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GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN BARANGAY ZONE 1, DIGOS CITY

A Thesis Presented to the BA-Political Science Department University of Mindanao Digos College Digos City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree Bachelor of Arts Major in Political Science

___________________________________________ By Renel B. Cagasan

November 2007

ii THESIS ABSTRACT The study is conducted to determine the presence of governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City; it implication to human development. The researchers seek answers to find out and measure how far Barangay Zone 1, Digos City accomplishes the status of human development towards governance in fulfilling the welfare of the said area. The study is conducted using survey method of research by which the researchers disseminate questions particularly on the twenty-five puroks with the seven officials in each. The study resulted to data and findings determined that, there is a significant relationship between the governance and human development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City. This entails that any of the indicators of the Governance like Ordinance Made, Delivery of Basic Social Services, Infrastructure Development, Protection of Environment and Sports Development, is indeed a factor to be considered since it affects the Human Development so as to Education and Standard of Living.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title Approval Sheet Abstract Acknowledgment Dedication List of Tables List of Figure i ii iii iv v vi vii

CHAPTER

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Hypothesis Review of Related Literature Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Significance of the Study Definition of Terms 1 3 4 4 16 18 19

METHOD Research Design 21

Research Subject Research Instrument Data Gathering and Procedure Statistical Treatment of Data

21 23 23 24

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Extent of Governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City Levels of Human Development in Zone 1, Digos City Significant Relations Between Governance and Human Development 29 25 27

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Conclusions Recommendations 33 34 34

REFERENCES APEPENDICES Letter of Permission Letter to Evaluators Survey Questionnaires

CURRICULUM VITAE

viii LIST OF TABBLES

TABLE

Page

1 2 3 4

Frequency Distribution of Respondents Extent of Governance in Zone 1, Digos City Level of Human Development in Zone 1, Digos City Significance of the Relationship Between Governance And Human Development in Zone 1, Digos City

22 26 28

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ix LIST OF FIGURE FIGURE 1 Schematic Diagram Showing the Variables of the Study Page 17

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study Human capital is a crucially significant factor for a developing country. The world has before it a great opportunity to realize the promise of equality and freedom, all around the globe the positive and active influence that globalization is having on human development is spectacularly observed. All societies have been influenced by the rapid progress of science and technology, especially information technology (IT), which gives people more information, more choice and more freedom. China for instance, as one of the worlds most populated countries made use of its human capital to rise by interacting with the international society on matters that which especially confront both the rare opportunities and the severe challenges arising from governance and human development issues. (http://www.ourplanet.com/imgversn/edge/Dr%20Zhao%20Baige.pdf) In the Philippines, governments and other regulators increasingly are part of the problem in development and not part of the solution. There is a role for the government of its implications, without emphasizing a political agenda but the social and economic interests of the nations. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal, major donors and international financial institutions, like IMF or World Bank are increasingly basing their aids and loans on the condition that reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken. (www.wikepedia.org/wiki/good-governance )

In countries where electoral processes exist, the state is composed of an elected 2 government and an executive branch. The states functions are manifold among them, being the process of the social contract that defines citizenship, being the authority that is mandated to control and exert force, having responsibility for public services and creating an enabling environment for sustainable human development. The latter, means establishing and maintaining stable, effective and fair legal-regulatory frameworks for public and private activity. It means mediating interest for the public good. And it means providing effective and accountable public services. In all four roles, the state faces challenge, ensuring that good governance addresses the concerns and needs of the poorest by increasingly the opportunities for people to seek achieve and sustain the kind of life they aspire to. ( http://magnet.undp.org/policy ) Human developments must measure in two basic dimensions, namely: education and a decent standard of living. It is premised on the principle that human development cannot be measured by the yardstick of income alone since income is a means, not an end, and there is no automatic link between income growth and human progress.( Human development Network ,PHDR2005 ) Hence, our Barangay Zone 1,Digos City, do much in such areas, as upholding the rights of the vulnerable, protecting the environment, maintaining stable macroeconomic conditions, maintaining standards of public health and safety for all at an affordable cost, mobilizing resources to provide essential public services and infrastructure and maintaining order, security and social harmony as an ordinance. Through all these, the government of Barangay Zone 1,Digos City have an outcome of making their responsibilities from public

