Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

Martin Jetpack

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Martin Jetpack

The Martin Jetpack flying at AirVenture 2008. Role National origin Manufacturer Designer Introduction Status Unit cost Ultralight aircraft New Zealand Martin Aircraft Co. Glenn Martin 2008 Prototype USD $100,000[1]

The Martin Jetpack is an experimental aircraft. Though the tradename uses the phrase "jet pack", it uses ducted fans for lift. It was developed by the Martin Aircraft Company of New Zealand, and was unveiled on July 29, 2008 at the Experimental Aircraft Association's 2008 AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. It is classified by the Federal Aviation Administration as an experimental ultralight airplane.

Unlike earlier devices called "jetpacks", the Martin Jetpack is the first to be considered a practical device.[citation needed] It has been under development for over 27 years and uses a gasoline (premium) engine with two ducted fans to provide lift. Theoretically it can reach a speed of 60 miles per hour, an altitude of 8,000 feet, and fly for about 30 minutes on a full fuel tank. The consumer price is expected to be US$100,000[1]. Martin Aircraft planned to deliver the first jetpacks to ten customers in early 2010.[2][3] On 29 May 2011, it was reported[4][5] that the Martin Jetpack had successfully completed a remotely-controlled unmanned test flight to 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above sea level, and carried out a successful test of its ballistic parachute.

Contents
[hide]

1 Description

1.1 Safety features

2 Specifications 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

[edit] Description
The Jetpack is a small VTOL device, with two ducted fans that provide lift. It is powered by a 2.0 litre V4 piston 200-horsepower gasoline (premium) engine.[6] The pilot straps onto it and does not sit. The device is too large to be worn while walking, so it cannot be classed as a backpack device. It does not have a jet turbine or rocket motor; the "Jet" in "Jetpack" refers to the production of two jets of air from its ducted fans. The Martin Jetpack meets the Federal Aviation Administration's classification of an ultralight aircraft. It uses the same gasoline used in cars, is relatively easy to fly, and is cheaper to maintain and operate than other ultralight aircraft. Most helicopters require a tail rotor to counteract the rotor torque; this and the articulated head complicate flying, construction and maintenance enormously. The Jetpack is designed to be torque neutral there is no tail rotor, no collective, no articulating or foot pedals and this simplifies flying dramatically. Pitch and roll are controlled by one hand, yaw and the throttle by the other.[2]

[edit] Safety features


In order to enhance safety, the finished product will feature a ballistic parachute and a fly-bywire system whereby the pilot sends instructions to a computer which then interprets them and flies the craft smoothly. It can also be programmed to only fly a few meters above the ground and/or fly within certain limits.

[edit] Specifications
Data from Company brouchure[citation needed][7]

General characteristics

Crew: 1 pilot Length: 5 ft () Wingspan: 5 ft 6 in () Height: 5 ft () Empty weight: 250 lb (114 kg) Loaded weight: 535 lb (243 kg) Useful load: more than 280 lb (127 kg) Powerplant: 1 Martin Aircraft Company 2-litre (120 cu in) two-stroke V-4 engine, 200 hp (150 kw) Propellers: Carbon / Kevlar composite propeller, 2 per engine

Propeller diameter: 1.7 ft ()

Fuel capacity: 5 US gallons Maximum speed: 63 mph Range: 31.5 miles (50.7 km) at max speed of 63 mph Service ceiling: 8,000 ft (2.44 km) estimated hover out of ground effect

Performance

Jet pack
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about jet or rocket-powered flying devices. For other uses, see Jetpack (disambiguation).

Rocket Belt pilot Dan Schlund at the 2005 Melbourne Show

Rocket Belt pilot Dan Schlund at the 2007 Rose Parade

Jet pack, rocket belt, rocket pack and similar names are used for various types of devices, usually worn on the back, that are propelled by jets of escaping gases (or in some cases liquid water) so as to allow a single user to fly. The concept emerged from science fiction in the 1920s and became popular in the 1960s as the technology became a reality. Currently, the only practical use of the jet pack has been in extravehicular activities for astronauts. Despite decades of advancement in the technology, the challenges of Earth's atmosphere, Earth's gravity, and the human body (which is not designed to fly naturally) remain an obstacle to its potential use in the military or as a means of personal transport.

