MswLogo - Introductory Worksheet

Copyright © by Mark Baker 1997 Copyright waiver Return to MarkChrisSoft home page

The Commander
This allows instructions to be entered and executed immediately. Type your instructions into the input box, then press return. There is a triangular pointer on the main MswLogo screen, this is called the turtle (for historical reasons)! The turtle obeys the commands or instructions, that you type into the Commander. This is an artistic turtle and it is holding a pen, so that when it moves, a line is drawn on the screen. To repeat an instruction entered earlier, click on it in the window above the input box (the output box), then press return. Alternatively, you can double click on the item. Press the Status button to see what Logo is doing at any time. Press the No Status button to close the status window.

Simple Drawing
forward, back right, left pen up pen down arc home clearscreen Moves the pen forwards/backwards, eg. forward 100 moves the pen forward 100 units Turn right/left e.g. right 90 means turn right 90 degrees Picks up the pen so that it is above the screen Puts the pen down on the screen Draws an arc. arc 360 50 draws a full circle, of radius 50. arc 180 50 draws a semi-circle of radius 50. Returns the turtle to its starting position Clears the screen (rubs everything out) and returns the turtle to its starting (home) position

Note: Spaces are important. forward100 is illegal, forward 100 is legal right90 is illegal, right 90 is legal 1. Click on the input box and type in these instructions. Draw a sketch in your books to show the shape that is drawn: forward 100 right 90 forward 50

back right. What do these instructions draw? Draw a sketch of it in your books. arc 360 50 pu fd 50 pd arc 360 50 Abbreviate Commands These programs take a lot of typing. left pen up pen down clearscreen fd / bk rt / lt pu pd cs 4. draw the shape on the screen first. forward. .left 20 forward 100 right 20 back 100 home 2. so Logo allows you to use abbreviations for some of the most common commands. then write the instructions into your book. What do these instructions draw? Draw a sketch of it in your books. forward 120 left 90 forward 50 left 90 forward 120 left 90 forward 50 3. What do these instructions draw? fd 120 lt 90 pu fd 50 lt 90 pd fd 120 pu home For each of the questions below.

Write the correct instructions in your book. Write down the instruction that will draw a circle.5. Write down the instructions that will draw a square. Repeat Structure . Enter them on the computer and debug (correct) them. 8. Write down the instructions that will draw these shapes. Write down the instructions that will draw a triangle. with sides of length 100 (see diagram below). 6. with sides of length 80. of radius 50. 7.

squares. You can then call them up whenever you want to.Often you want to repeat the same instructions several times. Write the instructions that you used in your book. fd 50. Try to draw a square using the repeat instruction. A parameter is a value that you send into a procedure and you can use a parameter to change the size of the square that is drawn. fd 50. 9.g. . rt 90. Type in these instructions. It is no good if you want to draw squares of different sizes. For the square procedure we want one parameter. Draw a hexagon (six-sided shape) using the repeat instruction. the length of the sides. Write the instructions that you used in your book. It would be much more useful if you could vary (change) the size of the square. when drawing a square you would need: fd 50. You could draw the square using these instructions: repeat 4 [fd 50 rt 90] Everything inside the bracket is done four times. rt 90. which will create the procedure DrawSquare: to DrawSquare repeat 4 [fd 100 rt 90] end Now enter the instruction "DrawSquare" (this is known as "calling the procedure") and explain what happens. to draw a shape of your own choice. Write the instructions that you used in your book. so long as you always want to draw a square where all the sides are 100 units long. Write another procedure. 15. 14. rt 90. Procedures Using Logo to draw a complicated picture would take a long time. Sending Parameters The DrawSquare procedure is very useful. 13. rt 90 To make this easier you can use a loop structure (or repetition structure) to repeat the same instructions as many times as you like. e. 10. Write the instructions into your book and draw a sketch to show what happens when you call your procedure. Often you would be repeating the same basic shapes. 12. What shape do these instructions draw? repeat 8 [fd 40 rt 45] 11. rectangles and so on. Enter it on the computer to test that it works. Logo allows you to write procedures which are useful sets of instructions. fd 50. Write a procedure in your book that will draw a rectangle. Draw a rectangle using the repeat instruction.

