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How to Tune for Smog

I set my idle exhaust emissions to 0.7% CO (the factory setting is 0.5% to 1.5% CO for my model year and transmission type). This produced the following measurements with my own wide-band O2 tester before any other adjustments:
y y

Air temp: 60F head temp: 315F at 50mph, 390F at 70mph

RPM range Idle 14.2:1

AFR

%CO 0.7 0.1 2.5 5.0

You want to record the AFR reading from the LM-1 at the same speeds they use in the smog test + idle. In order to do this you will need a section of road that is flat and long enough to let you maintain those speeds and quiet enough so that you are not going to be holding up traffic.
y y y

light throttle 14.7:1 half throttle WOT 13.6:1 12.6:1

0 mph (neutral) 15mph (2000 rpm in 2nd gear) 25mph (2000 rpm in 3rd gear)

Normal CO readings. If the combustion process is succeeding at or near the stoichiometric point (AFR equals 14.7, Lambda equals 1.0), CO levels during an idle test will typically measure less than 2%. High hydrocarbon (HC) readings usually indicate excessive unburned fuel caused by a lack of ignition or by incomplete combustion. Concentrations are measured in parts per million (PPM). Common causes include a faulty ignition system, vacuum leaks, and fuel mixture problems. Circumstances that can lead to a high HC emissions are:
o o o o o o

Incomplete combustion due to fouled spark plugs. Improper timing or dwell Damaged ignition wires Poor compression Vacuum leak Ineffective or faulty air management system (ECM control of air/fuel ratios)

High carbon dioxide (CO2) readings indicate a nearly ideal air-fuel ratio and efficient combustion High NOx Readings. Circumstances that can lead to abnormally high NOx emissions are:
o o o o o o o

Malfunctioning EGR valve Lean fuel mixture (AFR above 14.7, Lambda above 1.0) Improper spark advance Thermostatic air heater stuck in the heated air position Missing or damaged cold air duct Combustion chamber deposits Malfunctioning catalytic converter

Here 20 tips to passing the smog checks at the REF: 1) Get a good Engine Tune, ecu tuning via uberdata, crome, hondata, etc, make sure you use wideband o2 sensor like Bosch lm-1 or lc-1 to make sure air/fuel ratio is close to 14:7 at most throttle speeds, which is perfect air/fuel ratio, but at high throttle 13:6. If your car is tuned to 14:7 you should have no problem passing the CO and HC portion of the test. Almost any setup or engine can pass if it is running right. (Reduces CO, HC). 2) Check Timing, this is another thing when tuning, make sure there no knock by retarding the timing, but just make sure stock timing at idle is set to TDC 16. If your running high compression you will need to run more conservative timing to not increase your NO, but if you retard it too much than CO and HC numbers jump. REF checks it to make sure its 16 or you fail visual (Reduces CO, HC, NO) 3) Replace O2 Sensor, but if your tuned then closed loop will be fine. I enabled the barometer pressure sensor and o2 sensor for smog check, ran more efficient but don't need it if your tuned. (Reduces CO, HC) 4) Replace/Calibrate TPS Sensor, don't forget about this, crucial in passing because if the engine doesn't know the correct throttle then it will inject the wrong fuel and air into the engine and cause it to fail. (Reduces CO, HC, NO) 5) Replace MAP Sensor if bad, checks pressure in bar and knows what fuel to use, if your running a 4 bar map sensor it would be fine as long as its tuned, but oem is recommended if your NA, 4 bar is only needed if your forced induction. (Reduces CO, HC, NO) 6) Buy a new Catalyst Converter every 3-4 years, if you live in CA you will have to replace this every other smog check because they don't last more than 3 years, the ref checks under your car to make sure you have it. Also, if there is a leak between your header and exhaust right where your o2 sensor reads, then your catalyst converter will get too much air/o2 and will let through too much NOx, and won't do the job of converting NOx into N and O. So make sure there your exhaust is tied down tight and there no leaks. Since honda didnt put an egr valve, the only way it can reduce NOx is by overlap and catalyst converter. (Reduces CO, HC, NO) 7) Replace broken/remove Thermostat, if its broken and doesnt open then you will overheat and lean out, if its stuck open then you run too cold and too rich, since i was running high compression I had to remove the thermostat all together, but if you running anything above 11:1 compression then I recommended spoon or mugen for better cooling, I was running 12:3 compression so I just removed the thermostat and it ran at the perfect temperature (Reduces NO the most, but affects the CO and HC if running too rich or lean) 8) Radiator fan sensor, helps cool down the engine if its overheating a lot, I had hondata so I just set it to turn on lower temperature (Reduces NO)