Contents
[hide] 1 History 1.1 German Himmelstrmer of World War II 1.2 Various development approaches 1.2.1 Jump Belt 1.2.2 Aeropack 1.2.3 U.S. Army interest 1.2.4 Hydrogen peroxide-powered rocket packs 1.2.5 Bell Textron Rocket Belt

1.2.6 RB-2000 Rocket Belt 1.2.7 Bell Pogo 1.2.8 Powerhouse Productions Rocketbelt 1.2.9 Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana 1.2.10 Jetpack International 1.2.11 Externally-Powered High Density Propellant 1.2.12 Turbojet pack 1.2.12.1 Bell Jet Flying Belt 1.2.12.2 Special features of the turbojet pack

2 Space 2.1 NASA's Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) (compressed gas powered) 2.2 NASA's SAFER 3.1 Visa Parviainen's jet-assisted wingsuit 3.2 Yves Rossy's jet wingpack

3 Winged jet and rocket packs

4 Current technology 5 Home-made versions 6 References in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

[edit] History
[edit] German Himmelstrmer of World War II
During World War II, Germany conducted late-war experiments by strapping two wearable shortened Schmidt pulse jet tubes of low thrust to the body of a pilot. The working principle was the same as the Argus As 014 pulse jet that powered the Fieseler Fi 103 flying bomb (more popularly known as the V-1 or buzz bomb), though the size was much smaller.[citation needed] The device was called a Himmelstrmer ("sky stormer") and operated as follows: when the flier ignited both engines simultaneously the tubes began to pulse modulate. The angled rear tube strapped to the flier's back provided both lift and forward thrust while the chest-mounted deflector tube of lower thrust maintained a constant upward thrust. This lifted the flier up and forward. By opening the throttle to the rear tube, calculated "jumps" could be made of up to 60 meters (180 ft) at low altitudes (under 50 ft, 15 m). The tubes consumed very little fuel, but not much payload could be carried along either. The device was intended to aid German engineer units to cross minefields, barbed wire obstacles, and bridgeless waters. The device was never intended for troop use, despite its imaginative

depiction in that role in the comic book and film The Rocketeer (which bore no resemblance to the real device). At the end of the war this device was handed over to Bell Aerosystems which tested it on a tether out of fear of injury, as no test flier was willing to risk his life with the German machine.[citation needed] What became of the device is not known.[citation needed] The fictional device used by The Rocketeer was a rocket pack that was technically unique (at least in the film adaptation) because it was designed to remain cool. The Himmelstrmer, by comparison, never operated long enough to get extremely hot, and both tubes were angled away from the body of the flier. In operation the thrust difference between pulse tubes acted as a push/pull/lift system. Flight time for jumps was measured in seconds, with no lengthy descent time as altitude was minimal. As soon as the throttle was disengaged the device was shut off, a very simple operation, and there was no report of any casualties.[1]

[edit] Various development approaches


[edit] Jump Belt This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. It may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Tagged since October 2008. It may be confusing or unclear to readers. Tagged since October
2008.

In 1958, Garry Burdett and Alexander Bohr, Thiokol Corporation engineers, created a Jump Belt which they named Project Grasshopper. Thrust was created by high-pressure compressed nitrogen. Two small nozzles were affixed to the belt and directed vertically downward. The wearer of the belt could open a valve, letting out nitrogen from the gas cylinder through the nozzles, which tossed him upward to a height of 7 meters. After leaning forward, it was possible with the aid of the jump belt's thrust to run at 45 to 50 km/h. Later, Burdett and Bohr tested a hydrogen peroxide-powered version. The jump belt was demonstrated by a serviceman in action, but as no financing was forthcoming, there was no further testing.
[edit] Aeropack

In 1959 Aerojet General Corporation won a U.S. Army contract to devise a jet pack or rocket pack. At the start of 1960 Richard Peoples made his first tethered flight with his Aeropack. In 1960, the Bell Rocketbelt was presented to the public. The jet of gas was provided by a hydrogen peroxide-powered rocket, but the jet could also be provided by a turbojet engine, a ducted fan, or other kinds of rockets powered by solid fuel, liquid fuel or compressed gas (usually nitrogen).
[edit] U.S. Army interest

American servicemen did not lose interest in this type of flight vehicle. Transport studies of the U.S. Army Transportation Research Command (TRECOM) determined that personal jet devices could have diverse uses: for reconnaissance, crossing rivers, amphibious landing, accessing steep mountain slopes, overcoming minefields, tactical manoeuvring, etc. The concept was named "Small Rocket Lift Device", SRLD.

