterrupted power supply system.

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CBEMA

1. Open file: 2. Events 3. CBEMA

CBEMA.def

A mouse click with the left mouse button opens a window showing the Measurements, if the triggered measurement data were stored.

Date and time and the kind of the measurement data are shown in the overview window.

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The event list

can also be output via the software.

A detailed list can be displayed.

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Individual quantities can be sorted.

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Software Installation
System Requirements
For a successful installation of the TOPAS 1000 Software, the following system requirements must be met: Computer: Processor: Main memory: Hard disk: Operating systems Network: IBM-PC or compatible Pentium 133 or higher (Pentium is recommended) 16 MB RAM (64 MB is special for Microsoft Windows NT recommended) free memory minimum: 10 MB Microsoft Windows 95 Microsoft Windows 98 Microsoft Windows NT Thin Ethernet IEEE 802.3x 10Base-T older devices IEEE 802.3x 10Base-2 (coax)

Installation under Windows


Insert the supplied installation CD or the installation diskette #1 into the drive of your personal computer, and start the installation program setup.exe in the Explorer.

The next step is to select the installation language, followed by clicking the Continue button.

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You can now define the directory for the operating and analysis software.

If you want to change the directory name suggested, click on the Change button.

Your are now able to select your own directory name.

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If the directory names are acceptable, click on Finish for proper continuation of the installation process. The progress of the installation is continuously shown in a window on the screen.

To complete the software installation, close the file Read me with OK.

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Confirm the completion of the installation process with OK.

The operating and analysis software can be called via the TOPAS 1000 icon

or using the Start Key.

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Network Settings
After executing setup.exe, the correct network settings must be verified by selecting

and opening the

program network. A list will appear containing at least the following entries: - Client for Microsoft Networks - NetBeui (Network protocol)

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The Client for Microsoft Networks, as well as the network protocol NetBeui are supplied with Windows. Information on subsequent installation of these components is given in the Windows Help System. Caution! Connecting is only possible if the measuring device and your analysis computer are located in the same network section. Call the program TOPAS 1000.exe. Select the Select Transfer/Measuring Device menu, as well as a port.

Enter PQA followed by the five-digit serial number combination. number is located on the name-plate at the back of the measuring device.

The serial

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An example for a valid serial number is PQA74485. If no error message appears, the measuring device has been found in the network. You can access the device using the functions in the menu Transfer and Service.

You can also check if the measuring device is available in the network by using the tools provided by the operating system. Just open the icon Network Environment on the desktop of your personal computer by double-clicking.

A list of computers available in the network will appear.

One of these computers bears the name PQAxxxxx (xxxxxx - serial number of your measuring device). Select this computer to obtain a list including both enabled directories c:\ and komm\.

In case the measuring device cannot be found immediately, you may start an explicit search by opening the icon Network Environment with the right mouse key and selecting the Find computer command.

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Search for PQAxxxxx (xxxxxx - Serial number of your measuring device).

Once the measuring device has been found, a computer icon will appear in the list.

Double clicking on the icon will show you the enabled directories c:\ and komm\.

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Caution! Avoid deleting or changing files on the hard disk of the measuring device in File Manager. To perform such actions, use the functions of the analysis program TOPAS 1000.exe only. If you are unable to create a link to the measuring device, check the network installation on your personal computer, as well as the network connections of the measuring device. Caution! With regard to Windows NT networks, the TOPAS must be defined in Windows NT Explorer. Just open the Explorer and click on the icon Link Network Drive.

A window will appear suggesting a drive name. Enter the name of the TOPAS PQAxxxxx and confirm your entry with OK.

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Reference Manual
Program Functions
To create a definition file, click on the icon File/New. Using File/Open a definition file is loaded for a measurement. Clicking this icon will place the Analysis Window in the foreground, or the analysis of the is started. selected data

Clicking on Data Transfer loads the data from the measuring device into a Target File on the analysis computer. Caution! The target file must first be defined using the menu item Transfer/Retrieve Measuring Data.

File
New

Using the command File/New or clicking the icon , a new Definition File (.def) is created. This file includes all information necessary to perform a measurement. The default settings correspond to EN50160. All settings can be changed in the Settings window.

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Open

Using the command File/Open or clicking the icon , a Definition File is loaded for a measurement. For a more detailed definition of the definition file, the dialog box Open file appears. Enter the file name and its position in the file system into this dialog box. After successfully opening the file, the parameters of the definition file can be changed or the Analysis of the stored data can be performed via the menu command Settings.

The TOPAS 1000 features various presettings for different requirements. The presettings can also be adjusted and saved as your own templates. The presettings are further explained in the chapter Trigger Settings.

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Save As

An open Definition File can be saved under a different name using the command File/Save As. This is a good choice if, e.g., you want to use the settings of a definition file as a template for other measurements. The file selection is the same as described for the menu item Open. If you are working on a newly created file, a name must be entered in the field File Name.

Delete

By calling the function File/Delete, the user can delete files that are no longer required. In the window

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enter the name of the file to be deleted, and confirm with Select.

Print

Using the command File/Print or clicking on the icon printed out.

, the measurement displayed on the screen can be

For documentation purposes, the printouts can be labeled using this window

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Exit

This command exits the program. Another window is displayed, which question must be answered with YES if the program is to be exited. If the program was exited by accident, the action can be reversed by clicking the NO box.

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Settings
General Information

After loading a parameter file (*.def) using Open File or by opening a new file with default values using the command File New, the set parameters can be adjusted to the current measurement job at hand. This altered file must be saved under a new name or in a new directory. If a parameter file that belongs to certain measurement values is altered, the stored data may be destroyed. Stored data can only be interpreted in conjunction with its associated parameter file. To provide for a clear allocation of the parameter file to the measuring data, it is impossible to perform an analysis with the Settings window being open. During active analysing, all parameter values can only be displayed, but not be changed. With the help of the Editor, a commentary can be added to the measurement. The measurement job can be described using the predefined text. This text can also be deleted or rewritten. Furthermore, a series of parameters can be specified that have an influence on the measuring process and the analysis. In most cases, it is sufficient to work with the programs presettings.

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The dialog boxes are called by clicking the respective window. Nominal and limit values Memory management CBEMA displays Recording modes Trigger settings Measuring times Hardware settings

Nominal and Limit Values


The limit values required by EN50160 can be changed in this window. Changes may be required due to amended standards or the application of more stringent analysis regulations as stipulated in the standard.

Nominal voltage Overvoltage Overvoltage maximum Undervoltage Interruption Short-term interruption Fast changes in voltage

Frequency THD Negative-sequence system 95% Frequency maximum 95% Frequency minimum 100% Frequency maximum 100% Frequency minimum Long-term flicker intensity

Limit values of the voltage harmonics and interharmonics The window is exited with OK or Cancel. All selected data is confirmed with OK. Cancel does not save the changes.

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Measuring Times

The start time and end time of the measurement can be entered in this window. The window is exited with OK or Cancel.

Hardware Settings

The measured quantities, measuring ranges, and, if required, the scaling factors for all channels are set in this window. Furthermore, the measuring system can be switched from 4 x current/ 4 x voltage measurement to 8 x voltage measurement. The window is exited with OK or Cancel. All selected data is confirmed with OK. Cancel does not save the changes.

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The setting voltage / voltage enables the measurement of two three phase mains. All icon in the analysis windows will be changed from current to voltage. The scaleing of all channels is done in volt.

Memory Management

can be defined for the individual data structures. Theses ranges prevent the Maximum memory ranges generation of data quantities that are too large and prevent the saving of important data. The memory range can be changed from linear to circular.

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A memory range can be set for the following data: EN 50160 files Day files Free interval files 10-min files 3-sec files RMS values Oscilloscope Event files Ripple control signals Transients The window Mbyte shows the total amount of data selected. The quantities allocated to the individual data structures are not exceeded. With the linear setting, no new data is saved when the set memory capacity is full. With the circular setting, the oldest data is overwritten once the specified memory capacity is full. The window is exited with OK or Cancel.

Recording Modes

Recording duration (Recording Time), history (size of Pretrigg.), and the averaging time (holdoff/s) can be defined for individual data structures. The sampling rate can be set for transient recording. The time of the recorded history is defined by means of positive time entries. A negative posttrigger setting means that the start of the recording is delayed by the time specified once a trigger event has occurred. Holdoff - indicates the time from the end of the recording until the next deviation of the trigger. Recording time - sets the length of the recording time to be observed after the occurrence of an event. Pretrigger - defines the time to be recorded prior to the occurrence of a trigger event. Number - indicates the maximum number of events per analysis type that can be recorded with respect to memory and averaging time. Settings can be chosen for the following data: 3-sec files Mean values Instantaneous values Ripple control signals Transients The window is exited with OK or Cancel.

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Trigger Settings

3-sec files, instantaneous values and mean values with variable averaging time are only recorded when a trigger level is exceeded. The following trigger functions can be used: Harmonic trigger RMS and mean value trigger Instantaneous value trigger Ripple control trigger Transient trigger

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Automatic Selection of Trigger Thresholds


With autotrigger, the TOPAS 1000 records the biggest events in periods, whose lengths depend on the measurement time and can last from 5 to 35 minutes. A measurement lasting 5 minutes is set for a measurement duration of one day, 35 minutes per week and longer. In case no measurement time is selected, the period is set to 35 minutes. The events are recorded in an event list. Each recording includes the following data:

Data
RMS-value Hold off Recording time Pretrigger Oscilloscope Hold off Recording time Pretrigger Transients Hold off Recording time Pretrigger 3sec values Hold off Recording time Pretrigger

Parameter 10 sec 10 sec with 20ms hold off 1sec 10 sec 320ms 40ms 10 sec 1024 values with 500 kHz sampling rate 128 values 10 sec 75 sec 15 sec

The TOPAS 1000 performs all settings automatically. After the TOPAS has been turned on, the trigger parameter settings are determined during the first period. After the TOPAS has been turned on, the trigger parameter settings are determined during the first period. If the number of trigger events decreases, the trigger levels from the previous interval are reactivatetd. The trigger levels of channels UL1 to UMP are managed individually. The table below lists all active types of trigger available.

Trigger
RMS-value

Type Lower limit Upper limit Change

Channels UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP UL1,UL2,UL3,UMP

Oscilloscopes

Edge trigger Exceeding maximum value Waveform variation

Transients Harmonic

Transient levels THD (%)

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Manual Setting of Trigger Thresholds


With Reset Panel, all trigger settings are deactivated. CAUTION! After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value. The window is exited with OK.or Cancel. One event can trip several trigger functions. The user should not use too many functions, but select those that best describe the event in question.

The TOPAS 1000 contains presettings for various requirements. The settings are available as .vdf files that have been configured for special groups of problems. They can be adjusted to your individual requirements and saved as your own templates.

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Flicker.vdf

This trigger locates voltage fluctuations. It responds to rises or falls below absolute values, as well as to voltage variations between two periods > 5V. It may be necessary to reduce the level to a smaller value that corresponds to the current measuring conditions. In this example, only the trigger RMS value is activated. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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Harmon.vdf

This template contains the limit values pursuant to EN 50160. Upon exceeding one of the voltage limit values the recording is triggered. The 25 harmonics are examined. 3-sec values are recorded. This trigger is responsible for recording when the limit values of voltage harmonics have been exceeded. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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PC.vdf

This setting is used to locate problems with computers, voltage dips, or voltage fluctuations. It responds to undervoltages in phases, voltage variations in the neutral conductor, waveshape changes in the phase voltages with respect to the neutral conductor and the voltage transient. The remaining triggers are deactivated.

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Rundst.vdf

This example shows how the triggers can be configured with regard to a ripple control system. The mean frequency and the bandwidth must always be set accordingly. Typical settings for mean frequency and bandwidth are:

Meanfrequenc 187 387 1125 2000 Bandwidth 2 6 15 25


Sections of the displayed filter curve can be highlighted and zoomed using the left mouse key. Activating the right mouse key returns to normal view. The ripple control signal level must be adjusted to the current conditions.

