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In the name of GOD

Maintenance Management

Part1

Maintenance Management

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Maintenance: 1. means any one or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification or defect rectification of an aircraft or component, with the exception of pre-flight inspection;(EASA definition) pre-flight inspection: means the inspection carried out before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the intended flight.

Definition
Maintenance:
2. Means the performance of tasks required to ensure the

continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or repair.(ICAO-Annex 6/8)
3. Means the set of action including inspection, servicing,

and determination of condition required to achieve a derived outcome which restore an A/C part and equipment in serviceable condition.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Repair: The restoration of an aeronautical product to an airworthy condition as defined by the appropriate airworthiness requirements. Maintenance Management: Administrative, financial, and technical framework for assessing and planning maintenance operations on a scheduled basis.

Definition
MPD : Maintenance Planning Data Document is the basis for the initial recommended maintenance programme for newly certified aircraft;

continuing airworthiness maintenance information sometimes issued as a maintenance planning document.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Maintenance programme: A document which describes the specific scheduled maintenance tasks and their frequency of completion and related procedures, such as a reliability programme, necessary for the safe operation of those aircraft to which it applies.

Definition
Certification Maintenance Requirement (CMR) : Maintenance that is required by design to help show compliance with the appropriate type certification requirements by detecting the presence of, and thereby limiting the exposure time to, a significant latent failure. Where the maintenance tasks result from a system safety analysis, they are usually known as CMRs. Latent failure : A failure that is not detected and/or enunciated when it occurs.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Certification Maintenance Requirement (CMR) : Maintenance that is required by design to help show compliance with the appropriate type certification requirements by detecting the presence of, and thereby limiting the exposure time to, a significant latent failure. Where the maintenance tasks result from a system safety analysis, they are usually known as CMRs. Latent failure : A failure that is not detected and/or enunciated when it occurs.

Definition
Certification Maintenance Requirement (CMR) : It should be noted that some CMRs require the performance of certain flight crew procedures. When included in a CMR, these procedures are mandatory and should be shown as such in the flight manual or equivalent document. It is likely that future design developments will limit the use of CMR to maintenance tasks

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4/18/2011

Definition
Certification Maintenance Requirement (CMR) : For aircraft with aeroplane maintenance manuals formatted in accordance with Air Transport Association of America Specification 2200 (ATA 2200), formerly Specification 100 (ATA-100), CMRs can be included in Chapter 5 but are sometimes contained in the appropriate section of the ATA 100 maintenance planning data document (MPD) or in a separate airworthiness limitations manual.

Definition
Airworthiness Limitations : structural life limits associated with fatigue requirements for structures. ( specially for helicopter)

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4/18/2011

Definition
Instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA): Instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) are developed by the design approval holder and some of these instructions are approved by the State of Design They provide guidance to the operator about what is necessary to maintain the airworthiness of the aircraft, engine, or propeller, including incorporated modifications or repairs, over time. They provide documentation of necessary methods, inspections, processes, and procedures

Definition
Instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA): These instructions are distributed in two categories depending on the compliance requirements:
1.

maintenance requirements that have been specified as mandatory in the approval of the type design and, those for which compliance is recommended

2.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA): The ICA may include sections on airworthiness limitations, certification maintenance requirements (CMR), maintenance instructions, engine and, if applicable, propeller maintenance, component maintenance, system wiring diagrams, and non-destructive test and inspection. A cross-check should be conducted to ensure that ICA elements required by the relevant airworthiness code are addressed in the aircraft documentation.

Definition
Availability Availability is a measure of the degree to which an item is in an operable state and can be committed at the start of a mission when the mission is called for at an unknown (random) point in time. Availability as measured by the user is a function of how often failures occur and corrective maintenance is required, how often preventative maintenance is performed, how quickly indicated failures can be isolated and repaired, how quickly preventive maintenance tasks can be performed, and how long logistics support delays contribute to down time.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Definition
Maintainability Maintainability is the ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair.

Definition
Reliability The probability that an item will perform its intended function without failure under stated conditions for specified period of time. Reliability is divided into: 1. mission reliability and 2. logistics reliability.

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4/18/2011

Definition
Maintenance release. A document which contains a certification confirming that the maintenance work to which it relates has been completed in a satisfactory manner, either in accordance with the approved data and the procedures described in the maintenance organizations procedures manual or under an equivalent system.(CRS=Certificate of Release to Service)

Type of maintenance
1. Reactive maintenance 2. Preventive maintenance 3. Predictive maintenance 4. Total productive maintenance 5. Reliability-centered maintenance

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
1. Reactive Maintenance( corrective maintenance)

Is any maintenance activity which is required to correct a failure that has occurred or is the process of occurring.
Reactive maintenance involves all unscheduled actions performed as a result of system or product failure. Basically, it is an attempt to restore the system/product to a specified condition.

Type of maintenance
1. Reactive Maintenance: Reactive Maintenance consist of
1. failure identification, 2. localization and isolation, 3. disassembly, 4. item removal and replacement or repair in place, 5. reassembly, and 6. checkout and condition verification

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4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
2. Preventive maintenance Periodicmaintenance Is maintenance, including tests, measurement, adjustment, and parts replacement, performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring. the prevention of equipment breakdowns before they happen.

