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BAMBOO AS A BUILDING MATERIAL

Bamboo, a species of plant in the grass family possessing good strength and flexibility can be used as a building material. However, due to the emergence of better building materials, bamboos use is limited to certain applications only. Besides the extensive use of steel and other building materials for the construction in the present trend, bamboo can replace wood and steel in many applications like roof covering, footbridges, reinforcement, scaffolding, bamboo houses, etc which accounts for

low cost construction.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-bamboo-as-a-buildingmaterial?pid=44072#ixzz1mkpeuj00

Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Construction and demolition waste generation has exceedingly increased around the world. in The World about 40% of construction and demolition waste is generated annually. Out of various types of construction and demolition waste, concrete constitues about 80% of the total waste. Therefore, it is necessary to recycle concrete

waste to recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete. A two-stage mixing approach was developed to improve the quality of recycled aggregate concrete for high-grade applications. Experimental results showed that the optimal performance of aggregate concrete using the two-stage mixing approach occurs by using about 20% recycled aggregate substitution

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-recycled-aggregateconcrete#ixzz1mkq1Ajje

Validation of Using Mixed Iron and Plastic Wastes in Concrete

ABSTRACT Metals and plastics waste materials create serious environmental problems, mainly owing to the inconsistency of the wastes streams. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using mixed iron filings and granulated plastic waste materials simultaneously to partially substitute the fine aggregate in concrete composites. Type I Portland cement was mixed with the aggregates to produce the concrete composites. Three weight fractions (30, 40, and 50%) of iron filings waste aggregate were used with 5% of granulated plastic waste. The slump, compressive and

flexural strengths as well as the fresh and hard density of the concrete mixtures were determined. The results of the mechanical properties were analyzed in comparison to the control specimens. The main findings of this investigation revealed that the mixture of iron filings and plastic waste materials could be used successfully as partial substitutes of sand in concrete composites. Increasing the granulated plastic waste in the mixed aggregate waste materials up to 10% did not seriously hinder the strength properties of the waste-concrete specimens.

INTRODUCTION One of the main goals of sustainable solid

waste management is to maximize the ability of its recycling and reusing. Metal and plastic are the most common of these materials [Hawken 1994]. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce waste pollution, the concrete industry has begun adopting a number of methods to achieve these goals [Sear 2005]. Preserving natural aggregate is a matter of sustainable development to ensure sufficient resources for future generation [Rakshvir and Barai 2006]. Reuse of solid waste as partial replacement of aggregate in construction activities results in reducing the demand for extraction of

natural raw materials as well as saving landfill space. The quality of aggregate is highly important since approximately three-quarters of concrete volume are occupied by aggregate; it greatly affects the strength, durability and the structural performance of concrete [Neville and Brooks 1990]. Considering the relevance of some types of solid wastes as recyclable materials that can be reused in concrete industry, much research effort has focused on reusing waste materials from steel and plastic industries to partially replace the aggregate in concrete mixes. Akinmusuru [1991] stated that using a steel slag as an aggregate for

concrete mixes have potential in the construction industry. Soroushian et al. [1995] stated that polypropylene can be used as synthetic fibers to increase the toughness of concrete. Rebeis and Fowler [1996] found that very good flexural strength can be obtained with reinforced polymer concrete using unsaturated polyester resins based on recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Ghailan [2005] stated that concrete mixes made with solid waste produced from iron and steel industry has a higher modulus of rigidity, rebound number and chemical resistance toward the exposure to acids/salts as compared with

conventional concrete mixes. Pezzi, et al. [2006] proved that the addition of polymeric materials in fraction 10% in volume inside of a cement matrix does not imply a significant variation of the concrete mechanical features. Marzouk et al. [2007] reported that the plastic bottles shredded into small (PET) particles may be used successfully as sand-substitution aggregates in cementitious concrete composites which appear to offer an attractive lowcost material with consistent properties. Ismail and Al-Hashmi [2008] demonstrated that using waste iron filings as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete mixes