services to create and enabling the people to sustain well and 3 human develop. It is needed to conduct this study for the researcher and the Purok officials and residents in Zone 1, Digos City, to be aware that through all these things brought a big impact and progress to the area. This study is conducted to find out and measure how far Digos City accomplishes the status of human development with the collaboration of two factors in fulfilling the welfare of an area particularly the interests of the people in education and their standard of living. Statement of the Problem The main problem of this study was to measure the status of governance and human development in Brgy. Zone I, Digos City. Specifically, the study sought to address the following questions: 1. What is the extent of governance in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of; 1.1 Formulated Ordinances 1.2 Delivery of basic Social Services 1.3 Infrastructure Development 1.4 Protection of the Environment 1.5 Sports Development 2. What is the level of human development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of; 2.1 Education

2 . 2 Standard of living 4 3. Is there a significant relationship between Governance and Human Development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents ? Hypothesis of the Study The null hypothesis was tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance. 1. There is no significant relationship between Governance and Development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents. Review of Related Literature The following related studies and researches are provided to give more insights for better understanding of this study. Frankel (2005) theorized that major deficiency in developing countries is not lack of resources but the lack of knowledge and education. According to him, education generates knowledge and facilitates the ability of human to govern the environment and its resources for their betterment. Development and higher standards of living depend mainly on human capability to shape and use the environment and all it offers. Governance ISKOLAR BOS, in their political study found out that the Philippines has a long story of centralization wherein the National government exercised major political powers and even greater responsibilities in the delivery of basic services. This condition started during the Spanish era, when the colonial government felt the need to unite and dominate the colony Human

through a strong central government in Manila. The same was followed by the 5 American regime where political decisions were made at the top level of the government. The Local Government was merely implementer of the central governments plan, programs and project. Even when the Philippines became a republic in 1946, the central government did not really grant significant powers to the local governments which choose to expand or limit these delegated powers. But nowadays, as stated in the DILG Basic Orientation Manual, the Philippines has become the leading exponent of devolution and Local autonomy. Local services of the Department of Health were devolved to the LGUs thru transfer of personnel and equipment. LGUs now provide health services thru their respective Health Department. Like the local Health services, local Agricultural services are now devolved to LGUs which include production and dispersal of planting materials, distribution of fingerlings and seedlings, livestock production, prevention and control of animal pests, maintenance of demonstration farms and animal breeding stations, agricultural extensions and provision of facilities for the prevention and control of animal and plant diseases. In effect, these personnel and

equipment were transferred to LGUs from the Department of Agriculture. Social Services and Welfare were also devolved such as the undertaking of activities on youth and child welfare of the disabled and elderly persons, rehabilitation programs for rebel returnees, evacuees and relief operations. Likewise, the Public Works services such as maintenance of barangay/municipality/provincial roads and bridges, construction, maintenance and repair of elementary public school building, public markets and etc..were also devolved. Lastly, the Environmental and Natural Resources was part of the services being

6 devolved to LGUs. This includes integrated social forestry, enforcement of laws on pollution control and environmental protection, small scale mining, utilization of hydroelectric power, management of communal forests and watersheds, Ultimately, modernization is about good government. If a nation were to improve the quality of its national life, it must first improve the quality of its governance. In some parts of the world, the economic success of less than democratic societies is being used to cost doubt on the prospects of countries like Philippines which seek to modernize as functional democracies. A reply is already given to this false wisdom. But the core of the authoritarian challenge, cannot be neglected. Filipinos must prove democratic government is not necessarily inefficient and ineffectual. The Government have gained much headway in preventing constitutional gridlock and in legislating reform. But, the level of political will and national capacity that enable a nation to transform its dream of modernization into reality is not yet achieved. The true measure of national capacity is neither the size of a country, army, nor the power is centralized in one man or group of men. It is how effective political institutions are at solving problems, mediating conflicts, carrying out policies and implementing programs for the peoples welfare. Formulation of Ordinances Jardiniano P. and Ortiz J.(1993) asserted that enactment of ordinances is necessary to discharge the responsibilities conferred upon it by law or ordinance and to promote the general welfare of the inhabitants there in. Barangay ordinances are laws directly affecting the affairs of the community and way prescribe fines for their violation.