Type of maintenance
2. Preventive maintenance

Typical preventive maintenance activities include:


1. 2. 3. 4.

periodic inspections( schedule maintenance), critical item replacements, and servicing and cleaning, and calibrations.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
2. Preventive maintenance

Periodic maintenance (TBM) Time Based Maintenance (TBM) or scheduled maintenance consist of periodically inspection, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.

Type of maintenance
2. Preventive maintenance benefits of preventive maintenance :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Safety, Lower cost, Reduction in failures and breakdowns, Extension of equipment life, Increased equipment reliability, Fewer surprises,
Etc.

7. Reduced overall maintenance


8.

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4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
3. Predictive maintenance (CBM) Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life.

Type of maintenance
4. Total productive maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is preventive maintenance plus continuing efforts to adapt, modify, and refine equipment to increase flexibility, reduce material handling, and promote continuous flows. It is operator-oriented maintenance with the involvement of all qualified employees in all maintenance activities.
Developed in Japan, TPM places a high value on teamwork, consensus building, and continuous improvement.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
4. Total productive maintenance TPM means total employee involvement, total equipment effectiveness, and a total maintenance delivery system. In order to achieve this, machine operators must share the preventive maintenance efforts, assist mechanics with repairs when equipment is down, and work on equipment and process improvements within team activities. Methodology designed to ensure that every machine in a production process always performs its required task and its output rate is never disrupted

Type of maintenance
4. Total productive maintenance TPM has been described as preventive maintenance with these three factors added:
1. involving machine operators in preliminary

maintenance activities by encouraging them to keep machines clean and well lubricated;
2. encouraging operators to report indications of

incipient distress to the maintenance department; and


3. establishing a maintenance education and training

program.

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4/18/2011

Type of maintenance

Type of maintenance

5S for TPM

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4/18/2011

Type of maintenance
5. Reliability-centered maintenance It has been assumed that preventive maintenance programs help to ensure reliability and safety of equipment and machinery. However, tests performed by airlines in the mid-1960s showed that scheduled overhaul of complex equipment had little or no positive effect on the reliability of the equipment in service. These tests revealed the need for a new concept of preventive maintenance, which later became known as reliability-centered maintenance (RCM).

Type of maintenance
5. Reliability-centered maintenance the RCM process can be considered as three separate but associated analyses:
1. failure mode and effects analysis, 2. consequence analysis, and 3. task analysis.

These analyses consider the specific characteristics and consequences of a failure and attempt to arrive at the optimal solution based on this information.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase I (unto 1958)
Hard-Time maintenance concept (HT) : Failures caused by wear out. Discard or full overhaul of all aircraft parts at specified interval. Disadvantage: High maintenance cost. Low availability of aircraft.

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase II (1958-1968)
Draw-backs of hard time concept unacceptable. On condition maintenance (OC) : Periodic inspections or Checks to verify system or component function against prescribed standards. Reliability programs: Determine optimal overhaul/inspection or test life . Keep Failure rate below a predetermined level.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


On Condition: Repetitive inspections, or tests to determine the condition of units or systems or portions of structure maintenance This is also a preventive primary maintenance process that requires a system, component, or appliance be inspected periodically or checked against some appropriate physical standard to determine if it can continue in service. The standard ensures that the unit is removed from service before failure during normal operation. These standards may be adjusted based on operating experience or tests, as appropriate, in accordance with a carriers approved reliability program or maintenance manual.

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase III (1968-1980)
Start with the development of the jet airliners in late 1960s. Maintenance Steering Group (MSG)-ATA taskforce : Condition Monitoring (CM): Failure rate for components with a random failure behavior can not be control by schedule maintenance . Do not assign scheduled maintenance for such component but control reliability .

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase III (1968-1980)
Condition Monitoring (CM): from the continuing analysis of the reliability program results some surprising conclusions were drawn. It appeared that there is a category of system and powerplant components for which the failure rate could not be influenced by whatever amount of hart-time or oncondition maintenance. These components had a random failure behavior on which maintenance has no effect. even deleting schedule maintenance would therefore not affect reliability of component, system and aircraft.

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase III (1968-1980)
Condition Monitoring (CM): This lead to the introduction of the Condition Monitoring. This philosophy was first in the development of the maintenance program for the boeing 747 aircraft. A joint airline/manufacturer taskforce called Maintenance String Group (MSG) developed a decision logic to initially determine which of the 3 processes was applicable to a certain system or component.

HT

or

OC or CM ?