offers higher strength values than that for the plain mixes. The results of the study carried out by Kou et al. [2009] revealed that the workability, compressive strength, and tensile splitting strength of lightweight aggregate concretes that are prepared with recycled plastic waste were reduced. Very limited studies explored the combined effects of mixed waste materials on the mechanical behavior of concrete mixes. In view of the fact that iron and plastic wastes are widespread types of nonbiodegradable solid wastes derived as discarded materials from several industrial processes, the knowledge of their combined

influence on the strength properties of concrete is worth to be considered. The current study describes the impact of utilizing mixed iron filings and plastic waste to partially replace sand on the mechanical properties of the waste modifiedconcrete mixes.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-validation-of-using-mixed-iron-andplastic-wastes-in-concrete#ixzz1mkqgPzTZ

Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Construction and demolition waste generation has exceedingly increased around the world. in The World about 40% of construction and demolition waste is generated annually.

Out of various types of construction and demolition waste, concrete constitues about 80% of the total waste. Therefore, it is necessary to recycle concrete waste to recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete. A two-stage mixing approach was developed to improve the quality of recycled aggregate concrete for high-grade applications. Experimental results showed that the optimal performance of aggregate concrete using the two-stage

mixing approach occurs by using about 20% recycled aggregate substitution

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-recycled-aggregateconcrete#ixzz1mkqwy99d

IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE DURABILITY BY COMPLEX MINERAL SUPER-FINE POWDER

IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE DURABILITY BY COMPLEX MINERAL SUPER-FINE POWDER


chenpowder.pdf (Size: 155.02 KB / Downloads: 6) Introduction Coal gangue is a rock included in the coal bed and a waste discharged during coal mining and transportation as well as the most industrial waste discharged in China. It is estimated [1, 2], that

the amount of gangue calculated as 15% of the coal output, there would be 100 million ton increment annually. Most of the coal gangue is a clay rock; its main mineral composition consists of clay mineral, followed by primary mineral quartz, feldspar, mica and pyrite, carbonate. After calcination under high temperature of 700900, the clay mineral is dewatered and disintegrated, the carbon Raw materials 2.1.1 Cement In the tests the PO425 cement manufactured by Chongqing Tenghui Diwei Cement Plant was applied with specific surface 3300 cm2/g. 2.1.2 Coal gangue The coal gangue is from the Huaying Mountain mine and treated by calcinations and grinding;

2.1.4 Fly ash The fly ash is a dry one from the Chongqing

Jiulongpo Electric Power Plant; its properties conform to the Chinese Standard GB1596-91, Fly ash for cement and concrete, as standard class II. 2.1.5 Fine aggregate Medium size sand from Sichuan Jianyang with a modulus of fineness Mx = 2.32; normal grading with the silt content 0.8%. 2.1.6 Coarse aggregate Crushed limestone is from Xiaoquan, Chongqing City with a size of 5-20 mm and normal continuous grading. The content of flaky and elongated particles is <3% and the crushing index 6%. 2.1.7 Admixture A complex retarding super-plasticizer FDN with slight air entraining, water reduction rate 23% and other properties conforming to the requirements for first class one in Chinese standard Admixtures for concrete (GB80762000), the dosage of the

admixture is 1.2%.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-improvement-of-concrete-durability-bycomplex-mineral-super-fine-powder#ixzz1mkr6nA00

Indian Construction Industry:

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Indian Construction Industry: Construction Sector Overview Today, India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. The Indian construction industry is an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of its development investment, is poised for growth on account of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people's rising expectations for improved quality of living. In India, construction is the second largest economic activity after agriculture. Construction accounts for nearly 65 per cent of the total investment in infrastructure and is expected to be the biggest beneficiary of

