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The Source Of Islam

Discussion of the sources of Islamic law, including the central issue (usul) because of the sources that radiated throughout the legal / Islamic Shari'a. Therefore to establish the source of Islamic law must be based on the provisions of qath'i (definitely) the truth, not something that is alleged (dzanni). Allah says: "(And) Do not follow what you do not have enough knowledge about it." (Surat al-Isra 36) "(And) most of them do not follow only conjecture. Surely not the slightest inkling that are useful to reach the truth. "(Qur'an 36) These issues include the subject matter (usul), because the basis for a Muslim to draw upon conviction amaliahnya laws. If the basis of a law is wrong, then all the laws of the resulting branches become one too. Therefore establish the source of Islamic law can not be based on conjecture or a mere conjecture. Based on the definition above are eligible to be used as a source of making the arguments syar'i is the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma 'and Qiyas companions (which has similarities illat syar'i). Al-Quran Definition of the Qur'an Al-Qur'an is the revealed word of God through the intercession of the angel Gabriel to the Prophet by using the Arabic language with the truth in order to be proof (argument) in terms of its recognition as an apostle and to serve as legal advice for all humanity, in addition to an act of worship for those who read it. Al-Quran narrated by tawatur (mutawatir) narrated by a man who meant so much since the generation of the Companions to the next generation in congregation. So what is narrated by individuals can not be said to be Al-Qur'an. People who are hostile to the Quran and Islam hating has repeatedly tried to sue the value of authenticity. But the reality of historical and scientific evidence has refused any kind of charges they are bringing. Al-Qur'an is kalamullah, not a human creation, not written by Muhammad or adaptations of the books before. The Qur'an remains a miracle as well as proof of immortality and the validity of all time and the message of Islam as the source of all sources of law for every form of human life in the world. Kehujjahan Al-Quran Al-Qur'an is a proof for humans, and the laws contained in it is a legal basis must be obeyed, because the Qur'an is the word Al-Khaliq, whose derivatives with qath'i road and can not doubt a bit any certainty. Various arguments have shown that the Qur'an came from God and he is a miracle that can beat humans and may not be able to emulate. One of the human kemusykilan to match the language of the Qur'an, namely Arabic, which can not be matched by experts syi'ir Arabs or anyone else. Allah says:

"Say: Surely if the jinn and the men when gathered together to make something similar with the Koran. Surely they will not be able to make that like him, even if some of them a helper to all others. "(Surat al-Isra: 88) "(And) if you remain in doubt concerning the Qur'an which we reveal unto our servant (Muhammad), then make one letter (only) to such as Al-Qur'an, and invite-penolongmu helper besides Allah, if ye the righteous. "(Surat Al-Baqarah: 23) Suffice it Mughirah statement bin Walid, one of the Quraysh in the Messenger of Allah, an unparalleled poem, which became enemies in the first prophet said: "Verily in the Qur'an that there is something delicious, and also beauty, if under the breed and if on top of fruit. And humans will not likely be able to say as the Qur'an. " Apart from language, the contents of the Qur'an as well as a proof for the truth. For example, about the triumph of the Muslims would enter Mecca safely (Surat al-Fath), also about the triumph of the Romans will the Parsi (Surat ar-Rum) and so on. In addition to the contents of the Qur'an shows about events in history according to the facts, or stories about some of the science and technology, such as pollination by bees, flowers terkawinkannya by the wind and so forth. Which ultimately proved accurate. All this indicates that the Quran does not come from man but from God Almighty; the Creator and Controller of the Universe. Therefore it has become imperative to make even the feasibility of the Qur'an as the basis for life and human law. (See also prove the validity of the Qur'an on the matter "The Faith") Al and Al mutashabihat muhkamt In the Qur'an there are verses in the category muhkamat and mutashabihat as Allah SWT says: "It was he who revealed the Book (the Qur'an) to you, in which (it) there are verses muhkamat, that's the key points of the contents of the Qur'an and the other (the verses) mutashabihat." (Surah Ali Imran 7) Paragraph muhkamt are verses that can be known in the real meaning and can not be interpreted anymore. While the verse is a verse that has mutashabihat hidden meaning (hidden) which can be interpreted as containing some sense. The existence and nature of God, the presence of heaven and hell, doomsday events, he sent the apostles and prophets, the angels and their tasks, all of which are described through the verses muhkamat. Included in these verses muhkamat is illegitimate usury and fornication in all its forms, the necessity of cutting off hands for theft law (with certain conditions), it is obligatory to be bound by the laws of God and so forth. While mutashabihat verses found in many verses that talk about mu'amalah like QS. Al Baqarah 228 (lafadz quru 'has two meanings, the meaning of menstruation and the sacred), and QS. Al Baqarah 237 (lafadz who hold the bonds of marriage there are two senses, to husbands or guardian of the wife).

