\

=
2
2
i
*
rb
D
D
FFR 1 A (2c)
(
(

.

\

2 . 0
i
m 5 . 1
) m ( D
, 1 min FFR (2d)
where D
i
is the inner pile diameter.
2.2 Shaft Friction
Factors that were considered in the development of
the UWA05 method for shaft friction are discussed
in Schneider & Lehane (2005) and Lehane et al.
(2005a). These are now summarised as follows:
Local shaft friction (
f
) shows a strong correlation
with the cone tip resistance (q
c
). This correlation,
which has been observed directly in instrumented
field tests has been employed successfully in well
known design methods, such as that proposed by
Bustamante & Gianiselli (1982).
The shaft friction that can develop on a displace
ment pile is related to the degree of soil dis
placement imparted during pile installation. The
higher capacity developed by the new generation
of screw piles compared to that of a bored and
continuous flight auger piles is just one example
of this effect.
The degree of displacement imparted to any
given soil horizon is related to the displacement
experienced by that horizon when it was located
in the vicinity of the tip. This level of displace
ment can conveniently be expressed for both
closed and openended piles in terms of an effec
tive area ratio, A
rs
*
, which is unity for a closed
ended pile and, for a pipe pile, includes dis
placement due to the pile material itself and the
additional displacement imparted when the pile is
partially plugging or fully plugged during driv
ing. White et al. (2005) use a cavity expansion
analogy to deduce that the equalized lateral effec
tive stress is likely to vary with the effective area
ratio raised to a power of between 0.30 and 0.40.
The incremental filling ratio (IFR) is a measure
of soil displacement near the tip of a pipe pile and
depends on a number of different parameters, in
cluding soil layering, pile inner diameter, pile
wall thickness, plug densification or dilation, and
installation method. For the (limited) database of
IFRs reported, the mean IFR over the final 20D
of penetration (where most friction is generated)
can be reasonably approximated using Equation
(3e) for relatively uniform dense to very dense
sands in the database.
After displacement of the sand near the tip in a
given soil horizon and as the tip moves deeper,
the radial stress acting on the pile shaft (and
hence the available
f
value) in that horizon re
duces. This phenomenon, known as friction fa
tigue, is now an accepted feature of displacement
pile behaviour (e.g. see Randolph 2003).
The rate of radial stress and
f
reduction with
height above the tip (h) depends largely on the
magnitude and type of cycles imposed by the in
stallation method. White & Lehane (2004) show
that the rate of decay is stronger for piles experi
encing hard driving and much lower for jacked
piles, which are typically installed with a rela
tively low number of (oneway) installation cy
cles.
White & Lehane (2004), and others, also show
that the rate of degradation with h is greater at
higher levels of radial stiffness (4G/D) and there
fore
f
at a fixed h value (i.e. after a specific
number of installation cycles) in a sand with the
same operational shear modulus (G) reduces as D
increases.
The foregoing, plus the tendency for hammer se
lection to be such that the number of hammer
blows is broadly proportional to the pile slender
ness ratio (L/D), suggest that
f
may be tenta
tively considered a function of h/D. This ap
proximation is supported by field measurements
such as those provided in Lehane et al (2005a),
and is also compatible with the occurrence of a
critical depth at an embedment related to a fixed
multiple of the pile diameter (such as 20D pro
posed by Vesic 1970 and a number of workers).
The same approximation is employed by the ICP
05 and Fugro04 design methods.
Based on the former point, the ICP05 method
proposes that
f
varies in proportion to (h/D)
c
,
where c = 0.38. However, given that this value of
c was estimated on the basis of field tests with
jacked piles (Lehane 1992 and Chow 1997)
where the type and number of cycles imposed is
less severe than is typical of driven piles, a higher
value of c is considered more appropriate for off
shore pile. Strong indirect evidence in support of
this observation is also apparent in Lehane et al
(2005a), which shows that the Fugro04, ICP05
and NGI04 progressively underpredict the shaft
capacity of jacked piles as the pile length in
creases
The radial effective stress acting on a driven pile
increases during pile axial loading and its magni
tude (when
f
is mobilised and dilation has
ceased) increases as the pile diameter reduces, the
sand shear stiffness around the pile shaft in
creases and the radial movement during shear (di
lation) of the sand at the shaft interface increases.
These increases are not significant for offshore
piles (with large D) but need to be considered
when extrapolating from load test data for small
diameter piles in a database. The recommenda
tions of the ICP05 method are considered rea
sonable for assessment of the increase in radial
stress ('
rd
), but with a modified expression for
the shear stiffness derived from the CPT data.
f
varies in proportion to tan
cv
(where
cv
is the
constant volume interface friction angle between
the sand and pile); this
cv
value, which should be
measured routinely, increases as the roughness
normalized by the mean effective particle size
(D
50
) increases. Verification of the dependence of
f
on tan
cv
has been provided by Lehane et al.
(1993), Chow (1997), and others. In the absence
of specific laboratory measurements of
cv
.
UWA05 recommends the trend shown on Figure
1, which is the same as that employed by ICP05
but with an upper limit on tan
cv
value of 0.55
(due to the potential for changes in surface
roughness during pile installation).
The shaft friction that can develop on a pile in
tension is smaller than that which can be mobi
lised by a pile loaded in compression for the rea
sons described by Lehane et al. (1993), de Nicola
& Randolph (1993) and Jardine et al. (2005).
Because of the shortage of high quality measure
ments of
f
very close to the tip of a driven pile
and the variable and inconsistent trends shown by
the available measurements, one simplifying op
tion is to assume
f
is constant over the lower two
diameter length of the pile shaft for both closed
and openended piles in tension and compression.
Shaft capacity increases with time as shown by
Axelsson (1998), Jardine et al. (2005a), and oth
ers. Lehane et al (2005a) show, however, that rate
of increase over the period 3 days to 50 days is
not statistically significant for the UWA database
of load tests. A design time of 10 to 20 days is
considered appropriate for shaft friction calcu
lated using UWA05.
The UWA05 design equations for shaft capacity
of driven piles arose from the foregoing considera
tions and are expressed as follows:
= dz D Q
f s
(3a)
( )
cv rd rc
c
cv rf f
tan ' '
f
f
tan ' + = = (3b)
( )
5 . 0
3 . 0
*
rs c rc
2 ,
D
h
max A q 03 . 0 '
(