7 Local ordinances of a general nature are binding upon all persons within the corporation limits, whether residents or not. The principles is that whoever comes to reside in any place for however short a duration of time, is an inhabitant proboc vice, and consequently bound by the same regulations as the other members of the corporations or community. Delivery of Basic Social Services Iskolar Bos asserted that local government units shall endeavor to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the powers and discharging the duties and functions currently vested upon them. They shall also discharge the functions and responsibilities of national agencies and offices devolved to the pursuant to this code. Local government units shall likewise exercise such other powers and discharge such other functions and responsibilities as are necessary, appropriate, or incidental to efficient and effective provision of the basic services and facilities. The participation of the private sector in local governance, particularly in delivery of basic services, shall be encouraged to ensure the viability of local autonomy as an alternative strategy for sustainable development. Infrastructure Development R A No.7160 LGC of 1991 stated: Each local government unit shall conduct a periodic inventory of infrastructure and other community facilities and undertake the maintenance, repair, improvement, or reconstruction of these facilities through a closer cooperation among the various agencies of the national government operating with the

province, city or municipality concerned. 8 Protection of the Environment R A No.7160 LGC of 1991 reiterated: the State has the obligation to promote and protect the right of the people to health. as stated in Article II, Sec. 16 of the Philippine Constitution. It further, stated that the State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. (New Philippine Constitution). It shall be the dirt of every national agency or governmentowned or controlled corporation authorizing or involved in the planning and

implementation of any project or program that may cause pollution, climatic charge, depletion of non-renewable resources, loss of crop land, rangeland, or forest cover, and extinction of animal or plant species, to consult with the local government units, non government organization, and other sectors concerned and explain the goals and objectives of the project or program, its impact upon the people and the community in terms of environmental or ecological balance, and the measures that will be undertaken to prevent or minimized the adverse effects thereof. Sports Development Art XIV. Sec 19- of Philippine Constitution stated: the State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs league competitions, and amateur sports including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. Likewise the two objectives of the SK sports program for the barangay focused on the promotion of sports to enhance and foster physical fitness and general health of the

9 barangay residents, and development of sports with an eye on discovering and providing support incentives to new talents whose skills and confidence must be upgraded for tougher competitions ahead. Human Development Human Development Network (2005) accounted: the global Human Development Report (HDR) published by the United Nations Development Programmed (UNDP) measures these dimensions across countries using life expectancy, educational attainment (simple literacy and combined primary, secondary, and tertiary enrollment) and adjusted per capita income in purchasing power parity (PPS) US dollars. In the latest HDR (2005), THE Philippines ranked 84th among 177 countries, placing it in the upper half of countries with middle development. Over the years, the countrys HDI has steadily been improving from 0.736 in 1995 to 0.758 in 2003. As noted in previous PHDRs, the Philippines has a high education index but a low GDP per capita income relative to other countries. While GDP per capita is lower for the Philippines than the group average of countries with medium human development, and life expectancy only 4.8 percent better than the average for the same group of countries, adult literacy and combined enrollment rates continued to be higher than the group average at 16.6 percent and 24.2 percent higher, respectively. This has enabled the country to rank much better in HDI (84 TH) than it does in terms of per capita GDP (103RD). Moreover, in terms of gender-related development index (GDI), which is simply HDI adjusted for gender inequality, the Philippines ranked 63rd among the 177 countries.

While it is interesting to know how the country fares relative to other countries, a 10 closer examination of the components of human development is required to understand the quality of overall performance, including any internal disparities hidden in national averages. In this people look more closely into sub national performance to identify which provinces have performed better or worse across time by component of the human development index. In so doing, a fuller picture of the state of human development in the country will be presented. Education Dubois, et al.( 2006 ) assessed that: many have been concerned about the illiteracy in the world population, despite the past few decades, especially in the third World. Third World nation which adopted Marxist ideology ( China, Cuba and Vietnam for example ), experienced some of the most dramatic growth of literacy, approaching Canadian and European rates. The United Nations defined literacy as the ability to read and write a simple sentence in any language. In 1998, record showed that 16 percent of the World population is illiterate. Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the Socrates Eurasians program stimulates exchanges across European Universities. Also, the Soros foundation provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and Europe. Some scholars argue, that regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can be considered the most

