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Proiect co-finanat de

Uniunea European

Guvernul Romniei
Ministerul Mediului si Pdurilor

Preparing a national policy on sewage sludge management


Contracting Authority: MEF, SOP Environment Management Authority Stakeholders: Ministry of Environment & Forests Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development Ministry of Administration & Interior Operators of WWTPs 1 November 2010 31 January 2012

Beneficiaries: Contract Start/End:

The Sludge Problem


WWTPs are sludge factories Unceasing and unstoppable output Quality is not strictly controllable No secure long-term outlet Adverse public perception Compliance with regulations Processing, transport and disposal costs up to half total cost of operating WWTP

Sludge use opportunities


Recycling of nutrients and organic matter to land Recovery of energy Contributes to sustainable development through:
Reduced import and use of other resources Improved soil conservation, crop production and farm economics Net reduction in CO2 emissions

Current sludge management practices in Romania


235 WWTPs Many WWTPs are non-functional or being enlarged / refurbished Most sludge is stored on the WWTPs Little interest in using sludge (cost, complexity, opportunity) Only 2 WWTPs spread sludge on agricultural land
Outlet Stored on WWTP Disposal to landfill Use in agriculture Incineration Other use/disposal options % 90.7 9.1 0.2 0 0

Situation not sustainable and solutions must be developed

Sludge production forecast


Romania should comply with UWWT Directive by 2018 Large investments in wastewater collection and treatment Rapid five-fold increase in sludge production to >500,000 t ds/y Costs of sludge management will increase for operators and customers 600,000
. Sludge quantity (t DS/y)
500,000 400,000 Scenario 1 300,000 Scenario 1B 200,000 100,000 0 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Scenario 1C Scenario 2 Scenario 3

Year

EU development trends
Old Member States:
Sludge use in agriculture and incineration increasing Landfill disposal declining

New Member States:


Landfill disposal increasing short-term Development of agriculture and incineration from low base

Development of sludge use is a longterm programme Carbon credits are important

Sludge management options


Sludge treatment - set by each investment programme - anaerobic digestion (energy recovery) - sludge treatment centres - additional treatment may be required Outlets potentially available are:
Use on land: Agriculture Forestation Land reclamation
Significant regional potential Periodic opportunities Dedicated sludge incinerator Co-incineration with waste Cement factories Thermal power plants Gasification, pyrolysis P recovery Green/domestic waste Co-disposal with solid waste Mono-disposal

Energy recovery: Incineration Combustion Other processes: Resource / energy recovery Composting Landfill disposal: Option of last resort

Policy is to establish beneficial use of sludge where feasible

Potential for agricultural use of sludge in Romania


Nationally, large area of arable land but not evenly distributed Potential for sludge use must consider wide range of factors, including:
Environmental constraints Nitrate Vulnerable Zones / protection zones nutrient requirements, manure use land characteristics, slope, etc. background heavy metal content of soil soil pH limit 6.5 Operational constraints farm size, location acceptance by farmers

GIS is being used to assess areas of potentially suitable agricultural land at county level

Source: ICPA

Proportion of suitable arable land required annually to use all sludge produced
Region

Sludge production 2018 (t ds/y)

Land area required at 5 t ds/y (ha/y)

% of suitable land required Region (%) County minimum (%) County maximum (%)

North-East South-East South South-West West North-West Central Bucuresti-Ilfov Total

71,321 53,566 44,415 31,677 42,938 53,163 63,955 6,177 367,212

14,264 10,713 8,883 6,335 8,588 10,633 12,791 1,235 73,442

5.8 0.8 0.8 1.4 2.7 18.0 13.1 24.8 2.1

1.7 0.3 0.1 0.5 1.4 6.8 5.3 0.0 0.0

37 2.2 48 15 >100 >100 100 25 >100

5 t ds/ha = 170 kg N/ha

Suitable land: slope <5%, pH 6.5

Proportion of suitable arable land required annually to use all sludge produced
BT SM SJ BH CJ AR TM HD AB SB CV BV VN BZ GJ MH DJ VL AG PH DB IF OT TR GR B IL CL BR GL MS HR MM BN NT VS BC SV IS

Key <5% 5 - 10% >10%

CS

TL

CT

Suitable land: slope <5%, pH 6.5

Farm ownership and size distribution


Number of holdings Area of holdings Area of holdings . 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 500,000 0 <1 1-2 2-5 5-10 10-20 20-30 30-50 50-100 >100 Farm Size Category (ha) 1,000,000 0 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 <1 . 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 1-2 2-5 5-10 10-20 20-30 30-50 50-100 >100 7,000,000 Farm Size Category (ha)