Within the framework of this concept the administration concluded a big contract with the Aerojet General company in 1959 to research the possibility of designing an SRLD suitable for army purposes. Aerojet came to the conclusion that the version with the engine running on hydrogen peroxide was most suitable. However, it soon became known to the military that engineer Wendell Moore of the Bell Aerosystems company had for several years been carrying out experiments to make a personal jet device. After becoming acquainted with his work, servicemen during August 1960 decided to commission Bell Aerosystems with developing an SLRD. Wendell Moore was appointed chief project engineer.
[edit] Hydrogen peroxide-powered rocket packs

A hydrogen peroxide-powered motor is based on the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide. Nearly pure (90% in the Bell Rocket Belt) hydrogen peroxide is used. Pure hydrogen peroxide is relatively stable, but in contact with a catalyst (for example, silver) it decomposes into a mixture of superheated steam and oxygen in less than 1/10 millisecond, increasing in volume 5000 times: 2 H2O2 2 H2O + O2. The reaction is exothermic, i.e., accompanied by the liberation of much heat (about 2500 kJ/kg), forming in this case a steam-gas mixture at 740 C. This hot gas is used exclusively as the reaction mass and is fed directly to one or more jet nozzles. The great disadvantage is the limited operating time. The jet of steam and oxygen can provide significant thrust from fairly lightweight rockets, but the jet has a relatively low exhaust velocity and hence a poor specific impulse. Currently, such rocket belts can only fly for about 30 seconds (because of the limited amount of fuel the user can carry unassisted). A more conventional bipropellant could more than double the specific impulse. However, although the exhaust gases from the peroxide-based motor are very hot, they are still significantly cooler than those generated by alternative propellants. Using a peroxide-based propellant greatly reduces the risk of a fire/explosion which would cause severe injury to the operator. In contrast to, for example, turbojet engines which mainly expel atmospheric air to produce thrust, rocket packs are far simpler to build than devices using turbojets. The classical rocket pack construction of Wendell Moore can be made under workshop conditions, given good engineering training and a high level of tool-making craftsmanship. The main disadvantages of this type of rocket pack are:
Short duration of flight (a maximum of around 30 seconds). The high expense of the peroxide propellant. The inherent dangers of flying below minimum parachute altitude, and hence without any safety equipment to protect the operator if there is an accident or malfunction. Safely learning how to fly it, given that there are no dual-control training versions. The sheer difficulty of manually flying such a device.

These circumstances limit the sphere of the application of rocket packs to very spectacular public demonstration flights, i.e., stunts, but due to their strong visual impact, rocket pack flights are guaranteed to seize the attention of spectators.[citation needed] As a result, rocket pack flights enjoy great success at major sporting events. For example, a flight was arranged in the course of the opening ceremony of the summer Olympic Games 1984 in Los Angeles, USA.

[edit] Bell Textron Rocket Belt Main article: Bell Rocket Belt

Astrogeologist Gene Shoemaker wearing a Bell Rocket Belt while training astronauts

This is the oldest known type of jet pack or rocket pack. One Bell Rocket Belt is on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum annex, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, located near Dulles Airport.
[edit] RB-2000 Rocket Belt

This was a successor to the Bell Rocket Belt.[2] See Bell Rocket Belt#RB2000 Rocket Belt.
[edit] Bell Pogo Main article: Bell Pogo

The Bell Pogo was a small rocket-powered platform that two people could ride on. Its design used features from the Bell Rocket Belt.
[edit] Powerhouse Productions Rocketbelt