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Trans.vdf

This setting captures fast network events. The trigger responds to fast voltage variations (overvoltage and undervoltage). The trends of the transient values and the RMS values are recorded. Using this setting, the user can check if a switching event coreleated with a transient. A transient over 50V triggers sampling values of individual sampling points over 358 V.

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Harmonic Trigger

The trigger levels can be set for each harmonic, THD, and interharmonic distortion factor by clicking the right mouse key. The settings can be selected for voltages and currents. The individual harmonics can be displayed as a spectral . The trigger level can also be representation by positioning the cursor, or selecting numerically via the field entered numerically or with the mouse. Those harmonics to which the trigger should not respond should be switched off by clicking the right mouse key on the field with the numeric trigger level setting . To activate a harmonic, click on the same field with the right mouse key. By clicking on the selection fields, the recording action for a file type is activated or deactivated. This trigger setting is level-sensitive, i.e., the trigger is activated once the measurement value exceeds the set level. The recording of 3-sec files or instantaneous values can be turned on by clicking on the respective window. In addition, the user can select between current or voltage harmonics, respectively. THD - is the sum of all harmonics as related to the RMS value of the overall signal. TID - is the sum of all interharmonic frequencies as related to the RMS value of the overall signal. This function enables the location of inter-frequency sources of disturbances, independent of the frequency range in which these disturbance signals occur. When the TID trigger responds, instantaneous values can be recorded. The frequency of the disturbance signal can be determined off-line from the spectral analysis. This function locates influences caused by ripple control signals or power systems. CAUTION! After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value. Other trigger possibilities include RMS and mean value trigger Instantaneous value trigger Ripple control trigger and Transient trigger

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RMS and Mean Value Trigger

This trigger activates the recording of mean values or instantaneous values when the voltages of current RMS values and active powers have been exceeded or fallen below. Furthermore, a change in current, voltage and power values can be detected. Active fields can be turned on and off by clicking the right mouse key on the value field .

After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value. Other trigger possibilities include Harmonic trigger Instantaneous value trigger Ripple control trigger and Transient trigger

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Falling below a measured value In this setting, the trigger threshold for lower limit setting is specified. This setting can be made for current, voltage and active power. e.g.: If 200V are set, the trigger always responds when the voltage RMS value falls below 200V. Exceeding of measurement value In this setting, the trigger threshold for exceeding the measurement value is specified. This setting can be made for current, voltage and active power. e.g.: If 260V are set, the trigger always responds when the voltage RMS value exceeds 260V. Change in measurement value In this setting, the trigger threshold for changes in measurement value is specified. This setting can be made for current, voltage and active power. The trigger provides for a very sensitive setting for detecting small but fast signal changes, although the signals change slowly in a very wide area. In case of disturbance, it can be assumed that the voltage changes occur fast, i.e., between two averaging intervals (RMS values, active powers).

Instantaneous Value Trigger

This trigger trips the recording of mean values according to the setting of the RMS and mean value trigger or instantaneous values when an instantaneous value has either been exceeded or fallen below. Rising or falling below a set value is selected by means of the sign setting to the right of the numeric trigger level. By clicking the selection fields, the recording of any file type is switched on or off.

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This trigger setting is edge-sensitive, i.e., the trigger only responds when the specified level is exceeded. The sign setting defines an ascending or descending edge of the measured quantity. The sign of the measured quantity is entered into the value field . . Also use the right

Active fields can be deactivated by clicking the right mouse key on the value field mouse key to activate deactivated fields. Exceeding a level, falling below a level

The trigger threshold is specified for a standard oscilloscope trigger. The trigger threshold is entered into the numeric field. The +/- signs are used to determine whether triggering should occur with an ascending or descending edge. This setting is required for external trigger signals like alarm outputs of uninterrupted power supply systems or similar systems. e.g.: When set at 10 V +, triggering occurs when exceeding an ascending edge of 10V. Waveform monitoring This setting defines a tolerance range with respect to the sinusoidal waveform. This trigger is activated if the value falls below or exceeds the specification. This function captures commutation dips. However, small changes in waveforms caused by ,e.g., harmonics, cannot be detected with this method since its sensitivity is too low. e.g.: When set at 20V, triggering occurs when the signal exceeds the +/- 10V range with respect to the instantaneous value(s). Exceeding the maximum value This setting defines limits for the maximum value. The trigger is activated if the set limits are exceeded, whether by the positive or the negative half-wave. e.g.: When set at 350V, triggering occurs when an instantaneous value plus or minus 350V is exceeded. Phase variation This trigger responds to phase shifts. It detects overcurrents or short-circuits in adjacent or higher-rated branches. e.g.: When set at 0.5, triggering occurs when the phase changes by more than 0.5 between two consecutive zero-axis crossings. Waveform variation The trigger monitors the waveforms of consecutive periods. All sampled values are compared to the values of the previous period. This trigger enables a very sensitive setting that detects small but fast signal variations although the signals change slowly within a very wide area. In case of disturbance, it can be assumed that voltage changes occur rapidly, i.e., between two periods. e.g.: When set at 5V, triggering occurs when two sampled values vary by more than 5V within the range of one period. CAUTION! After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value. Other trigger possibilities include Harmonic trigger RMS and mean value trigger Ripple control trigger and Transient trigger

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Ripple Control Trigger


The mean frequency, as well as the bandwidth of a measurement job must be selected in this trigger feature. Typical settings are:

Meanfrequenc 187 387 1125 2000 Bandwidth 2 6 15 25


These settings provide for the attenuating of 50Hz portions under 1%. The filter characteristic can be examined in the graphic display.

This trigger activates the recording of ripple control data according to the setting of the ripple control trigger or the instantaneous values if the ripple control trigger level is exceeded. Active fields can be deactivated by clicking the right mouse key on the activate deactivated fields, also use the right mouse key. value field. To

CAUTION! After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value. Other trigger possibilities include Harmonic trigger RMS and mean value trigger Instantaneous value trigger and Transient trigger

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Transient Trigger

This trigger activates the recording of transient data according to the setting of the transient trigger or the instantaneous values if the transient trigger level is exceeded. To add or delete a file type from the recording list, click the selection fields. Fields can be activated and deactivated by clicking the value field with the right mouse key.

This trigger detects fast transient actions (with a sampling rate of 100kHz to 10MHz). For triggering purposes, the lowfrequency signals (< 1500 Hz) are filtered out making it possible to trigger when small and fast transient signals at the zero-axis crossing of the voltage occur. The setting applies to 4 measuring channels. e.g.: When set at 20V, triggering occurs when fast signals with an amplitude > 20V are present. CAUTION! After a trigger recording is completed, 0.6 seconds may pass until the next trigger function is tripped. To obtain a continuous recording, the number of the recorded values or intervals must be set to a large value Other trigger possibilities include Harmonic trigger RMS and mean value trigger Ripple control trigger and Instantaneous value trigger

OK
OK saves the set data and closes the window. Cancel closes the window without saving the changed data.

Close Settings
Cancel closes the windows. The changed data is not saved. OK saves the set data and closes the window. The changed data is not yet written into the file. This action will be performed using the menu item Save file as. If a definition file has not yet been saved, the following dialog box appears

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If you try to overwrite an existing file with Save, the following message will occur

This prevents overwriting of an existing file.

If you click on the button Initialize, all directories located on the hard disk of TOPAS will be deleted. At the same time, a new measurement is beginning featuring the new settings.

Close
Close closes the window. The set data is not saved.

Return
Clicking on Return brings you back to the Settings window.

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Analysis
General Information

Prior to analysing the recorded data, the program must know which measuring data requires analysing. Click on the dialog box Open file. Enter the name of a definition file containing all relevant settings for a series of measurements. The associated data is gathered in event files saved in the same directory as the definition file. Once you have entered a valid definition file, the program loads the associated event files and provides you with numerous analysis functions for the measured data in the Analysis dialog box.

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The Analysis Dialog Box


Zoom in - to increase the time range between the red cursor lines Zoom out - to undo the last zooming action The entire data record is redisplayed Deletion of data record between the cursor lines Reorganise data structure (must be performed after deletion) Selected amount of data

The Analysis Window displays the different measuring systems that work independently as well as parallel to each other. The blue bars indicate at what measured data is present. It is not necessary to copy all measured data saved in the TOPAS 1000 to the analysis computer. The data structure is such that a small amount of data will provide a good summary of the network conditions. To examine certain network events, the user can import more detailed data. The desired time range can be selected either using the two red cursor bars or it can be directly entered into the cursor windows. The cursor windows show the start time, the end time and the length of the selected time period. Clicking on the icon returns to the Data Transfer window that is described in detail in this reference manual. Using this window, the event files are selected and transferred into a target directory. Subsequent clicking on the icon returns to the Analysis Window where the selected data can be analysed.

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Data Permanent automatic recording of all data for the analysis of the network quality

Recording Options Automatic

Permanent recording of standard violations and capture of all trigger events Harmonics from voltages and currents Voltages and currents with different time resolution, Ripple control telegrams Transient

Automatic
Manual

Automatic Manual

Automatic
Manual

Automatic Manual

Measuring Data
After specifying the time range to be analysed using the red cursor lines in the selection window, the data source must be selected. You will find the following icons in the upper left-hand corner of the selection window:

The data structure is reorganized. This releases that amount of memory that is no longer needed after data has been deleted. Prior to completing, the changes the following question occurs:

starts the reorganization process. cancels the process. The selected data record will be deleted between the cursor lines. However, the free memory will be released after the reorganisation took place. The entire data record is redisplayed. The last zoom step will be undone. The time period selected between the red cursor lines is zoomed to fit the entire width of the window.

Next to the control icons, the data size is displayed that was just selected and is now ready for analysis. The larger the data quantity the longer the analysis. Therefore, it is recommended to work with smaller data sizes. When the data source and the time period have been selected, an icon list for preselection (data sources where several analysis functions are available, e.g., day file, hour file, 10-min file, 3-sec file) will appear at the left-hand margin

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and/or an analysis icon list will appear below the menu bar.

EN50160 Data
EN50160 files are created in 10-minute measuring intervals. An EN 50160 analysis can be performed for one single 10-minute interval. Around 1 MB of data will be saved in the course of one week. EN50160 Delete data Compress data

Day Data
Day files record measuring results in day intervals. The space requirements for the data recorded is approx. 64 kB per day. Harmonics Flicker RMS values Unbalance Frequency Delete data Compress data

Free interval Data


Files containing measuring results recorded in custom intervals. These files are called free interval files. Harmonics Flicker RMS values Unbalance Frequency Delete data Compress data

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10-min Data
10-minute files form another level in the hierarchy of measuring intervals. They contain the results of 10-minute intervals. Data sizes of approx. 12 kB are saved during each 10-minute interval. Harmonics Flicker RMS values Unbalance Frequency Delete data Compress data

3-sec Data
3-sec files contain measuring results recorded in 3-sec intervals; values for flicker and frequency are not contained in these files. These files are only created when trigger events occur. 3-sec files are only generated when this option is activated in the respective definition file. Around 1.8 kB per 3-sec interval are saved. Harmonics Delete data Compress data

RMS and Mean Value Data


The averaging time can be set at any value. This type of file is mainly used to record power values and RMS values. Saving is only instigated if a trigger event occurs. Data in the amount of approximately 76 byte per interval is saved. RMS values Delete data Compress data

Instantaneous Value Files


With this file type, instantaneous values of approximately 17kB per 1024 values are saved when a Trigger DEF_Trigger is tripped. Analysis Delete data Compress data

Event Data
Event files log all events that have occurred according to time (or their duration), as well as the event type which can be one of the following: overvoltages, undervoltages, interruptions, ripple control signals, transients, deviations regarding RMS and instantaneous value trigger settings. The data size per event is about 400 byte. Events Delete data Compress data

Ripple Control Data


Ripple control files are created when trigger events occur. They contain the measuring results of all ripple control signals that have occurred. To create ripple control files, this option must be activated in the respective definition file. Just activate the button ripple signal in the dialog box ripple control trigger in the definition editor. About 1.8 kB of data is saved every 3 seconds. Ripple control signals Delete data Compress data

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Transient Data
Transient files contain measuring results at a sampling rate between 100kHz-10MHz and are only created when a trigger event occurs. Transient files are only created if this option is activated in the respective definition file. To activate this option, activate the button in the dialog box transient trigger in the definition editor. Transients Delete data Compress data

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Analysis Functions
EN 50160 Analysis

An analysis according to EN 50160 can be displayed in two ways. After selecting the EN 50160 data, and clicking the button, the following EN 50160 analysis can be obtained:

This analysis provides a quick graphical summary over the measuring results according to EN 50160. All values indicated in green correspond to the values specified in the definition files. The percentage of those measuring values within the limit values are displayed. Most values must be within limits for at least 95% of the time. Exceedings are indicated in red.