Individual farmers: 99.8% of farms 55% of land area 1.8 ha average size

6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0

Number of holdings

Farming enterprises: 0.2% of farms 45% of land area 364 ha average size

Sludge quality must comply with standards for use on land


Sludge quality survey December 2010 50% of operating WWTPs sampled including all large WWTPs High level of compliance (>90% of WWTPs) with sludge quality limits in MO 344/2004 Exceptions are: As (51%) and PAH (20%) neither parameter is required by EC Directive 86/278/EEC Recommend review of MO 344/2004 to ensure standards are appropriate and proportionate to potential hazard Sludge quality is expected to continue to improve as pollution from industrial discharges to sewer decreases

2,500,000

Number of holdings

Area (ha)

7,000,000

Sustainability of sludge use on land


Heavy metal Normal Soil limit background concentration soil content (mg/kg) (mg/kg) MO 344/2004 ICPA Sludge quality (mg/kg) Survey (median) Heavy metal addition per application (g/ha) 5 t ds/ha 170 kg N/ha Increase Increase in soil concentration per sludge per sludge application application (mg/kg) (mg/kg) No. of applications to reach soil limit value

Zn Cu Ni Cd Pb Hg Cr

300 100 50 3 50 1 100

100 20 20 1 20 0.1 30

860 177 31 2.1 67 0.89 72

4300 885 155 10.5 335 4.45 360

1.32 0.27 0.05 0.003 0.10 0.001 0.11

151 294


291

Sludge: 3.6% N ds Soil density: 1.3 t/m3 Soil depth: 25 cm

Energy recovery from sludge by combustion


Significant potential and interest at cement factories Thermal power plants do not yet have permit to burn waste Contributes to net CO2 emission reduction Sludge moisture content important
Reduce transport cost Reduce charge by cement factory

Additional drying may be required

Energy recovery from sludge by combustion

Factors affecting sludge management options


The sludge producer is responsible for all aspects of sludge management costs and impacts Selection and security of sludge outlets depend on:
Availability, capacity and reliability Costs Legal compliance Sustainability Stakeholders Quality treatment, transport, spreading, monitoring quality standards, restrictions operationally and environmentally sludge users, regulators, other authorities product, service

Entrepreneurial spirit marketing

Government policy and authorities must facilitate use of sludge without compromising environmental protection

Selection of use options depends on opportunity, relative costs and reliability Landfill disposal will be required during strategy transition

Yes

Does sludge quality comply with standards?

No Is there sufficient farmer demand? Yes Does soil quality comply with standards Yes Develop outlet and supply sludge Are energy recovery options available? Develop outlet and supply sludge No Yes No No Is there demand in forestry or land reclamation?

Regional sludge incineration may be appropriate where other outlets have insufficient capacity

Yes Develop outlet and supply sludge

No Disposal to landfill

Construct incinerator

Developing the sludge management strategy


Key <5%

BT SM
100 km radius

Improve Yes

Developing the sludge management strategy

WWTP

MM BN

5 - 10% >10%

SV IS NT

SJ BH CJ AR TM HD AB

Cement factory Coal Power Station New sludge incinerator

MS

HR CV BV

VS BC VN BZ GL

SB

CS

GJ MH DJ

VL

AG

PH DB IF IL CL

BR

TL

Suitable land: - slope <5% - pH 6.5

OT TR GR

CT B

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Initial CAPEX required to achieve sludge use outlets


Key <200 mRON

BT SM SJ BH CJ AR TM HD AB SB CV BV VN BZ GJ MH DJ VL AG PH DB IF OT TR GR B IL CL CT BR GL MS HR MM BN NT VS BC SV IS

200-400 mRON >600 mRON Cement factory Coal Power Station New sludge incinerator

CS

TL

OPEX required to achieve sludge use outlets


Key <30 mRON/y

BT SM SJ BH CJ AR TM HD AB SB CV BV VN BZ GJ MH DJ VL AG PH DB IF OT TR GR B IL CL CT BR GL MS HR MM BN NT VS BC SV IS

30-45 mRON/y >45 mRON/y Cement factory Coal Power Station New sludge incinerator

CS

TL

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Project outcomes
National Strategy for Sludge Management Cost and environmental implications Toolbox of Best Practice and Guidance documents Increased awareness of stakeholders on the need for proactive management of sludge National conference on sludge (September 2011) Action plans to develop / implement / improve the strategy

Mulumesc !
We wish to thank all of the wastewater operators and other stakeholders for their continuing interest and support in developing the National Sludge Management Strategy We welcome the opportunity to receive comments as this is your Sludge Management Strategy

www.mottmac.com

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