the surge in infrastructure investment over the next five years. Investment in construction accounts for nearly 11 per cent of Indias Gross Domestic Product (GDP). 239.68 billion is likely to be invested in the infrastructure sector over the next five to 10 years - in power, roads, bridges, city infrastructure, ports, airports, telecommunications, which would provide a huge boost to the construction industry as a whole. Investment into this sector could go up to 93.36 billion by FY2010. With such bullish prospects in infrastructure, affiliated industries such as cement are on a high. Cement consumption, for the first time, is set to exceed the 150million tonne mark. Reflecting the demand for the commodity, capacity utilization rose to over 100 per cent to touch 102 per cent in January 2007 with dispatches touching 14.10 million tonnes as against the production of 14 million tonnes. As

opportunities in the sector continue to come to the fore, foreign direct investment has been moving upwards. The real estate and construction sectors received FDI of 216.53 million in the first half of the current fiscal year. Future Challenges: The Indian economy has witnessed considerable progress in the past few decades. Most of the infrastructure development sectors moved forward, but not to the required extent of increasing growth rate up to the tune of 8 to 10 per cent. The Union Government has underlined the requirements of the construction industry. With the present emphasis on creating physical infrastructure, massive investment is planned in this sector. The Planning Commission has estimated that investment requirement in infrastructure to the tune of about 14,50,000 crore or US$320 billion during the 11th Five Year

Plan period. Economic Overview: Indias economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries and a multitude of support services & industries. Production, trade, and investment reforms have provided new opportunities for Indian businesspersons. India has an estimated 350 million middle class consumers: India is the second fastest growing economy of the world at present. India has recorded one of the highest growth rates in the 1990s. The target of the 10th Five Year Plan (2002-07) is 8%. Indias services sector growth of 7.9% over the period 1990-2001 is the second highest in the world. India is a young country with median age of population being 24.6 years & one-third of the population is below 14 years of age. Long run GDP growth from mid 1990s has now stepped up to

6.5% from an average of 5% a decade & half ago and less than 3% two decades ago. The average annual growth rate for the next few years is expected to be 7% to 7.5% The opportunities unfolding in India is as a result of reforms enacted from early 1990s as well as a result of Indias increasing competitiveness & confidence A unique feature of the transition of the Indian economy has been high growth with stability. 4th largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. 350 million middleclass consumer market. Steady economic growth over 50 years. Increasingly transparent & open policies to access, investment, location, choice of technology, import and export. Government rapidly moving out of ownership / Management of commercial enterprises by a process of disinvestment of

existing Governmentowned businesses. Positive outlook to international investments & trade policies. Fiscal incentives & Central Government & States support in physical & social infrastructure development. Very large pool of educated and trained & skilled manpower Rapidly developing R&D, infrastructure, technical and marketing services. Agricultural selfsufficiency, rich mineral base and abundance of other natural resources. Large, diversified and geographically well distributed manufacturing capability. Diversified infrastructure facilities available and under development. Administration and Regulations of Construction Industry: Construction Projects are subject to a host of Central and State laws simultaneously. Administratively and in terms of regulation, Central & State

Governments have their own roles to play in Construction. Structure and Role of Construction Administration: Structure and Role of Construction Administration of Central Government & Structure and Role of Construction Administration of Local Government New Materials, Equipment and Technologies: New mega-project undertaken, involvement of international consultants, and participation of Indian consultants/contractors in international projects has led to infusion of new materials, equipment and technologies in the construction practices in India. While manufacturing of new materials is going on at a more aggressive pace, the manufacturing of new equipment is constrained by large capital investments and the uncertain markets. However, the growing market for such advanced equipment will

eventually push the entrepreneurs to manufacture these also. On the technological front, the picture is abysmally low. The country has not invested adequately into making technical human resources capable of addressing the professional services needs of the construction industry like litigation, training of artisans, cost indices, contracting, insurance, finance, banking and taxation. On the engineering design front, the college education of the practicing engineers has not been adequately augmented from time to time with in-house or distance education modules. Thus, senior engineers are often found oblivious to new technologies and tools. As a consequence, the country is faced with a dire need for qualified technical manpower. The following are some of the newer initiatives of the construction industry in the area of materials and construction strategies.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-indian-constructionindustry#ixzz1mkrmBCUh

CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING full report

CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING1.ppt (Size: 904.5 KB / Downloads: 893) CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING Guided by Presented by Lija.M.Paul Anil Joseph Lecturer,Civil S7 Civil SNGCE Roll No:5 SNGCE

INTRODUCTION The promotion of enviornmental management and the mission of sustainable development have exerted the pressure demanding for the adoption of proper methods to protect the enviornment across all industries including construction. Construction by nature is not an eco-friendly activity. Construction,renovation and demolition

activities leads to the formation of waste. NEED FOR ADOPTION OF PROPER METHODS OF RECYCLING It reduces the demand up on new resources. Cuts down the cost and effort of transport and production. Use waste which would otherwise be lost to landfill sites. CONSTRUCTION WASTE PROBLEM WASTE- Material byproduct of human and industrial activity that has no residual value. Need for Comprehensive construction waste management in every site. Every personnel,from the management to the operational level should work for the goal of construction waste management.

AGGREGATE FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE Recycled precast elements and cubes after testing (the aggregate could be relatively clean with only cement paste adhering to it).

Demolished concrete building(aggregate could be contaminated with bricks and tiles, sand and dust, timber, plastics, cardboard and paper and metals.) Used as a subtitle for natural coarse aggregates in concrete FACTORS THAT ASSESS THE QUALITY OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE Size distribution It has been generally accepted that recycled aggregates either fine or coarse can be obtained by primary and secondary crushing and subsequent removal of impurities. The best particle distribution can be achieved by primary crushing and then secondary crushing, but a single crushing process is more effective from the economic point of view. Absorption The water absorption in Recycled Aggregates ranges from ( 3-12% ), this value is much higher than that of natural aggregates whose absorption is

about ( 0.5- 1 % ). Abrasion resistance Use of such aggregates as sub base in flexible pavements show promising results. These recycled aggregates have also been used in generating concrete that is further used in rigid pavements . PROPERTIES OF FRESH RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE The air content of recycled aggregate concrete is slightly higher ( 4-5 % ) than concrete with natural aggregate. This increased air content in the recycled concrete leads to reduction in the density of fresh concrete. The bulk density of fresh concrete made with natural aggregates is in the range of 2400 kg/m3, where as the concrete made with recycled aggregates is significantly lighter, 2150 kg/m3. VIABLE TECHNOLOGY ON CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING When considering a

recyclable material, three major areas need to be taken in to account are: Economy Compatibility with other materials Material properties DIFFERENT WASTES IN A CONSTRUCTION SITE Brick Bricks arising from demolition may be contaminated with more mortar, plaster and are often mixed with other materials such as timber and concrete.In recent years, bricks are commonly crushed to form filling materials. Concrete The most usual way to recycle concrete rubble is categorized as: a) Bound ( natural aggregate replacement in new concrete ) b) Un bound ( road base, trench etc )

Ferrous Metal It is by far the most profitable and recyclable material. In India more than 80% scrap arising is recycled. Scrap steel is almost totally recycled

and allowed repeated recycling. 100% steel can be recycled to avoid wastage at construction site.

Masonry Masonry is normally crushed as recycled masonry aggregate. A special application of recycled masonry aggregate is to use it as thermal insulating concrete. Another potential application for recycled masonry aggregate is to use it as aggregate in traditional clay bricks.

Non Ferrous Metal The main non ferrous metal collected from construction and demolition sites are alluminium, copper, lead and zinc . In India alluminium usage is up to 95000 tonnes with about 70% recycled in 2004. Copper is recycled up to 119000 tonnes out of a national market of 262000 tonnes. Paper And Cardboard Paper and paper board comprise approximately

37% construction and demolition wastes by volume.It usually attracts recyclers to reprocess them as new paper product by purification.

Plastic The plastic wastes are best possible for recycling if these materials are collected separately and cleaned. Recycling is difficult if plastic wastes are mixed with other plastics or contaminants. Plastic may be recycled and used in products specifically designed for the utilization of recycled plastic, such as street furniture, roof and floor, PVC window noise barrier, cable ducting, panel. Japan practices adopted burning of waste plastic at high temperature and turning them in to ultra fine particles, known as man made soil.