.

\

= (3c)


.

\

=
2
2
i
*
rs
D
D
IFR 1 A (3d)
(
(

.

\

2 . 0
i
mean
m 5 . 1
) m ( D
, 1 min IFR (3e)
D r G 4 '
rd
= (3f)
where
cv
= constant volume interface friction angle
'
rf
= radial effective stress at failure
'
rc
= radial effective stress after installation and
equalization
'
rd
= change in radial stress due to loading stress
path (dilation)
f / f
c
= 1 for compression and 0.75 for tension
G/q
c
= 185q
c1N
0.75
with q
c1N
=(q
c
/p
a
)/('
v0
/p
a
)
0.5
p
a
= a reference stress equal to 100 kPa
'
v0
= in situ vertical effective stress
r = dilation (assumed for analyses=0.02mm, as
for ICP05)
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
0.01 0.1 1 10
Median Grain Size, D50 (mm)
I
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
A
n
g
e
l
,
c
v
tan
< 0.55
Employed for
database evaluation
UWA05
recommendation
Figure 1.
cv
variation with D
50
(modified from ICP05 guide
lines)
3 PREDICTIVE PERFORMANCE OF UWA05
The UWA database of static loads tests, as discussed
in Lehane et al (2005a & b), was employed to assess
the predictive performance of the proposed UWA05
method. The predictions described employed equa
tions (1), (2) and (3) with the following additional
considerations:
Measured interface friction angles, when avail
able, were adopted. Figure 1 was used in the ab
sence of measured
cv
values.
When the incremental filling ratio (IFR) was re
corded, A
rb
*
was assessed using the mean IFR
value measured over the final 3D of pile penetra
tion while the value of A
rs
*
was assessed from the
mean IFR value recorded over the final 20D of
penetration. In the absence of IFR data, A
rb
*
and
A
rs
*
were evaluated using Equations 2d & 3e.
The database included 74 load tests at sites where
CPT q
c
data were measured. Pile test data at sites
containing micaceous, calcareous and residual sands
were excluded from consideration as were sites for
which only Standard Penetration Test data were
available. The database included substantially more
pile tests than used for verification of the Fugro04,
ICP05 and NGI04 design methods and was sub
divided into the following four categories:
(a) Closedended piles tested in compression
(b) Closedended piles tested in tension
(c) Openended piles tested in compression
(d) Openended piles tested in tension
A detailed presentation and discussion of this statis
tical analysis, which was conducted for API00,
Fugro04, ICP05 and NGI04, as well as for UWA
05 is presented in Lehane et al. (2005a & b) and may
be briefly summarized as follows:
(i) For the database taken as a whole (i.e. including
all pile categories), the UWA05 method pre
dicts a mean ratio of calculated to measured ca
pacity (Q
c
/Q
m
) of 0.97 and the lowest overall
coefficient of variation (COV) for this ratio of
0.29; this compares well with the respective
COVs of 0.32, 0.38, 0.43 and 0.6 for ICP05,
Fugro04, NGI04 and API00.
(ii) The UWA05 method has the lowest COV for
Q
c
/Q
m
of all five methods for each of the four
pile test categories (except for closedended
piles in compression where UWA05 and ICP
05 have the same COV for Q
c
/Q
m
).
(iii) The COV of 0.19 for Q
c
/Q
m
of the UWA05
method for openended piles in compression is
significantly lower than the corresponding COV
of 0.25 of ICP05.
(iv) UWA05 shows no apparent bias of Q
c
/Q
m
with
pile length (L), pile diameter (D), pile aspect ra
tio (L/D) and average sand relative density.
One of the factors giving rise to the superior per
formance of the UWA05 method for pipe piles is
the inclusion of the effective area ratio terms in the
expressions for base and shaft capacities of open
ended piles. This is not surprising given the ac
knowledged importance of soil displacement on ca
pacity and the fact that many of the database piles
showed evidence of partial plugging. However,
given that the incremental filling ratio (IFR) is not
commonly measured in practice, the sensitivity of
the predictive performance to the IFR parameter
employed was reexamined and a summary of this
exercise is provided in Table 1.
It is clear from Table 1 that the estimation of IFR
using the empirical equations 2d & 3e, rather than
direct use of the measured IFRs to deduce A
r
*
val
ues, has only a minimal impact on the COV values
for Q
c
/Q
m
. It may also be inferred that the assump
tion in UWA05 of a fully coring pile (i.e. IFR=1)
for the database piles (most of which had diameters
less than 800mm) will lead, on average, to a 20%
underprediction of capacity. Such an under
prediction is in keeping with observed levels of par
tial plugging of (smaller diameter) database piles
and suggests that other design methods, such as ICP
05, which may provide a good fit to the existing da
tabase of load tests, but do not include an appropri
ate soil displacement term (such as A
r
*
), will over
predict the capacity of full scale offshore piles.
Table 1: Sensitivity of pipe pile capacity to A
r
*
(A
rb
*
and A
rs
*
)
4 PREDICTIONS FOR OFFSHORE PILES
The UWA05 method simplifies to the following
form for full scale offshore piles, as IFR=1 and the
dilation term (
rd
) can be ignored.
= + = dz D D
4
q Q Q Q
f
2
1 . 0 b s b comp
(4a)
= dz D 75 . 0 Q
f tens
(4b)
( )
r c 1 . 0 b
A 45 . 0 15 . 0 q q + = (4c)
cv
5 . 0
3 . 0
r c f
tan 2 ,
D
h
max A q 03 . 0
(