important enriching element of an international learning 11 experience. When provincial HDIs were generated in the second and third issues where index was based, functional literacy rates were obtained from the Functional Literacy, Education, and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) of the National Statistics Office (NSO). This was consistent with the global HDI. However, since the FLEMMS had not been updated since 1194 and was not likely to be repeated (according to the National Statistics Office at the time), the fourth issue of the PHDR (2002) replaced functional literacy rate with high school graduate ratio, defined as the percentage of those 18 years and above in the province who are at least high-school graduates. This year, even though a new FLEMMS was undertaken in 2003, the use of the highschool graduate ratio has been maintained, and will be henceforth. Reasons for permanently adopting this statistics are (i) availability, (ii) timeliness, and (iii) consistency over time since the operational definition of functional literacy and thus how the FLEMMS will measure it may change according to expert opinion. While high-school graduate ration is not a qualitative measure of literacy, the rank correlation between this statistics and functional literacy is quite high: 0.71 for 2003, 0.71 for 1994, and 0.93 in 1989 using the labor force survey. The second component of the education index remains the basic education enrollment ratio or the proportion of children aged 7-16 years who are currently enrolled. This age range is used despite the lowering of the minimum age for grade 1 enrollees to 6 years in 1995 since there are still a handful of provinces where only 0 to 10 percent

proportion of children aged 6 are enrolled in grade 1. The estimate comes from the 12 Annual Poverty and Indicator Survey (APIS) 2002. As explained in the 2002 PHDR, this statistics had been previously estimated using (i) estimates from the Department of Education (DepEd) in the numerator, i.e., the number of elementary and secondary school enrollees by province, including projections on private school enrollment and (ii) NSO population estimates of 7-16 year olds in the denominator. Since some implausible figures (i.e.,ratio greater than 1) were encountered, however, the shift to using APIS data was made, although sampling errors would still be present. For the country as a whole, the proportion of high- school graduates among adults in 2003 was 52.1 percent. This was an improvement from the 2000 level of 49.4 percent and 1997 level of 46.8 percent. The greatest progress has been made by Western Samar (from 22.3 percent in 2000 to 31 percent in 2003, or a 39-percentage change) and Lanao del Sur (from 35.7% in 2000 to 45.9% in 2003, or a 29 percentage change), while Sarangani (from 33.6% in 2000 to 25.3% in 2003,or a 25 percentage change) and Maguindanao (from 36.1% in 2000 to 26.9% in 2003, or -20 percentage change) have made the least progress. In the current ranking, Batanes (76 percent) heads the list with more than threefourths of its adult population having completed at least high school, greater than Metro Manila at 75.7 percent and overtaking five other provinces. Rizal, Cavite, Benguet, Laguna, Bataan, Pangasinan, Zambales, and Misamis Oriental continue to be in the top 10 although ranking have been altered since 2000. At the other side of the spectrum, Sulu continues to have the smallest proportion of high-school graduates among its adult population at 21.1 percent, with a slight

13 improvement from its level in 2000 of 18.1 percent. Improvements from there 2000 levels are also noted for Northern Samar (from 31.8 percent), Basilan (from 28.6 percent), Western Samar (from 22.3 percent) and Masbate (from 23.3 percent ) although they continue to be in the bottom 10. On the other hand, three provinces in Mindanao- Sarangani, Maguindanao, and Agusan del Sur-along with Negros Oriental are now among the bottom 10, replacing Bohol, Biliran, Northern Samar and Apayao. The overall basic education enrollment ratio has slightly increased across the years, from 88 percent in 1998 to 89 percent in 1999 and to 91 percent in 2002. Largest gainers since 2000 are Sarangani, followed by Sulu, while losers include Western Samar, Biliran, and Apayao ( On a subnational level, Batanes and Mt. Province continue to be highestranked provinces, with nearly all their children aged 7-16 enrolled. Benguet, Zambales and Ilocos Norte also remain in the top 10 while new additions are Misamis Oriental, Kalinga, Ifugao, Aklan and Southern Leyte.At the other extreme are six provinces of MindanaoBukidnon, Basilan, Sulu, Sarangani, Maguindanao, and Lanao del Sur which have consistently appeared at the bottom 10 since 1998. The others at the bottom are Negros Oriental, Western Samar, Biliran and Camarines Sur. All six Mindanao provinces, along with Negros Oriental, Masbate and Camarines Sur appear in the bottom 10 for at least one of the education indicators Standard of living There can be problems even with just using numerical averages to compare material standard of living, as opposed, a pare to index ( a measure of the breadth of income or wealth distribution ) Standards of living are perhaps inherently subjective. As