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button is clicked after the EN 50160 data has been selected, the following analysis window will If the appear:

This analysis shows the 95%-level, the maximum level, and the minimum level. The 95%-level indicates the value that is not exceeded 95% of the time. For more details, click on the buttons in the analysis window.

With the EN 50160 text protocol, all results of the EN 50160 analysis can be output in text format. A text protocol can be printed out, copied into another document, or it can be saved. Harmonics shows the measuring results of the individual channels. Tolerance range THD + %, ordinal value + %, maximum values, and time of occurrence. Long term Flicker shows the tolerance range, the 95%-value, the maximum value and the time and the total number of events. Voltage Variations shows the tolerance range for Umin and Umax, the 95%-value, the maximum values, the time and the number of events. Imbalance shows the tolerance range, the 95%-value, the maximum value, the time and the number of events. Mains Frequency 100% shows the tolerance range for min/max, the 95%-value, the maximum value, the time and the number of events. Line frequency 100% has the same functions as Line frequency 95%. Events shows the total, the peak value, and the maximum duration of voltage dips, 90%-nominal voltage, short-term interruptions, as well as long-term interruptions.

Day, Free Interval, 10-Min and 3-Second Data


With respect to Day, Free Interval, and 10-min and 3-second data the following analyses can be performed:

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Harmonics

The harmonic analysis provides functions for the statistic assessment of harmonics by means of Statistics, Statistics 3-sec. Max Statistics 3-sec. RMS and by means of RMS value trends and Maximum value trends of harmonics. Time and statistic representations are available.
See also EN50160: Harmonics, Interharmonics

When selecting a harmonic, e.g. the 3rd harmonic, the representation can be based on either absolute or the first harmonic or the nominal voltage. This function is also available when selecting equal harmonic content.

or or or or and The RMS-value (Absolute, Relative based on the first harmonic or Relative based on the nominal voltage) of any harmonic or of the first harmonic during a measuring interval is represented. This function is availbale for day, free interval, 10 min and 3 sec intervals. When selecting a harmonic, e.g. the 3rd harmonic, the representation can be based on either absolute or the first harmonic or the nominal voltage.

( )

with

( ) not possible
96

additionally with

and

is possible

or

and

The maximum value (Absolute, Relative based on the first harmonic or Relative based on the nominal voltage) of any harmonic or of the first harmonic during a measuring interval is represented. This function is availbale for day, free interval, 10 min and 3 sec intervals. The maximum value is represented using a measuring interval of 320 ms. When selecting a harmonic, e.g. the 3 harmonic, the representation can be based on either absolute or the first harmonic or the nominal voltage.
rd

additionally with
Flicker

and

is possible

The flicker analysis provides functions for Flicker statistics, for the evaluation of Short-term flicker intensity and Long-term flicker intensity. Trends as functions of time, as well as a statistic assessment of the levels is given. Various types of analyses are available for different sources of data. See also EN50160: Flicker, Flicker intensity This flicker intensity is calculated over 10 minutes. This flicker intensity is calculated over 2 hours.

97

RMS Values

Voltage RMS values are analyzed in this window. Only certain analyses are available for different sources of data. Using icon combinations, mean values, minimum, and maximum can be analyzed.

See also EN50160: Intensity of supply voltage

The RMS value of the voltage, averaged over a measurement period, is displayed. The max RMS values of the voltage in the respective measuring interval are determined. The RMS value of the current over a custom averaging time is displayed. Both the max and the min RMS values of the current in the respective measuring interval are determined. The RMS value of the center voltage over a custom averaging time is displayed. Both the max, as well as the min RMS values of the center voltage in the respective measuring interval are determined.

The RMS value of the neutral-conductor current over a custom averaging time is displayed.

Both the max, as well as the min RMS values of the neutral-conductor current in the respective measuring interval are determined. The active power over a custom averaging time is displayed. Both the max, as well as the min RMS values of the active power in the respective measuring interval are determined. The power of the three-phase system is displayed.. The apparent power (Ieff * Ueff) over a custom averaging time is displayed. The RMS value of the reactive power over a custom averaging time is displayed. 98

Both the max, as well as the min RMS values of the reactive power in the respective measuring interval are determined. The distortion factor (P/S) over a custom averaging time is displayed. The apparent power is Ueff * Ieff. This analysis is available for files with variable averaging time. The RMS value of the frequency over a custom averaging time is displayed.

Unbalance

Time trends and statistic analyses are given for the following: Zero phase sequence system, Positive phase sequence system, and Negative phase sequence system, as well as the ratio between Negative-/Positive phase sequence system. See also EN50160: Unbalance The RMS value of the voltage of the zero phase sequence system, averaged over the measurement period, is displayed. The RMS value of the voltage of the positive phase sequence system, averaged over the measurement period, is shown. The RMS value of the voltage of the negative phase sequence system, averaged over the measurement period, is displayed. The ratio between the negative phase sequence system and the positive phase sequence system, averaged over the measurement period, is displayed.

99

Frequency

The following features are available for frequency analysis: Mean values, Frequency statistics, Frequency minimums and Frequency maximums. The level-time diagrams and statistic analyses are displayed. See also EN50160: Line frequency The mean value of the frequency, averaged over the measurement period, is displayed. The maximum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed. The minimum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed.

100

Ripple Control Analysis

The following features are available for the ripple control analysis: Voltage RMS value, Current RMS value, Active power, Center voltage, Center current and Power factor. The level-time diagram and statistic analyses are displayed. The mean value of the frequency, averaged over the measurement period, is displayed. The frequency mean values are measured over the measurement period. The maximum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed. The minimum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed. The minimum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed. The minimum value of the frequency in the measurement period, averaged over 10 s, is displayed.

101

Transient Analysis

There are 4 channels for the analysis of transients. Level-time diagrams and spectra are displayed.

Event Analysis

102

In addition to the event analysis in the EN50160 protocol, a detailed display of overvoltages, voltage dips, short-term interruptions, long-term interruptions, as well as ripple control events, transient events, harmonics (2-50 harm.), RMS value deviations (lower limit, upper limit, average limit), and instantaneous value deviations (edge/level, enveloping sine, constant value, phase shift) is possible. Using the event icon , a preliminary selection of events in table-format can be called.

This table includes all events that may occur during a measurement. The number of active events, that have actually occurred, is listed in the right column. Individual event types can be selected by clicking the left mouse key. For selecting all active events, click the left mouse key on . To select all events click on .

To obtain a more detailed list of selected events by type, unit start time, duration, and extreme value, click on . To sort the entries, click on the labeling fields in the heading line (e.g. click on extreme value all entries regarding the extreme value are sorted). The first click activates a descending sorting action, the second click activates an ascending sorting action (similar to Windows-Explorer).

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To view other events, or to add new events to those already selected, highlight the desired events in the preliminary selection list, followed by clicking on By clicking on .

, the selected events are displayed in a CBEMA-diagram.

In this type of diagram, the events selected in the event list are presented in graphic form. Select the cursor shape Snap to point to highlight individual events. Double clicking on events activates their detailed analysis in an analysis window. Direct selection of the CBEMA-function is also possible using .

With the Event On-line Display, the selection is performed as described above. While in on-line mode, the user is also able to load new data at any time by clicking the icon.

The preliminary selection list also states the start and end time, as well as the duration of the measurement.

104

Instantaneous Value Analysis


With respect to instantaneous values, the level-time diagrams and the frequency analysis are displayed in this window.

Regarding the set channels, the level-time diagrams of the measured quantities and the frequency spectra can be displayed. The frequency resolution of the spectra increases by the number of points recorded. Measuring Time
0.16 s 0.32 s 0.64 s

Points Recorded
1024 2048 4096

Frequency Resolution
6.25 Hz 3.125 Hz 1.563 Hz

If currents and voltages were recorded, the spectra for active and reactive power can be displayed for the individual phases. Regarding the recorded measurement values, the mean and RMS values can be displayed in table-format using the points recorded per trigger event.

105

Diagram
Displaying Measurement Values
The existing measurement data can be displayed in various formats. It is possible to display the level-time diagram of the measured quantities and to perform a respective statistical analysis. Each graphics window can be opened several times. The data is maintained in all windows. The name of the parameter file of this measurement and the analysis function are given in the caption of the diagrams. The display functions are selected using the appropriate icons. Inactive analysis functions are dimmed. Displays the level-time diagram of a given measured quantity. Displays the cumulative frequency function of a given measurement function.

The Diagram Icon-Bar

This icon-bar enables operating and visualizing of curves.

Selection of a time range is made using either the two red cursor lines or a rectangle. To make your selection press the right mouse key and click the desired variant in zoom mode. Using the cursor lines, the selected range must be highlighted such way that it is surrounded by a rectangular frame. For . When zooming in on a segment or detail using the zooming click on rectangle, press and hold the mouse key to highlight the desired zoom range. The highlighted area will be enlarged once the mouse key is released. Undoes the last zoom step. Returns to the full data record. Changes between absolute and relative time display. Changes between line display and the display of individual measurement points. The latter may be time-intensive if large amounts of data are involved.

106

Using this key, the measurement data of individual phases can be hidden. Using this key, the different display fields for the cursor positions (which curve, time, value) can be hidden or viewed. Using this key, the data displayed can be output in an ASCII protocol. The data can be printed, saved, or copied into another template. Copies the ASCII protocol into a file. Copies the diagram onto the clipboard. Print diagram. Using this key, a curve can be selected for scaling the Y-axis. Prevents the over writing of the current diagram. It is possible to load diagrams from different data records and display in seperate windows. Adds the next selected analysis to the existing diagram. Thus, several curves can be compared in the same analysis. It is only possible to superimpose measurement data with the same time resolution and the same analysis time. The setting refresh occurs. overwrites the diagram during on-line mode whenever a

These windows indicate the start and end time of the displayed measurement data. Clicking the cursor with the right mouse key, the cursor mode in the field

can be changed from snap-in on measurement values (cursor snap to point) to

custom positioning (cursor free).

The windows on the left indicate the name of the measurement data, the date, the time, the value, and the unit. Select the cursor form snap to point for this feature.

107

This display indicates the time and amplitude difference between the two cursors. The time difference is always displayed; the amplitude difference will only be displayed if the cursors are positioned on curves with the same units. Switches to full-screen display. Returns to standard display. Closes the displayed diagram.

Mouse Keys
When clicking the right mouse key, the following tools are available: Cursormode

Change zoom function from cursors to triangle symbol

Insert text into the analysis window

Show lines of grid Show Cursor Print diagram

108

Transfer
Selection of Measuring Device
Communication with the TOPAS 1000 is effected via Ethernet, serial direct connection, or modem. For creating the link to the TOPAS 1000, the menu Transfer/Select Station must be called first.

Then, click the appropriate button to make your selection with respect to one of the ports described below.

Ethernet
A network can be comprised of several analysis computers and several TOPAS 1000 units.

Using the menu item Options/Stations, several measuring devices can be registered in a so-called Station list.

By clicking the Transfer/Select Station button, a port and the desired measuring device contained in this list can be selected. the TOPAS can either be contacted directly or via its station name.

109

It is also possible to identify the TOPAS 1000 by means of the five-digit serial number combination. The serial number is located on the name-plate at the back of the measuring device. An example for a valid serial number is PQA74485.

