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General Description of 3G

ISSUE 1.0

Wireless Curriculum Development Section Wireless Curriculum Development Section

Course Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to IMT-2000 Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental Chapter 3 Performance Enhancement Methods Chapter 4 WCDMA FDD Mode

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Development of Mobile Communications


1st Generation 1980s (analog) 2nd Generation 1990s (digital) 3rd Generation current (digital)

GSM AMPS TACS NMT OTHERS PDC CDMA IS95 TDMA IS-136

UMTS WCDMA

Analog to Digital

Voice to Broadband

CDMA 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides: Complete integrated service solutions High bandwidth Unified air interface Best spectral efficiency and a step towards PCS

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Standardization Course of ITU IMT-2000


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1985: FPLMTS, renamed as IMT-2000 in 1996 1992: 230MHz spectrum was allocated in WRC92 1999.3: Key parameters of IMT-2000 RTT were completed 1999.11: Technical specifications of IMT-2000 RTT were completed

2000: All the network standards of IMT2000 were completed

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Family concept was adopted in network part Standardization organizations such as 3GPP(1998.12), 3GPP2 (1999) were established

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Target of IMT-2000
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Global uniform frequency band and standard, global seamless coverage

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High efficient spectrum utility High quality of service, high security Easy for evolution from 2G system Providing multimedia service

Car speed environment: 144kbps Walk speed environment: 384kbps Indoor environment: 2048kbps

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Standards for 3G

CDMA2000 3GPP2
FDD mode

WCDMA 3GPP
FDD/TDD mode

TD-SCDMA

3G system

CWTS
TDD mode

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Main CDMA 3G Proposals

Regional

Standard Radio

Transmission

Organization(RSO)

Technology(RTT)

U.S.

TIA(TR 45.5) T1

cdma2000 W-CDMA TTA1(~cdma2000) TTA2(~W-CDMA)

Korea

TTA

Japan Europe China

ARIB ETSI(SMG 2) CWTS

W-CDMA W-CDMA TD-SCDMA

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Spectrum Allocation of IMT-2000


1850 1900 1950 2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

ITU
1885 MHz

IMT 2000
GSM 1800 DECT
1805 MHz
cellular(1)

MSS 2025 MHz

IMT 2000
2110 MHz

MSS

2170 MHz

Europe

UMTS
cellular(2)

MSS 1980 MHz


2025MHz

UMTS

MSS

1880 MHz
cellular(2) CDMA
1865

China

GSM 1800

FDD TDD WLL WLL


1920 1945

CDMA

FDD WLL
1960 1980

1885

1895

1918

2170 MHz

Japan
1865 1870

C PHS

IMT A 2000
1930 1945 1965 1970 1975

MSS

IMT A 2000

MSS

1885 1890 1895

1910

1990 MHz

2165 MHz Broadcast auxiliary Reserve MSS

USA

PCS
A D B EF C A D B EF C

MSS

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

220 0

225 0

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3G Spectrum (After WARC2000)


800 850 900 950 1000 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700

*
ITU Identifications
IMT 2000 IMT 2000
IMT 2000
MSS

*
IMT 2000

IMT 2000

MSS

DECT

Europe

GSM

GSM 1800

UMTS

MSS

UMTS

MSS

UMTS

China**

Cellular

GSM

[GSM 1800, PCS]

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

Japan, Korea (w/o PHS)

PHS

PDC

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

Americas***

Cellular

IMT2000

PCS
UPCS

MSS A D B EF C

A D B EF C

Reserve

MSS

IMT 2000

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QoS Requirements of Different Services


Quality (BER)

conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Time delay

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Course Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to IMT-2000 Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental Chapter 3 Performance Enhancement Methods Chapter 4 WCDMA FDD Mode

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Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental

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2.1 Radio Transmission Environment 2.2 Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
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2.3 CDMA Principle and RAKE Technology

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Multi-path Environment

Transmitted signal

Received signal Time

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Fading
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Transmitted Signal

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0 -5 -10 -15 dB -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

Received Signal

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Fading
Received Power(dBm) -20
Fast fading Slow fading

-40

-60

10
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20

30

Distance(m)

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Frequency Selection of Fading


P(f) P(f) P(f) Fading Fading

Narrowband System
Transmit Signal Transmit Signal f f Received Signal Received Signal

f f

P(f)

P(f)