Tafsir Al-Quran Commentary is to explain the intention to lafadz. For example, the word of Allah SWT 'laa raiba fiihi' (no doubt in it) is explained by other lafadz "syakka fiihi laa" (no indecision in it). Tafsir Al-Qur'an is an explanation of the meaning of the word for word in the construction of a sentence and the meaning of sentence structure as it is. Sometimes a verse is explained by another verse (verse commentary bil clause) or by the hadeeth of the Prophet about a verse (interpretation bis Sunnah), or explanation of the Companions and the expert knowledge of a paragraph. Explanation of words and the order was limited only in Arabic, in no way be interpreted in another language. Besides according to the fact that the Qur'an was revealed in Arabic the most good and pure, there is no other way to understand the Quran through another language. Thus the Qur'an can not be interpreted not only in the language of the Quran itself is Arabic. Starting from a belief that life should not be regulated except under the rules of Allah SWT, then there is no other alternative for us but try semakimal may understand the Qur'an, to live and study its contents, as suggested by the Qur'an itself . "(And) So we have sent down the Quran as the true rule in Arabic." (Surat ar-Ra'du: 37) Indeed negligence and appreciate the community in reviewing the contents of the content of the Qur'an led ketidakakraban with the Qur'an. This shows that the Ummah is running toward the line outside the provisions of Allah SWT path. It should be recognized that review the content of the content of the Qur'an demands certain requirements. Besides demanding sincerity and sanctity of intent also requires mastery of the sciences related to the understanding of the Qur'an. If the requirements are not met, then it can lead to misunderstanding and hurt. However, the fulfillment of this requirement was not absolute guarantees the truth of the results of a study, but it should make every effort to approach the truth is the Qur'an. It should also be aware that the assessment and understanding of the Qur'an is not a final destination. It is simply a 'bridge' to familiarize themselves with the Qur'an. While the end goal is the realization and application of the values of the Qur'an in all aspects of life. If not then what we are doing no different to what is done by the Orientalists, who view the Qur'an only in terms of science, not to be applied. As-Sunnah Definition of Sunnah Sunnah is the sayings, deeds and taqrir (determination / approval / silence) the Messenger of Allah against something / act one knows Companions. Sunnah is a source of Islamic law whose truth value equal to the Quran because the Sunnah is also derived from the actual revelation. Allah SWT says:

