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# I. In the vector space R3, define the subset M={(a,b,c) R3: a + b + c 0}.

(1) 0

M. M. The first

## (2) x + y Let x, y Since y

M, when x, y

M. M, a1 + b1 + c1 0.

## M. Then x = (a1, b1, c1) and y = (a2, b2, c2). Since x

M, a2 + b2 + c2 0. So x + y = (a1 + a2, b1 + b2, c1 + c2) = (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2) M . Hence, M is closed under

+ (c1 + c2) 0 and (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2) + (c1 + c2) addition and the second condition is satisfied.

(3) dx Let x

M when x M and d

M and d

F.

## F. Then x = (a, b, c). dx = d(a, b, c) = (da, db, dc). Let (a, b, c) =

(1, 2, 3) and d = -1. We see that (-1(1), -1(2), -1(3)) = (-1, -2, -3) = -1 + -2 + -3 = -6 < 0. Hence, M is not closed under scalar multiplication.

## Hence, M is not a subspace of R3.

II. In a vector space, V, let {x, y, z} be vectors such that x + y + z = 0. Determine, with proof, whether or not span ({x, y}) = span ({y, z}).

Since x + y + z = 0, by definition, the set of vectors S = {x, y, z} is dependant. By the lemma that states, if S={u1, u2, , uk} is linearly dependant in a vector space V, S contains a linearly independent subset, S, such that span (S) = span (S), we can remove a vector space from the set S={x, y, z}, say z, and call the remaining set S = {x, y} and know that span ({x, y}) = span ({x, y, z}).

Likewise, using the same lemma, we can remove a vector space from the set S={x, y, z}, say x, and call the remaining set T = {y, z} and know that span ({y, z}) = span ({x, y, z}).

## Hence, span ({x, y}) = span ({y, z}).

III. Let S = {v1, v2, v3, v4} and S = {v1-v2, v2-v3, v3-v4, v4} be subsets of a vector space V over a field F.

(1) Prove that span (S) = span (S). For S = {v1, v2, v3, v4}, span (S) = ev1 + fv2 + gv3 + hv4, for some scalars e, f, g, h F.

For S = {v1-v2, v2-v3, v3-v4, v4}, span (S) = a(v1-v2) + b(v2 v3) + c(v3 v4) + d(v4), for some scalars a, b, c, d b)v3 + (d c)v4. Thus, e = a, f = b a, g = c b, and h = d c. Hence, span (S) = span (S). F. a(v1-v2) + b(v2 v3) + c(v3 v4) + d(v4) = av1 + (b a)v2 + (c

(2) Prove: If S is a linearly independent set of vectors, then so is S. Let U = span (S). Since span (S) = ev1 + fv2 + gv3 + hv4 is independent, it form s a basis for U. Each element of S = {v1-v2, v2-v3, v3-v4, v4} is in U. By corollary 1 to theorem 1.10, there are 4 vectors in S and by part (1), they span U. Since S is a set with same number of vectors as S, S is also a basis for U. Since S is a basis, it is linearly independent. Hence, if S is a linearly independent set of vectors, then so is S.

(3) Prove or give a counterexample: If S is a linearly independent set of vectors, then so is S. Suppose S = {v1-v2, v2-v3, v3-v4, v4} is linearly independent. Let U = span (S) = a(v1v2) + b(v2 v3) + c(v3 v4) + d(v4), for some scalars a, b, c, d F. Span (S) forms a basis for U. Each element of S = {v1, v2, v3, v4} is in U. By corollary 1 to theorem 1.10, there are 4 vectors in S and by part (1), they span U. Since S is a set with same number of vectors as S, S is also a basis for U. Since S is a basis, it is linearly independent. Hence, if S is a linearly independent set of vectors, then so is S.

## R} are subspaces of R4.

(1) Describe the subspaces U W and U + W. U W = {(a, b, 0, 0): a, b x, y, z). If (w, x, y, z) R} {(0, c, d, d): c, d R}. Let v U W, where v = (w,

## U, then w = w, x = x, y = 0, z = 0. So (w, x, y, z) = (x, y, 0, 0).

v is also in W so w = 0, x = y, y = z, and z = z. So (w, x, y, z) = (0, y, z, z). v = (0, y, 0, 0) is the only common element, and hence is the intersections between U and W. It represents a line through x = y.

U + W = (a + 0, b + c, 0 + d, 0 + d) = (a, b + c, d, d) = a(1, 0, 0, 0) + b(0, 1, 0, 0) + c(0, 1, 0, 0) + d(0, 0, 1, 1) = a(1, 0, 0, 0) + (b + c)(0, 1, 0, 0) + d(0, 0, 1, 1). The description of this expression is a plane determined by (1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1, 1).

(2) Find a basis for and the dimension of each of the four subspaces U, W, U W, and U + W. The basis of U = (1, 0, 0, 0) + (0, 1, 0, 0). The dim U = 2. The basis of W = (0, 1, 0, 0) + (0, 0, 1, 1). The dim W = 2. The basis of U + W = (1, 0, 0, 0) + (0, 1, 0, 0) + (0, 0, 1, 1). The dim U W = 3. The basis of U W = (0, 1, 0, 0). The dim U W = 1.

(3) Find a subspace K in R4 such that the direct sum of W and K = R4, or, show that no such subspace K exists.