Timber Timber waste from construction and demolition works is produced in large

quantity all over the world. Whole timber arising from construction and demolition works can be utilized easily and directly for reused in other construction projects after cleaning, denailing and sizing. BARRIERS IN PROMOTING USE OF RECYCLED MATERIALS Lack of appropriately located recycling facilities. Absence of appropriate technology. Lack of awareness CONCLUSION In order to reduce the construction waste, during the time of construction order only the correct amount of raw materials. Proper care should be taken to ensure the protection of materials being delivered and stored in the site. When a structure is being demolished, salvage as much of the more valuable fittings and materials as possible. Any suitable substitute for aggregate should be considered during the construction. It is the

duty of an engineer to revaluvate technical specification for materials where strength and safety do not have to be compromised to permit the use of recycled materials. As sorting and recycling facilities become more wide spread and better developed it will be easier to redirect our waste from landfill. REFERENCES L.Y.Shen, D Drew, and C.M. Tam, (2004), Construction Waste recycling, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,4,Vol 130,pp 472-481. Jessica Krippendor,(2008), Construction Waste recycling,Journal of Canadian wall and ceiling,pp14-18. Darin Steen,(2008),Bios Force builds low cost C&D Landfill, Journal of Tribal Waste,pp 8-10.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-construction-waste-recycling-full-report-10092#ixzz1mks26oSc

construction waste recycling full report

CONSTRUCTION

WASTE RECYCLING CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING1.ppt (Size: 973.5 KB / Downloads: 719) INTRODUCTION The promotion of enviornmental management and the mission of sustainable development have exerted the pressure demanding for the adoption of proper methods to protect the enviornment across all industries including construction. Construction by nature is not an eco-friendly activity. Construction,renovation and demolition activities leads to the formation of waste. NEED FOR ADOPTION OF PROPER METHODS OF RECYCLING It reduces the demand up on new resources. Cuts down the cost and effort of transport and production. Use waste which would otherwise be lost to landfill sites.

CONSTRUCTION WASTE PROBLEM WASTE- Material byproduct of human and industrial activity that has no residual value. Need for Comprehensive construction waste management in every site. Every personnel,from the management to the operational level should work for the goal of construction waste management.

AGGREGATE FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE Recycled precast elements and cubes after testing (the aggregate could be relatively clean with only cement paste adhering to it). Demolished concrete building(aggregate could be contaminated with bricks and tiles, sand and dust, timber, plastics, cardboard and paper and metals.) Used as a subtitle for natural coarse aggregates in concrete

FACTORS THAT ASSESS THE QUALITY OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE Size distribution It has been generally accepted that recycled aggregates either fine or coarse can be obtained by primary and secondary crushing and subsequent removal of impurities. The best particle distribution can be achieved by primary crushing and then secondary crushing, but a single crushing process is more effective from the economic point of view. Absorption The water absorption in Recycled Aggregates ranges from ( 3-12% ), this value is much higher than that of natural aggregates whose absorption is about ( 0.5- 1 %

). Abrasion resistance Use of such aggregates as sub base in flexible pavements show promising results. These recycled aggregates have also been used in generating concrete that is further used in rigid pavements . PROPERTIES OF FRESH RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE The air content of recycled aggregate concrete is slightly higher ( 4-5 % ) than concrete with natural aggregate. This increased air content in the recycled concrete leads to reduction in the density of fresh concrete. The bulk density of fresh concrete made with natural aggregates is in the range of 2400 kg/m3, where as the concrete made with recycled aggregates is significantly

lighter, 2150 kg/m3.

VIABLE TECHNOLOGY ON CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING When considering a recyclable material, three major areas need to be taken in to account are: Economy Compatibility with other materials Material properties

DIFFERENT WASTES IN A CONSTRUCTION SITE Brick Bricks arising from demolition may be contaminated with more mortar, plaster and are often mixed with other materials such as timber and concrete.In recent years, bricks are commonly crushed to form filling materials. Concrete The most usual way to recycle concrete rubble is categorized as: a) Bound ( natural aggregate replacement

in new concrete ) b) Un bound ( road base, trench etc )

Ferrous Metal It is by far the most profitable and recyclable material. In India more than 80% scrap arising is recycled. Scrap steel is almost totally recycled and allowed repeated recycling. 100% steel can be recycled to avoid wastage at construction site.

