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Primary Sources Architecture and Design. Exhibition. Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

The Architecture and Design exhibition that I visited in MOMA New York did not focus solely on architecture and had a lot of furniture designs. Nevertheless, the exhibit had charcoal sketches by Mies van der Rohe and some Bauhaus art. The museum was helpful because it allowed me to see the artwork and sketches in person, which was very different from just reading about it or seeing an online picture. Overall, the exhibit was inspirational and informational.

Gan, Aleksei. Constructivism. Moscow: Unknown, 1922. Print.

This translation of Aleksei Gan's book was important for me because it elaborated on the communistic goals of the constructivists, as well as their emphasis on industrialism. The book also discussed the influence of western movements, such as De Stijl, on Constructivism.

Giedion, Sigfried. A Decade of New Architecture.

rich: Girsberger, 1951. Print.

It was interesting to read the words of Sigfried Giedion, one of the most important critics of architecture in the twentieth century. He wrote about many modernist principles and theories, and he revealed the attitudes of modernists at the time.

Gropius, Walter, and P. Morton Shand. The New Architecture and the Bauhaus. Boston: C.T. Branford, 1955. Print.

This important book helped me write the section on the New Objectivity and the Bauhaus. I only skimmed through the book, but I definitely got the point of Bauhaus architecture. This book showed me that Bauhaus architecture emphasized efficiency, standardization, industrialization, and functionality.

Gropius, Walter. The Scope of Total Architecture. New York: Harper, 1955. Print.

This book focuses on city planning and the housing industry. Gropius states that "the essentials for wholesome life are, in addition to adequate food and warmth: light, air and elbow room." He argues that skyscrapers are not a dense as some might think and that they are an efficient manner of housing. He also argues for standardization of housing, stating that "there is no justification for the fact that every house in a suburban development should have a different floor plan."

Hitchcock, Henry Russell, and Philip Johnson. The International Style: Architecture Since 1922. New York: W.W. Norton &, 1932. Print.

Philip Johnson's book on the International Style was helpful because it showed the ideals of the early International Style, which spread the Bauhaus ideals of functionality, efficiency, and social justice, to the United States.

Jahn, Helmut. "Is Modern Architecture Sustainable?" Letter. Jan. 2009. Web. <http://www.nachhaltigesbauen.de/fileadmin/bilder/veranstaltungen/bauen_fuer_die_zuk unft_bau_2009/abstract-jahn.pdf>.

An interesting letter from the contemporary architect Helmut Jahn that talks about how modern architecture must shift towards environmental friendliness and conservation of resources. The end of the letter ends with a good quote: "An Architect's attitude of mind can help to change the world..." I felt that this really tied into the legacy of modern architecture and how architecture has been elevated to a cause.

Korn, Arthur. "Analytical and Utopian Architecture." Das Kunstblatt. Vol. 11-12. 1923. 336-39. Print.

Korn's short article is strangely poetic. One good quote is: "The solution is insufficient without vision." It shows the fantastical, Utopian ideals of the time.

Le Corbusier. Charles douard Jeanneret Le Corbusier Swiss-French Architect and Painter. Rec. 15 Mar. 1959. BBC. BBC Four. Web. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/lecorbusierc1.shtml>.Le

Corbusier focused mostly on city planning in this audio recording, which gave me a lot of information on Corbusier's planning principles. He talked a lot about creating green garden cities that could efficiently house people, which helped me understand his visions

for a future city.

Le Corbusier. The Athens Charter. New York: Grossman, 1973. Print.

This was an important list of principles that called for "remedial measures' to establish rationality and efficiency. Corbusier talks about how schools should be closer to housing and how suburbs are "bastard boroughs" that should be replaced with high rise residential districts.

Le Corbusier. The City of To-morrow and Its Planning,. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T., 1971. Print. A wonderful, exciting book about Corbusier's planned city for 3 million. We did not read the entire book, but we looked through all the pictures and saw Corbusier's vision for the future.

Le Corbusier. The Radiant City: Elements of a Doctrine of Urbanism to Be Used as the Basis of Our Machine-age Civilization. New York: Orion, 1967. Print.

Another good book by Le Corbusier explains his five principles of architecture. One of my favorite quotes from the book was: "The masonry wall no longer has a right to exist." That quote shows just how much Corbusier planned to revolutionize architecture. He believed in replacing stone with concrete and wood with steel. Overall, the book was essential in determining Le Corbusier's ideals. He was the leader in the forefront of industrial, efficient architecture.