24. all of them a different size. Use this procedure to draw four shapes. Other colours include: [0 255 0] green [0 0 255] blue [128 128 128] grey . Enter this procedure: to polygon :length :sides repeat :sides [FD :length RT 360. Use this procedure to draw some shapes. Sketch the design that these three commands draw. Comments You should always try and put helpful comments in your programs. Anything that comes after the semi-colon is ignored by the program and is just there as a programmer's comment. FD 100 .1] setpencolor[255 0 0] Sets the width of the line drawn to 10 units Sets the width back to normal again Sets the colour of the pen to red. Enter this procedure. 19. using different numbers for length and sides. to Draw :length repeat 3 [FD :length RT 120] end 20. Explain what the procedure POLYGON does. eg. What shape does it draw? 21. Enter this procedure. 22.to DrawSquare2 :length repeat 4 [fd :length rt 90] end 16. 17. so that other people can understand what you have done. You can do this in Logo by typing a semi-colon. Enter these commands: DrawSquare2 50 DrawSquare2 75 DrawSquare2 100 18.this moves you forward 100 units Changing Pen Attributes (Properties) setpensize[10 10] setpensize[1.0/:sides] end 23.

where r = amount of red. all numbers from 0-255.[0 0 0] black setpencolor [r g b] The general case. using different pen colours and different line widths. 29. You might want to write some new procedures too. Add some comments to your program. Explain what bugs you found in your program and what you had to do to correct them.y] (must use penup if you do not want a line drawn from your current position) Return to MarkChrisSoft home page Author: Mark Baker.uk Last revision: 24th May 1997 . showturtle. hideturtle setpos[x. 28. 26. Draw a sketch of your picture/design in your book and write down the commands that you think you will need. 27. Print out the finished program and glue it into your book.co. Enter the commands on the computer and correct any errors (bugs) in your program. 30. g = amount of green and b = amount of blue. using Logo. Create your own picture or design. to explain what you have done. You should try and use some of the procedures that you have already entered. e-mail mbaker@rmplc. Your Own Picture 25. Additional Commands Here are some additional commands that you might like to experiment with.

thus drawing a rudimentary dotted line. drawing a line and moving lifting the pen so it won't draw anything not drawing but moving lowering the pen so it draws again drawing a line and moving [edit] Loops There are three loop (repeat) commands. the need for an editor Basic Chair . REPEAT is one.Logo commands The pen Turtle drawing a dotted Line The analogy of a turtle with a pen attached to its tail is often used. Loops may be embedded. . REPEAT 4 [FD 100 LEFT 90] The command "FD 100 LEFT 90" is executed four times. This draws a box. . giving spectacular results with little effort.com Term 1 Class activities .http://www. .softronix. . The turtle's pen can be lifted and lowered. REPEAT 36[ RT 10 REPEAT 360 [FD 1 RT 1]] [edit] Defining procedures. An approximation of a circle can be constructed easily with 360 small rotations and a step forward: REPEAT 360 [FD 1 RIGHT 1]. FD 20 PENUP FD 20 PENDOWN FD 20 PENUP FD 20 PENDOWN FD 20 .

the interpreter understands 'FD the value of 200'. and the turtle's pen must erase. any time CHAIR is entered. the sequence REPEAT 4 [FD 100 LEFT 90] FD 200 will be executed. EDALL . for example. EDALL TO CHAIR REPEAT 4 [FD 100 RT 90] END FD 200 The new word is saved into the available vocabulary. All Logos can invoke an Editor. but the definition will be lost once the Logo session is over. [edit] Animation Logo was designed in spirit of "low threshold and no ceiling. (word) is instructed to expect something and give that something a name. then the actual procedure) TO CHAIR :thesize REPEAT 4 [FD :thesize RT 90] FD :thesize FD :thesize . usually by EDALL. then the actual procedure) TO ERASECHAIR PE BK 200 REPEAT 4 [FD 100 RT 90] PPT END CS CHAIR WAIT 200 ERASECHAIR A WAIT delay between the drawing and the erasing introduces the illusion of motion. and return information. When the procedure is run with a command like CHAIR 200.(to enter the editor mode. the procedure is limited to the physical line length of the input device.(to enter the editor mode. REPEAT 4 [CHAIR] would repeat the CHAIR operation four times. It passes the information 'by value' and the colon is pronounced as 'the value of'. The process is the same. the turtle can be set to erase using the command PENERASE (PE). Now any future FD movements will erase anything beneath them. The word CHAIR can be used as a command. Internally procedures are words and in this case. In the editor. In UCBLogo. using the TO END pair: TO CHAIR REPEAT 4 [FD 100 RT 90] FD 200 END However.Procedures can be defined on the command line. as nothing is interpreted until the edit is complete. procedures may be written over many lines." that enables easy entry by novices and yet meet the needs of high powered users. the turtle's pen must paint. except that in the former a line is deposited on the display device and in the latter a line is removed. The pen can be restored with the command PENPAINT (PPT). The procedure. EDALL . Using the turtle analogy. Animations require both the ability to draw shapes and to erase shapes. the word :thesize takes the value 200 so when FD :thesize is executed. The colon is used for this purpose. CS REPEAT 20 [CHAIR WAIT 200 ERASECHAIR FD 20] Logo can pass extra information to its words.

END CS REPEAT 9 [CHAIR 50 RT 20 CHAIR 100 WAIT 50 RT 20] .