9) Get colder spark plugs - I used heat range 8 plug, gaped mine to .38, get the right heat range depending on application and compression, if your running 10:1 then use heat range 6, 11:1 then use heat range 7, 12:1 and above get heat range 8 (Reduces NO) 10) New Oil and Oil Filter - I recommend Quaker State Full Synthetic, K&N filter, any weight that makes you consume less oil would be best, I used 10W-30 becuase I couldn't find 20W-50, but recommend 20W-50 for high mileage cars. (Reduces NO) 11) Replace Cap, Rotor, and Spark Plug Wires - if your getting backfire then it could be something to do with these, if your not getting enough spark then you will have unburnt fuel leftover after the burn (Reduces CO, HC) 12) Use good injectors, I used RC injectors, pinto injectors tend to get dirty much easier, just cover any aftermarket injectors up so he don't see them or you fail visual, but if there clogged then your engine could lean out. I recommend if your using RC injectors get a tune, for some reason they run so much different than stock, they squirt out more so you will need a good tune to compensate, cant just throw in the same size expecting the same flow. (Reduces NO) 13) Fill your with good Gas that the engine was tuned for, if the car was tuned with 91 then run 91, the reason I say this is because when you tune to 14:7 air/ratio your tuned for the specific gas, and if you put anything high octane or lower than you will be running at a different air/fuel ratio and could make you fail smog, it only works to use octane boosters if your car is dyer need of a tune up, running lean because of carbon build up in your engine which increase compression so you use an octane booster to increase the octane to run the higher compression, but if your tuned then there no reason to be throwing in this stuff, it will make you run worse if that isn't your problem. (Reduce NO) 14) Air filter upgrade, if you got K&N or AEM aftermarket air filter then you changed it from stock and will probably need a need, but this upgrade is minimum so it can still pass, will need CARB#, but if you put an intake on expecting it to run good on a stock ecu, it will only hurt you (Reduce CO,HC,NO) 15) Throttle body upgrade, if you increased the size you will need a tune. (Reduce CO,HC,NO) 16) Intake Manifold upgrade, even if its got a CARB#, doesn't mean it will pass with a stock ecu, such as skunk2 intake manifolds, you need to get it tuned. (Reduce CO,HC,NO) 17) Header upgrade, if you got a better header it must have CARB#, best to use your stock header if your running a stock ecu, but if your got aftermarket, you might need a tune. (Reduce CO,HC,NO) 18) Camshaft upgrade, if you got something minor like civic type r cams, you might not need a tune, but if you got toda cams then your going to need a good tune. But like they all say, stock is always a solution if you can't get the todas to pass (Reduce CO,HC,NO) 19) Valve adjustment, will help it all together. (Reduce CO,HC,NO)

20) Pistons upgrade, decrease or increase compression will do nothing to your CO and HC, but affect NO a whole lot. If your running compression higher than 11:1 then your NO will increase regardless but if your catalyst converter is working properly then it will be cleaning most of this up. A good tune will fix this problem. (Reduce NO)

Things to know: CO2 Higher the better (sign of combustion efficiency) 14.7 is the perfect place to be at if its higher than your running too lean. O2 should be less than 1% - if it is higher than you got a leak somewhere or its not being efficient in burning the O2. CO is incomplete combustion - can be caused by bad ignition such as spark plugs, spark plug wires, distributor, timing, etc. HC is unburnt gas (raw fuel) - can be caused by running too rich which can kill the catalyst converter over time. Misfire or foul out is an indication there too much fuel. Causes can range from o2 sensor, spark plugs, not enough timing, to other serious problems like bad fuel pressure regulator. NOx created by high temperatures and high pressure - causes are usually running too lean and can range from bad catalyst converter, o2 sensor, injectors, radiator, thermostat, timing too advanced, high compression.

Pick a perfect day, if its cold then make sure the car is warmed up, if its hot just make sure the engine isn't overheating, but try to pick a perfect day it will do wonders. There no replacement for a good tune, a tune is everything in passing the emissions test, make sure everything looks stealthy so you pass the visual, I used a hondata to do all the tuning.

[i]Modified by lek9l at 11:30 PM 8/29/2008[/i]

Technical facts about the mentioned fuels: E85 requires 42% more fuel to reach stoich even if that is not what you may come up with when doing calculations based on the table below. This is because the injector flow is slightly different when using E85 among many other things I cant really think of at this time (will be added at a later time). Fuel ........................ AFRst ........ FARst ....... Equivalence Ratio ... Lambda Gas stoich ................ 14.7 .......... 0.068 ................ 1 ................... 1 Gas max power rich .... 12.5 .......... 0.08 ................. 1.176 .............. 0.8503 Gas max power lean .... 13.23 ........ 0.0755 .............. 1.111 ............. 0.900 E85 stoich .................. 9.765 ....... 0.10235 ............ 1 ................... 1 E85 max power rich ...... 6.975 ....... 0.1434 .............. 1.40 ............... 0.7143 E85 max power lean ..... 8.4687 ...... 0.118 ............... 1.153 .............. 0.8673 E100 stoich ................ 9.0078 ...... 0.111 ............... 1 .................... 1 E100 max power rich .... 6.429 ........ 0.155 .............. 1.4 .................. 0.714 E100 max power lean .... 7.8 .... ...... 0.128 .............. 1.15 ................ 0.870 The term AFRst refers to the Air Fuel Ratio under stoichiometric, or ideal air fuel ratio mixture conditions. FARst refers to the Fuel Air Ratio under stoichiometric conditions, and is simply the reciprocal of AFRst. Equivalence Ratio is the ratio of actual Fuel Air Ratio to Stoichiometric Fuel Air Ratio; it provides an intuitive way to express richer mixtures. Lambda is the ratio of actual Air Fuel Ratio to Stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio; it provides an intuitive way to express leanness conditions (i.e., less fuel, less rich) mixtures of fuel and air. When driving purely on E85 you can blend it with up to 25% gasoline in case you want to raise the AFR number used to produce max. power. In that case you can raise the boost even further since the volume of fuel needed to reach the desired lambda is decreased.