More commonly known as "The Rocketman", Powerhouse Productions, owned and operated by Kinnie Gibson, is the first company to manufacture the 30 second flying Rocketbelt[citation needed] and to exclusively organize Rocketbelt performances since 1983, such as at the 1984 Summer Olympics, the Carnival in Rio de Janerio, Super Bowls, the Rose Parade, Daytona 500, and the Dangerous World Tour with Michael Jackson, as well as in many television shows including Walker Texas Ranger and NCIS. Powerhouse Rocketbelt pilots include the stuntman Kinnie Gibson and Dan Schlund.[3]

[edit] Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana

The Tecaeromex Rocket Belt is made by the OathKeeper Inc. Company, run by its vice president, Clayton Bruce Reed Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana. This is said to be the only company in the world offering a flying and tested rocket belt package. It was featured in the March 2006 issue of Popular Science magazine and many TV programs around the world like the Discovery Channel, the BBC, ProSieben, TV Azteca, The Science Channel, and The History Channel. Its maker claims that four of his rocketpacks are flying now; his first tethered flights were on 22 September 2005. On August 11, 2006, the inventor's daughter, Isabel Lozano, was the first woman in the world to fly tethered in a rocket belt in front of millions of TV spectators; she flew with a special rocket belt built by Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana (TAM).[4][5] It runs on hydrogen peroxide and sells for USA $125,000 including a training course. TAM has also developed a concept for a backpack helicopter called Libellula, with a two-bladed rotor driven by a small rocket motor at the end of each rotor blade.[6]
[edit] Jetpack International

Jetpack International made three types of wingless jet packs:


Name Jet pack H202 Max Max Max Max Fuel Max Motor flight distanc heigh pilot Fuel capacit speed type time e t weight y 33 152 m seconds 112 km/ 37 m h 124 km/ 76 m h ~134 k m/h 81 kg H2O2 rocket 22 litre Price

Not for sale Not for sale

Jet 43 pack 457 m seconds H202-Z Jet ~9 c. 18 pack Tminutes km 73

81 kg

H2O2 rocket 30 litre

~76 m 81 kg

T-73 $200,000 Jet-A jet 19 litre incl. fuel motor training

A Jet Pack H202 was flown for 34 seconds in Central Park on the 9 April 2007 episode of the Today Show and sold for $150,000. As of January 2009 their H202 jet packs are for demonstration only, not for sale.[7]
[edit] Externally-Powered High Density Propellant

The thrust for jet packs depend on the density of the propellant and the flow rate. Many selfcontained jetpacks have weight restriction which prevent the use of higher density propellants. JetLev markets a jetpack which uses water as a propellant and obtains a high pressure water stream from a floating "follower".

[edit] Turbojet pack

Packs with a turbojet engine are fueled with traditional kerosene. They have higher efficiency, greater height and a duration of flight of many minutes, but they are complex in construction and very expensive. Only one working model of this pack was made; it underwent flight tests in the 1960s and at present it no longer flies.
[edit] Bell Jet Flying Belt

In 1965 Bell Aerosystems concluded a new contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop a jet pack with a turbojet engine. This project was called the "Jet Flying Belt", or simply the "Jet Belt". Wendell Moore and John K. Hulbert, a specialist in gas turbines, worked to design a new turbojet pack. Williams Research Corporation (now Williams International) in Walled Lake, Michigan, designed and built a new turbojet engine to Bell's specifications in 1969. It was called the WR19, had a rated thrust of 195 kgf (1,910 newtons) and weighed 31 kg. The first free flight of the Jet Belt took place on 7 April 1969 at the Niagara Falls Municipal Airport. Pilot Robert Courter flew about 100 meters in a circle at an altitude of 7 meters, reaching a speed of 45 km/h. The following flights were longer, up to 5 minutes. Theoretically, this new pack could fly for 25 minutes at velocieties up to 135 km/h. In spite of successful tests, the U.S. Army lost interest. The pack was complex to maintain and too heavy. Landing with its weight on his back was hazardous to the pilot, and catastrophic loss of a turbine blade could have been lethal. Thus, the Bell Jet Flying Belt remained an experimental model. On 29 May 1969, Wendell Moore died of complications from a heart attack he had suffered six months earlier, and work on the turbojet pack was ended. Bell sold the sole version of the "Bell pack", together with the patents and technical documentation, to Williams Research Corporation. This pack is now in the Williams International company museum. A version of this engine went on to power the later U.S. Tomahawk cruise missiles.
[edit] Special features of the turbojet pack