14 an example, countries with a very small, very rich upper class and a very large, very poor class may have a high mean level of income, even though the majority of people have a low standard of living. The mirrors the problem of poverty measurement, which also tends towards the relative. This illustrates how distribution of income can disguise the actual standard of living. Balisacan (2000) in his Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) for 1997, 2000 and 2003 provides the source of estimates of provincial per capita income. Consistency with the global HDI would have required provincial per capita GDP, but the latter is unavailable since GDP is disaggregated only up to the regional level. As discussed in the PHDR 2002, to make sure income comparisons are consistent, two adjustments are made: first, income is measured consistently over time by deflating it to 1997 price levels using regional consumer price indices from the National Statistics Office; and second, they were made consistent across space by adjusting them using provincial cost-of-living indices. In the course of computing real per capita incomes this year, it was discovered that there were outliers-that is, households with extraordinarily high incomes-which were causing high-income variances within each province. For instance, in the province of Nueve Vizcaya, one household was recorded with a declared income P6 million. To address this problem, this report computed for a top and bottom 0.5 percent-trimmed mean of per capita income. For purposes of comparisons over t ime, trimmed mean per capita incomes for 2000 and 1997 were also computed. In the aggregate, real per capita income declined between 1997 and 2000, from

15 27,896 (NCR 1997 pesos) to 26,881 (NCR 1997 pesos), then slightly rose again in 2003. This is likely to reflect the struggle towards recovery from the political and social unrest the country has experienced for the pass few years. Between 2000 and 2003, per capita incomes rose in 40 provinces and fell in 37 provinces. Metro Manila per capita income declined by 14.5 percent (table 4.6). Largest gainers were Quirino (51.1 percent) and Ifugao (50.2 percent) while Marinduque experienced no change. On the other hand, the province of Zamboanga del Norte had the highest drop in income (-32.3 percent) followed by Palawan and Davao Oriental. The top 10 and the bottom 10 provinces in terms of real per capita income (NCR 1997 pesos), excluding Metro Manila, Nueva Vizcaya which previously ranked seventh with P30,892, remaining in the top 10 since 2000 are Benguet, Laguna, Cavite, Rizal and Bataan. They are joined this year by Batanes, Quirino, Pampanga and Tarlac, which replace Ilocos Norte, Bulacan, Abra, and Misamis Oriental. At the other extreme is Sulu, the lowest- ranked since 1997. Other provinces which continue to occupy the bottom slots are Tawi-Tawi, Basilan, Masbate, Marinduque and Romblon. Three Mindanao provinces (Maguindanao, Zamboanga del Norte and Sarangani) along with Guimaras are new additions to the bottom 10 replacing Western and Eastern Samar, Sorsogon, and, bucking the ARMM trend, Lanao del Sur which has moved from 70th to 48th place. ARMM provinces figure prominently in the bottom four provinces. While the Davao region comprising Davao del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental and Compostela Valley is on the first class status because of its low level of poverty and good amount of labor. Surprisingly Davao region had become the food

16 basket. ( http://en.wikepedia.org.standard of living The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The result in extent of governance towards human development as understood by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rosseau are based on the social contract theory. Assuming these are appropriate to the settings in Zone 1, Digos City, it may result into rewards. These rewards then helped reinforce the extent of governance, which was said to be greatly affecting the level of human development. Based on the conceptual framework, the The independent variable is governance which include the following; formulated ordinances, delivery of basic social services, infrastructure development protection of the environment and sports development which was followed to UNDP 2005 and Human development Network, PHDR2005. The dependent variables are the two basic dimensions of human development, namely: literacy and a standard of living, which was based on the DILG basic orientation manual and ISKOLAR BOS.