Performance application and fuel needed: Performance application: Lets pretend for a while that the ECUs in our cars are pretty good at their jobs. On gasoline it will try to keep an AFR of 14.7 (lambda=1) all the time at idle, cruise and light load. It will also try to keep a good AFR at WOT/boost of 13.2-12.5, sometimes even lower than that, probably closer to 11.x. Why? Because the fuel has a cooling effect on the intake charge and the space in which the combustion occurs. As you can see from the table shown above this section, the ideal target AFRs under boost for both

gasoline and E85 are listed. For gasoline its 13.23-12.5, and for E85 its 8.47-6.975. However, with E85 you will not need to richen the mixture under WOT/boost as far as 6.975 or beyond. It does not need to be proportionally richer when compared to gasoline. Why? Again, Because the fuel has a cooling effect on the intake charge and the space in which the combustion occurs. And at such a low AFR as 9.765 (lambda=1 on E85) or lower the fuel cools pretty good, dont you think so? Many people with some experience in mapping an ECU for use with E85 says that as high AFR as 8.5 or lambda=0.80-0.85 works well. No need to go to the extreme end of the useable scale to get safe power. It only uses a lot of fuel without giving any benefits. Since you dont have to richen the mixture as many percent (proportionally) as you have to on gasoline, you can make more power without having to use as much fuel. Instead you can keep the AFRs leaner across the board and by doing so you can make room for higher boost without maxing out the injectors. The burn rate will of course be different for different AFR's. It is a matter of tuning it right and getting the peak cylinder pressure where you want it (10 degrees after TDC). But if you are around the same ratio as on gasoline (i.e if you have installed injectors that are almost exactly 42% bigger) you are in the ballpark and do not have to worry about it. More about this later on. Fuel needed: As you will see, both in my article as well as other places on the internet, different fuel requirements are listed. What numbers will you see and why? 1. A car converted, but not specifically mapped for E85 will consume ~30% more fuel. 2. A car running E85 will require ~42% more fuel. 3. According to your own calculations (if you have bothered to look in to it), it will not quite add up. Most people scratch their head. Let me show you a table again: Mode ........... Gas .... E85 ...... extra % (mass) ... extra % (flow) Stoich .......... 14.7 .... 9.765 ........ +50.5% ................ +42% Lean power ... 13.2 .... 8.47 .......... +55.8% ................ +47% Rich power .... 12.5 .... 6.975 ........ +79.2% ................ +69% E85 has a higher density than gasoline. The change in AFR from 14.7 (lambda=1 for gasoline) to 9.765 (lambda=1 for E85) is 50.5%. But the resulting flow needed is only 42% greater.

Explanations to this: E85 will need a fuel flow that is 42% greater than the flow needed for gasoline. However, it will not use 42% more fuel since it will actually be more efficient. Generally, the engine will consume ~30% more fuel. If I am using 46.7lb/hr injectors (45% larger than stock) which are easy to get hold of, my AFRs should theoretically look like this: *At idle, cruise and low load (closed loop) the AFR will be 9.56, the O2-sensor sees this and will correct it to 9.765. A very small correction, and it lies well within the adaptation limits. Not even noticeable as more than normal adaptation by the ECU. *When at WOT/boost (open loop) the AFR will be between 8.58-8.13. This looks a little lean according to the AFR table, doesnt it? It isnt even in the "rich" area according to the table. No worries, the cooling properties of E85 are pretty good. But in reality I will actually get an AFR of around 8-7.5 since my ECU wants to run a slightly richer mixture than 12.5 on gasoline. It obviously does not know that it is running E85...

ASM:
ASM Pass/Fail CO 15mph 1.66% CO 15mph 3.16% 25mph 2.96% 15mph 394ppm 25mph 1.46% 15mph 204ppm HC 25mph 344ppm 15mph 2791ppm HC 25mph 169ppm 15mph 1534ppm NO 25mph 2591ppm NO 25mph 1394ppm

ASM Gross Polluter

I believe the formula on the document is incorrect so I filed a misdemeanor complaint against BAR under the Business & Professions Code (sounds crazy but that's how CA works I'm sad to say). In my opinion the formula should be A + (A+B)/VTW which will calculate the test limits. For example, my 78 bus falls into ESC 10 by weight and vehicle type. Let's figure out the %CO limit.
CO limit A = 1.08 (15 mph), 0.88 (25 mph) CO limit B = 2025.00 (15mph and 25 mph)