This number must be entered in the following text box. Normally, the Ethernet is used for communication between the TOPAS and the analysis computer.

Serial Direct Connection


Using this window, the operating software is given the necessary information about the serial port and the baud rate used when communicating with the TOPAS 1000. The serial port should be used only when communication via Ethernet is impossible.

Modem
The communication via modem requires the selection of the serial port to which the modem is connected, as well as of the baud rate. Furthermore, either tone or pulse dialing must be specified, and the telephone number must be entered.

110

Initialising

The Initialise command forwards the loaded definition file to the measuring device. The measuring device is newly initialised, and a Reset is performed. A new measuring process begins. CAUTION This will delete all measuring data stored in the measuring device!

Change Settings

The settings for trigger conditions, recording modes, memory management, hardware settings, and CBEMA display can be changed while measuring using the Settings function. After the changes have been finalized in the parameter file, they can be transferred to the measuring device by clicking the OK button, followed by answering the subsequent question with YES.

Retrieve Measuring Data

The command Retrieve Measured Data transfers interim results from the measuring device to the analysis computer. The transfer of measuring data may be performed at any time, without affecting the current measurement. After activating Retrieve Measured Data, the target directory must be entered in the window below followed by confirming with Done. The name given in the field File Name is unimportant.

111

The window shows the source and the target directories complete with data. The event files to be transferred are clicked and copied into the directory of the analysis computer (i.e., target directory) using . The data size to be

transferred is shown in the window

. The portion already copied is indicated in the window

To cancel the copying process, select Cancel. In case several event files have been highlighted for copying, deactivating individual files is possible by clicking one more time. If all highlighted files are to be deactivated use .

112

Clicking the icon the target directory.

, returns to the window Data Transfer, where new event files can be selected and transferred into

Subsequent clicking of the

icon opens the Analysis Window, where the selected data can be analyzed.

On-line Display

The On-line Display shows instantaneous values and frequency spectra of the recorded measuring data onto the screen. To activate the on-line display, click on Transfer/On-line.
The window Oscilloscope Refresh appears.

By clicking the Hardware Settings button, a window is opened for configuring the TOPAS 1000 for the on-line measurement Input channels are freely configurable. Unused channels should be set to off.

113

The number of measuring points affects the data processing speed, as well as the frequency resolution for the spectral analysis.
Number of points 1 024 2 048 4 096 8 192 16 384 32 768 65 536 Frequency resolution 6.25 Hz 3.125 Hz 1.563 Hz 0.781 Hz 0.391 Hz 0.195 Hz 0.098 Hz Measuring time 160 ms 320 ms 640 ms 1.28 s 2.56 s 5.12 s 10.24 s

Click on the button Oscilloscope to start the on-line measurement. To load new measuring data, click on the icon . By clicking the icons in the icon bar, the quantities to be displayed can be called. Only activated icons can be selected. For distinguishing purposes, they are NOT dimmed.

Input channels

Phase representations

Display type

Mean and RMS values

After selecting an input channel, followed by clicking on one of the display types, the recorded measured quantities are displayed. It is possible to display Level-time diagrams, determine Frequency spectra, or display the RMS and mean values for a measuring interval.

114

The mean and RMS value list can be used to check the correct connection of the sensors. In this case, the clip-on probe was connected incorrectly.

115

To display several measurement values simultaneously, select Add channel, and clicking the button Display type.

, followed by clicking the desired Input

Event On-line Display

The Event On-line Display! is effectively a multi-functional multimeter, and displays the current measurement values. It is a useful tool for setting trigger thresholds.

The window Refresh enables changing over between timer-controlled and manual refresh. Analysis of the Event On-line Display.
Clicking the button Events in the window Oscilloscope refresh displays those events that occurred at the current time. The display type can be a list, i.e. an Event Analysis , or a CBEMA curve .

116

Clicking the icon Event List provides detailed data.

Transient On-line Display

The Transient On-line Display displays the current instantaneous values and the frequency spectra on the screen.

117

In the window Hardware Settings - Transient Analysis, the channels to be displayed can be selected. Unrequired channels must be put to for speed purposes. In the window , the number of measurement values is selected for a measurement. The measuring duration depends on the specified sampling rate. The sampling rate can be specified under the menu item Settings/Recording Modes, selecting between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. The number of measuring points affects the data processing speed, as well as the frequency resolution for the spectral analysis. The window Refresh enables changing over between timer-controlled and manual refresh.

For display of the measured quantities, see On-line display above.

118

Service
Calibration

This function gives the gains for the eight measuring channels and the data stored in the sensors. The gains can be altered in the field and can be confirmed by clicking .

By clicking the button EPROM, a window is opened, containing the calibration data of the connected channels.

119

means that no sensors have been connected, or that the This display sensor designation cannot be read. For calibration purposes, these values can be overwritten. If the designation of the sensor has changed, the measurement program cannot recognize it any more.
With , the data present in the fields is forwarded to the measuring device.

120

Self-test

The self-test provides the following information containing the data of the measuring device: System time of the measuring device Options installed in the measuring device Offset of analogue measuring channels RMS value of noise of the measuring channels Gain of the measuring channels Sensors connected Voltage of the buffer battery Temperature of the buffer battery Measuring data present at the measuring device Free memory present on the measuring device

121

Set Time

The field

indicates the time setting of the analysis computer. The field specifies the current time at the measurement computer. Using the key ,

both time settings can be synchronised. Using this key, the time settings can also be halted and restarted. transfers the current time to the measurement computer. closes the window.

122

TOPAS New Installation

Using this menu item, a new measurement software is installed at the TOPAS 1000. This new measurement software and the analysis software are provided together. WARNING For proper functioning, the software version installed on the measuring device must be the same as on the analysis computer.

Set Baud Rate at the TOPAS

123

Using this menu item, the baud rate can be set of the TOPAS 1000. Please note the following: First, a connection must be established via the menu item Transfer/Serial Port. There are 4 different baud rates to chose from. (9600, 19200, 57600 and 115200). Once the connection is established, the new baud rate can be changed. Caution! As soon as the new baud rate has been transferred, the measurement device must be rebooted using Service/Reset TOPAS to update the new baud rate.

TCP/IP Settings

124

The parameters shown in the Settings window above depend on the properties of your network
TCP/IP Number You must assign a statistic IP address. This address can only appear once throughout the network.

Subnetmask The Subnetmask depends on the address class (Class C in the above example).

Gateway A gateway is required to access a TOPAS from a location outside your network. To operate a TOPAS via WAN networks, enter and activate the correct gateway address.

After confirming with OK, the TOPAS needs approx. 30 seconds to reboot the system. Your network administrator must perform these settings. Note: This function is available as of version 3.02, therefore, we recommend a system update.

Reset the TOPAS

Using this menu item, a specified reset of the measurement device can be performed. e.g.: If a new baud rate is to be set at the TOPAS.

125

Modemstring TOPAS

This menu item is used to select the type of modem used for communication between the TOPAS and the analysis computer.

Login TOPAS User

126

With this menu item, all Users can register with their Code as defined under Options/User Management.

TOPAS Permission Code

This menu item provides a display indicating the options of the measuring device.

127

Window
List

The menu item Window shows a list of the currently opened display backgrounds. By clicking on the windows designation, the window is placed into the foreground.

Print

When clicking on Print, a selection list will appear containing all windows currently opened. Individual windows can be selected using the mouse, and the selected item will be printed upon clicking the OK button.

Clipboard

When clicking on Clipboard, a selection list will appear containing all windows currently opened. Individual windows can be selected using the mouse, and the selected item can be copied onto the clipboard. Using this method, various analyses (diagrams), events, and trigger settings can be copied into a Word or Excel document. WARNING Only one window can be copied onto the clipboard at a time. 128

Options
Select Language

Using this menu item, the user language can be specified.

Configure Stations

In this menu item, several measuring devices with station names and device names can be recorded. (See item Transfer in the reference manual)

129

User Management

This menu item enables the activation of the password protection feature, as well as the specification of the functions the individual user can access. By clicking the button User, a list of all users is displayed. The numbers 0 and 1 indicate the access status, i.e., 0 = access denied, 1 = access permitted.

130

Table

Decimal separator Select the formatting of the files to be exported into spreadsheet programs (text file). Depending on your location, the decimal separator is either a comma or a period. Please select the setting that suits you best. Column separator A tab is inserted as a separator when exporting into spreadsheet programs. Save changes The settings are saved as defaults. These defaults remain effective even after exiting the program and restarting the system

Diagram-Attributes

131

Any color and line thickness can be selected for each individual curve. The settings are saved as defaults. These defaults remain effective even after exiting the program and restarting the system.

Help

This menu item provides help for program operation.


Contents provides an itemised table of contents of the available help information. Index provides a list of keywords linked to the respective help topics. Context provides specific help texts for the individual controls. Info contains information regarding the software version.

132

Frequently asked questions regarding the TOPAS 1000 analysis software 1 Network
1.1 I cannot find the TOPAS 1000 in the network environment. A: Win95/NT: Install driver for the network card. Install protocols. Check authorizations. 1.2 Access via the network environment is impossible with WinNT. A: Perform drive mapping using the Explorer.

1.3 I connected the Topas via a HUB to the network, no light is on. A: The cable used connected incorrectly. is not transposed (i.e. crossed over internally), or damaged, or

Hardware
2.1 The power indicator flashes when the device is being turned on. A: Either the accumulator battery is damaged, the power pack is not connected, or the Topas is not connected to the mains. 2.2 The device turns off after 6-10 minutes. A: See item 2.1

Communication with the Topas 1000


3.1 No communication can be established via Ethernet. A: See items 1.1-1.3

3.2 The menu item Transfer/Select measuring device was performed successfully, however, communication is not possible. A: Check flashing of device LEDs. Slow flashing - Emergency program (Def-file not found, in Autoexec.bat Mprog4 is loaded before Pqa_02) 3.3 A: 3.4 A: No communication can be established via RS232 (baud rate, Com-Port). Select correct baud rate (default:57600) and the correct port. Communication via RS232 is present, however, the transfer slows down and ultimately stops. This problem occurs frequently with laptops. To solve the problem, the power management in system control must be DEACTIVATED. 3.5 A: Communication via modem is not possible. Is the modem configuration correct? Is the line in order? Is the telephone number correct?

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3.6 A:

Communication via modem was successfully established, however, the transfer slows down and ultimately stops. The Hardware handshake was not activated.(e.g.:U.S.Robotics AT&F1) Deactivate the power management!

3.7 A:

Error message: Communication interrupted. The device possibly crashed, or the connection was interrupted.

4
4.1 A: 4.2 A:

Settings
No level can be entered in the trigger settings. The field must be activated/deactivated using the right mouse key. Although a trigger level can be specified, the measuring device does not record anything. No database was selected (check the boxes at 3sec, oscilloscope, RMS values, ripple control, transients). Or, the set level is too high. Check if TOPAS time setting is correct. There is also the possibility that the values selected for the averaging time and/or the recording period are too large.

4.3 A:

My device has been running for 5 minutes, and no analysis data has been recorded. The 10-min database receives the first analysis entry after t >10 minutes. Check if the time is set correctly at the TOPAS.

4.4 A: 4.5 A:

My device continuously records ripple control signals (also into other databases). The ripple control trigger is activated (box is checked, level is activated) What does post-trigger, averaging, recording period, hold-off... mean? Averaging: Measuring points are gathered over period and than averaged. Recording period: Averaged points are recorded over a period and saved in a data record. Pre/Post-trigger: negative value = Pre-trigger; Specifies the amount of time recorded prior to a trigger event. Positive value = Post-trigger; Specifies the amount of time recorded after a trigger event. Hold-off: Duration subsequent to a trigger event in which the trigger does not respond. !!This value should not be too small (>5sec.)!!

4.6 A: 4.8 A:

Which trigger records when? Comparison of different trigger possibilities. The device records longer, although an end time is specified for the measuring time. The local time setting at the Topas is incorrect (battery??).

