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CST 471-2 CST 471-2 Geographic Information System

2 Credit course 30 Lecture/Practical hours (2 hours per week-Thursdays 10.00 ~ 12.00) Marks 60% from Continuous Assessments (Quiz/Lab Assignment/Mid Term Test) 40% from the End Semester Exam Grades
Range of Marks 91-100 81-90 71-80 61-70 51-60 40-50 25-39 0-24 Grade A+ A B+ B C+ C D E

Introduction to GIS, Digital mapping concept, Data manipulation and analysis, Output map generation methods, Spatial database management, Spatial references and topology; Geometry networks,

Creating and editing map topology. Geo-processing, data preparation and digital terrain/ elevation modeling; Vector and raster graphic conversion methods to GIS, Coordinate systems and GPS applications, case studies.


Remote Sensing for GIS Managers
Aronoff, S., 2005. Esri Press, ISBN-10: 1589480813

GIS, Spatial Analysis and Modeling.
Maguire, D., Batty, M. and Goodchild, M., 2005 ESRI Press,ISBN: 1589481305

Fundamentals of GIS. -3rd ed.

DeMers, M.N., 2005 Wiley, ISBN-10:0471204919

The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis: Geographic Patterns and Relationships.

Mitchell, A., 1999. ESRI Press, ISBN: 1879102064

Introduction to Geographic Information Systems.

Chang, K.T., 2001 McGraw Hill, ISBN:0072382694

Getting Started with ArcGIS.

Crosier, S., Booth, B., Dalton, K., Mitchell, A. and Clark, K., 2004 ESRI Press, ISBN: 1589480910

GIS Some Definitions

GIS may include manual systems, however, it usually refers to a computerised database system for capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data (Huxhold, 1991).


GIS is capable of assisting the storage, retrieval and manipulation of spatially referenced data such as street address or a census tract (Nedovic-Budic, 1999). GIS is most useful when used to perform data analysis (Lee and Wong, 2001, viii)


GIS Some Definitions

Geographic Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data, in order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records.


application acts as a problem solving solution example: water pollution, traffic, land management toolbox emphasize on the generic aspect of GIS in its definition always used by vendors to maximize their market share

The History
First developed in North America, particularly the U.S. and Canada in the mid-1960s Previously been used in natural resources and environmental research

Why GIS is needed

Geo-spatial data are poorly maintained Maps and statistics are out of date Data and information are inaccurate There is no data retrieval service There is no data sharing


Once a GIS is implemented

Geo-spatial data are better maintained in a standard format Revision and updating are easier Geo-spatial data and information are easier to search, analyze and represent More value added product Geo-spatial data can be shared and exchanged freely Productivity of the staff is improved and more efficient Time and money are saved Better decisions can be made

Properties of real world GIS

Location Attributes Spatial Relationships


The questions that a GIS is required to answer :

What is at......? (Locational question ; what exists at a particular location) Where is it.....? (Conditional question ; which locations satisfy certain conditions) How has it changed........? (Trendy question ; identifies geographic occurrence or trends that have changed or in the process of changing) Which data are related ........? (Relational question : analyzes the spatial relationship between objects of geographic features) What if.......? (Model based question ; computers and displays an optimum path, a suitable land, risky area against disasters etc. based on model)

GIS System Architecture and Components

Data Input

Knowledge Base for GIS

Computer Science/MIS graphics visualization database system administration security


Query Input

Geographic Database Geography and related: cartography geodesy photogrammetry landforms spatial statistics.

Output: Display and Reporting

Transformation and Analysis

Application Area: public admin. planning geology mineral exploration forestry site selection marketing civil engineering criminal justice Surveying Disaster management

The convergence of technological fields and traditional disciplines.


Basic functions of GIS