"(And) Nor was saying (by Muhammad) that according to the will of his desires. The words were nothing but a revelation revealed (to him). "(Surat An-Najm: 3-4) Meaning of the verse bahwanya what the Messenger of Allah (Al-Qur'an and Sunnah) is derived from the revelations of Allah, not of himself and his desires will. As Allah SWT: "(Say Muhammad) ... but I do not follow what is revealed to me." (Surat Al-An `50) This verse means that the Prophet did not perform any act except by revelation from God and for man to follow what it conveys. The Qur'an has confirmed that apart from the Qur'an, the Prophet received another revelation, the Al Hikmah the same sense with the Sunnah, whether words, deeds or statutes (silence). Al Hikmah a meaningful understanding of the Sunnah can be found in the QS. Ali Imran: 164, QS. Al-jumu'a: 3, and QS. Al-Ahzab: 34. Of explanation, can be understood and believed that kehujjahan Sunnah as a source of law / Sharia is definitely (qath'i) the truth; as the Qur'an itself. Function of the Al-Quran Sunnah As to the function of the Sunnah of the Holy Qur'an can be described as follows: 1. Outlines Kemujmalan (generality) of the Qur'an. Mujmal is a clear indication yet lafadz (dalalah / designation) is the proposition that the purpose and details unclear. Commands for the prayer, pay Zakat and Hajj. Al-Qur'an explain only globally, not described its implementation procedures. Then the Sunnah explains in detail the implementation procedure of prayer, the number of rak'ahs, the rules of the time, as well as other matters relating to prayer; as well as other acts of worship. Imam Ibn Hazm, one of the great scholars of Andalusia at the time of the Abbasid explains: "Verily in the Qur'an saying that if there is no other explanation, then we may not execute. In this case we only reference to the Sunnah of the Prophet. The consensus found only in certain cases are relatively few. Therefore it must surely come back to the Sunnah. " 2. Specialization of the generality of the Qur'an. General ('Aam) is lafadz that covers everything a reasonable meaning to one word only. Eg 'Al Moslem' (Muslims), 'Ar rijaalu' (those men) and others. In the Koran there are many common significant lafadz Sunnah then specialize the generality of the Qur'an. For example, the word of Allah SWT: "God requires you about your children, for a boy is two parts of the girls." (Surat anNisa ': 11) According to the paragraph above, each child is generally entitled to inheritance from his father. So every child is the heir to his father. Then comes the Sunnah which separate it. Word of the Prophet: "We're all over the Prophet did not leave a legacy, what we leave is charity." (Reported by Imam Bukhari) "A murderer does not inherit." (Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

According to the above hadith of the Prophet did not leave a legacy for their children, and forbid a child who kills his father had inherited from his father. 3. Taqyid (Reservations) to the verse in the Quran that the Absolute Absolute lafadz is showing something that is still common in some species, such as lafadz slaves, believers, unbelievers, and others. In the Qur'an, many found the verses that are absolute (without giving requirements). For example: "The man who steals and the woman who stole you shall cut off hands (both)." (Surat Al-Maidah: 38) This paragraph applies absolutely to every theft (both large and small). Then the Sunnah provides the requirements that the value of stolen goods as much as a quarter of the gold dinar upwards. Word of the Prophet: "Cut a quarter of a dinar worth in the theft and do not cut that is less than that." (Ahmad) Similarly, the extent of cutting off the hands of thieves (Article 38 of Surat Al sebagimana Maidah), namely on the wrist and not from other places, as exemplified by the Prophet. 4. Complementary Information Some of the Laws. Another role of the Sunnah is to strengthen and establish what has been stated in the Qur'an in addition to completing some of the branches of the legal origin of the Qur'an. The Qur'an confirms the prohibition memperisteri two people at once. "(And forbidden to you) raise (in marriage) two sisters, but that has happened in the past." (Surat an-Nisa ': 23) In the Qur'an does not mention about the illicit nature of a person collecting (mixing) of a woman's mother's sister, or daughter of the brother's wife (niece). This explains the Sunnah through the words of the Prophet: "No person shall unite her with 'amma (my father), or with his mother (Khala) or daughter of his sister (nephew) and should not be mixing with the daughters of his brothers, because if you do it, will decide ties of brotherhood. "(HR. An Nasa'i and Ibn Majah). 5. Setting the Sunnah New Laws, which are not contained in the Qur'an. Sunnah also serves establish new laws that are not found in the Qur'an and not the translation of texts that already exist in the Qur'an, but the new rules are only found in the Sunnah. For example, diharamkannya 'docile donkey' to eat, every fanged beast, and every bird claws. Similarly, on the prohibition to collect taxes (customs duties), withdrawal rights to agricultural land for three consecutive years is not managed, then taken by the state, not individual bolehnya have common interests such as water, grass, fire, petroleum, gold mine , silver, iron, river, sea, grazing cattle and others. Similarly, among other additional provisions (improvements) made the Messenger of Allah. Then the attitude of a Muslim towards this corresponds to the word of Allah SWT: "Speech of the believers, when they are invited to Allah and His Messenger that He gave them laws, was to say: We hear and we obey. They are the ones who are happy. "(Surat An-Nur: 51)