The "Jet Belt" used a small turbofan engine which was mounted vertically, with its air intake downward. Intake air was divided into two flows. One flow went into the combustion chamber, the other flow bypassed the engine, then mixed with the hot turbine gases, cooling them and protecting the pilot from the high temperatures generated. In the upper part of the engine the exhaust was divided and entered two pipes which led to jet nozzles. The construction of the nozzles made it possible to move the jet to any side. Kerosene fuel was stored in tanks beside the engine. Control of the turbojet pack was similar to the rocket pack, but the pilot could not tilt the entire engine. Maneuvering was by deflecting the nozzles. By inclining levers, the pilot could move the jets of both nozzles forward, back, or sideways. The pilot rotated left/right by turning the left handle. The right handle governed the engine thrust. The jet engine was started with the aid of a powder cartridge. While testing this starter, a mobile starter on a special cart was used. There were instruments to control the power of the engine, and a portable radio to connect and transmit telemetry data to ground-based engineers. On top of the pack was a standard auxiliary landing parachute; it was effective only when opened at altitudes above 20 meters. This engine went on to become the basis for the early cruise missile propulsion unit.

[edit] Space

Bruce McCandless II operating the Manned Maneuvering Unit

Rocket packs can be useful for extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in outer space. While near Earth a jet pack has to produce a g-force of at least 1g (otherwise it just provides some steering capacity for the wearer while falling down to Earth). For excursions outside a free falling spaceship, even a small g-force is already sufficient for a small deviation from free fall, hence much less delta-v is consumed per unit time, and not during the whole EVA. With only small amounts of thrust needed, safety and temperature are much more manageable than in the atmosphere in Earth's gravity field. Rocket packs were tested during mission STS-64. Mission specialists Carl Meade and Mark Lee tested the SAFER Rocket Pack while Hammond remained inside the Orbiter.

[edit] NASA's Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) (compressed gas powered)


In the 1980s, NASA demonstrated the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a rocket pack that allowed an astronaut to function as his/her own spacecraft, but the system was retired before the decade was over. The MMU is the only jet pack of practical importance. Its operational area is outside a space station or spacecraft, where an astronaut can limitedly move independently. The MMU's propulsion was produced by high-pressure nitrogen gas discharged through nozzles (of which the MMU has 24). The MMU was used after 1984 in three Space Shuttle missions (STS41-B, STS-41-C and STS-51-A).

[edit] NASA's SAFER


Recently, NASA has introduced the SAFER, a smaller, simpler version of the MMU meant to be used in case of accidental separation from spacecraft or space station.

[edit] Winged jet and rocket packs


This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the article; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (January 2008)

Artist's depiction of a jetpack with folding wings

Jet packs and rocket packs would likely have much better flight time on a tankful of fuel if they had wings. There have been occasional real cases[citation needed] of a man gliding horizontally long distances with his body horizontal and no flying aid except a pair of rigid airplane-type wings strapped directly to his body; see also wingsuits.

[edit] Visa Parviainen's jet-assisted wingsuit


On 25 October 2005 in Lahti in Finland, Visa Parviainen jumped from a hot air balloon in a wingsuit with two small turbojet jet engines attached to his feet. Each turbojet provided approximately 16 kgf (160 N, 35 lbf) of thrust and ran on kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel. Parviainen apparently achieved approximately 30 seconds of horizontal flight with no noticeable loss of altitude.[8]

[edit] Yves Rossy's jet wingpack

Rossy's wing showing the four purple and silver jet-engines mounted close to the centre