Le Corbusier, and Frederick Etchells. Towards a New Architecture. London: Architectural, 1946. Print.

This book was probably the best primary source that I read. Written by Le Corbusier himself, this book documents his strive towards industrial perfection, and his dreams of building an Utopian future city. It was so inspiring to read the visionary words of a man who wanted to make the world a perfect place. The most famous quote from the book is a house is a machine for living in. The quote sums up the entire book. Corbusier believed the house should be a machine, and thus, he designed his buildings with efficiency and functionality.

Loos, Adolf, and Adolf Opel. Ornament and Crime: Selected Essays. Riverside, CA: Ariadne, 1998. Print.

The book was difficult to read because Adolf Loos wrote it in the early 1900's. Nevertheless, it was important because it showed the complete rejection of tradition by the early modernists. Adolf Loos argues that ornamentation is a crime, because it is not functional and is actually detrimental to buildings. He stated that ornament can become outdated if the architectural period changes; thus, it should be omitted completely. Ornament and Crime was quite a controversial essay when it was written. The radical nature of this essay really captured the rebellious essence of the early modernists.

May, Ernst. "Flats for Subsistence Living." Die Wohnung Fr Existenzminimum (1930): 10-16. Print.

Ernst May, one of the leading architects of cheap, functional housing, explains his methods and principles in this article. He often mentioned that he focused on lowering the price of construction to make buildings more affordable for the poor. This is consistent with the New Objectivity focus on social justice.

Meier, Richard. "Why Less Is More..." Esquire. Hearst Communications, Inc, 18 Aug. 2008. Web. <http://www.esquire.com/style/richard-meier-0908>. A short article by Richard Meier that discusses his inspirations. This article helped me on the Minimalism section because it explained the principles of minimalism and the concept that less is more.

Mies Van Der Rohe, Ludgwig, Walter Gropius, and Richard J. Neutra. Conversations Regarding the Future of Architecture. Reynolds Metals Company, 1956. CD.

This series of speeches by the three acclaimed architects was a useful primary source because the architects talked about their inspirations and how modern architecture should develop. There were also other topics that were discussed such as the "liberation" of architecture. It was also interesting to see how Gropius criticizes Frank Lloyd Wright for his extreme individualism.

"Mies van der Rohe: 1959 BBC Interview." Interview by Graeme Shankland. BBC Four. 6 Oct. 1959. Radio.

A rare BBC interview with Mr. Mies van der Rohe himself. Hearing his ideas directly really revealed what his architectural principles were. He elaborated on everything from his "flexible" plan to his idea that buildings should be honest to their materials.

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig. "The New Era." Mies Van Der Rohe. By Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1947. Print.

This short transcription of a speech that Mies made in Vienna illustrates Mies's admiration of mechanization and standardization, steel and glass, and the "spirit" of the era.

Mies Van Der Rohe, Ludwig. "The Office Building." Mies Van Der Rohe. By Miess Van der Rohe. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1945. Print.

This republication of Mies's description of a steel framed office buildings had some good quotes. Mies said: "The office building is a house of work, of organization, of clarity, of economy." This emphasizes his belief in functionality, efficiency, and order.

Sant'Elia, Antonio. Manifesto of Futurist Architecture. Aug, 1914 <http://homepages.spa.umn.edu/~duvernoi/futurist.html>.

The Manifesto was a sharp critique of traditional architecture that convinced me of the futurist goal to complete destroy the architecture of the past. This shows how early modernism focused on rejecting tradition instead of establishing Utopia.

Sullivan, Louis H. The Autobiography of an Idea. New York: Dover Publications, 1956. Print.

Sullivan's book was useful for the early modernism section because it explains his inspirations and it elaborates on his building projects, such as the Prudential building. It was also surprising to learn that Sullivan actually supported the use of ornament, despite his "form follows function" principles

Taut, Bruno. Modern Architecture (Die Neue Baukunst). London: Studio, 1929. Print.

I did not read the entire book, but I looked through the illustrations and the captions. It showed Taut and the modernist movements focus on creating a perfect architect with geometry and symmetry.

The House That Sam Built: Sam Maloof and Art in the Pomona Valley, 19451985. 21 Dec. 2011. Exhibition. George Boone Gallery, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

I was able to see the actual work of mid-century modernists in this interesting exhibit in the Huntington library. Though the exhibit focused mostly on design, I was still able to comprehend the warmth and flexibility of mid-century modern art and architecture. I also saw a few chairs by Frank Lloyd Wright which had designs that alluded to nature, showing me that Wright focused on a non-traditional design that emphasized harmony with nature.

Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1977. Print.

I briefly skimmed it because it was a rather dull book. Nevertheless, the book had some good quotes and it summarized the postmodern movement. It also portrayed the growing dissatisfaction with modernism.

Wright, Frank Lloyd, and Neil Levine. Modern Architecture. Princeton (N.J.): Princeton UP, 2008. Print.

This book, which I skimmed over, was by Frank Lloyd Wright and it portrayed his ideas of what modern architecture should be. Unlike the industrial emphasis of the Bauhaus and the Constructivists, Wright believed that architecture should have harmony with nature. The book also showed Wright's interest in glass and reinforced concrete.

Wright, Frank Lloyd. The Future of Architecture. New York: Horizon, 1953. Print.

Although many of the book's predictions were inaccurate, this book was still helpful because it depicted Wright's architectural principles. Surprisingly, Wright's ideals were similar to the Bauhaus because he wanted an architecture that would represent democracy and equality. His "usonian" architecture would be the attainment of a democratic form a architecture similar to European modernism.

Secondary Sources Anderson, Stanford. "A Question on Modern Architecture." E-mail interview. 9 Feb. 2012.

This was one of my only interviews with a professor. I felt that since I had so many primary sources of Mies and Le Corbusier actually talking and writing their ideas down, I did not need an interview. Nevertheless, I asked Professor Anderson, a respected art historian from MIT, what the goals of the modernists were. He replied that modernism was not just one movement and that it encompassed many different styles with different goals. It was then that I realized that in the later year of modernism, the modernists would forsake their Utopian goals in order to make modernism more appealing.

Benton, Tim. "The Warming of Modernism." The Modernist Home. London: V&A Publications,2006. 82-93. Print.

"The Warming of Modernism" helped me see how the late modernists rejected the strict standards of early modernism. There were a lot of illustrations of late modernist houses, including the Kaufmann House.

Blake, Peter. Form Follows Fiasco: Why Modern Architecture Hasn't Worked. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977. Print.

This was another postmodern analysis of the legacy of modernism. In this book, Blake argues that the greatest failure of the modernists was the fact that modernism did not

respect the way in which normal people lived. Normal people cannot live in a glass box with a white interior. As imperfect beings, humans need messiness and privacy in the household.

Blake, Peter. No Place like Utopia: Modern Architecture and the Company We Kept. New York: Knopf, 1993. Print.

This book was important because it showed how modernist architecture degraded itself from an ambition to perfect architecture to the preferred style of corporate America. Written by an architect who once had dreams of changing the world through architecture, this book depicted the decline of modernism

Chow, Alton. "Modern Architecture History Question." E-mail interview. 23 Mar. 2012.

Alton Chow, an architect at the famous architectural firm Gensler, which designed the Shanghai Tower on the "Revolution" page of my website, was actually an alumnus at our school and thus he was very interesting to talk to. He cleared up a lot of things about how "eco-tecture," the green architecture of today, is related to the modernist pursuit of Utopia.

Crouch, Christopher. Modernism in Art, Design and Architecture. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. Print.

This book was useful for the Social Shifts page because it related developments in

art and architecture to social transitions in the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution.

Dalrymple, Theodore. "The Architect as Totalitarian." City Journal. The Manhattan Institute, 2009. Web. <http://www.city-journal.org/2009/19_4_otbie-le-corbusier.html>.

This was another article criticizing Le Corbusier for his "totalitarian" methods of "imposing" modern architecture on cities. My favorite quote from the article was "A Corbusian building is incompatible with anything except itself." In a sense I slightly agreed with him, because Le Corbusiers buildings are usually concrete and quite brutally designed. By seeking perfection and simplicity, Le Corbusier destroyed the human touch in his buildings.

Department of Art History and Archaeology. "Modern Architecture - Real Virtual." Visual Media Center. Columbia University. Web. <http://www.learn.columbia.edu/ha/html/modern.html>.

The text of this website focused on the Utopian goals of architects. Even more helpful than the texts were the interactive online tours of buildings such as Fallingwater and Ronchamp. These interactive tours had panoramas and floor plans that helped me determine similarities between the concrete, organic architecture of the early modernists and the concrete architecture of Le Corbusier, a representative of the international style of architecture.