The use of As-Sunnah texts to the matter of belief that texts must be qath'i, because there should not be the slightest doubt in the matter of belief / i'tiqadiyah. As for the issue of law / Sharia 'ah can still be used as-Sunnah texts that reach degrees dzanni (strong bias for the truth). This is because the Shari'ah are not required to issue a definite belief that the outcome will be a ijtihad which is amaliah source (not the source for the problem i'tiqadiyah). Ijma 'companionsUnderstanding of Ijma, the companions Lafadz Ijma 'in the language could mean something tehadap consistent determination or agreement of a group of a case. Meanwhile, according to the scholars of usul fiqh, Ijma 'is an agreement on a law that it is the law of Personality'. In this case there is a difference in terms of determining the 'who' is ijma'nya acceptable as a source of law or arguments syar'i. Some say ijma 'ulama at any time, or ijma' Ahl-ul-bait, or ijma 'ahlu Medina, or ijma' Ahl-ul-Halli wal Aqd, ijma 'companions or so. To establish the source of law-making for the arguments syar'i a source that is required qath'i. Among the various opinions about the 'who' is ijma'nya acceptable as a source of law, so that best meets the requirements for this are "Ijma 'of Sahabah" Messenger of Allah. The reason Ijma 'companions cite this as a Source of Islamic Law Perhaps in terms of whether or not the 'whole person berijma' get together, know each other ijma 'and can correct mistakes if known, then this is possible only on the companions, but not during them. For example, ijma 'ulama. So for the realization of ijma 'ulama, must be made clear' ulama who 'it, whether cleric who has often used to' create a legal order 'is also included in it? Would certainly true that ijma 'they are? Is it true that all the 'ulama' were aware of and approved the consensus is? Is not there something interesting or cancel further ijma'nya was until he died? And could the scholars (all Muslims around the world) can come together to discuss a new problem? There is still much that can not be answered except by the Companions, but all it was a condition of license to a consensus by a group. Because of the impossibility of this, Imam Ahmad bin Hambal once stated that a big lie when someone says can be realized ijma 'after the Companions. And because of the impossibility that is what eventually emerged the term 'jumhur scholars'; means most scholars diligence with results similar to a problem. Jumhur different from the consensus. The amount of praise to the Companions in the congregation, both listed in the Qur'an and the Hadith (the two propositions which qath'i truth). As noted in the QS. Al-Fath: 29, QS. AtTawbah: 100, QS. Al Hashr: 8. Similarly, the word of the Messenger of Allah: "Behold, I have chosen my companions on the entire creation, in addition to the prophets." (HR-Tabari, AlBayhaqi and others). "Sahabahs are like stars on anyone (of them) you obey, then it will get a clue." (Reported by Ibn Abd al-Barr) Guidance of Allah and His Apostle towards the Companions showed a certainty about their truth and honesty (as a congregation, not individuals) so that if they agree on an issue, then it is on the basis of their honesty and truth. The arguments of those who praised the Sahaba are qath'i so that we can determine that ijma 'can be used as an argument of the Companions of Personality'.

