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LTE Radio Planning and Optimisation

Contents
LTE Radio Planning Basics LTE Link Budgets LTE Capacity Planning Optimisation Introduction Self Organising Network Concepts

Radio Planning Basics

High Level Design Life Cycle

How many eNBs to satisfy objectives? Capacity How many sites Coverage available?

Pre-Build Optimisation Ensure CAPEX Efficiency and optimal performance Objectives satisfied with available sites?

Information Required Phase 1


Generally Known Data Frequency Band Amount of Allocated Spectrum Channel Bandwidth Equipment Performance Market Research Data Service Area Population Density Population Demographic Population Penetration Expected level of service

LTE Link Budgets

Link Budget : System Gain


EiRP GDiv TxPA LF+C GAnt

Sys Gain
GAnt IRLmin LF+C UE Rxth

Sys Gain

UL

= (TXPAUE + GAntUE) (RxTHeNB + LeNB GANTeNB GDiv) = (TXPAeNB LeNB + GAnteNB + GDiv) (RxTHUE GANTUE GDiv)

Sys Gain
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DL

Link Budget : MAPL, Spending the Budget

Sys Gain

MAPL

Distance

Body Margin 0 3 dB

Building Margin 5 30dB

Fade Margin 8 12 dB

Using MAPL to Find Distance

MAPL
Frequency Antenna Height Propagation Model Terrain

Clutter

Distance
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Performance KPIs
Signal Strength

Noise and Interference

64QAM

16QAM

QPSK

Cell Edge Throughput RSRQ RSRP RSSI SNR Area Availability Cell Edge Availability

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Defining RSRP, RSSI and RSRQ

Rs

LTE Resource Block

Rs

Rs

Rs

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UE Radio Measurements

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RSRP and RSRQ Targets

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LTE Capacity Planning

Capacity in LTE
LTE supports Adaptive Modulation and Coding Actual Capacity will depend on users location in the cell SINR is the most important planning KPI Average cell throughput will lower than quoted maximums

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The Capacity Planning Problem

100+ Mbps!
Assumes good radio signal in every part of the radio cell

64QAM

16QAM

QPSK

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User Distribution in the Cell


User Distribution will impact average cell throughput The resource scheduler in the eNB is very important Scheduling may be different between vendors

64QAM
~10% of Area

16QAM

QPSK

~15% of Area

~75% of Area
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Average Cell Throughput


Mbps

Lower Average Due to resource sharing Between many users

Higher Peak Loads due to less active users

time

Average Busy Hour Throughput

Average Non-Busy Hour Throughput

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Capacity Modelling
Try to Determine what data the typical user will consume

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Capacity Modelling cont.


Extrapolate consumption between subscriber population Make assumptions about busy period to obtain Data Density

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Capacity Modelling cont.


Use Link Budget and Sector Throughput to determine number of radio cells

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Optimisation Introduction

Optimisation Context

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Optimisation Targets
Cell Edge Throughput RSRQ RSRP SNR Area Availability Cell Edge Availability 5-10Mbps -7dB -75dB >13dB 90% 75%

RF Optimisation Options Antenna Orientations, Tilt, Azimuth Transmit Power Antenna Height eNB Location
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Mobility Optimisation
Initial Cell Selection
Qrxlevmeas

Low Qrxlevmin Qminoffset


UE

High Qrxlevmin Qminoffset

Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas (Qrxlevmin+ Qrxlevminoffset) - Pcompensation


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Cell Reselection
No Search

Sintrasearch

LTE Search

Snonntrasearch

IRAT Search

Rs = Qmeas_s +Qhyst Rn = Qmeas_n + Qoffset

Rn > Rs > Treselection


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Other Mobility Considerations


IRAT Cell Reselection Decisions
UMTS LTE
UE

GERAN

Measurement Thresholds Cell Priority Mobility Offset/Hyst Mobility Status (speed) Cell Ranking

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Other Mobility Considerations :- Handovers


LTE and IRAT Handovers
UMTS LTE
UE

Measurement/ Reporting Thresholds Cell Priority Mobility Offset/Hyst Mobility Status (speed) Cell Ranking eNB makes H/O Decision H/O Algorithm Vendor/ Operator Controlled

GERAN

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Self Organising Network Concepts

Optimisation for Future Deployments


Self Organising/Optimising Networks

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SON Release 8
Focus is on initial equipment installation and integration eNB Self Configuration

Automatic Inventory Automatic Software Download Automatic Neighbour Relation Automatic Physical Cell ID assignment

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SON Release 9
Provides SON functionality covering operational aspects of already commercial networks, in particular key aspects related to network optimization procedures.

Mobility Robustness/Handover optimization RACH optimization Load Balancing optimization Inter-Cell Interference Coordination

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SON Release 10
Provides a richer suite of SON functions for macro and metro networks overlaid on and interoperating with existing mobile networks.

Coverage & Capacity optimization Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Cell Outage Detection and Compensation Self-healing functions Minimization of Drive Testing Energy Savings

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SON Architecture
Centralised SON
A centralized architecture approach can be used for deploying real-time SON functions, such as Automatic Neighbor Relations and Automatic Physical Cell ID. The OAM must also handle large amounts of data in order to make the localized SON decisions across the network Multi-Vendor support may be difficult

SON
eUTRAN

eUTRAN

OAM

EPC
eUTRAN

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SON Architecture
Distributed SON
The distributed architecture leverages smart, autonomous network elements with local SON decision making This reduces the complexity, footprint and availability requirements of the OAM X2 requirements are more complex Easier in a multi-vendor system
SON

eUTRAN

SON

eUTRAN

OAM

EPC

SON
eUTRAN

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SON Architecture
Hybrid SON
More complex solution OAM can make long term optimisation decisions and eNB can deal with the real time optimisation of load and interference Should be possible to build effective systems in a multi-vendor system

SON

SON
eUTRAN

SON

eUTRAN

OAM

EPC

SON
eUTRAN

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LTE Training:- Telecoms Academy Visit Helen Robinson on Stand 23


LTE Technical and non-Technical Overviews LTE Radio Planning and Optimisation LTE Core Network Planning and Dimensioning eUTRAN Protocols and Signaling LTE and IMS miniMBA with LTE Focus Distance Learning Course with LTE focus

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Telecoms Academy

dave.mcnally@informa.com http:// www.telecomsacademy.com http://www.schooloflte.com/


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