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Data Table B.

Controlled Experiments
What are the properties of the individual substances? Chemical Calcium Chloride Sodium Bicarbonate Phenol Red Observations White Powder, small chunks White powder, no chunks (small grains like table sugar) Red thick liquid, has tiny bubbles

What happens when the substances are mixed together? Observations Turns yellow, bubbles constantly, and heats

Write four questions concerning the changes that were observed. Observations 1. What occurs, when water is added to the overall material? 2. What substance emits heat? 3. Why does the mixture bubble? 4. Do different amounts of phenol red effect color?

Pre-Lab Questions 1. A student protested: Both calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are common household substances. Why should I wear my goggles? Explain why! The reason to always wear goggles is because although the two reactants one is working with are harmless and very common, their products may be dangerous. Also, the amount of each reactant could increase to a harmful dosage.

Data Table B. Controlled Experiments

2. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the scientific method: (a) logic, (b) imagination, (c) bias, or (d) evidence? Explain your answer. Imagination is not a part of the scientific method. Logic and bias are parts of forming a hypothesis and problem statement, and evidence refers to the collection of data, and results. Imagination doesnt fit into any of the steps of the method. Post- Lab Questions 1. Based on the results of the controlled experiments, what combination of substances seems to be responsible for the observed temperature change in the overall reaction? Heat is produced by the addition of calcium chloride and the absence of heat (cold) is produced by adding sodium bicarbonate. 2. Was there a temperature change observed in any of the individual controlled experiments that was NOT observed in the overall reaction in Part A? Explain. Yes, the opposite affect happened because in some controlled experiments, the presence of different substances was not a constant (calcium carbonate). 3. What color change was observed in the overall reaction? Do the controlled experiments provide any evidence concerning the combination of chemicals responsible for the observed color change? Phenol red is responsible for the pink color, and the combination of both sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride causes the color to change to yellow. 4. Are temperature or color changes always observed at the same time as the formation of gas bubbles? Explain. No, the formation of gas bubbles only occurred when both sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride are present. However, temperature change occurred in every controlled experiment that had either sodium bicarbonate or calcium chloride present (either alone or both). Color change was only observed when phenol red was present. 5. What controlled experiments were done to evaluate if a liquid is necessary for the observed effects in Part A? Does any reaction occur in the absence of water?

Data Table B. Controlled Experiments

A controlled experiment of adding only calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate would evaluate whether or not a liquid is necessary, and it is. The phenol red is what causes the new substance in Pat A. In the absence of water, color changes, temperature changes, and some gas is emitted. 6. What evidence suggests that a new chemical substance is the overall reaction of the substances mixed in produced in substances? In Part A heat and gas was produced as well as a color change. These are all signs of a substance changing chemical identity. Anytime that phenol red, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium chloride were present and combined with another reactant, a chemical reaction occurred. But for Part A, the combination of chemicals most likely responsible for the new substance is that of sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride. 7. Lets assume that the chemical identity of calcium chloride is not changed when it is mixed with water. Suggest an experiment that could be done to test this hypothesis. To test if water changes the chemical makeup of calcium chloride one would have to mix the two and observe the reactions that occur. If any signs of a chemical reaction occur, then most probably, a new substance has formed. 8. Temperature changes are sometimes used as evidence to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. Discuss whether a temperature change always indicates that a chemical reaction has occurred. The release of heat or the absence of heat is normally an indicator of a chemical reaction occurring. A substances ability to change temperature is a chemical property, and depending on whether or not a substance could do this BEFORE an experiment was conducted, the temperature change during the reaction is one of a chemical reaction.

Part A? What combination of chemicals may be responsible for the new

Data Table B. Controlled Experiments

Numbers Calcium Chloride Sodium Bicarbonate Phenol Red Water

Emitted heat, turned yellow, bubbled Changed from red to orange-yellow Turned to magenta, got cold More liquid texture than chemical in #1, yellow, fizzed Fizzed and emitted heat, no color change Emitted heat, color changed from red to pink Became cold Became very cold Emitted heat

6 7 8 9