.

\

=
(4d)


.

\

=
2
2
i
r
D
D
1 A (4e)
Method for calculation of Ar* Mean Qc/Qm
COV for
Qc/Qm
Openended piles in compression
Using Equations 2d & 3e for all tests 0.99 0.23
Assuming IFR= 1 0.81 0.24
Using measured IFR when available 0.98 0.19
Openended piles in tension
Using Equations 2d & 3e for all tests 0.97 0.26
Assuming IFR=1 0.77 0.22
Using measured IFR when available 0.91 0.23
Lehane et al. (2005b) examined the implications
of equation (4) and assessed its performance against
existing API recommendations and ICP05 (the best
performing of the three CPT based methods consid
ered). This examination indicated that equation (4)
provides a more conservative extrapolation than
ICP05 for shaft capacity from the existing database
(of relatively small diameter piles with a mean D
of about 0.7m) to typical offshore piles used in prac
tice. Equation (4) also predicts higher base capaci
ties than ICP05 because of its assumption that a pile
plug with a length greater than 5 diameters will not
fail under static loading.
It is also noteworthy that Equation (4) tends to
provide lower capacities than API00 in loose sands,
but higher capacities for dense sands in compres
sion. API00 and UWA05 predictions for tension
capacity in dense sands are broadly similar for pile
lengths in excess of 20m. However, the UWA05
method, unlike API00, does not show any predic
tion bias with L, D, L/D and D
r
.
5 CONCLUSIONS
This paper has shown that the UWA05 method:
(i) is a significant improvement on existing API
recommendations;
(ii) provides better predictions for a new extended
database of load tests than the ICP05, Fugro
04 and NGI04 CPT based design approaches;
(iii) employs soundly based formulations that draw
on the considerable recent developments in our
understanding of displacement piles in sand;
(iv) provides formulations that enable a rational ex
trapolation beyond the existing database base
of load tests.
6 REFERENCES
Axelsson G. 1998. Longterm increase in shaft capacity of
driven piles in sand. Proc., 4th Int. Con. on Case Histories
in Geotechnical Eng., St. Louis, Missouri: 125.
Bruno, D. 1999. Dynamic and static load testing of driven
piles in sand. PhD Thesis, University of Western Australia.
Bustamante, M. & Gianeselli, L. 1982. Pile bearing capacity
by means of static penetrometer CPT. Proc., 2nd European
Symp. on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam:493 499.
Clausen, C.J.F., Aas, P.M. and Karlsrud, K. 2005. Bearing ca
pacity of driven piles in sand, the NGI approach. in Proc,
ISFOG, Perth.
Chow, F. C. 1997. Investigations into the behaviour of dis
placement piles for offshore foundations. PhD thesis, Univ.
of London (Imperial College).
de Nicola, A. and Randolph, M.F. 1993. Tensile and compres
sive shaft capacity of piles in sand. J. Geotech. Engrg. Div.,
ASCE 119(12): 19521973.
Fugro Engineers B.V. (Fugro) 2004. Axial pile capacity design
method for offshore driven piles in sand, P1003, Issue 3,
to API, August 2004.
Ghionna, V. N., Jamiolkowski, M., Lancellotta, R. & Pedroni,
S. 1993. Base capacity of bored piles in sands from in situ
tests. in Deep Foundation on Bored and Auger Piles, ed. V.