3) Punching those numbers along with the 3500 lbs vehicle test weight into the formula:
1.08 + (1.08 + 2025)/3500 = 1.66 %CO 0.88 + (0.88 + 2025)/3500 = 1.46 %CO

Good: exactly the same as my test report below. Look at the stricter limits for the 79-83 vehicles:
0.88 + (0.88 + 2025)/3500 = 1.26 %CO 0.68 + (0.68 + 2025)/3500 = 1.46 %CO

D'Oh! Even lower limits! What if your 76-78 bus vehicle weighs 4000 lbs?
1.08 + (1.08 + 2025)/4000 = 1.58 %CO 0.88 + (0.88 + 2025)/4000 = 1.39 %CO

I have to conclude from the formula that the heavier your vehicle is the lower the limit and the harder it will be for you to pass.

A full gas tank and full water tank weighs about 150 lbs. What else do you have inside in your bus (spare tire, gear stored)?

10. Passing TSI:


For the TSI test you can limit yourself to setting the air fuel ratio (AFR) at idle. If you have good combustion the CO numbers will not creep up after they release the throttle. If your engine isn't burning fuel correctly (weak spark, low compression, etc) then you'll have high HC numbers. I was naturally unprepared for my first test thinking the smog referee would only be helping me assess my vehicle. Instead he recorded the test results and I had left the checking of the AFR to the mechanic 5-12 years ago. Here were my 2002 results: %CO2 %O2 Test idle 876 8.1 7.8 0.8 250 200 HC (PPM) 73 67 186 74 2.50 3.00 CO (%) 0.50 2.49 0.90 0.45 PASS PASS

RPM MEAS MEAS MAX AVE MEAS MAX AVE MEAS Results

high rpm 2499 13.9

11. Passing ASM (Part 1):


I set my idle exhaust emissions to 0.7% CO (the factory setting is 0.5% to 1.5% CO for my model year and transmission type). This produced the following measurements with my own wide-band O2 tester before any other adjustments:
RPM range idle AFR 14.2:1 %CO 0.7 0.1 2.5 5.0

light throttle 14.7:1 half throttle 13.6:1 WOT 12.6:1

y y

Air temp: 60F head temp: 315F at 50mph, 390F at 70mph

Whether you are preparing for a test or just failed one, testing and adjusting your emissions output is the next step. There are a couple of traditional ways to get you bus in tune but consider the drawbacks:
y y y

Use the exhaust sniffer at your mechanic but it only works at idle while the test stimulates driving on a dynomometer Race prep shops that have a dyno and sniffer but will either a) refuse to tune your bus or b) charge you a small fortune for the service unless you have friends in the right places The smog pre-test gives you exact results but the test costs full price and won't offset the cost of the real test. On top of that you'll have no idea what your emissions will be after a tune-up until you get re-tested which may require several trips ($$$).

This is where a portable wide-band O2 tester is far more useful. Armed with one of these, a location to mount the sensor and a tachometer, you are on your way to independence as far as smog testing is concerned (one of the last bastions of automotive repair whose price have come down to the hobbyist level thanks to low cost technology from Bosch: the LSU-4 O2 sensor). You will also need a chart to convert readings because the testers only display Lambda and AFR while the smog test registers %CO, a tachometer and a location to mount the sensor. Download the Conversion Chart and print it out.

A wide-band tester like the Innovate LM-2 (replaces LM-1) is about $350 but you'll recover the money over several tests by not having to pay for testing through other means and you'll have the personal satisfaction of "beating the system". I use mine to help friends and other bus owners who got trapped between ignorant mechanics and the smog system. Innovate is by far the best product available as rated for cost/accuracy. They do make a cheaper LC-1 cable ($199) which connects to your laptop but for easy of use and setup, the LM-1 is the way to go.

You'll need to get someone (perhaps a muffler shop) to weld an oxygen sensor bung onto your exhaust unless you have a CAT from the factory 75-79 setup with a test port. One such unit is the EMICO replacement CAT which the FI beetle also uses (hence the 043 part number). Note: this cat does not come with a plug. See a muffler shop for a plug to cover the hole or use an old worn out O2 sensor when not in use. Also note that this CAT is for federals models only (see Why people unknowingly fail).

With my engine, I measure about 14.5:1 in those two gears at 2000 rpm. If your measurements are accurate (thanks to LM-1's accuracy) you should have no trouble passing if you can keep your reading at 14.0:1 or higher.