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INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

GOVERNANCE - Formulated Ordinances - Delivery of Basic Social Services - Infrastructure - Protection of Environment - Sports Development

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT - Education - Standard of Living

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram Showing the Variables of the Study

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Significance of the Study Governance and human development in barangay Zone 1, Digos City are the main concern of this research. It tried to determine if there is a relationship between governance and human development in the said area. Hence, this research would be able to help the following: Barangay Officials. The findings of this study serve as their basis in determining the need to alter, improve or retain their different programs on governance and human development towards the constituent. Constituents. Results of this study will serve as their magnifying glass for them to know the governance status as far as human development is concerned. As a hint it will also be the tool for them to information and be knowledgeable to carryout the goals of their community effectively and efficiently. Officials in other Barangays. Results of this study will be able to guide them to know the things to do or to be adopted for the attainment of good governance towards human development. It will enable them to understand better that the reason for good governance is the human factor, that it is good governance to satisfy the needs of the people and

accomplish the goals of the community they are serving. Researchers. The findings of this study provide them information and be informed about governance and human development that will lead them to do further research related to this topic.

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Definition of Terms The following terms were conceptually and operationally defined in this study: Governance. In this study, it refers the capability of a barangay and local government units to effectively manage or administer local affairs such that performance brings about efficient delivery of basis and essential services to the community. Protection of Environment. It focuses on the local Government Code of 1991 Chapter 3, Sec. 389 (9) which provided for the enforcement of laws and regulations relative to pollution control and protection of the environment and of RA 9003 ( Solid Waste Management Program). Delivery of Basic Social Services. In this study, it is the exercise of its police power that the health and social welfare services which include maintenance of barangay health center and day care center should attend and the last is maintenance of Barangay roads infrastructure facilities such as multi-purpose hall, multi-purpose pavement plaza center. Ordinance. In this study, it refers to refers to local legislative body to carry out or discharge the responsibility conferred upon it by law. As such, it is vested with the power to promote community well-being, health and safety, public morality, peace and order. Human development. Enlarging peoples choices is achieved by expanding human capabilities and functioning. At all levels of development the two essential capabilities for human development are for people to have good education and stable standard of living. (http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/soc/undp/hd.htm). In this study, it refers to the

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indicators of life expectancy, literacy or education and standards of living in social, political, cultural and economic conditions Education. Refers to individuals potential on reading and writing at a level adequate for communication or at level that enables one to successfully comprehend and communicate in print society, it may also serve the purpose of equipping the individual with necessary education.(http://en.wikepedia.org.literacy). In this study, this refers to the learning, to enable an individual knowledge and educational attainment. Standard of living. Refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population.

(http://en.wikepedia.org.standard of living ).In this study, this refers to the indicators in social political, cultural and income.

Chapter 2 METHOD This chapter presents the research design, the subjects, research instrument, procedure of data gathering, and the data analysis tools. Research Design This research study used the descriptive-correlation method to measure governance and human development. It is the best method in obtaining significant relationships between two variables of a study in the present period The Subjects The subjects of this research study were the Purok Officials from Barangay Zone 1, Digos City, Davao del Sur. The total number of Puroks in Barangay Zone 1 is twenty-five (25) and there are seven (7) officials in each Purok. Shown in Table 1 is the distribution of the respondents according to sex or gender. Based on the data that was gathered in Chapter 2, manifested that there are seventy-nine (79) women (46%) and ninety-six (96) men (54%) with the total of one hundred seventy-five (175) purok officers to be considered as respondents.

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Table 1.1 Frequency Distribution of Respondents Percent (%) Gender Number of Respondents 96 Male Female 175 Total 100 79 54 % 46 %

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Research Instrument The study utilized both the self-made questionnaires, consisting of two parts evaluated by the experts. The first part is for Governance consisting with Formulation of Ordinances, Delivery of basic Social Services, Infrastructure Development, Protection of the Environment, Sports Development and the second part is, Human Development consisting of Life Expectancy, Education, and Standard of living. These questionnaires were utilized to be able to attain the goals of this study. Range of Score on Average Mean (Extent/Level) Mean Range 4.50.5.0 3.50.4.49 2.50-3.49 1.50-2.49 1.00-1.49 Description Very Extensive / Very High Extensive / High Moderately Extensive / Moderate Less Extensive / Low Not Extensive / Very low

Data Gathering Procedure These following were the steps undertaken in conducting the study: 1. Researchers made the letter of permission to the office of the barangay captain on barangay Zone I, Digos City. 2. Administer the distribution of the questionnaires to the respondents as determined through the sample size. 3. Retrieval and encoding of the results.