Impe, Balkema, Rotterdam: 6775.
Jardine, R.J., Chow, F.C., Overy, R., and Standing, J. 2005.
ICP design methods for driven piles in sands and clays.
Thomas Telford, London.
Jardine, R.J., Standing, J.R., & Chow, F.C. 2005a. Field re
search into the effects of time on the shaft capacity of piles
driven in sand. Proc., ISFOG, Perth.
Lehane, B.M., Jardine, R.J., Bond, A.J., & Frank, R. 1993.
Mechanisms of shaft friction in sand from instrumented
pile tests, J. of Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 119 (1):19 35.
Lehane, B. M. & Gavin, K. G. 2001. Base resistance of jacked
pipe piles in sand. J. of Geotech. and Geoenv. Engrg,
ASCE 127(6): 473480.
Lehane B.M. & Gavin K. 2004. (Discussion). Determination of
bearing capacity of openended piles in sand. J. Geotech. &
Geoenv. Engrg. ASCE 130 (6): 656658.
Lehane, B. M. & Randolph, M. F. 2002. Evaluation of a mini
mum base resistance for driven pipe piles in siliceous sand.
J. of Geotech. and Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE 128(3): 198205.
Lehane, B. M. 1992. Experimental investigations of pile be
haviour using instrumented field piles. PhD thesis, Univ. of
London (Imperial College).
Lehane, B.M., Schneider, J.A., and Xu, X. 2005a. Evaluation
of design methods for displacement piles in sand. UWA
Report, GEO: 05341.1.
Lehane, B.M., Schneider, J.A., and Xu, X. 2005b. CPT based
design of driven piles in sand for offshore structures. UWA
Report, GEO: 05345.
Paik, K., Salgado, R., Lee, J. & Kim, B. 2003, Behavior of
open and closedended piles driven into sands. J. of Geo
tech. and Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE. 129(4): 296306.
Randolph, M. F. 2003. Science and empiricism in pile founda
tion design. Geotechnique 53(10): 847875.
Salgado, R. Lee, J. And Kim, K. 2002. Load tests on pipe piles
for development of CPTbased design method. Final report,
FHWA/IN/JTRP2002/4.
Schneider, J.A. & Lehane, B.M. (2005). Correlations for shaft
capacity of offshore piles in sand. In Proc., ISFOG, Perth
Schmertmann, J. H. 1978. Guidelines for cone test, perform
ance, and design. U.S. Federal Highway Administration,
FHWATS78209.
Van Mierlo, W.C. and Koppejan, A.W. 1952, 'Lengte en
draagvermogen van heipalen', Bouw, January.
Vesic, A. S. 1970. 'Tests on instrumented piles. Ogeechee
River site. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations
Division ASCE SM2: 561584.
White, D. J. & Bolton, M. D. 2005. Comparing CPT and pile
base resistance in sand. ICE, Geotechnical Enginnering
158: 314.
White, D. J. & Lehane, B. M. 2004. Friction fatigue on dis
placement piles in sand. Geotechnique 54(10): 645658.
White, D.J., Schneider, J.A., and Lehane, B.M. 2005. The in
fluence of effective area ratio on shaft friction of displace
ment piles in sand, Proc., ISFOG, Perth.
Xu, X, & Lehane, B.M. 2005. Evaluation of endbearing ca
pacity of closedended pile in sand from CPT data. in
Proc., ISFOG, Perth.
Xu, X, Schneider J. A. and Lehane B.M. 2005. Evaluation of
endbearing capacity of openended piles driven in sand
from CPT data. in Proc., ISFOG, Perth.
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.