A cold engine stumbles and runs too rich. Before taking your test, make sure you run the engine at 50mph for 20 minutes to ensure that it's warmed up for the test (heat soak will keep it warm while you are waiting in line for the test for any reasonable length of time). Here are my 2004 results: %CO %O2 2 HC (PPM) CO (%) NO (PPM)

Tes RP MEA MA AV MEA MA AV MEA MA AV MEA Result MEAS t M S X E S X E S X E S s 15 mp 1990 13.9 h 25 mp 2018 13.8 h 1.2 204 49 48 1.66 0.30 0.19 1534 592 652 PASS

1.5

169

40

31

1.46 0.27 0.11

1394 500 563

PASS

Here are my 2006 results (not much change except my NOx has gone up by 30%): %CO %O2 2 HC (PPM) CO (%) NO (PPM)

Tes RP MEA MA AV MEA MA AV MEA MA AV MEA Result MEAS t M S X E S X E S X E S s 15 mp 2068 14.2 h 25 2072 14.1 mp 1.4 1.6 204 169 49 40 50 35 1.66 0.30 0.16 1.46 0.27 0.13 1534 592 849 1394 500 727 PASS PASS

h The LM-1 was right on the mark! Notice my NOx readings are rising? This is typical as an engine ages. Functional items they did not test according to the report:
y y y y y y y

Catalytic Converter (CA only) EGR Functional (got lucky) Thermostatic Air Cleaner (Mitchell error) Air Injection (another error) Fill pipe restrictor (CA only) MIL/Check Engine Light (no EGR light on Federal models) Oxygen Sensor (only for 79 CA model)

It would seem that BAR now knows what items are not specific to my model. Good news and somewhat gratifying having sent in my feedback to Mitchell 2 years ago. I no longer have to worry about my smog sticker being incorrect (the database is correct and where it's not the smog techs know what to correct). When you pass you are issued a certificate number which the DMV uses during the registration process. The results are sent electronically from each smog station to the DMV to help eliminate fraud.

CA model: HC: 0.63 (0.08) CO: 12.40 (2.4) CO2: 473 (351) NOx: 0.93 (1.48)

y y

Rich mixtures == high levels of HC and CO, lower levels of NOx. Lean mixtures == low levels of HC and CO but high combustions temperatures produce high NOx levels.

y High CO (aka too rich). When the air fuel ratio is incorrectly set, the sniffer knows immediately and this results in a fail. Sometimes timing is the cause, other times it's the mixture. Either way, the cure is often simple: get a tune up at a repair shop that has an exhaust analyzer. Serious engine problems may prevent setting the AFR properly which will require further investigation because setting the AFR is the final step in the tune-up process. The only downside to the shop's adjustment is that if you are near the borderline of the test limit at the shop during the test you may fail the smog test. This may either be because the shop's equipment is out of calibration or simply because the equipment is stationary and you are unable to simulate the dyno test. Either way, confirm their reading before you pay. y High HC. Excessive hydrocarbons can be caused by a clogged catalytic converter or it can be as simple as a larger than normal amount of ignition misses. It's normal for the engine to miss once in a while at idle but if it happens too much then unburned fuel will exit the tailpipe. Low compression and valve timing can cause the engine to miss and it can also be induced to miss when the fuel injectors are clogged or vacuum leaks (false air) are introduced.

You want to record the AFR reading from the LM-1 at the same speeds they use in the smog test + idle. In order to do this you will need a section of road that is flat and long enough to let you maintain those speeds and quiet enough so that you are not going to be holding up traffic.
y y y

0 mph (neutral) 15mph (2000 rpm in 2nd gear) 25mph (2000 rpm in 3rd gear)

LSVTEC 11.7:1 C/R RC 310cc Injectors Fuel Pressure at 43 psi Hondata A/F tuning 18 degrees of timing NGK BCPR6ES-11 plugs ...........and 91 octane.

-Sparkplugs NGK BKR7E-11 (colder plugs to help the heat) -Distributor Cap & Rotor (New OEM)

-Sparkplug Wires OEM NEW (decided to go with OEM instead of NGK) - those will be in tomorrow -Retarded Timimg to 12-13 BTDC (I eyeballed it since i dont have an advanced light) -O2 Sensor (replaced with another OEM used 02. Ohm reading on it is 15 i think) -Raised Fuel Pressure (38psi with B&M FPR) -New Exhaust Manifold Gasket & Exhaust Pipe Flex Gasket (the one right before the cat) -GTPE full bottle -Tested Injectors and all are ok

check this out...

i took, stock p06 map... export fuel/timing open p30, import fuel/timing from p06 remove knock, eld and injector test rev limit 7500 launch control a 3700 full throttle shift 7200 shift light 7000 removed checksum added quick datalogguer add boost tool but injector are still 240cc

Following are a few general facts and tips to keep in mind when using the gas analyzer: 1. High Carbon Monoxide (CO) readings usually indicate a fuel mixture richer than ideal (rich mixture - air fuel ratio below 14.7). In general CO is an indicator of combustion efficiency. The amount of CO in a vehicles exhaust is directly related to its air-fuel ratio. High CO levels result from inadequate O2 supply needed for complete combustion. This is caused by a too rich mixture - too much fuel or not enough air (AFR readings below the optimal 14.7, Lambda below 1.0). Circumstances that can lead to high CO emissions: o Low idle speed o Improper float settings in carbureted vehicles o Dirty or restricted air filters o Excessively dirty or contaminated oil o Saturated charcoal canister o Non-functioning PCV valve system o Improper operation of the fuel delivery system o Improperly functioning thermactor system

NOTE 1.Catalytic converter intervention and CO concentrations High CO readings at the tailpipe are an clear indication that there is a problem in at least one part of the system, but a CO reading that appears within "normal" ranges or is only modestly elevated is not necessarily a reliable indicator of proper or even acceptable system performance. Low range CO readings are possible, and not uncommon, from a malfunctioning engine equipped with a properly functioning catalytic converter. In such circumstances, truly elevated pre-catalytic converter CO levels will be masked by the catalytic converter and the potential for an CO problem must be further evaluated in the context of other readings of abnormal gas concentrations and AFR/Lambda readings.

