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BIOSTATISTICS
These are some notes that the doctor mentioned before start:

- We have two exam the first exam will be on 5th of March, the
second exam in 11th of April, the doctor will put the course description on e-Learning. - The book of this course is biostatistics foundation for analysis, and is available in book store. - The doctor said if you listen to lecture the question of exam will be from the lecture. - The doctor said if you come late for any reason it will be better don't enter the lecture because he dont like interruption .

So let's start the first lecture.

Definition
We start with statistics and biostatistics Statistics: is a field of study concerned with:
- The collection, organization, summarization, and analysis of data. - The drawing inferences about a body of data when a part of data is observed. So statistics in general it is about collecting data for Example collecting data from this class (how many males and how many females, how many have Jordanian secondary certificate or non Jordanian, your grade in secondary certificate, your blood group.etc), this is what we called data

collection.

Then in organization we start organize the data for example, we divide blood grouping in four categories then we start analysis the data to see what is the percentage of those with blood group A or B..etc . Then based on that we could draw inference says most of student in this class lets say are males or most are females, or most of student graduated from secondary school certificate..etc. The only difference between statistics in general and biostatistics is in biostatistics we concerned with data from biological sciences, we dont talk about wind speed or directionetc, we are concerned with data from biological system, so biostatistics is tool of statistics used in biological sciences.

Source of data
Where we get our data from?
If we want data about student in Jordan University of Science and technology, where we can get it? Usually if we want data about student we go to student registration office or annual report of university, and if we want data about healthy status of Jordanian we can collect it from annual report of ministry of health or medical record. If we dont have these annual records, we do a survey by asking question to students and this is what we called surveys, or we can do experiments for example take blood sample from students and classify it to blood group, or we might go to scientific literature .

So we have four main sources for data:


- Record - Surveys - Experiments - External source (we have people doing research or scientific literature and we collecting data from these source)

Common term used in statistics - Population: the whole group we are interested in, for
example we interested in Jordan University of Science and Technology students, so the whole number of university student is called population

- Sample: is part of population, I take sample from student,


so usually sample is less than population.

- Variables: some thing we want to study for example the


weight or height of student, pulse rate, blood pressure, each one has its own record and this what we called variable (varies from one person to another ).

- Measurements: we do measurement and the measurement


divide in two parts for example if we want to take blood pressure we bring some nurses to measure blood pressure, and with measurement we have continuous number lets say the weight of person 80.5 KG, with counting we dont have continuous number.

- Statistical inference: the conclusion we would draw


based on measurement or counting.

- Simple random sample: we have different type of sample


and we have one lecture talk about these type but the most common one is the simple random sample for example if I want to take sample contain 20 student just I can do that by pick the names from the list and this what we mean by simple, random means every body in the class has the same chance of being selected in the sample as any other person.

Population

- Population of values is the largest collection of


values of a random variable, we call random variable
because lets say if I want to see the weight of students, each one of you has different weight from other maybe 80 and if we have good scale it will be 80.233, so each one has its own weight and this is what we called random variable.

- finite population consist from fixed number, we


have in this class a finite population , I have a list of students for this class lets say 230 of students its finite and not open , may be the attendance is open but the number of students register in M391 is finite population.

- Infinite population is endless succession of


population, its infinite we dont know the number.

Sample - Sample is part of population


-there are different types of sample as we mentioned (simple random sample, clustered sample, stratified sample, systemically sample.etc), and each type of sample has its specific techniques.

Variables
- A variable is a characteristic that take different values as we said height, weight and rate, different value for - Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, these are different variable and each one has its own value.

Type of variables
What are the types of variable?

- Quantitative variables: we could give specific value for


it, we measure blood pressure, weight and height and this is what we called quantitative variable from quantity, and when we say quantity we could have specific value for it either by measuring or counting.

- Qualitative value: its quality and this mean lets say sick
or not sick, diabetics (yes or no), so its describe quality of the person or describe attitude of person .

- Random variables: we have two types of random


variables: 1- Discrete random variables: we mean by discrete like
when we say the number of males and females in this class 62 , we can't say 62.5 it's 62, I can't say the number of students with group O is 85,7 , and this is what we mean by discrete variables (fixed).