134

5
5.1 A:

Initialising/Change settings
What is the difference between initialising and changing of settings? Initialising: File new; All settings can be chosen individually. A NEW MEASUREMENT with new settings is being prepared. During initialising, the old TOPAS data is deleted. Change settings: With respect to an existing measurement, trigger levels, recording modes, etc. can be changed at a later point in time. Topas does not commence a new measurement, but changes the settings of the existing measurement.

5.2 A:

How do initialisation errors occur? They are communication errors that occur during Def-file transfer. Initialisation errors occur when the Def-file and the respective test sum are not synchronized!

5.3 A:

Can the file name of a new measurement contain more than 8 digits? A Def-file must be saved according to DOS RULES. The file name can have a maximum of 8 digits (a-z, A-Z, 0-9). The Settings window provides a field for entering comments. Furthermore, no special characters ( @ ...) can be used since DOS interprets the ASCII-CODE differently than e.g. Win95/NT.

5.4 A: 5.5 A:

Why can my VDF-file not be called Knig@11 Strae in Kln.vdf? See item 5.3 I performed a new initialisation. Now, I am getting the message Initialisation error and the LED on the device flashes slowly. The initialisation was incorrect, the Def-file has been deleted, and no other file has been renamed as the Def-file. When the measurement program cannot locate a Def-file, it automatically goes into an emergency program which can be accessed only via Ethernet. To get the measurement program running again, proceed as follow: In the directory C:\PQA_02\KOMM a *.NDF must be renamed *.DEF.

5.6 A:

I have created a new VDF-file, saved it, and sent it with change settings to the device. However, the new settings are not accepted by the device. To transfer a new VDF-file to the device, use the menu item initialising (see 5.1). The command change settings only changes an existing measurement.

5.7 A:

Why cant I change all settings with Change settings? Many settings relate to the entire measurement in the entire time interval. It does not make sense to first assign channel 1 to UL1 and later to IL1. The analysis would not make any sense. The same applies to nominal quantities, the measuring time, etc.

5.8 A:

What is the difference between a VDF- and a DEF-file? VDF: Measurement template. Any change is possible. Using a VDF-file, one can create, e.g., a general template and derive other VDF-files from it. DEF: Is the actual measurement. This file can be analyzed.

135

6
6.1 A: 6.2 A:

Transfer
No data can be copied although red bars are present. Select lateral database; time range selection too short; communication is not possible. Only blue bars are visible. The Topas does not contain database files. However, there are imported files in the previously selected directory.

6.3 A:

Difference between red and blue bars. Red bars: Database files inside the Topas. Blue bars: Database file on PC hard drive.

6.4 A:

A bar is very long, the start time is 1.1.190 and 2 GB Bytes are displayed. Incorrect time entry in the index file (usually 0). Is triggered when the Hold-off is to short (<5sec).

6.5 A:

Although I started a new measurement, the transfer window shows a data record that was recorded 30 weeks earlier. The directory selected when performing the menu item Retrieve measuring data already contains a measurement bearing the same name as the measurement at the TOPAS.

6.6 A:

What does the message Cannot copy data record... mean? The data record is still open in the TOPAS and its writing has not been completed. Wait for a short and the whole data record can be copied.

6.7 A:

The cursors move slowly. A lot of data, i.e., MB, have been selected in the Transfer/Analysis window. The larger the files the slower the bytes-display.

7
7.1 A:

Analysis
When I load a measurement, no picture appears - the computer seems to have crashed. You are attempting to load a large measurement (>5MB). It is advantageous to load portions of a measurement. The analysis is quicker and the waveforms can be more easily.

7.2 A: 7.3 A:

What does SyncByte error mean? SYNCBYTES are written into the database file to catch incorrect or old, invalid files. 50 Hz is constantly shown during frequency analysis. A sensor is connected to the channel (The channel hangs in mid-air). Default values are written.

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8
8.1 A.: 8.2 A:

Miscellaneous
I have installed the TOPAS from scratch, and nothing is working. The new Def-file does not exist. the TOPAS runs on the emergency program- See item 5.5 I have correctly set all the trigger options, and yet the device only records 10-min, free interval, day and week files. The authorization codes for extra featuresare assigned incorrectly or not at all. The TOPAS is running only the base package options. Is it also possible to measure 8 currents? Yes. The value is properly scaled, however, the designation in the analysis program is wrong. Although sensors have been connected, the LEDs are flashing slowly/fast. The current sensor was declared voltage sensor in the hardware settings, or vice versa. The nominal voltage is too high/low.

8.3 A: 8.4 A:

8.5 A: 8.6 A: 8.7 A:

My device does not record any data, and the date at the TOPAS is 1990. Battery broken/not connected - time is 1990. To correct the time setting use Time. Long file names Not allowed. See item 5.3 Is the device Year-2000-compatible? Yes.

Known Error Sources:


Hold-off too small, recording period too long Data transfer over 5-10 MB was selected. Analysis over 2-4MB was selected. Time setting on 1990 Hard disk full (minimum 50 MB free memory) Once analysis is started (Labwindows Runtime Engine runs) Installation/De-installation routine crashes

137

TOPAS V 3.10 NEW FUNCTIONS


EN 50160
Limits for 100% Overvoltage and voltage dips

Display of limits and printout of the text protocol.

EN50160 Textprotocol export to the Internet Browser, Word or Excel Example: Export to Word (1. Page)

138

Harmonics

139

Absolute values for THD, THDI, THDcap and THDind


Display of absolute values for THD, THDI, THDcap and THDind for voltage and current as xt-display and spectrum. Available for day, long interval and 10 Min. average values.

Example: yt-display of the THD voltage (The time resolution is enhanced to 1 microsecond.)

Trigger on Absolute values of voltage and current harmonics

140

Analysis of parts in the yt- and bar-chart view

Examples:

All other views and the output (average- and rms-values, phasor diagram)

into

table

are

now

related

to

the

selected

part.

141

Comfortable Selection for the display of Transients and Oscilloskope Data

Example:

142

New Features in Version 3.12


Delta RMS Values
Delta RMS Values are computed from phase voltages Vl1, Vl2, Vl3. There is no more need to use delta connection. All voltage channels can be connected from phase to earth or newtral wire.

Definition:

Vl12 = Vl1 Vl2 Vl23 = Vl2 Vl3 Vl31 = Vl3 Vl1

Vl12_1 = Vl1_1 Vl2_1 Vl23_1 = Vl2_1 Vl3_1 Vl31_1 = Vl3_1 Vl1_1

Vl12_2 = Vl1_2 Vl2_2 Vl23_2 = Vl2_2 Vl3_2 Vl31_2 = Vl3_2 Vl1_2

In Voltage/Voltage mode two delta systems are computed.

Note:

If one of the last two configurations is used delta RMS values show meaningless results. Try to avoid these connection modes except for special reason.

Where are delta RMS Values available ?

143

Switch for Harmonics, Flicker, EN50160 on Delta Voltages

If the checkbox is set all flicker and harmonic results are computed from delta voltages Vl12, Vl23, Vl3. If not flicker and harmonic results are computed from phase voltages.

Trigger:
If delta voltages are chosen all harmonic trigger conditions are also taken from delta voltages.

Active, Reactive Harmonic Power and Harmonic powerfactor:


If delta is selected the meaning of the harmonic power quantities is different to phase voltages. In delta mode the two power signals of the equivalent two phase system is displayed in diagrams. The third curve shows the toatal power which is the sum of curve one and two. To get correct power it is necessary to measure at least current I3 and current I1.

Attention:
If delta is selected nominal voltage is regarded phase to phase instead phase to earth voltage. So typicaly use and for delta for phase to earth measurement.

EN50160 Report:
If delta is selected the events Overvoltage, Dip, Short Interruption, Long Interruption are based on 10 ms delt RMS voltages as well as Flicker, Harmonics, Imbalance and voltage variations. L1 is regarded as Vl12, L2 is regarded as Vl23, and L3 is regarded as V31.

144

Diagram Export to Word, Excel and Web Bowser


The last three Icons have been added to the diagram icon bar. Export of Diagram to default web browser Export of Diagram to MS Word > Word 97 Export of Diagram to MS Excel > Excel 2000

Note:
If no action is visible after pressing the icon the target application is not available or not set up correctly. Refer to the operating manual of the target application or try to reinstall it.

The protocols look like:

Level time diagram


Company: Department: Contact: Cause of measurement: Reference:

Measurement: delta1.def Measurement Period: 14.02.2001 03:35:10,000000 - 14.02.2001 11:35:10,000000


Quantity RMS Voltage Phase1 Phase2 Phase3 Device 10 min Database Unit [V]

--

--

--

145

Excel like grid for Events


The details Event list is now fully compatible with MS Excel. The blue area can directly be copied to an Excel table (CTRL-C CTRL-V). Column width can be modified by dragging the separation lines. Pressing the buttons on top of the columns causes sorting of the table. Double click on a line opens a diagram showing the shape of the event if data exists.

Offline Configuration Facilities

Nominal / Limit values and Hardware Settings normally should not be changed after initializing a measurement or after loading measurement Data from the device. Settings have influence on offline evaluation as well as the way the device is collecting data.For example trigger conditions for events cannot be modified for already stored events. So changing these settings may cause contradictions within measured result. Although it is not recommended there are special reasons in real life to change settings of a running or already loaded measurement. Perhaps some parameters are not configured appropriately and the measurement has been running for a week and cannot be repeated. Anyway if parameters are changed afterwards the user should carefully check the results. To avoid non regular modification of the source data those changes cannot be saved and disappear after reloading the data. Use this facility with care !

146

What can be changed:

Changes in this panel have influence on the limits in EN50160 protocol. Pressing the OK button makes the changes valid. Attention: Change of all fields crossed out does not have any influence because results have been computed on the device.

Flicker, Harmonics from V12, V23, V31: Change of the check mark offline cannot change the numeric result but diagram texts and discription. Change Input Configuration:

147

For the device there is nothing different when input configuration is changed. Interpretation of current is changed to voltage a Voltage Voltage configuration is used. All units and texts appear in volts instead of current and power becomes invisible. If two wattmeter method is selected total power is computed from P1+P2 instead of P1+P2+P3.

Scale factor:
Change of the overall channel scale factors have influence on all quantities except absolute harmonics. They remain in their original scale. Event values are also scaled. This feature can be used to correct current or voltage transformer factors which were not known when configuring the measurement.

148

Alarming / Watchdog
Any event defined on the trigger panel may cause an alarm output on the parallel interface of the device and send an alarm to the notify software (see notify manual). For Topas1019 devices alarm outputs can be mapped on any outputs of the digital I/O option. On the parallel interface alarm outputs occure on Pin2..9. Pin 1 is a Watchdog Output which is toggled every second. Pin 18..25 is ground. Pulses of at least 100 ms long at the digital inputs on Pin 10,12,13 reset the optput pins.

I/O Map on parallel interface: I0 Pin10 resets I1 Pin12 resets I2 Pin13 resets I3 Pin15 resets O0 Pin2, O1 Pin3 O2 Pin4, O3 Pin5 O4 Pin6, O5 Pin7 O6 Pin8, O7 Pin9

Attention: The outputs and inputs are not isolated or protected against over voltage and have 5V TTL level.

To configure alarms ethernet file acces to the device is necessary. To get ethernet file access create a drive mapping.

After the successful mapping open the drive.

149

Open the file alarm.txt using your favorite text editor. Inside the file there is a detailed explanation of all available commands. Enter your preferred configuration and save the file. After reboot of the device the new settings are valid. The alarm.txt files remains on the device unchanged even in case of a firmware update. To reset the alarm option simply delete the file. After reboot of the device a new file including the newest features of the actual firmware is created.

GPS Option
Topas1019 only! GPS configuration is much like configuration of the alarm outputs. The file responsible for that is gps.txt. Please use ethernet file access to modify the GPS settings in gps.txt. A discription of all possible settings is included in the file. After reboot of the device the settings become valid.

To use the GPS option a a license code must be entered. Please contact the vendor to order the code. If the code for your device is already valid a black point appears in the GPS field.