NOTE 2.: Great caution must always be exercised when dealing with CO. Concentrations of <1% can be lethal. Testing should always be done in a well ventilated area.

2. Normal CO readings. If the combustion process is succeeding at or near the stoichiometric point (AFR equals 14.7, Lambda equals 1.0), CO levels during an idle test will typically measure less than 2%. 3. Low COreadings. There is, effectively, no reading for CO that can be characterized as too low or "below optimal". CO concentrations will appear "normal" even in a lean burning environment, where AFR is above 14.7 (Lambda is above 1.0). 4. High hydrocarbon (HC) readings usually indicate excessive unburned fuel caused by a lack of ignition or by incomplete combustion. Concentrations are measured in parts per million (PPM). Common causes include a faulty ignition system, vacuum leaks, and fuel mixture problems. Circumstances that can lead to a high HC emissions are: o Incomplete combustion due to fouled spark plugs. o Improper timing or dwell o Damaged ignition wires o Poor compression o Vacuum leak o Ineffective or faulty air management system (ECM control of air/fuel ratios) NOTE. Catalytic converter intervention and HC concentrations High HC readings at the tailpipe are an clear indication that there is a problem in at least one part of the system, but an HC reading that appears within "normal" ranges or is only modestly elevated is not necessarily a reliable indicator of proper or even acceptable system performance. HC readings at or near "normal" are possible, and not uncommon. From a malfunctioning engine equipped with a properly functioning catalytic converter. In such circumstances, truly elevated pre-catalytic converter HC levels will be masked by the catalytic converter and the potential for an HC problem must be further evaluated in the context of other readings of abnormal gas concentrations and AFR/Lambda readings.

5. Oxygen (O2) readings. Oxygen, measured as a percentage of the exhaust volume, reflects the amount of gas remaining in the exhaust sample after the combustion process has taken place. Ambient O2 readings should be about 20%, reflecting the natural amount oxygen found in the air. The ideal range for vehicles without a secondary air injection system is less than 1.5%. If there is an air injection system, O2 levels will typically fall n the range of 3% to 4%. Pinching off the air hose of a vehicle equipped with air injection should produce O2 levels similar to those found for vehicles without air injection. 6. High oxygen (O2) readings indicate too lean an air-fuel ratio (AFR higher than 14.7, Lambda greater than 1.0). Circumstances that can lead to high O2 emissions are: o Lean fuel mixture (AFR above 14.7) o Vacuum leaks o Ignition related problems causing misfires. 7. Low O2 indicates a rich fuel mixture (AFR below 14.7, Lambda below 1.0). 8. High carbon dioxide (CO2) readings indicate a nearly ideal air-fuel ratio and efficient combustion 9. Low carbon dioxide (CO2) readings indicate a fuel mixture either too rich or too lean, exhaust system leaks, or sample dilution. 10. Oxides of Nitrogen readings. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (NO2), are formed if the combustion temperatures within the combustion chamber exceed some 2,500F. This can occur when the engine is under load. When excessive temperature conditions exist, the greatest amount of NOx is typically produced at the stoichiometric point (AFR 14.7 or Lambda of 1.0) as the engine is under a light load. If the combustion process within an engine is burning fuel at or near stoichiometric point, NOx levels on acceleration will typically read significantly higher than those measured at cruise and during deceleration. Typically, the NOx readings at idle will be 0 PPM. 11. High NOx Readings. Circumstances that can lead to abnormally high NOx emissions are: o Malfunctioning EGR valve o Lean fuel mixture (AFR above 14.7, Lambda above 1.0) o Improper spark advance o Thermostatic air heater stuck in the heated air position o Missing or damaged cold air duct o Combustion chamber deposits o Malfunctioning catalytic converter NOTE. Catalytic converter intervention and NOx concentrations High NOx readings at the tailpipe are an clear indication that there is a problem in at least one part of the system, but a NOx reading that appears within "normal" ranges or is only modestly elevated is not necessarily a reliable indicator of proper or even acceptable system performance. NOx readings at or near "normal" are possible, and not uncommon. From a malfunctioning engine equipped with a properly functioning catalytic converter. In such circumstances, truly elevated pre-catalytic converter NOx levels will be masked by the catalytic converter and the potential for an NOx problem must be further evaluated in the context of other readings of abnormal gas concentrations and AFR/Lambda readings.