4. Analysis and interpretation of the gathered data by the experts. Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered were tached and treated using the following statistical tools. Mean. This was used to determine the extent of governance in Zone 1, Digos City as perceived by the respondents. Pearson r. This was used to determine significant relationship between governance and human development in Zone 1, Digos City. The degree of linear relationship is interpreted by using a range values for the Pearson r whether positive or negative as shown below.

Chapter 3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Presented in this chapter are the results of the computed data as well as the discussion or the interpretations based on the computed results of the data gathered to further

understand the main problem of the study which is the level of governance in Brgy. Zone I, Digos City, its implication to Human development. As mentioned, the main problem of this study was to find out the extent of governance in Brgy. Zone I, Digos City; its implication to human development. Specifically, it presents the following: Governance in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of: Ordinance Making, Delivery of basic Social Services, Protection on Environment, Infrastructure Development and Sports Development; and the level of Human Development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of: Education and Standard of Living. Extent of Governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City Shown in Table 2 is the extent of governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City. Ordinances made obtain a mean of 2.82 described as moderately extensive; delivery of basic social services has 2.84 average mean or moderately extensive; infrastructure development has an average mean of 2.83 still moderately extensive; protection on environment has 2.87 average mean described as moderately extensive; and the sports development has an average mean of 2.83. All the indicators were described as moderately extensive respectively, he expectations of the respondents were met in 2.503.49 in scale.

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Table 2 Extent of Governance in Zone 1, Digos City Indicators Ordinance Made Delivery of Basic Social Services Infrastructure Development Protection of Environment Sports Development Overall Mean 2.82 2.84 2.83 2.87 2.83 2.84 Moderately Extensive Extent Moderately Extensive Moderately Extensive Moderately Extensive Moderately Extensive Moderately Extensive

27 This signifies that respondents have moderate ratings in assessing the extent of governance in terms of; making of ordinance, delivery of basic social services, infrastructure development, protection of environment and sports development. However, the highest among the five (5) indicators of Governance as proven by their average mean was the protection on environment but yielded the same interpretation. The reason for such outcome is the fact that the actions of the barangay officials, as perceived by the respondents, are more often can be determined as program for the Protection on Environment. In short, they gave more importance on the Environmental task such as implementation of RA 9003 (Solid Waste Management Act). Levels of Human Development Presented in Table 3 is the level of Human Development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City as perceived by the respondents. As proven by the data, the Education has 2.85 average mean; and the Standard of Living has an average mean of 2.81.Both indicators have moderate-ratings which mean that the expectations of the respondents are met at 2.50-3.49 range of Scores. This entails that the respondents have moderate ratings in assessing the level of human development in the aspects of education and standard of living. Based on the results, the data shows that the highest between the two was the education. This implies that the barangay Zone 1, Digos City are more focused on having an education. It only shows that people in this barangay are literate persons. The people are more focused on sustaining education. For this program the barangay even gave the constituents different

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Table 3 Level of Human Development in Zone 1, Digos City Indicators Education Standard of Living Overall Mean 2.85 2.81 2.82 Extent Moderate Moderate Moderate

29 scholarship grants from the LGU, National Government and NGOs. The barangay supplies necessary facilities and equipment needed by the people for quality education but yet they still lack those highly sophisticated gadgets for modern time. Significant Relations between Governance and Human Development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City Presented in Table 4 is the correlation between the governance and human

development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City. The human development in the Formulated Ordinances has a correlation index of 0.557 which shows Moderate Correlation, in the Delivery of Basic Social Services, its correlation index is 0.600 which shows Moderate Correlation, the Infrastructure Development has a correlation index of 0.783 which shows High Correlation, in the Protection of Environment, the correlation index is 0.735 which shows High Correlation and in the Sports Development, the correlation index is 0.696 which shows Moderate Correlation. Computation shows that there is a marked relationship in all indicators, since the p-values obtained (0.000) were all less than the 0.05 level of significance. This entails that any of the indicators of Governance like Formulated Ordinances, Delivery of Basic Social Services, Infrastructure Development, Protection of Environment and Sports Development, is indeed a factor to be considered since it affects the Human Development so as to Education and Standard of Living. As proven by the data, governance can moderately and highly affect, human development. The overall correlation index obtained is 0.908 which shows a Very High Correlation or Very