Dietsch, Deborah K. Classic Modern: Midcentury Modern at Home. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. Print.

This illustrated book helped me understand how modern architecture became humanized after World War II and how architects like Ray and Charles Eames made modernism warm and agreeable. I really enjoyed this book because it was more of a picture book than a book with words. In a sense, I feel like the books focus of pictures helped me more than it would have with words, because the pictures helped me visually separate mid-century modernism from post World War I modernism.

Farrelly, Elizabeth. "A Glimpse of What Is Possible." The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 Dec. 2011. Web. <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/society-and-culture/a-glimpse-of-what-ispossible-20111216-1oyg5.html>.

One of my most valuable webpage sources, this article talked about how modernism elevated architecture to a cause. The architect that wrote the article shared her feelings about the moral attraction of modernism and the desire to create Utopia. Ultimately, the author criticizes modern architecture as elitist and a failed experiment. She states that modernism failed because people could not be perfect; therefore, people could not live in the perfect buildings that were designed by the modernists. Her criticisms of modernism were logical and profound.

Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. New York: Oxford UP, 1980. Print.

Frampton's wording is confusing and his book is dry and boring. Despite this, I still skimmed over it because the book was extremely informative and it taught me a lot about Bauhaus Architecture and the International Style. It was also pretty useful for the technology page because it explained progressive buildings like the Crystal Palace and the Guaranty Building. This book helped me gain an overall understanding of modern architectural history.

Glazer, Nathan. From a Cause to a Style: Modernist Architecture's Encounter with the American City. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2007. Print.

This was one of my best sources because it showed how modern architecture eventually sold its soul to the corporation. It also demonstrated how modernism failed in the end. Glazer argued that modernism failed not only because it chased impossible goals, but also because it was fundamentally inhuman.

Henket, Hubert-Jan, and Hilde Heynen. Back from Utopia: The Challenge of the Modern Movement. Rotterdam: 010, 2002. Print. This book was actually a collection of writings from famous architects like Hubert-Jan Henket, Rem Koolhaas , Tadao Ando, and other contemporary architects. The entire book was a re-evaluation of the modernist movement and how it changed the profession of

architecture, so the book really helped me on my conclusion. There were also a few East European architects that talked about constructivism and Stalin's suppression of modern architecture in the Soviet Union, which helped me with my section on constructivism.

Hughes, Robert. "Paradise Now." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 19 Mar. 2006. Web. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2006/mar/20/architecture.modernism1>.

I liked this architecture article by the famous Australian art critic Robert Hughes because it really summarized the modernists' aspirations towards Utopia. It also proposed that the chaos of World War I was a major factor in the movement towards a "perfect" architecture.

Jaffe, Hans Ludwig C., and Mildred Friedman. De Stijl: 1917 - 1931: Visions of Utopia. New York, NY: Abbeville, 1982. Print.

I briefly skimmed the book to find out how De Stijl architecture was Utopian in the sense that it encouraged pure, primary colors and squares. At first I didnt want to include De Stijl in the website because I felt that it focused solely on color theory and not on the Utopian pursuits of modernism. However, after reading this book, I discovered that De Stijl was more utopian than I had previously thought.

Jencks, Charles. "The Six Traditions - Politics and Architecture." Modern Movements in Architecture. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1973. 29-94. Print.

This book had an interesting chapter relating socialism, democracy, and communism to different aspects of the modernist movement. It also explained the "social activism" of the modernism and how they attempted to establish Utopia.

"Mies Van Der Rohe Society." Mies Van Der Rohe Society. Illinois Institute of Technology. Web. 30 Mar. 2012. <http://www.miessociety.org/>.

This was an important website that had archives of many of Mies van der Rohe's speeches, as well as an useful timeline that documented the life of the architect. Through this website, I gained a better understanding of Mie's design philosophy, such as the belief that "less is more."

Ouroussoff, Nicolai. "Pride and Nostalgia Mix in The Timess New Home." New York Times. 20 Dec. 2007. Web. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/arts/design/20time.html?_r=3&pagewanted=all>.

This article is not specifically about modernism; it is a critique of the new New York Time's building in New York, built by Renzo Piano. Nevertheless, this article really influenced my view on how modernism has affected current architecture. The article talked about how current architecture is "longing for an idealistic time," seeking to establish a utopia in an era where everything is uncertain. After 9/11 and the Great Recession, the American confidence has all but died. This article explains how a new

skyscraper in New York is recalling the modernist style in an attempt to re-establish a nostalgic chase for utopia.