2- Continuous random variables: continuous mean


open, we can say the weight of one person 60.7 kg, usually in continuous it's go with measurement (some thing we know variables after measurement like pulse rate) and remember with discrete when we talk about the mean of discrete variable you could get fraction, so the mean might be continuous

Measurement
Now how we could measure variables? We have four different scales in measurement: 1- Nominal scales: like males or females, blood group ( A,
B, AB,O)and this nominal scales it's mutually exclusive that's mean if a person in this category, he/she can't be in other
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category, the person can't be in A and B category ,and also can't be male and female, so either he/she will categories in this group or other and this what we mean by mutually exclusive, and in nominal scale we can't say this group is better from another group.

2- Ordinal scale: its measurement or observation of ranking


(sick, very sick, extremely sick), (poor, middle class, rich), so it's scale and each one special category but carries with it rank.

3- Interval scale: its a distance between measurements, we


use interval scale with respect to weight, age (we see age from (0-5) years and from (5-18) yearsetc) and also we use it in grading system for example we say A from (90-100) and B from (80-90), so we have two measurements and value that located between two measurement is called interval scale.

4- ratio scales: height, weight, length and there is true zero


point and when we say ratio scale it's different from nominal scale, let's say ratio of males to females, the ratio of those who got A to those who got B ( the doctor said he will discuss it later).

Statistical inference
It's a conclusion we draw based on data about population based on information, usually we make the inference about population based on data we have from sample, let's say if we want to measure the weight of the students, I take sample and found the average weight is 65 KG, then we could said based on data that get from sample the average weight of JUST students is 65 KG, so we make inference from the data that got from sample and passed it to population and this is benefit of sample . In order to have good valid inference the sample should be random sample (each one has the same chance of being selected in sample).

Simple random sample


If a sample of size n is drawn from a population of size N in way that every possible sample of size n has the same chance of being selected and this is called simple random sample and it's mean every person in population has the same chance of being selected. If somebody want to take simple random from Irbid population, can we use telephone book to take simple random sample? It's wrong because not everybody in Irbid register in telephone book, so not everybody has the same chance.

Data
Data is number result from measuring or counting as we said discrete or continuous, so data is either measurement (body weight, body temperature) or counting (number of patient admitted in king Abdullah hospital) and both measurement and counting are called data and are also called variable because we have different number of people admitted in hospital and also we have different body temperature or body weight.

Statistic
Statistic is very useful and the person who writes statistical value, he/she could use it for passing judgment or sending message. for example in a class of two student, if someone says if I rank a second in a class my father will punch me and he/she can also says I rank the last in a class, both statements are right but one give different message from the other. Statistic gives the right answer in (95%) of time if it properly used, but if we take wrong sample the inference that we take from the sample is wrong, for example if you stand in basketball area and take sample to measure the height, you can't make inference for other students, or if we go to sick people to measure pulse rate we can't make inference for other population.
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Why do we use statistic?


Usually we need statistic to make conclusion or take decision, for example you in a dental school when you graduate and has your own business, you would make statistical studies about your patient (most of your patient are a adult, most of your patient are children, most of your patient complaining from decaying teeth, most of your patient come in Sunday....etc), so we make inference about study.

Example

Which drugs should be allowed on the market?

In a drug practice we make experiment about drug use, is it affected or not?

- What Public Health programs should be pursued?


Public programs like faxination, is it affected in minimizing spread of specific disease, another public program is screening program to identify those who are diabetics from those who are not , these are public program and we use them to identify disease among population , so we apply our health service to a specific group .

What programs would reduce infant mortality?

We make study and see the different in infant mortality rate between educated mothers and non educated.

Are cell phones a good idea for drivers?

It's not good to use phone during driving, but in order to be scientific we have to make study and see the number of accident resulting from using cell phones while driving compare to number of accident without using it.

Probability and Statistics

- Probability generalizes the concept of replicability


Probability is magnified percent, so it means if we take 100, it is properly magnified of those 100 who do this or that , for example from the doctor experience he saw the probability of passing in M391 is 96% or 98%. Based on that we could take decision, as student you take a decision to take M391 or not, you need to pass this course.

- What is likely to happen in that specific situation


Likely it is goes with probability; the higher the likely is the higher probability is. What is the likelihood of reaching the university if you come by car and driving let's say 120 KM/h? The likely is lower than driving at a speed of 118 KM/h.

Done by: Manar Malkawi

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