150

Operating self test shows additional information on GPS.

If the whole paragraph is missing no GPS option is available (Check license code). GPS receiver NOT OK: Tells if a GPS receiver sends time packets over the serial interface If ok the number of visible satellites is shown. At least 4 satellites shold be visible. If OK the device is synchronized to GPS within a tolerance of 1 s. GPS sync pulse NOT OK If OK a sync pulse is received from the GPS receiver. The device is synchronized to GPS within a tolerance of 1 Microsecond. The GPS option con operate with time packets, sync pulse or both. The frequency of the time puls can be chosen from 1 sec to 1 min (gps.txt file). GPS receiver: Trimble Palisade Shows the type of the GPS receiver. Currently Trimble Palisade and Trimble Akku Time is supported. GPS pulse activ edge: rising

151

The edge of the GPS pulse may be configured as rising or falling. GPS pulse periode: 1.000000 The expected time between active edges of the GPS pulse is 1 sec (1 sec 1 min). GPS timezone offset: 0 If GPS timezone offset is 0 all time tags ar in UTC. To adjust time information to local timezones any offset within +86000 sec can be entered. Detail: Data of transient recordings (up to 10 MHz) and waveform data (6khz 8kHz) of different devices can be compared within a time tolerance of 1 Microsecond. The time tag is set after the analog to digital conversion of the data. This means that the actual time of a sample is earlier because of the delay of the conversion. This time is constant for each sample rate. It is a constant value of 16 samples. The delay of the transient channels is < 1 Microsecond. No automatic compensation of this delay is available at the moment.

Digital I/O Option


Topas1019 only! The digital I/O option has 3 groups of I/Os each with 12 digital lines. A group can be either 12 inputs or 12 outputs depending on order. Inputs and outpus of a group are all isolated with a common ground.

If the block marked in red is included in the status panel digital I/Os are available.

Configuration of digital I/O

152

Chose the digital menue from the hardware settings. Click each channel in the Active column you want to activate. Green checkmark is activated, red cross means not activated. Click in the field to the right to enter an individual name for the channel.

Triggering on digital inputs

Digital input signals are stored together with oscilloscope waveforms and have the same sample rate (6400 Hz typically). Set the Oscilloscope check box do turn on the recording. Set a green checkmark Set trigger on rising to the channel wich should be triggered. (activ HI event) or falling (active LO event) edge

When the trigger happens recording starts at the begin of the event and again when the event disappears. Together with the recording an event entry is written to the event database.

153

The column Extreme Value in the event table has a special meaning. Changes of the state within 0.6 sec are not treated as a separate event but increase the duration of the curren active event. Normally the value is 2, which means one rising and one falling edge. If there are more changes of the state the number is incremented for each aditional rising and falling edge.

Online mode of digital Inputs


Activate the group first.

After each refresh information about digital I/Os is available in

or

online display.

154

Clicking on

displays a diagram with the selected inputs.

Offline mode of digital Inputs

Like in online mode clicking on

displays a diagram with the selected inputs. icon is dimmed.

If no digital I/O data is included in the oscilloscope Database the

155

Summary EN50160
Definitions
Supply Points Point where the customers system is connected to the public line. Note: This point can differ, e.g., the point of measurement or the point of connection to the public line. Supply Voltage The RMS value of the voltage at the supply point at a specific time, measured for a specific time interval.

Nominal Voltage of a Line (Un) The voltage defining or identifying a line. The voltage to which certain operational characteristics are related.

Agreed Supply Voltage (Uc) Normally, the agreed supply voltage Uc is equal to the nominal voltage Un. If the power supplier and the customer negotiate a supply point voltage that differs from the nominal voltage, this voltage is called the agreed supply voltage Uc.

Low-voltage (LV) Within the meaning of this standard, the voltages of the power supply, whose nominal value has a maximum 1000V (RMS value).

Medium-voltage (MV) Within the meaning of this standard, the voltages of the power supply, whose nominal value is between 1kV and 35kV (RMS value).

Normal Operating Conditions The operating state of a distribution network providing satisfied power demand, performed switching actions, and resolved disturbances through automatic protection systems without the presence of special conditions due to external influences or larger supply shortages.

Line-traveling Disturbances An electromagnetic phenomenon that spreads throughout any network using the networks lines. In some cases, the phenomena also travel past transformers and enter networks of a different voltage level. These disturbances can reduce the functionality of devices, units, and systems, or cause damage.

Frequency of the Supply Voltage Repeat rate of the first harmonic (fundamental frequency) of the supply voltage, measured during a specific time interval.

Voltage Variation The increase or decrease of the voltage RMS value due to changes of the overall load within a distribution network or within a part of a distribution network. Rapid Voltage Variation A change of the RMS or peak values of a voltage located between two consecutive voltage levels with a specific, but undefined duration caused by changes to a single load.

156

Voltage Fluctuation A series of voltage variations or a periodic change of the envelope of the voltage curve (IEV 161-08-05). Flicker Impression of inconsistency of visual sensations caused by light stimuli with time fluctuating luminances or spectral distribution (IEV 161-08-13). Note: Voltage fluctuations cause changes in the luminance of lamps that can cause an optically noticeable phenomenon called flicker. Flicker is disturbing above a certain limit value. This disturbance increases rapidly with the amplitude of the fluctuation. At specific repeat rates, even very small amplitudes can be disturbing.

Flicker Intensity The intensity of the flicker disturbance is defined by the UIE-IEC-Flicker Measuring Method and is assessed using the following quantities: The short-term flicker intensity ( Pst ) is determined for ten consecutive minutes on each day of the observation period. The long-term flicker intensity ( P ) is determined for two hours on each day of the observation period. It is calculated lt using the following formula applied to 12 consecutive

Pst -values each belonging to a 2-hour interval. =


3

P
Voltage Dip

lt

i =1

12

3 st ,i

12

A sudden drop in the supply voltage to a value between 90% and 1% of the agreed voltage Uc, shortly followed by the reestablished original voltage level. As agreed, the duration of a voltage dip is between 10 milliseconds and 1 minute. The intensity of the voltage dip is defined as the difference between the RMS value of the voltage during the dip and the agreed voltage Uc. Voltage variations that do not reduce the voltage to values below 90% of the agreed voltage are not regarded as dips.

Interruption of Supply A state, where the voltage is less than 1% of the agreed voltage Uc at the supply point. There are two categories of supply interruptions: planned supply interruptions, i.e., the customer is notified in advance so scheduled work on the supply network can be performed. random supply interruptions caused by continuous or temporary disturbances. Their occurrence is often related to external influences, system failures, or other types of disturbances. Random supply interruptions are categorised as follows: long-term interruptions (over three minutes) caused by a permanent fault. short-term interruptions (up to three minutes) caused by a temporary fault. Note: The customer can reduce the effects of planned supply interruptions to a minimum by taking appropriate measures. Random supply interruptions, however, are unpredictable mostly stochastic events.

Temporary Overvoltage An oscillating overvoltage at a specific location with a relatively long duration, and no or only slight damping. Note: Temporary overvoltages are normally caused by switching or disturbances (e.g., sudden load drop, single-pole error, non-linearities). Transient Overvoltage A short-term oscillating or non-oscillating overvoltage that is usually very damped and lasts a few milliseconds or less. Note: Transient overvoltages are normally caused by lightning, switching, or tripping of fuses. The rise time of transient overvoltages varies between less than one microsecond and a few milliseconds.

157

Harmonic Voltage A sinusoidal voltage with a frequency being an integral multiple (ordinal number) of the frequency of the first harmonic of the supply voltage. Harmonic voltages can be assessed as follows: individually: using their amplitudes (uh) as related to the first harmonic amplitude U1, h being the ordinal number of the harmonic. together: e.g., by using the total harmonic distortion, THD, calculated using the formula stated below:

THD =

u
h=2

40

2 h

Note: Harmonics within the supply voltage are caused by the harmonic currents of non-linear loads and feed-ins connected to the different voltage levels within the network. These harmonic currents lead to respective harmonic voltages at line impedances. The causes of harmonic currents are almost always customer devices with non-linear current-voltage-characteristics. Harmonic currents and line imdepances, and hence harmonic voltages at the supply point vary with time.

Interharmonic Voltage A sinusoidal voltage with a frequency located between the frequencies of the harmonics, i.e., the frequency of the voltage is not an integral multiple of the frequency of the first harmonic. Note: Interharmonic voltages of closely adjacent frequencies can occur simultaneously, forming a wide-band spectrum.

Voltage Unbalance A state within a three-phase network, where the RMS values of the outer-ground-voltages or the angles between consecutive phases are not equal.

Superimposed Signaling Voltages A signal that superimposes the supply voltage used for transmitting information across the public power supply network to the customer. There are three types of signaling voltages within public distribution networks: Audiofrequency ripple control signals: Sinusoidal signaling voltages that superimpose the supply voltage in a frequency range between 110 Hz and 3000 Hz. Carrier frequency signals: Sinusoidal signaling voltages that superimpose the supply voltage in a frequency range between 3 kHz and 148.5 kHz. Signal marks on the supply voltage: Short-term voltage variations (transients) that superimpose the supply voltage at selected points on the voltage curve.

158

Application of EN50160
This standard stipulates the essential characteristics of the supply voltage at the supply point to the customer in public low and medium-voltage networks under normal operating conditions. This standard does not apply: with respect to the operation subsequent to a disturbance, and with respect to temporary supply measures used to supply customers during service and construction work, or to minimise the extent and the duration of supply failures; in cases where the system of the customer or the equipment do not meet the relevant standards or technical connection stipulations, or where the limit values regarding the release of line-traveling disturbances is exceeded; in cases where the generating systems do not meet the relevant standards or the technical connection stipulations with regard to the power supply network (e.g. self-generating units); in special situations the power supplier cannot influence, particularly with * unusual weather conditions or natural disasters * disturbances caused by third parties * measures introduced by public and regulatory authorities * industrial actions (pursuant to judicial regulations) * force majeure * supply shortages due to external influences This standard may be replaced in part or in its entirety by contractual agreements between the individual customer and the power supplier. The characteristics of the supply voltage described in this standard are not deemed to be used as values for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), or as limit values for the release of line-traveling disturbances in public networks.

Characteristics of Low and Medium-Voltage


Line Frequency
The line frequency of the supply voltage is 50 Hz. Under normal operating conditions, the 10-second mean value of the fundamental frequency in a distribution network can be located in the following ranges: with connection to an interconnected grid 50 Hz +/- 1% (i.e., 49.5 to 50.5 Hz) during 95% of one week 50 Hz +4% / -6% (i.e., 47 to 52 Hz) during 100% of one week without connection to an interconnected grid (e.g., insular supply or distribution networks) 50 Hz +/- 2% (i.e., 49 to 51 Hz) during 95% of one week 50 Hz +/-15% (i.e., 42.5 to 57.5 Hz) during 100% of one week

Intensity of Supply Voltage


The standardized nominal voltage Un for public low-voltage networks is with respect to three-phase networks with three conductors: Un = 230 V between the outers with respect to three-phase networks with four conductors: Un = 230 V between outer and neutral conductor

159

Low-voltage Variation
Under normal operating conditions without paying attention to supply interruptions, 95% of the 10-minute mean values of the RMS value of the supply voltage of each weekly interval are supposed to be within the range of U +/- 10%

Fast Voltage Variation


Fast supply voltage variations are mainly caused by load changes in customer systems, or by switching actions within the network. Under normal operating conditions, a fast voltage variation does not exceed 5% (4%) of the nominal voltage (agreed voltage Uc). Under special circumstances, however, fast but short voltage variations up to 10% (6%) of Un (Uc) can occur several times a day. A voltage variation leading to a supply voltage of less than 90% of Un is deemed a voltage dip. (The round brackets contain the medium-voltage values.)

Flicker Intensity
Under normal operating conditions, the flicker intensity due to voltage variations must not exceed the value P=1 during 95% of any weekly period. Note: The reaction to flicker is subjective and can be very different based on the cause of the flicker and its duration. In some cases, P=1 is already deemed undesirable, whereas in other cases higher P-values are not disturbing.