Quinan, Jack. Frank Lloyd Wright's Larkin Building: Myth and Fact. New York, NY: Architectural History Foundation, 1987. Print.

This book was cleverly put together by Quinan, who clearly held a deep interest in Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture - specifically the Larkin Building, a building that some argue defined the modernist age of architecture. Quinan used special sources including some sketches that were made by Larkin's own engineers. This book also came with many photographs of various aspects of the building.

Rainey, Lawrence S., Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman. Futurism: An Anthology. New Haven: Yale UP, 2009. Print.

This was essential to the section of my website that discussed Futurism. It emphasized the futurists rejection of tradition and their love for speed and animation. I also found out that the futurists loved war, and believed that war had cleansing properties. Despite this disturbing piece of information, the futurists were still very important in the history of architecture, because they were one of the first groups of architects and painters to reject the past completely.

Sanders, Russell M. "Curtain Walls: Not Just Another Pretty Faade." Journal 23.1 (2006): 1-8. Hoffman Architects. Web.

This article helped me write about curtain walls in the technology page because it explained how curtain walls are hanging glass walls that protect the interior from weather and temperature. It also documented a short history of curtain walls and how they became the dominant feature of modernist facades.

Scully, Vincent. Modern Architecture; The Architecture of Democracy. New York: G. Braziller, 1961. Print.

This book was very important because it documented the entire history of early modernism, Bauhaus, Constructivism, and the International Style. It also related events in history, such as World War I, to the development of modern architecture.

Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1976. Print.

This was an intensely difficult book but one that gave me some information on the theory of modern architecture. The book convinced me that modern architects were striving for Utopia and social justice, not just a rejection of tradition. In the book, Tafuri clearly positions himself as a Neo-marxist. He boldly reviews the goals and shortfalls of the modernist architects in their attempts to establish social perfection.

U.S. General Services Administration. "Growth, Efficiency, and Modernism." GSA.gov. U.S. General Services Administration. Web. <http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/GEMbook.pdf>.

Although this paper focused mostly on government buildings, there was still a helpful section that explained the separate styles that derived from the International Style. The paper also explained how modernism came to be the dominant form of architecture for public and government buildings. The most important thing that I gained from the website was a picture of the J. Edgar Hoover Building, a brutalist building that was built for the F.B.I. I used the J. Edgar Hoover building to depict brutalism in the Decline page of the website. It is just such an astoundingly ugly and brutal building that I had to include it because it represents brutalism perfectly.

Webb, Michael, and Roger Straus. Modernism Reborn: Mid-century American Houses. New York: Universe Pub., 2001. Print.

Although we couldn't purchase this book, as it was extremely expensive, we took a trip to Barnes and Nobles to flip through it. Webb, a famous architecture critic, and the famous photographer, Strauss, a photographer of modernist buildings, visit 30 homes that were built in the mid 1900s, that represent examples of mid-century modernism. The book was filled with over a hundred photos of modernist homes. After flipping through this book,

we had a much clearer idea about the styles of late modernism, and how the international style split into several different and distinct styles.

Weston, Richard. 100 Ideas That Changed Architecture. London: Laurence King, 2011. Print.

This reference book gave us an in-depth look at American architecture in the modernist and post-modernist age. There were many pictures as well that demonstrated both the American and British architectural contemporary style that we found helpful in defining our research. This source was also helpful because they classified different architectures in chronological order, which helped narrow down the area we needed to look through.

Wodehouse, Lawrence. "The USSR." The Roots of International Style Architecture. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill, 1991. 39-45. Print.

The book as a whole was very useful because it documented the different architectural styles that led to the International Style; however, the most useful chapter was the USSR chapter that we used to learn about constructivism. I learned that constructivism was the result of a desire to establish a new architecture that would accurately represent the goals of communism and Marxism. The constructivist era was certainly one that pursued an utopian form of archteicture.

Wolfe, Tom. From Bauhaus to Our House. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1981. Print.

Possibly the funniest source that I have read so far. But other than being humorous, this book is important because it satirizes the modern movement and depicts the postmodern criticism of modernism. Wolfe also leads a personal attack against modernism by mocking the hypocritical actions of the modernists themselves, sarcastically labeling them as The White Gods. Overall, the book helped me understand how post modernists saw modernists as totalitarian architects who imposed an inhuman style upon modern cities.