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


Condition Monitoring:
This is a primary non-preventative maintenance process. Items classified in this process are permitted to fly-to-failure without a plan for removal. Therefore, safety related items are not eligible for condition monitoring classification. Items classified in the condition monitoring process do not have an adverse relationship between age and reliability. For items that have neither hard time limits nor on condition maintenance as their primary maintenance process. Condition monitoring is accomplished by appropriate means available to an operator for finding and resolving problem areas. These means range from notices of unusual problems to special analysis of unit performance

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase III (1968-1980)
To extend the hard time intervals a lot of reliability analyses were performed These data present 6 basic patterns for Age-Reliability relationship. From the 6 curve can be concluded that 11% (1,3,5) might benefit from a limit on operating Age. 89% cannot benefit from such a limit.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


4% 7%

2%

14%

5%

68%

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase III (1968-1980)
MSG-1 Document-1968 Analyses system for B-747 MP. MSG-2 Document-1970 Not aircraft type related Component level (bottom-up approach) Maintenance process oriented

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history


Phase IV (1980)
MSG-3 Document-1980 System level (top-down approach). Maintenance task oriented. MSG-3 Revisions

Aircraft maintenance history


Note: units may be subject to control by two or even all three of the primary processes. The basic engine has characteristics that involve all three primary maintenance processes Programs that control engine major overhaul intervals consider the engine as a hard-time unit. Programs controlling shop maintenance to a "conditional standard (restoration, etc.,) may classify the engine as on-condition or as condition-monitoring depending on the characteristics of the program

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-1: The decision logic and analysis procedures were contained in a document entitled Airline/Manufacturer Maintenance Program Plan Document refer to as MSG-1. These procedures were used by the aviation industry and the State of Designs regulatory authority to develop initial minimum maintenance recommendations for the B-747 aeroplanes.

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-2: Through experience gained from this logic, procedures were updated to produce a universal document which could be applied to future newly certificated aeroplanes. This effort resulted in the MSG-2 document. The MSG-2 logic was used to develop initial minimum maintenance procedures during the 1970s.

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4/18/2011

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-3: In 1980, with the combined efforts of aeroplane and engine manufacturers, airlines, aviation interest groups and regulatory authorities worldwide, new decision logic and analysis procedures were generated in a document called MSG-3 . Then, in light of the experience gained in using MSG-3 analysis on a number of aeroplanes, industry issued several revisions to MSG-3

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-3R1: In 1987, the airline industry decided that the benefits of the experience gained from using MSG-3 should be used to improve the document for future applications. This document revised the Inspection definitions and removed Operating Crew Monitoring tasks, as well as limiting what was then considered to be Normal Duties for flight crew.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-3R2: In 1993, Revision 2 was incorporated. It included; a requirement for a Corrosion Prevention and Control Program (CPCP), more revised inspection definitions, new procedures to ensure tasks and intervals reflected an aircrafts type certificated operating capabilities and tasks, to ensure compliance with Type Certification requirements.

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-3 R2001.1. In 2001 MSG was revised. The revision again changed inspection definitions, e.g.: it limited the distance and added the use of a mirror to the General Visual Inspection, incorporated new guidance on operating crew normal duties when determining if a functional failure is evident, expanded wording on hidden functions of safety/emergency equipment, and incorporated enhanced zonal analysis. It also incorporated analysis for Lightning and High Intensity Radiated Fields (L/HIRF), and added new terms to the glossary to bring the document into closer alignment with reliability centred maintenance criteria.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

MSG-1,2,3
MSG-3 R2002.1. In 2002, MSG was revised. It emphasized the importance of recording any and all assumptions made during analysis, added a procedure for Fault-Tolerant analysis, added an explanation on the use of the MMEL when answering system analysis level 1, question 4, clarified the definition of General Visual Inspection (GVI), and added a glossary. MSG-3 R2003.1. In 2003, MSG was again amended to clarify processes with respect to Fault Tolerant Systems.

MRB
the maintenance review board (MRB) process used during the development of an initial scheduled maintenance programme, usually done for derivative or newly certificated large aeroplanes as appropriate. The primary purpose of the MRB process is to assist the design organization and the operator in establishing an initial approved maintenance programme for aeroplanes and the regulatory authority in approving that programme.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

MRB
The MRB process involves the following organizational bodies:
1.

Industry steering committee (ISC). Working groups (WGs). Maintenance review board (MRB).

2.

3.

MRB
Industry steering committee (ISC).
1.

2.

Management of maintenance programme development activities is normally accomplished by an ISC composed of operators and design organizations. The ISC establishes policies, sets goals for maintenance check intervals, directs activities of working groups, prepares final maintenance programme recommendations and represents operators in contacts with regulatory authorities

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4/18/2011

MRB
Working groups (WGs).
1.

One or more WGs, consisting of specialists from participating operators, design organizations and regulatory authorities, may also be formed to develop initial minimum maintenance requirements for new or derivative aeroplanes. The ISC ensures that applicable supporting technical data and analysis are provided to the WG.

MRB Report
The MRB Report becomes the basis for the first issue of an operators initial maintenance programme. Adjustments may be necessary to address operational or environmental conditions unique to that operator. Through operator experience, and with regulatory approval, additional changes to the maintenance programme may be made by the operator in order to maintain a safe and efficient maintenance programme.

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011

Aircraft maintenance history

Any Question?

MaintenancemanagementBym.shahbazi

4/18/2011