Voltage Dips
Voltage dips occur mainly because of errors in customer systems or in the public network. Therefore, voltage dips are practically unpredictable and mostly random events. Its annual number of occurrences fluctuates depending on the type of distribution network, as well as on the monitored point within the network. Furthermore, their annual occurrence with respect to time can be very irregular. Reference values: Under normal operating conditions, the expected number of voltage dips during the course of one year is between several 10 and 1000. Generally, the majority of voltage dips lasts less than 1 second reaching depths of less than 60%. Occasionally, voltage dips can also occur over a longer period of time having a deeper dip. In some demographic regions, voltage dips between 10% and 15% Un, caused by load circuits in customer systems, can occur rather frequently.

Short Interruption of the Supply Voltage


Reference values: Under normal operating conditions, short supply voltage interruptions occur with a frequency of several ten up to several hundred per year. Approximately 70% of short supply interruptions last less than 1 second. Note: Some publications state that short supply interruptions last no longer than 1 minute, but there are in fact protective systems being used that require interruptions of up to 3 minutes to prevent longer supply interruptions.

Long Interruption of the Supply Voltage


Random supply interruptions are mostly caused by external events or interventions that cannot be prevented by the power supplier. Due to big differences between systems and network structures in different countries, and unpredictable influences through third parties and weather, it is impossible to give typical values for the frequency and the mean duration of long supply interruptions. Reference values: Depending on the location, between 10 and 50 long voltage interruptions over 3 minutes can occur under normal operating conditions during the course of one year. Reference values for scheduled supply interruptions are not given since the interruptions must be announced in advance.

160

Temporary Overvoltage between Outer and Ground


Low-voltage A temporary line frequency-related overvoltage normally occurs when the public network or the customer system has a fault. The overvoltage will disappear once the disturbance is resolved or changed over. Under normal operating conditions, these overvoltages can assume the voltage value of the outer due to a shifting neutral point in a three-phase system. Reference values (low-voltage): In some circumstances, a short-circuit on the high-voltage side of a transformer can cause overvoltages on the low-voltage side while a short-circuit current is flowing. Normally, these overvoltages do not exceed 1.5 kV. Medium-voltage A temporary line frequency-related overvoltage normally occurs when the public network or the customer system has an earth fault. The overvoltage will disappear once the disturbance is resolved or changed over. The expected value of such an overvoltage depends on the way the network is earthed. In networks with a rigidly or semi-rigidly earthed neutral point, the overvoltage should normally not exceed a value of 2.0 Uc. The type of earth is given by the power supplier.

Transient Overvoltages between Outer and Earth


Low-voltage In low-voltage networks, transient overvoltages normally do not exceed a maximum of 6 kV. However, sometimes higher values occur. The rise times range widely from milliseconds down to considerably less than one microsecond. Note: The energy content of transient overvoltage varies considerably depending on the cause of the overvoltage. An overvoltage induced through lightning normally has a higher peak value, but a smaller energy content than overvoltages caused by switching. Usually, this is due to the longer duration of switching overvoltages. When selecting overvoltage protectors in a customer system, the higher energy requirements due to switching overvoltages should be considered for both the induced lightning overvoltage, as well as the lower, but more frequent switching overvoltage. Medium-voltage Transient overvoltages in medium-voltage networks are caused by switching, as well as direct or induced lightning effects. Switching overvoltages usually have a smaller amplitude than lightning overvoltages, but may have a shorter rise time and/or last longer. Note: The structure of the insulation coordination at the customers site must match the power suppliers setup.

Voltage Unbalance
Under normal operating conditions, the 10-minute RMS value of the negative-sequence system component must not exceed 2% of the respective positive-sequence system component regarding 95% of the measurement values of each weekly interval. In regions where customers are mainly connected in single- or two-phased (low-voltage) fashion, unbalances of up to 3% occur at the three-phase supply points. Note: The standard only includes values with respect to the negative-sequence system component, since only it is important when dealing with possible disturbances in devices connected to the line.

161

Harmonic Voltage
Under normal operating conditions, 95% of the 10-minute mean values of the voltage RMS value of an individual harmonic within any weekly interval must not exceed the value stated in the table below. Resonances can cause higher voltages with respect to an individual harmonic. Furthermore, the total harmonic distortion, THD, of the supply voltage comprised of all harmonics up to the 40th must not exceed a value of 8%. Note: The 40th-limitation corresponds to normal requirements. Odd harmonic Not a multiple of 3 Multiple of 3 Order Uh [%] Order Uh [%] 5 6.0 3 5.0 7 5.0 9 1.5 11 3.5 15 0.5 13 3.0 21 0.5 17 2.0 19 1.5 23 1.5 25 1.5 Even harmonic Order 2 4 6 to 24 Uh [%] 2.0 1.0 0.5

Note: For harmonics above the 25th, no values are given since they are usually very small, however, they can be unpredictably increased by resonance occurrences.

Interharmonic Voltage
On account of the development of frequency changers and similar control devices, the values of interharmonics in the networks increase. Due to a lack of acknowledged experimental values, there is currently no specification (values are being discussed). In some cases, interharmonics, even at very low levels, can cause flicker or disturbances regarding audiofrequency ripple control systems.

162

Hardware Documentation TOPAS 1000


Basic Unit
Block Diagram

Inputs
The unit has 8 electrically isolated analog inputs that can be used for any type of current and voltage measurement. Each channel is equipped with a passive low-pass filter to protect against voltage transients and to limit rise rates, an anti-aliasing filter, as well as a 16-bit analog-digital converter. Sampling of all channels is synchronous based on a common quartz crystal-accurate clock signal. The filter structure of the analog inputs reduces the frequency content, and in particular the noise voltage content above the half-way mark of the sampling rate of the analog-digital converter by 80 dB, providing for small measurement errors within an unusually large amplitude range. The small measurement error is never exceeded - even under extreme operating conditions, e.g., with transient voltage exceedings at the outputs of converters. The unit provides narrow-band measurements with an accurately defined frequency response. Between the 3-dB limit frequency at a 0.45-fold sampling frequency and the frequency increased by 1.2, the amplitude response falls below the resolution of the analog-digital converter by 80 dB. In the area of this amplitude drop, special attention is paid to the analog inputs phase responses, that should be as identical as possible, to prevent power measurement errors.

163

Frequency Response
with a sampling rate fs = 6400 Hz: amplitude deviation from 0 Hz to 3000 Hz:

Amplitudenabweichung ber der Frequenz bei Vollaussteuerung


10,00 0,00
50 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 12 00 18 00 20 00 22 00 26 00 10 00 14 00 16 00 24 00 28 00

Amplitude error over frequency at full range

Frequency [ Hz ]

-10,00 -20,00 -30,00 -40,00 -50,00 -60,00 -70,00 -80,00 -90,00 -100,00

amplitude response from 0 Hz to 100 kHz:

Amplitudeabweichung[ % ]

Amplitudengang bei Vollaussteuerung: 0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

100

101

102 103 Frequenz / Hz

104

phase difference of any analog channel from 0-0.54 x fs:

164

30 00

105

Maximale Phasenabweichung beliebiger Kanle: 4

-2

-4 10
0

10

10 Frequenz / Hz

10

Linearity
with a sampling rate fs = 6400 Hz: error regarding the measurement value at 50 Hz:

Linearittsfehler: 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4

10

20

30

40 50 60 Aussteuergrad / %

70

80

90

100

165

Accuracy of Measurement
The total measurement error including voltage or current sensor is clearly below the error pursuant to Class A of the EN 61000-4-7 standard. The actual total error results from the specification of the analog content and the respective sensor. Error information relate to the unit at service temperature with an ambient temperature of 25C. The error limits given are valid up to the maximum voltage rise rate. Generally, the unit is suited for voltage and power measurements performed at the output of frequency changers. Direct current measurement with shunts at the changer is also possible. In view of the maximum voltage rise rate, the error information is the same as for the line. Total error for RMS values at f<2500 Hz, modulation >1 % of the range, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 1.2 % of the measurement value Total error for RMS values at f=50 Hz, modulation >1 % of the range, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 0.5 % of the measurement value Total error for RMS values at f=50 Hz, full modulation, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 0.1 % of the measurement value Total error for powers at f<2500 Hz, modulation >1 % of the range, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 2.2 % of the measurement value at cos = 1 Total error for powers at f<2500 Hz, full modulation, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 1.2 % of the measurement value at cos = 1 Total error for powers at f=50 Hz, modulation >1 % of the range, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 1 % of the measurement value at cos = 1 Total error for powers at f=50 Hz, full modulation, ambient temperature 25C, averaging time > 10 ms: < 0.2 % of the measurement value at cos = 1 (The errors of those sensors that are turned on are not considered.)

Common Mode Modulation


Common mode rejection between 0 Hz and 100 kHz: -130 dB of the measuring range

Temperature Drift
Change of gain against temperature: <150 ppm/K

Aging
Change of gain due to aging: < 0.06 %/year

Noise
Noise voltage with short-circuited input: <20 V (will be corrected) Spectral noise voltage concentration 0.4 V/Hz

Nominal Data
Input resistance 1 M Input capacity 5 pF Measuring range (peak value) 280 mV Overload capacity 1000V continuous Maximum voltage rise rate: 15 kV/s

Sampling
The sampling rate is synchronized with the line frequency and is typically 6400 Hz at a 50Hz line. Synchronization is possible within a range of 45-65 Hz with a deviation of less than 10 ppm. The absolute error limit for frequency measurements is 200 ppm. Alternatively, operation with a specified sampling rate between 5000 Hz and 10000 Hz is possible.

166

Measuring Intervals
Pursuant to EN 61000-4-7 Frequency 10 s, 3 s, 10 min, 1 h, 24 h Voltage RMS values 10 ms, 3 s, 10 min, 1 h, 24 h Harmonics 320 ms Pursuant to EN 60868 Flicker 20 ms, 10 min, 2 h The unit measures continuously.

Data Memory
The measuring device is equipped with mass memory >420 MB (hard disk).

Ports
The measuring device is accessed using a MS-Windows-compatible PC (Windows 3.11, Windows95, Windows NT), and the network software included in these operating systems - preferably via Ethernet. The device can be integrated into any Ethernet environment. At 10 Base T (coaxial cable & BNC plug and socket), the integration is done directly; at 10 Base 2 (twisted pair) it is made using an adapter included in the accessories. Alternatively, communication with the device is possible via a serial port (RS 232), a parallel port, and a modem.

Power Supply
Power to the unit is supplied via a wide-area power-pack: Alternating voltage 45 Hz to 65 Hz 93.5 V - 265 V Direct voltage 132 V to 375 V.

In case of supply voltage failure, a built-in nickel-metal-hydride accumulator provides the supply of the measuring device up to of 5 minutes. Afterwards, or in case the accumulators capacity is too low, the measuring device will shut itself off and, once the power supply has been reestablished, will resume at those settings, that were valid when the failure occurred.

Safety
This TOPAS 1000 model is conforming to CE and corresponds to the EN 61010 standard regarding "Safety regulations for electrical measuring, monitoring, control and lab devices". The housing and the plug and socket of the TOPAS 1000 are made of non-conducting material only.

Degree of Protection
With closed cover (serial and parallel port), this TOPAS 1000 model corresponds to the degree of protection IP65 (dustand hose-proof).

Operating Temperature Range


5...40 C ambient temperature. The device develops enough inherent heat to work at ambient temperatures as low as -20C. The correct working of the hard disk cannot be guaranteed at temperatures below 5C.Please allow a warm up of the instrument to more than 5C at lower ambient temperatures. The only component that cannot be specified to temperatures as low as -20C is the built-in hard disk. Optionally, the TOPAS 1000 is also available with a silicon solid state disk providing for up to 80 MB memory with an operating temperature range of -20 to 50 C ambient temperature.