Swiss ex-military and commercial pilot Yves Rossy developed and built a winged pack with rigid aeroplane-type carbon-fiber wings spanning about 8 feet (2.4 m) and four small kerosene-

burning jet engines underneath; these engines are large versions of a type designed for model aeroplanes.[9] He wears a heat-resistant suit similar to that of a firefighter or racing driver to protect him from the hot jet exhaust.[10][11] Similarly, to further protect the wearer, the engines are modified with the addition of a carbon fibre heat shield extending the jet nozzle around the exhaust tail. Rossy claims to be "the first person to gain altitude and maintain a stable horizontal flight thanks to aerodynamic carbon foldable wings", which are folded by hinges at their midpoint. After being lifted to altitude by a plane, he ignites the engines just before he exits the plane with the wings folded. The wings unfold while in free-fall, and he is then able to fly horizontally for several minutes, landing with the help of a parachute.[12] He achieves true controlled flight using his body and a hand throttle to maneuver. The system is said by Rossy to be highly responsive and reactive in flight, to the point where he needs to closely control his head, arm and leg movements in order not to enter an uncontrolled spin. The engines on the wing require precise common alignment during set-up, also in order to prevent instability. An electronic starter system ensures that all four engines ignite simultaneously. In the event of a spin, the wing unit can be detached from the pilot, and both pilot and wing unit descend to Earth on separated parachutes. Rossy's jet pack was exhibited on 18 April 2008 on the opening day of the 35th Exhibition of Inventions at Geneva.[13] Rossy and his sponsors spent over $190,000 to build the device.[14] His first successful trial flight was on 24 June 2004 near Geneva, Switzerland. Rossy has made more than 30 powered flights since. In November 2006 he flew with a later version of his jet pack. [citation needed] On May 14, 2008 he made a successful 6-minute flight from the town of Bex near Lake Geneva. He exited a Pilatus Porter at 7,500 feet with his jet pack. It was the first public demonstration before the world's press. He made effortless loops from one side of the Rhone valley to the other and rose 2,600 feet. It has been claimed that the military was impressed and asked for prototypes for the powered wings, but that Rossy kindly refused the request stating that the device was only intended for for aviation enthusiasts.[15][16][17] On 26 September 2008, Yves successfully flew across the English Channel from Calais, France to Dover, England in 9 minutes, 7 seconds.[18][19] His speed reached 186 mph during the crossing, [20] and was 125 mph when he deployed the parachute.[21] Since then he hasin several flights managed to fly in a formation with three military jets and cross the Grand Canyon, but he failed to fly across the Strait of Gibraltarhe made an emergency landing in the water.

[edit] Current technology


According to the U.S. Government, real jetpacks have little practical value due to the limitations of current technology[citation needed]. The United States Armed Forces, which conducted most jet pack research, has declared that helicopters are far more practical. Many others have worked on devising a functional jet pack, but with limited success. In recent years, the rocket pack has become popular among enthusiasts, and some have built them for themselves. The pack's basic construction is rather simple, but its flying capability depends on two key parts: the gas generator, and the thrust control valve. The rocket packs being built today are largely based on the research and inventions of Wendell Moore at Bell Helicopter. One of the largest stumbling blocks that would-be rocket pack builders have faced is the difficulty of obtaining concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is no longer produced by many

chemical companies. The few companies that produce high-concentration hydrogen peroxide only sell to large corporations or governments, forcing some amateurs and professionals to set up their own hydrogen peroxide distillation installations. High-concentration hydrogen peroxide for rocket belts has been available from Peroxide Propulsion, Gothenburg, Sweden since 2005,[22] but after a serious accident Peroxide Propulsion is no longer in business.[23] Two high-profile jet pack projects are currently being operated:
Jetpack International Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana

[edit] Home-made versions


Episode 32 of MythBusters investigates the urban legend of an affordable jet pack or rocket pack that can be built from plans purchased on the Internet. Extensive modifications were made by the MythBusters team due to vagueness in the plans and because of the infeasibility of the specified engine mounting system. The jet pack produced by the MythBusters had two ducted fans powered by ultralight-type piston engines. (Fans[who?] complained that the use of piston engines destroyed the whole idea of the pack's being truly based on jets, by which, presumably, they meant self-contained gas turbines.) They found it was not powerful enough to lift a person off the ground, and was expensive to build. The plans specified a Rotax 503 ultralight engine, but they intended to use the more powerful and lighter Rotax 583 engine before a similar lighter unnamed engine was substituted.[24] America's only "private rocketeer," Gerard Martowlis, built a fully operational rocket pack. Like all flying packs, his is extraordinarily difficult and extremely dangerous to fly, taking many hours to learn and practice. He performed his test flights using a safety tether system in case he lost control. A consequence of the short flight time of any peroxide-based pack is that the entire flight is below the minimum parachute altitude (with the exception of the much more expensive ballistic-type parachute systems frequently used on ultra-light aircraft and some small passenger aircraft). Accordingly, any loss of control or failure of the pack is most likely fatal. The training also incurs expensive fuel costs.