Masonry Masonry is normally crushed as recycled masonry aggregate. A special application of recycled masonry aggregate is to use it as thermal insulating concrete. Another potential application for recycled masonry aggregate is to use it as aggregate in traditional clay bricks.

Non Ferrous Metal The main non ferrous

metal collected from construction and demolition sites are alluminium, copper, lead and zinc . In India alluminium usage is up to 95000 tonnes with about 70% recycled in 2004. Copper is recycled up to 119000 tonnes out of a national market of 262000 tonnes.

Paper And Cardboard Paper and paper board comprise approximately 37% construction and demolition wastes by volume.It usually attracts recyclers to reprocess them as new paper product by purification.

Timber Timber waste from construction and demolition works is produced in large quantity all over the world. Whole timber arising from construction and demolition works can be utilized easily

and directly for reused in other construction projects after cleaning, denailing and sizing.

BARRIERS IN PROMOTING USE OF RECYCLED MATERIALS Lack of appropriately located recycling facilities. Absence of appropriate technology. Lack of awareness

CONCLUSION In order to reduce the construction waste, during the time of construction order only the correct amount of raw materials. Proper care should be taken to ensure the protection of materials being delivered and stored in the site. When a structure is being demolished, salvage as much of the more valuable fittings and materials as

possible. Any suitable substitute for aggregate should be considered during the construction. It is the duty of an engineer to revaluvate technical specification for materials where strength and safety do not have to be compromised to permit the use of recycled materials. As sorting and recycling facilities become more wide spread and better developed it will be easier to redirect our waste from landfill.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-construction-waste-recycling-fullreport#ixzz1mksWIP00

WASTE & RECYCLED MATERIAL IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

complted seminar.pptx (Size: 1.46 MB / Downloads: 431) ABSTRACT World wide

consumption of concrete amounts to more than 1000 Kgs/person The demand is expected to increase in future Concrete comprises in quantity the largest of man made material INTRODUCTION Concrete made with Portland cement ,water admixtures and aggregates comprises in quantity the largest of all man made material Historically whenever new compounds were produced ,or waste materials accumulated in industries ,they were incorporated as one of ingredients of concrete. Typical examples are fly ash phosphogypsum,blast furnace slag, saw mil waste, rice husk, cotton etc.The wide spread need for conserving resources & environment will be reflected major emphasis on the use of wastes & by products. Recycling of concrete materials also offers some promise. Attempts are already being made to use

municipal refuse & waste oil as partial substitutes for the fuel in the production of cement clinker NEED OF RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS Rise in population Large scale demand for housing Over stressing the reserves of traditional building materials Cement material presently not in a position to cope the millions of the country The enormous amount of waste materials Recycling becoming imperative & mandatory ROLE OF WASTE MATERIAL IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION Many waste materials contain basic ingredients that are needed for the manufacturing of cement clinker Fly ash can also be used as a source of raw material Lime sludge can be used as a substitutes for lime stone Red mud a waste material from the production of alumina used as a raw

material for cement clinker production Phosphogypsum as a mineralizer for making clinker PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURED FROM WASTE MATERIALS FLY ASH CEMENT BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT RICE HUSK ASH CEMENT FLY ASH CEMENT Fly ash is the ash component of Coal liberated during combustion . Fly ash can be incorporated into Portland cement in one of the three ways. Fly ash can be used as a admixture or as replacement of Portland cement. Fly ash addition to Portland cement results in increased workability. In fly ash cement development of compressive strength is slow At longer periods of curing Fly ash concrete develops higher strengths than the normal concrete INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH ON STRENGTH