Broadband System
Transmit Signal

Fadin g f Received Signal f

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Multi-path Characteristics of Mobile Channel


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Electromagnetic diffraction

transmission

reflection,scattering,

Signal fading can be divided into three parts in radio environment:


Path loss: with big range of fading Big scale fading:slow-speed, with middle range of fading, also with logarithm normal distribution characteristic

Small scale fading: fast-speed, with small range of fading

Two typical types of small scale fading include:


Rayleigh distribution (not line-of-sight transmission) Ricean distribution(line-of-sight transmission)


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Category of Typical Radio Channel

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Static Channel Indoor Channel Outdoor-to-indoor pavement Channel Vehicle mounted Channel Moving Channel Birth-death Channel

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Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental

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2.1 Radio Transmission Environment 2.2 Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
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2.3 CDMA Principle and RAKE Technology

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Multiple Access Technology and Duplex Technology

Multiple access technology


Time division multiple access (TDMA) Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA)

Duplex technology

Time division duplex (TDD) Frequency division duplex (FDD)

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Multiple Access Technology and Duplex Technology


CDMA
Power
Tim e

y nc ue req

Traffic channels: different users are assigned unique code and transmitted over the same frequency band, for example, WCDMA and CDMA2000

TDMA
Power

Tim

F re

nc ue

Traffic channels: different time slots are allocated to different users, for example, DAMPS and GSM

FDMA
Power

Us U s er U e U s s er r U s er er er
e
cy en u eq Fr

Us

T im

Traffic channels: different frequency bands are allocated to different users,for example, AMPS and TACS
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Characteristics of CDMA System

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Spectral Efficiency

Frequency multiplex coefficient is 1.

soft capacity

Quality Coverage Interference

Self-interference system

A UE transmission power is interference for another UE.

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Processing Procedure of CDMA System

Source coding

Channel coding

Spreading

Modulation

Radio channel

Source decoding

Channel decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

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Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental

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2.1 Radio Transmission Environment 2.2 Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
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2.3 CDMA Principle and RAKE Technology

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correlation
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Correlation is a measure of similarity of between any two arbitrary signals.

EXAMPLE:
+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
1 correlation Identical signals

+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1
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-1 1 -1 1
11 11 -1 1 -1 1
Zero correlation Orthogonal signals

OVSF&Walsh
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Creating the orthogonal code sequences


C ch,4,0 = (1,1 ,1,1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1) C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

C ch,1,0 = (1) C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) C ch,2,1 = (1 ,-1 ) C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

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Autocorrelation

Example:

-1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1

Correlation

Delay time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Delay time (chip)

sequence -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1

correlation 1 -1/7 -1/7 -1/7 -1/7 -1/7 -1/7

Autocorrelation is related to the muti-path interference characteristic.


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Configuration of Gold Sequence Generator


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Gold sequence is used as scrambling code in WCDMA

clong,1,n
MSB LSB

clong,2,n

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Spreading and Despreading (DS-CDMA)


Symbol

Data

1 -1 Chip

Spreading
1 -1

Spreading code

Spreading signal =Datacode

1 -1

Despreading
Spreading code Data =Spreadingcode 1 -1 1 -1

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Spreading and Despreading (DS-CDMA)


Desired signal
1 Desired spreading signal -1 1 -1 Data after despreading 1 -1 Data after integration 8 -8

Spreading code

Other users signal


Other spreading signal

Other signal after despreading

1 -1 8

Other signal after integration


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-8

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Despreading


P(f)

Spreading code
P(f) f f P(f)

Narrowband signal

Broadband signal
f

Noise

Recovered signal
P(f)

Signal Combination
f

Noise+Broadband signal
P(f) f

Spreading code

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Principle of RAKE Receiver

Correlator 1

Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3

Combiner

The combined signal

Searcher correlator

s(t)

s(t)

Calculate the time delay and signal strength

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system
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Structure of RAKE Receiver


Input signal I Correlator Q Phase Rotator Delay Equalizer I I

Channel Code generators estimator Path 1 Path 2 Path 3

Q Combiner

Matched Filter

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Advantages of CDMA
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RAKE receiver is adopted

The time diversity effect generated by channel coherence time is efficiently used.

frequency diversity

Wideband frequency spectrum

Higher interference tolerance and security performance

Low signal transmission power

Great flexibility in carrying multiple services with largely different bit rate and QoS requirement.