30 Table 4 Significance of the Relationship Between Governance and Human development in Zone 1, Digos City Indicators Ordinance Made Delivery of Basic Social Services Infrastructure Development Protection of Environment 0.696 Sports Development Overall 0.908 Very High Correlation 0.000Sig Rejected Moderate Correlation r-value 0.557 0.600 0.783 0.735 Extent of Relation Moderate Correlation 0.000Sig Moderate Correlation 0.000Sig High Correlation 0.000 High Correlation 0.000
Sig Sig

P-value 0.000Sig

Decision on Ho Rejected Rejected Rejected Rejected Rejected

Note: P<0.05 Significant (Sig)

31

Dependable Relationship. This means that the Human Development in Brgy. Zone 1 as to Education and Standard of Living is highly depending on the level of Governance in terms of Formulated Ordinances, Delivery of Basic Social Services, Infrastructure Development, Protection of Environment and Sports Development. The overall p-value is 0.000 which is less than the 0.05 level of significance. This means that there is a significant relationships between Governance and Human Development. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. Findings imply that the welfare of the people in a community lies in the hands of the people that rule them. If the Barangay Officials perform their functions with the peoples welfare as their prime motive they could mobilize them for the common good, through cooperation and collaboration.

Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION Included in this chapter are the presentation of the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations derived from the results obtained.

Summary The Study was conducted to determine the governance in Baranagay Zone 1, Digos City; its implication to human development. Specifically, the study sought to address the following questions: 1.) What is the extent of \governance in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of; 1.1 Formulated Ordinances 1.2 Delivery of Basic Social Services 1.3 Infrastructure Development 1.4 Protection of the Environment and 1.5 Sports Development 2.) What is the level of human development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents in terms of; 2.1 Education 2 . 2 Standard of living 3.) Is there a significant relationship between Governance and Human Development in Barangay Zone 1,Digos City as perceived by the respondents ? 33

The following were the findings of the study: 1. The extent of governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City obtained a mean of

2.84.
2. The level of human development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City got a 2.82

total mean.
3. The relationship between governance and human development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City resulted to 0.908 r-value. Conclusions The following conclusions are made based on the results and findings: 1. The assessment on the extent of governance in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City

is Moderately Extensive. 2. is Moderate. 3. There is a significant relationship between Governance and Human The assessment on the Human Development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City

Development in Barangay Zone 1, Digos City. Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are presented: 1. The barangay officials must initiate thorough study with the same concerns so

as to come up with programs that will reinforce the lapses and deficiencies with regards to formulated ordinances, delivery of basic social services, infrastructure 34

development, protection on environment and sports development for a very extensive result. 2. Study on the management capabilities as well as the performance level of

barangay officials to possibly arrive with the findings that may lead to techniques and strategies in enhancing the extent of governance to come up with a very high level of human development is highly recommended. 3. The Constituents must also perform their functions as active citizens in the

community since there should be symbiotic relationship between the officials and the constituents if high level of human development is to be achieved. 4. Moderator Variables must also be utilized such as age, sex, educational

attainment, civil status and occupation for further study because people with different age, sex, educational attainment, civil status and occupation may differ as far as human development is concerned. 5. Another study must be conducted with similar variables in another barangay

to really attest that the extent of governance indeed affects the level of human development.

REFERENCES

Ardales, V. (2001). Basic concepts and methods in research. 2nd ed. Manila: Mega-Jesta Print, Inc. Flores C. and Albetes J (1995). Barangay: its government and management Manila: Philippine Senate Printing. De leon, H. (2001). New Philippine Constitution. 7th Ed.) Manila: Rex Bookstore Inc. Pearson F. and Rochester J. M( 2002 ). International relations: Global condition in the late 20th century. USA: McGrawhill Company. Republic Act No. 7160. Local government code (1991). DILG: US Agency for International Development. Jardiniano P. (1993). Barangay administration handbook. 2nd ed. Manila: Mary Go Educational Supply. http://www.hdn.org.ph/files/2005_PHDR.pdf-PHDR,2005 Human Development Network http://www.ceisin.org./decentralization/English/General/UNDP_dgp.html Decentralization Governance Programme (February 1999) www.undp.org or http://magnet.org.htmlUnited Nation Development Program (UNDP) 1 www.hdn.org.ph./bgpapaers2005/Lanao_Case_Study.pdf Yasmin Busran ( March 2005 ) the Case of the Province of Lanao del Sur .