12. Low NOx readings. There is, effectively, no reading for NOx that can be characterized as too low or below optimal. NOx is naturally 0 ppm at idle. NOx concentrations may appear normal even in a rich burning environment where the AFR is well below 14.7 (Lambda below 1.0). Facts to Remember The byproducts of combustion are dependent on the air-fuel ratio. 13. O2 combines with HC to form CO2 and H2O. 14. O2 combines with CO to form CO2. 15. CO is an indicator of air-fuel mixture richness. 16. HC is an indicator of fuel mixture leanness (or richness) and misfires. 17. CO and O2 are equal at the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. 18. O2 and CO2 are indicators of exhaust system integrity, sample hose and probe integrity, or both. 19. CO2 is an indicator of combustion efficiency that peaks at or near the stoichiometric airfuel ratios, and decreases with lean or rich air-fuel ratio. 20. Air injection systems dilute the exhaust sample with O2. 21. O2 is essential for proper operation of the catalytic converter. Its concentrations are essentially unchanged by the catalytic converter, providing a "window" through the converter to the engine. O2 levels are higher on vehicles with properly operating air injection systems. 22. If CO goes up, O2 goes down (inversely related) 23. If O2 goes up, CO goes down (inversely related) 24. With the air injection system disabled and the CO above 1%, the catalytic converter is oxygen-starved. Without O2, it does not fire, allowing exhaust concentrations to be more like readings taken ahead of the converter. If readings are within the manufacturers or local/state/federal allowable limits, it can generally be assumed that the fuel, ignition, and emission control systems are functioning properly. If they exceed the limits, repairs or adjustments are probably called for. The chart below lists some of the kinds of problems that could result in abnormal gas readings. (Legend: L = Low, H = High , M = Moderate) CO CO2 HC O2 Possible Problems H H L L H H L L L H L H H H L L H H Rich mixture with ignition misfire L Faulty thermostat or coolant sensor H Exhaust leak after the converter H Injector misfire, catalytic converter operating H Injector misfire, catalytic converter not working; combination of rich mixture

ML H Rich mixture

and vacuum leak L L L L H H L L H Ignition misfire; lean condition; vacuum or air leak between air flow sensor and throttle body (false air)

L Good combustion efficiency and catalytic converter action L All systems operating within tolerance; normal reading

The following table lists some of the results possible when the AFR (air-fuel ratio) is sustained at conditions ranging from too lean to too rich. Conditions Too Lean Results Poor engine power Misfiring at cruise speeds Burned valves Burned pistons Scored cylinders Spark knock or ping Slightly Lean High gas mileage Low exhaust emissions Reduced engine power Slight tendency to knock or ping Stoichiometric Best all-around performance Slightly Rich Maximum engine power Higher emissions Higher fuel consumption Lower tendency to knock or ping Too Rich Poor fuel mileage Misfiring Increased air pollution Oil contamination Black exhaust

Gap Plugs to 0.45-0.52 Install 2 Catalyst Converters New o2 Sensor

Fix Thermostat if needed Readjust Valves check cam gears Retune ECU with more fuel Install 270CC injectors Put APC wires Fix Idle

HIGH HC Causes o2 Sensor Bad Bad Spark Plugs Bad Spark Plug Wires Bad Timing Bad Fuel Injectors Caused by Ignition and Fuel Problems

HIGH CO2 Causes Bad Fuel Bad o2 Sensor Partial Burned Fuel Mixture

HIGH NOx Causes Bad Timing Temperature in Cylinders is over 2500 Degrees F Lean Fuel Mixture Catalyst Converter

If spark plugs are old change them. You can also go to a hotter plug. Advance timing Clean injectors if EFI Don't use any Octane levels higher then is needed for engine.

Are you getting a good burn? Hotter plugs, narrowing the gap, increasing spark, advancing timing, running higher octane gas, etc. just to get it through inspection.

Again...Do not use rubbing alcohol. It will dry out your rubber seals and gaskets. Denatured alco hol will do the trick. Just go to home depot and go to the paint thinners. You'll find a quart there for like $5. Mix that with a 1/4 tank of gas and get it smogged. I did this to get a 750il with a set of bad catalytic converters to pass.

At a hardware store, it is called denatured alcohol. It used for dissolving shellac for wood finishing.

If you need pure Ethanol it comes from a Liquor Store as Ever Clear. That is about as pure as one can purchase it without a commercial license, or Bond paid.

100% Ethanol can be found at hardware and chemistry stores or ordered online.

E85!

Full-screen Joes Circle K (Pearsons Fuel), Perris, California, Latest Reported Price: $3.75 (Submitted by TravelSoftballDad) on:

Station Address: 19248 Harvill Ave, Perris, California

Retard the timing, run the tank almost dry, get the cats real hot, then pour in a litre of methyl hydrate. Car will smell like vodka, and you'll pass unless you have serious issues...

I bought 2 gallons of E98 ($4/gallon) last night and mixed half-gallon of it with denatured alcohol that was left in my tank. Logs indicate everything normal, but the car kinda feels like it has more in it now. Side note, E98 smells like tequila, and really makes me nauseous ( I HATE tequila!!).

