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Trait Theories

Assumptions -Leaders are born and not made, - It focuses on the notion that some leaders are natural leaders endowed with certain traits and attributes not found in others. -It is also called the great man theory because it seeks to identify inert qualities possessed by influential monarchs ,military generals and civil leaders -Critics argue that it is not gender sensitive because no history of influential women was recorded by these theorists, e g Queen Elizabeth 1, Joan of Arc or our very own Mbuya Nehanda Goal Select a leader Attributes of leaders according to trait theory/ traits of leadership qualities -Extroversion -Conscientiousness -oppenness -tireless energy -penetrating intuition -Uncanny foresight -Irresistible persuasive powers -charismatic -visionary

Other Traits -Intelligence Logical thinking Concept formation Inductive or deductive reasoning -Good judgement foresight and creativity -Traits of agreeableness -Dependability traits -Integrity -Traits of surgency i.e power motivation and achievement orientation Lee Lacocca; nine C s of leadership -curiosity -creativity -communication -character -charisma -competence -courage -conviction -common sense

Problems of trait theory -traits do not generalise across situations -Better at predicting leader emergency than leader effectiveness -It has also been found that no consistent set of attributes differentiate leaders from non-leaders.

Behavioural Theory Assumptions -Leadership behaviour can be taught -the theory proposes that specific behaviour differentiates leaders from nonleaders. -two clusters of leadership behaviour was explained i.e (i) task oriented behaviour that which has to do with assigning work activities and redesigning jobs. (ii)people oriented behaviour that which has to do with leaders who show respect and support their followers. -Other behaviours that have been identified by researchers of this theory are -socialising and politicking Networking Goal Develop leaders. Problems Effective behaviour does not generalise across situations.

Contingency Theories Sought to question the efficacy of the assumptions of the trait and behavioural theories Assumptions - Proposed that leadership effectiveness depended on the situation or on the ability to isolate those situational conditions. -The most effective leadership style in a particular case depends on interaction of leader and subordinates and the situation. -Argues that whether or not a set of traits exist effective leadership will depend on the situation variables such as the characteristics of the surbodinates Four approaches will be considered

(i)The Fiedler contingency model -It proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader style of interacting with his o her subordinates and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence. Fiedler focused on (a)leader-member relations -the degree of confidence ,trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. (b)task structure -the degree to which job assignments are procedurized. (c)position power
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-The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring , firing, discipline, salary increases and promotions.

(ii)Hersey Blanchard Situational Theory -Situational leadership is contingency theory that focuses on followers. -success is achieved by selecting the right leadership style , which Hersey and Blanchard argue that it is contingent on the followers level of maturity. -A leader would choose his or her style (telling , selling, participating , or delegating based on the follower s level of maturity. Four stages of follower s readiness according to Hersey-Blanchard theory 1 People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for doing something .They are neither confident nor competent. 2. People are unable but willing to the necessary job tasks .They are motivated but currently lack the appropriate skills. 3.People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants. 4.People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them.

(iii)Path Goal Theory -Developed by Robert House , The Path-Goal Theory assumes that a leader s behaviour is acceptable to subordinates insorfar as they view it as a source of immediate or future satisfaction. -The key constructs of this theory has its foundations from the Ohio State Research and from Victor Vroom s Expectancy theory of motivation. -A leader s behaviour is motivational as long as it

y makes the subordinate need-satisfaction contingent on effective performance. y Provides the coaching , support , guidance and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. From this research House identified Four leadership behaviours. y y y y Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement leader

(iv) Leader Participation Model Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed the leader participation model in 1973 that related leadership behaviour and participation to decision making -This is a leadserrship theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making situations.

Possible leadership styles in Vroom Yetton Leader Participation Model 1-Autocratic 1 ( A1) 2.Autcratic 11 (A11) 3.Consultative 1 (C1) 4Consultative 11(C11) 5Group 11 (GII) Emerging Approaches to Leadership -attribution theory -charismatic -Transactional versus Transformational
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Attribution theory -This theory proposes that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. -Researchers have found that people tend to characterise leaders as having traits such as Intelligence Strong verbal skills Outgoing personality Aggressiveness Understanding Industriousness -This theory also state that effective leaders are generally considered consistent and unwavering in their decisions.

The Components of leadership 1 .Authority -It entails having the right to perform certain actions. 2.Power -the ability of the leader to influence the behaviour of others. 3.Influence -the ability of the leader to apply authority and power in such a way that others take action.
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4.Responsibilty/Accountability -the ability of the leader to accept responsibility of their own actions and those of others. 5.Deligation -the ability of a leader to pass on his or her authority to others that is subordinate to tasks on his or her behalf.

Leaders and Power John French and Bertram Raven identified 5 bases or sources of power 1.Legitimate Power -the power a person has a result of his or her position in an organisation s hierarchy , it is also called authority. 2.Coercive Power -the power that rest on the application , or the threat of application of physical sanctions, such as the infliction of pain, the arousal of frustration through restriction of movement or the controlling by force of basic physiological needs such as safety needs. 3.Reward Power -The power that produces positive benefits or rewards. 4.Expert Power -Influence that results from expertise, special skill or knowledge. 5.Referent Power The power that arises from identification with a person who has a desirable resources or personal traits.
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The Roles of Leaders -To provide direction -to adapt to change -to be the key to a shared vision -to provide clarity and a sense of shared vision -they model the way by living their values -to spread optimism -Leaders communicate -to provide a safe environment to take risks -to learn Leaders ensure that all understand that is the objectives , values , vision , and the mission of the firm. -they support their subordinates -They recognize those who show initiative -they must be trustworthy

Other roles of leaders are: -Historian -they know and communicate the culture , beliefs, values and traditions of the firm. Ambassador -they represent the firm to the external stakeholders and to the public.
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Analysts -the leaders is able to examine in detail the situation facing the organisation. and establish the essential issues at stake.

Futurist -a leaders is a visionary Contrarian -a leader is able to give alternative ideas or alternatives to the ordinary , always offering better information .

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REFERENCES BENNIS W, ON BECOMING A LEADER(2003) MAGNA PUBLISHING INDIA SMIT & CRONJE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (1997) SOUTH AFRICA ROBBINS, STEVEN P& COULTAR MARY MANGEMENT (5TH EDITION) (1996) PRENTICE HALL INTERNATIONAL LACOCCA LEE, WHERE HAVE ALL THE LEADERS GONE (2007) SIMON SCHUSTER PUBLISHING

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