DEVELOPMENT IN CONCRETE PERMEABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE ADVANTAGES OF FLY ASH CONCRETE Addition of fly ash to concrete minimize or eliminates the expansion due to alkali aggregate reaction WORKABILITY TIME OF SETTING DURABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE Sufficiently cured fly ash concrete has dense structure & hence more resistance to deleterious substances. This reduces the corrosion of reinforcement. Class F fly ash reduces alkali-silica reactivity because of the dense structure & hence expansion is reduced which increases durability. Because of the reduced permeability the chloride ingress is reduced. STRUCTURES USED FLY ASH ASH BLAST FURNACE

SLAG CEMENT Portland blast furnace slag cement can replace Portland cement where high strength is not required. It is produced by intergrinding Portland cement clinker & granulated blast furnace slag. The workability of this cement is as good as Portland cement concrete. This is resistant to a number of aggressive agents including sulphates of Al,Mg,NH4 etc The rate of hardening is slower than the normal Portland cement concrete. The 90 days strength is of Portland cement concrete. More resistant to sea water &other chemical agents than Portland cement. RICE HUSK ASH CEMENT In the rice milling operation one ton of rice paddy produces 400 kg of husk. Burning of the husk results in 20% by a weight of ash. Blending this ash with cement produces a suitable blended

cement ADVANTAGE The rice husk ash cement on hydration produces practically no Ca(OH)2 &hence is superior to Portland. RECYCLING OF CONCRETE Except structures which have to be preserved as moments a great number of them have to be demolished sooner or later. Concrete accounts of nearly 75% by weight of all construction material. Millions of tons of concrete debris are generated by natural disaster. Depletion of normal aggregate sources, stricter environmental laws & waste disposal problems make recycling of concrete. RECYCLING PROCESS USES OF RECYCLED CONCRETE Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Sub base gravels laid down as the lowest layer in a road.

Recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete. Larger pieces can be used for erosion control. DISADVANTAGES Lead paint contamination. MINING & QUARRYING WASTES Large amount of wastes produced in mining & quarrying operations. Mineral mining wastes are waste rock or mill tailings. Manufacturing of bricks ,light weight aggregates & autoclaved concrete blocks. APPLICATION OF MISCELLANEOUS WASTES Collier spoil Waste glass Red mud Burnt clay Saw dust COLLIERY SOIL In coal operations about one half of the material is separated & discarded as colliery soil. This soil is used to fill in road embankments. It can also be used to produce light weight

concrete. WASTE GLASS Millions of tons of waste glass are generated annually.. The strength of concrete less than with gravel aggregate. This is used to make light weight aggregates. RED MUD Red mud is a waste product resulting from the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore. It is sufficiently plastic to be moulded into balls. Firing at about 1260 to 1310 c produces a strong dense aggregate. BURNT CLAY High permeability. Concrete contains burnt clay has high fire resisting capacity. SAW DUST Saw dust concrete is used only to a limited extent because of its low strengths. The addition of sand can improve strength. Saw dust cement has a good insulation value . Low thermal conductivity. Concrete containing large amounts of saw

dust is flammable. ROLE OF WASTE MATERIALS AS AGGREGATES Use of waste & byproducts as aggregates has greater potential because 75% of concrete is composed of aggregates. Various aggregates examined includes reclaimed concrete mining & quarrying wastes, colliery soil, waste glass, red mud, burnt clay & saw dust.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-waste-recycled-material-in-concretetechnology#ixzz1mkssAlQq

green concrete full report

GREEN CONCRETE.pptx (Size: 4.18 MB / Downloads: 1497) A TECHINACAL PAPER ON GREEN CONCRETE New Technology In Concrete

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION GREEN LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES

GREEN CEMENT WITH REDUCED ENV. IMPACT PRODUCTION OF GREEN CONCRETE SUITABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES ADVANTAGES APPLICATION OF GREEN CONCRETE LIMITATIONS SCOPE IN INDIA CONCLUSION REFERRANCES

INTRODUCTION The concrete is made with concrete wastes which is ecofriendly so called as Green concrete. The other name for green concrete is resource saving structures with reduced environmental impact for e.g. Energy saving ,co2 emissions, waste water. Green concrete is a revolutionary topic in the history of concrete industry. This was first invented in Denmark in the year 1998 by Dr.WG.