[edit] References in popular culture

A jet pack wearing hero on the cover of Amazing Stories, August 1928. The cover illustrates The Skylark of Space.

The concept of jet packs appeared in popular culture, particularly science fiction long before the technology became practical. Perhaps the first appearance was in pulp magazines. The 1928 cover of Amazing Stories featured a man flying with a jet pack. When Republic Pictures planned to do a superhero serial using its renown "flying man" scenes as used in The Adventures of Captain Marvel, the character of Captain Marvel was tied up in litigation with the owners of the character of Superman. For its postwar superhero serial, Republic used a jet pack in King of the Rocket Men. The same stock special effects were used in other serials. While several science fiction novels from the 1950s featured jet packs, it was not until the "Bell Rocket Belt" in the 1960s that the jet pack caught the imagination of the mainstream. Bell's demonstration flights in the U.S. and other countries created significant public enthusiasm. Two episodes of the 1964 animated series Jonny Quest featured characters using jet packs (referred to as "rocket belts"). In 1965 the jet pack appeared in the James Bond movie Thunderball when 007 played by Sean Connery used a jet pack in the pre-title sequence to escape the bad guys and rendezvous with his French contact. The pack was piloted by Gordon Yaeger and Bill Suitor. The jet pack had a brief cameo in Die Another Day. In the same year of 1965 it appeared in the pilot episode of Lost in Space with jet pack stock footage appearing in the television series several times. The Keds shoe company used the Bell device for their "Colonel Keds" commercials.[25] A Bell Rocket Belt was featured extensively in the 1976 CBS Saturday morning children's live action TV show Ark II. A rocket pack flight famously occurred on the opening of the summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984, piloted by Bill Suitor. Bill took off from platforms, flew above many spectators, who from the unexpected contingency covered their heads with their hands, and landed opposite the presidential platform, where Ronald Reagan sat. This flight was seen by 100,000 spectators on the platforms and an estimated 2.5 billion television viewers. The 1988 video game Rocket Ranger made a jet pack, transported from the future into an alternative history World War II setting, the centerpiece of the action. Devices similar in concept to jet packs are utilized in the game Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun by Global Defense Initiative Jump Jet Infantrymen. These devices allow the in-game soldiers to maintain flight indefinitely while engaging ground and airborne targets. A jet pack is used to great effect by George Michael Bluth, played by Michael Cera in the thirdseason episode Mr. F on the television series Arrested Development. A jet pack also appears in the final scenes of the 2010 movie Kick-Ass. In the movie, dual Gatling guns were mounted to the jet pack to enable the lead character to gain access to a gangster's lair located at the top of a New York City skyscraper. A jet pack and its military development idea was used in the video game "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas". It is the only method of transportation available in the game that is not a vehicle.

Player can use it after completing "The Black Project" mission, which is basically about stealing the device from Area 69 military base. Jet-packs appear in the popular video game Halo: Reach. Likewise, on September 13, 2010, during a Halo: Reach launch party at London, England's Trafalgar Square, stuntman Dan Schlund of Texas's "Rocketman" firm (which provides jet packs for use by marketing and sporting companies) donned a Halo-esque "Spartan armor" suit and a jet pack and maintained flight for 30 seconds before landing safely. [26] A wooden jet pack was used in the Far East Movement video Rocketeer along with a song about a guy whose girlfriend is moving to Tokyo and who finds parts for a jet pack and uses it to get to Tokyo. In several episodes of Pokmon Best Wishes, Jessie, James and Meowth escape from critical situations using jet packs. In the popular 90s video game Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back two of the last five stages are based on the title character's using a jet pack.