Verily the Companions is a generation that collect, memorize and deliver the Quran Sunnah and their subsequent generations. In addition, the Companions are the people who lived during the Prophet, live together, have difficulty and pleasure together. It is they who know when, where, and what an event related to the Quranic verse was revealed. It is they who know the Sunnah of His Messenger, his own life experience and see first-generation Muslims when the Prophet was still alive. So is there a better generation of humans ever born on this earth than they (the Companions)? Ijma 'who else besides ijma' them a better and stronger? It is not impossible that the Companions were making mistakes, because they were still human beings who do not Ma'shum. Syar'i but they will agree or berijma impossible 'for a mistake / error. If an error occurs in a consensus on an issue then they would certainly have errors in Islam, the Quran and Hadith because it is they who deliver the Quran and the Hadith the Messenger of Allah said in the next generation. In fact, Islam tells them precisely what the next generation. Because of errors in the consensus is impossible in Companions syar'i. Some Examples of Ijma 'companions One of ijma 'Companions of the most important is the collection of the Qur'an into Mushaf. AlQur'an in its current form is the result of an agreement (ijma ') of the Companions. Along with this Allah says:"Surely we who lose the Qur'an and We will truly preserve it." (Surat al-Hijr: "That did not come to him (Al-Qur'an) baatil, either from the front or from behind." (Surah Fushilat: 42) From the second verse, God ensures that the Mushaf Al-Qur'an that there are now - which is the consensus of the Companions - vouched for. In other words through the hands of the shahabatlah, God keep the truth of the Qur'an. If there is any possibility in the ijma 'companions, there is the possibility of the Qur'an today. And this is impossible. Thus it is impossible syar'i error in ijma 'Companions. This proposition is certain that ijma 'is a proposition syar'i Companions. Another example Mashur of ijma 'Companions is the necessity of a caliph who will lead and manage all the needs of the Muslims, protecting, and spreading the message of Islam to all corners of the world, as did his companions when the Prophet died. Qiyas Understanding Oiyas According to the scholars of usul, qiyas means to equate an event that does not exist nashnya with an existing event nash / legal, because due to the similarity of two events in illat (because) the law. Legal sources cite this as a reason Qiyas Qiyas is used as a source of argument syar'i because the qiyas which the decision is legal texts which have in common illat syar'i. As we know that on which the existence of law is illatnya, then if there are similarities between a new problem illat with the problems existing laws, and new legal issues to be the same. So if the same illat contained in the Quran means qiyas in this argument is the Qur'an. Similarly, if the same illat contained in the Sunnah and Ijma 'companions then the argument of qiyas is both.

Besides, there are several hadith the Prophet which suggests the use of qiyas as the argument of Personality '. It was narrated from Ibn Abbas: "One woman told the Prophet and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, my mother had died, while he has not fulfilled nadzar fast, if I should replace it?' Then the Prophet said: 'What if your mother had a debt, he was not paid, whether you will repay its debts ? 'He replied:' Yes'. Then the Prophet said: 'So puasalah to (meet) nadzar your mother'. " And Imam Daruquthny narrated from Ibn Abbas: "A man came to the Prophet and said that his father died, while he is obliged to perform the pilgrimage. He asked: 'Do I have to menghajikan my father?' Then the Prophet said: 'What if your father had a debt, do you have to pay for it?' He replied: 'Yes'. Then the Prophet said: 'Berhajilah for him'. " In a hadith the Prophet likens two or alignment problems nadzar, pilgrimage, with the debt, equally to be met Scope Examples and Discussion Qiyas Qiyas For example, transactions holding Friday prayers when the call to prayer is an event that has been defined in the texts, that is unlawful, pursuant to paragraph: "O ye who believe, if called upon to perform the prayers on Friday, then given the haste ye to God (prayer) and leave your trading." (Surat Al-Jumuah: 9) Illat in the above paragraph is that it neglects the prayer. Therefore, leasing, commercial transactions or other actions which have in common illat, ie neglecting prayer, the act is legal diqiyaskan to act on the sale and purchase, which is haram. Based on the principle of Personality: "Surely the laws of worship, food, clothing, beverages, and morality can not be invented, all of its provisions shall be in accordance with the nash / provision of Personality 'alone'. So instead of qiyas scope only to the things (problems) that have kesamaaan illat in it. Whereas in the matter of clothing, food, drink, worship and moral in it does not have illat, because this issue is clear texts that can not be diqiyaskan syara'nya. Pillars Qiyas Each qiyas has four pillars: a. Origin (the principal). That is an event that already exist are used as a place mengqiyaskan nashnya. Originally called "maqish 'alaih" (which became the mengqiyaskan), or "mahmul' alaih" (compare the place), or "musyabbah BIH" (where menyerupakannya) b. Far'u (branch). c. Ie no nashnya events, and events that are about equal to the original law. He also called 'maqish' (which diqiyaskan) and 'musyabbah' (that was likened). d. Legal origin. e. That is the law of Personality 'is defined by a nash or desirable to assign it to the branch of law. f. 'Illat. That is a trait that is present in an event that origin. That because of the nature of it, the event provided it has a legal and therefore there are also properties on the branch, then

the law disamakanlah cabaang event that the law of origin. That qiyas four pillars is the most important thing to discuss, because illat qiyas is the principle. Thus a brief description of qiyas. Because the discussion here only the global nature of the readers still need to continue this study with a deep and detailed study if you want to get a thorough understanding and deep

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