Dimensions and Weight


H x W x D: 300 x 325 x 65 mm Mass: approx. 4 kg Operating-position: 90 standing or lying unit. (slanting not more than an angle of >+ 5)
3

167

Display
The TOPAS 1000 has 9 LEDs that form the status display. The line LED displays the supply status. Each channel has its own LED providing information on modulation and possible malfunctions regarding the respective channel.

Line LED
Continuous light means hassle-free line supply. Flashing light indicates that the supply is provided by the in-built accumulator.

Channel-LED
Short Flashing light means no measuring signal or low signal. hardware-settings ---, may lead to permanent LED-light, due to imissions. Brief Flashing OFF light means overload Continuous light indicates that the proper sensors have been connected and that the channel is in order. Rapid flashing means that the sensors have been connected wrongly or that no sensors are connected. Unconnected inputs, with

Sensors
General Information
For operating the TOPAS 1000, voltage sensors are available for ranges between 200 mV and 660 V. Current ranges for direct measurement of currents (shunts) are available for any range between 20 mA and 5 A. Passive clip-on probes (for alternating current) are available in ranges with 100A and 1000A (reversible clip-on probes). An active precision current sensor (direct and alternating current) with reversible measuring ranges of 100 A and 1000 A is available as a special accessory. All sensors have a memory for calibration factors and serial number. The memory is automatically read by the measuring device. Clip-on probe and precision current sensor also feature software-controlled measuring range switching. In principle, all measurement value sensors whose outputs supply currents and voltages within the available ranges can be used with the TOPAS 1000. Upon request, supplied measurement value sensors can be adapted for direct connection to the TOPAS 1000, or they can be retrofitted with a memory for scaling factors.

Accuracy of Voltage Sensors


Divider ratio: 0.1 % Temperature drift: 100 ppm Aging: < 0.06 % / year

VOLTAGE PROBE 400 V A680502002 range linearitt accuracy / phase angle 45Hz ...65Hz 65Hz ...1kHz 1kHz ... 3kHz 4 ... 680V 0,15% 0,11% / 0,005 0,15% / 0,034 0,2% / 0,125 5550Vrms 600V CAT III

VOLTAGE PROBE 100 V A680502001 1 ... 170V 0,15% 0,11% / 0,005 0,15% / 0,034 0,2% / 0,125 5550Vrms 600V CAT III

test voltage operating voltage

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Accuracy of Clip-on Probes

range CLIP-ON CURRENT TRANSFORMER 1000/100 A CLIP-ON CURRENT TRANSFORMER 500/50 A CLIP-ON CURRENT TRANSFORMER 100/10 A CLIP-ON CURRENT TRANSFORMER 5/1 A LEMFLEX 10-1000 A A680501052 0,1A..1200A / 0,1A..120A

accuracy 0,5% 0,5% 0,5%

frequency band 16Hz ... 5 kHz 48Hz ... 1 kHz 45Hz ... 10 kHz

phase angle 0,5 1 3,5 3 0,5 0,5 0,1 0,1 0,1

test operating voltage voltage 5550Vrms 600V CAT III 5550Vrms 600V CAT III ----max. 30V to ground

A680501051 4A..500A (600*)/ 4A..50A A680501050 100mA..120A / 100mA..12A A680501049 A680501053

LEMFLEX 100-6000 A A680501059 SHUNT 20 mA SHUNT 1 A SHUNT 5 A A680501057 A680501054 A680501055

50mA..14A / 0,5% 40Hz ... 5 kHz 50mA..2,8A 10 to approx. 0,5% 45 ... 3,0kHz 2200A** 100 to approx. 0,5% 45 ... 3,0kHz 12,2kA** 55mA / 0,2% DC ... 3,0kHz 400mA*** 2,8A / 6,5A*** 0,2% DC ... 3,0kHz 10A / 12,25A*** 0,2% DC ... 3,0kHz * 10min On /30 off measuring min OFF range at 23C +-3C (calibrated sensors) ** for sinussidual signals *** max. overload

max. 30V to ground 5550Vrms 600V CAT III 5550Vrms 600V CAT III 2300Vrms 300V CAT II

2300Vrms 300V CAT II 2300Vrms 300V CAT II at type test, nominal test voltage current at 48 to 65 Hz

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. Change Settings .............................................27, 111 . Initialising ..............................................................111 Absolute/Relative time .........................................106 Analysis Functions Flicker ..................................................................97 Frequency ...........................................................100 Harmonics.............................................................96 Ripple Control Analysis .......................................101 Transient Analysis...............................................102 Unbalance.............................................................99 Block Diagram.........................................................163 Calibration...............................................................119 Change parameter file ......................................27, 111 Clipboard.................................................................128 Configure Stations ..................................................129 Decommissioning........................................................8 Delete........................................................................65 Dimensions .............................................................167

Display
Icon-Bar ..............................................................106

Overvoltage Temporary .......................................................... 161 Overvoltage: ........................................................... 161 Overvoltages Transient ............................................................ 161 Parameter file to measuring unit ............................ 111 Permissioncode...................................................... 127 Print.......................................................................... 66 Print ....................................................................... 128 Programfunctions ..................................................... 63 Recording Modes ..................................................... 72 Reset the TOPAS................................................... 125 Retrieve Measuring Data.................................. 28, 111 Ripple Control Analysis .......................................... 101 Safety Tips and Cautions ........................................... 7 Save As .................................................................... 65 Select Language .................................................... 129 Selection of Measuring Device......................... 11, 109 Self-test .................................................................. 121

Service
Calibration .......................................................... 119 Loginuser ........................................................... 126 Modemsting........................................................ 126 Permissioncode.................................................. 127 Reset the TOPAS............................................... 125 Self-test .............................................................. 121 Set Baud Rate at the TOPAS ............................. 123 Set Time ............................................................. 122 TOPAS New Installation ..................................... 123 Service: ................................................................. 119 Set Baud Rate at the TOPAS................................. 123 Set Baudrate .......................................................... 123 Set Time ................................................................. 122 Settings Memory Management........................................... 71 Settings Hardware Settings................................................ 70 Measuring Times.................................................. 70 Recording Modes ................................................. 72 Trigger Settings .................................................... 73 Short Interruption of the Supply Voltage short ................................................................... 160 Short Interruption of the Supply Voltage: ............... 160 Supply Voltage ....................................................... 159 Symbols ..................................................................... 8 Tabl into File ......................................................... 107 Temporary Overvoltage.......................................... 161 TOPAS New Installation......................................... 123 Transfer . Change Settings......................................... 27, 111 Event On-line Display......................................... 116 On-line Display ................................................... 113 Retrieve Measuring Data.............................. 28, 111 Selection of Measuring Device..................... 11, 109 Transient On-line Display ................................... 117 Transfer Initialising ................................................. 111 Transfer: ................................................................. 111 Transient Analysis .................................................. 102 Transient On-line Display ....................................... 117 Transient Overvoltages .......................................... 161 Trigger Settings ........................................................ 73 Unbalance ................................................................ 99 Usermanagement................................................... 130 Voltage Dips........................................................... 160 Voltage Unbalance................................................. 161 Weight.................................................................... 167 Window Clipboard ............................................................ 128 List...................................................................... 128 Print ................................................................... 128 Window: ................................................................. 128

Display: ..................................................................106
EN50160 Fast Voltage Variation.........................................160 Flicker Intensity ...................................................160 Harmonic Voltage ...............................................162 Line Frequency ...................................................159 Low-voltage Variation..........................................160 Short Interruption of the Supply Voltage .............160 Supply Voltage ....................................................159 Temporary Overvoltage ......................................161 Transient Overvoltages .......................................161 Voltage Dips........................................................160 Voltage Unbalance..............................................161 Event On-line Display..............................................116 Exit ............................................................................67 Fast Voltage Variation.............................................160 File Exit ........................................................................67 Open .....................................................................64 Print.......................................................................66 Save As.................................................................65 File Delete....................................................................65 New .......................................................................63 File: .....................................................................66, 67 Flicker ......................................................................97 Flicker Intensity .......................................................160 Frequency ...............................................................100 Hardware Settings.....................................................70 Harmonic Voltage ...................................................162 Harmonics.................................................................96 Harmonische effektiv .......................................96, 97 Help.........................................................................132 Line Frequency .......................................................159 Loginuser ................................................................126 Low-voltage Variation..............................................160 Low-voltage Variation low.......................................................................160 Measurement Analysis.................................................................88 Settings .................................................................68 Measurement: ...........................................................68 Measuring Times.......................................................70 Memory Management ...............................................71 Modemstring ...........................................................126 New...........................................................................63 On-line Display........................................................113 Options Configure Stations ..............................................129 Select Language .................................................129 Usermanagement ...............................................130 Options:...................................................................129

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EC-Certificate of conformity EG-Konformittserklrung CE-Certificat de conformit


Document No. / month / year: Dokument Nr. / Monat / Jahr: N de document / Mois / Anne: Manufacturer: Hersteller: Fabricant: Adress: Anschrift: Adresse: Kind of product: Produktart: Type de produit: Name of product: Produktname: Nom du produit:

CE001/02/00

LEM NORMA GmbH


Palmersstrasse 2 A-2351 Wr. Neudorf network performance analyser Netzanalysator analyseur de reseaux electriques

TOPAS 1000

t h e p r o d u c t m e e t s t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e f o l l o wi n g E C - d i r e c t i v e s das Produkt erfllt die Bestimmungen der folgenden EG-Richtlinien: le produit est conforme aux normes des directives de l'Union Europenne suivantes:

73/23/EEC

"Direct ive on the approximat ion of the laws of the Member St at es relating to elect rical eq u ip men t d esig n ed f o r use w it hin cert ain volt age limit s amended by t he d irect ive 93/68/EEC"
89/336/EEC

"Directive on the approximat ion of the laws of the Member St at es relating to electromagnetic compatibility amended by the directives 91/263/EEC, 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC and 93/97/EEC"
d i e b e r e i n s t i m m u n g wi r d n a c h g e wi e s e n d u r c h d i e v o l l s t n d i g e E i n h a l t u n g f o l g e n d e r N o r m e n : t h e a c c o r d a n c e i s p r o v e d b y t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e f o l l o wi n g s t a n d a r d s : la conformit estprouve par le respect des normes suivantes:

L V

Safety Sicherheit Scurit Emission Emissions mission Immunity Imission Susceptibilit

IEC/EN 61010-1:1992/93 IEC/EN 61010-2-031

IEC 61010-1:1992 / IEC 61010-1/A2: 1995 300 V CATII / 600V CATIII with sensor IEC 1010-2-031 IEC/EN 61326, EN 55011 Class B IEC/EN 61326, EN 55011 Klasse B IEC/EN 61326, EN 55011 Classe B Group standard Fachgruppennorm Norme de groupe spcifique 8 kV air, 4kV contact (B) 10 V/m (A) 100A/m (A) ) ) ) 4kV (B)* ** 0,5kV (B)*** ) ) ) 1kV / 2kV (B) * ** 1kV (B)*** ) ) ) 10V (A) * ** 3V (A) *** 1 period / 100% (A)

E M C

IEC/EN 61326-1 EN 50081-1

IEC/EN 61326-1 EN 50082-1 EN 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-3 EN 61000-4-8 EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-5 EN 61000-4-6 EN 61000-4-11

*)power supply

**)measuring inputs

***)ethernet connection

Year of the CE-marking: Jahr der CE-Kennzeichnung: Anne du marquage CE:

1999

Ing. Herbert Gschmeidler, authorized signatory


Name, Position / Name, Funktion / Nom, Position

08.02.2000
Date/Datum/Date Signature / Unterschrift / Signature

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Printed in Austria / Gedruckt in sterreich / Imprim en Autriche

Distributor / Vertragshndler / Distributeur

www.lem.com
LEM NORMA GmbH Liebermannstrasse F01 CAMPUS 21 A-2345 Brunn am Gebirge AUSTRIA Tel. ++43-(0)2236-691-0 Fax ++43-(0)2236-691-415
E-Mail: tsc-customer@lem.com A 5505 1 GA2 E REV B
SW-Version 3.12

Right to change specification reserved / Technische nderungen vorbehalten / Sous rserve de modifications

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