1. Hydrocarbons - may be due to "ignition system (plugs, wires, timing, etc.), air/fuel mixture or fuel delivery (carburetor or fuel injection), slow reacting oxygen sensor, diluted engine oil, or a dirty air cleaner."

Solutions - Change engine oil, O2 Sensor (MAF and MAP), plugs, and Air Filter. You can't change timing on 3.1 motor. But, if your intake valve seals are shot, you will be sucking oil into engine...what is your oil consumption??????

2. Carbon monoxide - due to partially burned fuel molecules....problems with the air/fuel mixture or fuel delivery (carburetor or fuel injection), slow reacting oxygen sensor, diluted engine oil, or a dirty air cleaner."

Solutions - Change O2, MAF, MAP sensors...and oil and air filter.

3. Nitric oxide - "created by high combustion chamber temperatures..Excessive amounts can be caused by...inoperative or clogged exhaust gas recirculation system, ignition timing, lean fuel mixture, or an inefficient or inoperable catalytic converter."

If your exhaust to intake circuit is plugged, not enough exhaust gas will pass into engine.

How many miles on this engine, and when was last test?

The blend changeover triggers a change in the AFR because the ethanol percentage varies from 70% to 85% depending on the seasonal temperatures where you live. 70% ethanol content is the minimum percentage rating for Winter Blend E85. There is a middle grade (class 2) during Spring and Fall with a minimum of 74% ethanol. Summer Blend has a minimum of 79% but all variations are still called E85 for a recognizable common name. This changeover of blends varies per climate (NY goes to Winter Blend much sooner than Georgia). To see the complete chart by state, GO HERE. IGNITION TIMING In addition to fuel changes, there are also other parameters that can be altered, such as ignition timing advance to take advantage of the 105 octane rating of E85. The ethanol is slower to ignite, and more timing can be added at max power without the worries of detonation. Our project car sees about 21 degrees of timing at 6500 rpm on a stock engine. That simply isn't capable with 93 octane gasoline. The benefit is a modest 5-10% increase in horsepower. It is a comparable result to high octane race fuel, without the need to charge your buddies $10 a ride to pay for your fuel needs!

Understanding Air/Fuel ratios This article assumes you already understand the concept of the air/fuel ratio (AFR), but if not, familiarize yourself by visiting this Wikipedia link. You may have already read that E85 has a

different stoichometric air fuel ratio than gasoline's 14.7. The stoich AFR for E85 (at 85% Ethanol) is 9.76. The stoich value represents an ideal perfect burn of the fuel usually used at part throttle conditions. Full throttle conditions require a richer mixture than stoich to prevent the dreaded detonation, or pinging.
However most AFR gauges you can purchase to display a numerical value of the AFR, are showing you values for gasoline. This is where it can get tricky, and it's important to understand how this ratio works on both gasoline and ethanol-based fuel. All AFR's regardless of fuel type work off of a common number called Lambda. A value of 1.0 in Lambda represents the stoich for any fuel. Gasoline is Lambda 1.0 at stoich. E85 is Lambda 1.0 at stoich. If you already have a standard gasoline AFR meter hooked to a wideband O2 sensor, you can still use the displayed gasoline AFRs in determining your engine's true AFR. For example, if your gasoline meter is showing 14.7, then we know this is Lamda of 1.0. The equivelent on the E85 side is around 9.7. Therefore you can conclude that the 14.7 you see on the gauge is a true AFR of 9.7. This allows you to effectively use existing gasoline AFR components or software to tune an E85 Mustang without buying special equipment. Simply use the same target AFRs on your gasoline gauge that you normally targeted for gasolline. For a late model modular Ford engine, we can tell you that it requires about 20% more fuel at part throttle, and about 40% more fuel at wide open throttle (WOT) so ensure you have adequate fuel flow to the cylinder before you begin. This is where the experience of a professional tuner becomes important to understand just how much fuel to add and when, to make the perfect fuel curve.

I have a fully built NA GSR 12.6 compression and had the same problem of not passing DEQ. Every part that could fail I failed pretty bad. Thank goodness for s300. I leaned the fuel and retarted the timing which then AF read about 17, which lowered my HC levels. then my NO levels increased. I put 2 cats in parallel. I brought my laptop to the testing place and hit enter on the fly and did the test. I passed and jumped in to my car reloaded the tune and off I went.

here's how to hook up an LC1 to an OBD1 honda ecu LC1 wires: brown (analog 2) this is your wideband signal, connect to D10 (ELD) on your ecu yellow (analog 1) this is your narrowband signal, connect to D14 (O2 signal) black (calibration button/light) connect to the red button and light then ground to chassis green/white (signal grounds) connect these to D22 (sensor ground) blue (heater ground) also connect to D22 but not to the same point as green/white - I used a copper bar and connected green/white on one end and blue on the other and D22 to the middle - that way they're all grounded to the same place but their signals won't interfere with each other red (12 power) connect to A25

Then go into hondata Options > Settings > Wideband Lambda and tell it that 0v is 7.35 af and 5v is 22.39