Different spreading factors for different services with different data rates

High spectral efficiency

All users can share the same frequency spectrum simultaneously.

Supporting soft handover and softer handover.


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Course Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to IMT-2000 Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental Chapter 3 Performance Enhancement Methods Chapter 4 WCDMA FDD Mode

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Introduction to Diversity Technique


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Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining Reduce the effects of fading

fast fading caused by multipath Slow fading caused by shadowing

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Improve the reliability of communication Increase the coverage and capacity Macroscopic diversity

Soft handover and softer handover Reduce large-scale fading

Microscopic diversity

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Microscopic Diversity
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Time diversity

Channel coding, Block interleaving, error-correction

Frequency diversity

The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum

Space diversity

Receive diversity Transmit diversity

Polarization diversity

Vertical polarization Horizontal polarization

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Basic Combining Methods


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Maximal-Ratio Combiner

The mutipath signals are weighted proportional to their signal SNR and then summed.

Equal-Gain Combiner

Equal-gain combining is similar to maximal-ratio combining, but there is no attempt to weight the signal before addition.

Selection Combiner

Choose the signal with the highest instantaneous quality, so the output quality is equal to that of the best incoming signal.

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WCDMA Rx/Tx Diversity


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Forward link capacity is the bottle neck of CDMA cellular system capacity. WCDMA standard has deeply researched the application of transmission diversity. New transmit diversity scheme has been put forward. It will improve forward link capacity.

Open loop transmission diversity


transmit diversity based on space-time block coding (STTD) Time switched transmit diversity on SCH (TSSD)

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Closed loop transmission diversity, FBI domain Site selection diversity(macro diversity) cell selection, FBI domain

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Transmitter Antenna Diversity Based on Time-space Block Coding

b0 b1 b2 b3 b0 b1 b2 b3

Antenna 1

-b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 2

Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2.

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Time Switched Transmit Diversity on SCH

Slot #0 acp Antenna 1 acs


i,0

Slot #1 acp acs


i,2

Slot #2 acp acs


i,14

Slot #14

Antenna 2

acp acs
i,1

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Closed Loop Transmit Diversity

w1 S prea d/s cram ble

C P IC H 1

A nt

Tx

DPCCH DPDCH

D PC H

A nt

w2 C P IC H 2 Rx w1 w2 Rx

Tx

W eight G eneration

D eterm ine FB I m essage fro m U plink D PC C H

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Receiving Effects for Different Multi-path Diversity


1 1-path rayl 2-path rayl 5-path rayl No attenuation

0.1

BER

0.01

0.001

0.0001 5 10 15

SNRdB)

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Smart Antenna
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Reduce interference Increase coverage and capacity

interference

Wanted signal

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Smart Antenna

Omni antenna

Directional antenna

Smart antenna

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Course Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to IMT-2000 Chapter 2 CDMA Fundamental Chapter 3 Performance Enhancement Methods Chapter 4 WCDMA FDD Mode

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Characteristics of WCDMA FDD


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Channel bandwidth: 5MHz Chip rate: 3.84Mcps Frame length: 10ms Voice coding: AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Uplink and downlink modulation: QPSK/QPSK Coherence demodulation aided with pilot Fast closed loop power control: 1500Hz Handover: soft/hard handover Support operation synchronous and asynchronous NodeB

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Characteristics of WCDMA FDD


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Satisfy the minimum performance requirement of IMT2000 Compatible with GSM-MAP core network Comparatively steady version R99 has been released Support open loop and closed loop transmit diversity mode Support Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Share Channel, adapt to Internet data access mode

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Support macro diversity, selection diversity of NodeB location Support different fast power control algorithms and open loop, out loop power control

Fully support UE locating services

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WCDMA Voice Evolution

Adopt AMR voice coding, and support voice quality of 4.75Kbps ~ 12.2Kbps

Adopt soft handover and transmit diversity to improve system capacity

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Provide high fidelity voice mode Fast power control

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Data Service Evolution of WCDMA


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Support maximum 2Mbps data service Support packet switch Adopt ATM platform currently Provide QoS Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Share

Channel(DSCH) can support Internet packet services better


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Provide mobile IP service(dynamic allocation of IP addresses) TFCI domain provides dynamic data rate Provide high-quality support for uplink-downlink symmetric data service, such as voice, video phone, conference TV

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