GREEN CEMENT WITH REDUCED ENV. IMPACT The cement is based on an intermediate product, clinker, which is produced with minor additions of mineralizes (CaSO4 and CaF2) to the kiln

resulting in 5% reduction in energy consumption and 5-10% increase in 28-day strength of the cement. cement with reduced environmental impact. (mineralized cement, limestone addition, waste-derived fuels). By replacing cement with fly ash, micro silica in larger amounts.

PRODUCTION OF GREEN CONCRETE Concrete with inorganic residual products (stone dust, crushed concrete as aggregate.) ceramic wastes used as green aggregates. By replacing cement with fly ash, micro silica in larger amounts. To develop new green cements and binding materials (i.e. by increasing the use of alternative raw materials and alternative fuels, and by developing/improving cement with low energy consumption). To use residual products from the concrete industry, i.e. stone dust (from crushing of aggregate) and concrete slurry (from washing of mixers and other equipment). To use new types of cement with reduced environmental impact. (mineralized cement, limestone addition, wastederived fuels).

Green lightweight aggregates Synthetic lightweight aggregate produced from environmental waste is a viable new source of structural aggregate material. The uses of structural grade lightweight concrete reduce considerably the self-load of a structure and permit larger precast units to be handled. Water absorption of the green aggregate is large but the crushing strength of the resulting concrete can be high. The 28-day cube compressive strength of the resulting lightweight aggregate concrete with density of 1590 kg/m3 and respective strength of 34 MPa.Most of normal weight aggregate of normal weight concrete is natural stone such as limestone and granite.

SUITABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES Reduce the dead weight of a facade from 5 tons to about 3.5 tons. Reduce crane age load, allow handling, lifting flexibility with lighter weight. Good thermal and fire resistance, sound insulation than the traditional granite rock. Improve damping resistance of building. speed of construction, shorten overall construction period.

ADVANTAGES Reduction of the concrete industry's CO2-emmision by 30 %. Increased concrete industry's use of waste products by 20%. NO environmental pollution and sustainable development. Green concrete requires less maintenance and repairs. Green concrete having better workability than conventional concrete. Good thermal resistant and fire resistant. Compressive strength behaviour of ceracrete with water cement ratio is similar to conventional concrete. Flexural strength of green concrete is almost equal to that of conventional concrete.

LIMITATION By using stainless steel, cost of reinforcement increases. Structures constructed with green concrete have comparatively less life than structures with conventional concrete. Split tension of green concrete is less than that of conventional concrete.

SCOPE IN INDIA Green concrete is a

revolutionary topic in the history of concrete industry. As green concrete is made with concrete wastes it does take more time to come in India because industries having problem to dispose wastes. Also having reduced environmental impact with reduction in CO2 emission.

CONCLUSION Green concrete having reduced environmental impact with reduction of the concrete industries co2 emissions by 30%. Green concrete is having good thermal and fire resistant. In this concrete recycling use of waste material such as ceramic wastes, aggregates, so increased concrete industrys use of waste products by 20% . hence green concrete consumes less energy and becomes economical. So definitely use of concrete product like green concrete in future will not only reduce the emission of co2 in environment and environmental impact but also economical to produce.

REFERRNCES Indian concrete journal volume 77 -January -2003-N0.-1 Green concrete technology by R.M. Swamy on page no. 878 Green concrete using industrial wastes. Proceedings, National

conferences on advances in building materials. Vellore Institutes of technology, Vellore. Devdas Manoharan.p.Senthamarai.R.M. Concrete using ceramic insulators scraps as coarse aggregates. Proceedings, 6th International conferences on conc. Tech, Amman, Jordan. Galvind, Munch-Petersen, Green concrete structural concrete. Websites: http://www.greenconcrete.dk/

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-green-concrete-fullreport#ixzz1mktinFZB