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Get nutrients from other sources (heterotrophic) . Most are decomposers DESCRIBE MYCORRHIZAE. (SYMBIOTIC FUNGI) . Two organisms living fro the benefit of each other HOW DO FISSON AND BUDDING YEASTS DIVIDE? . Fission yeasts divide symmetrically into equal cells . Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically, daughter cell is smaller than parental cell WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYPHAE AND MYCELIA? . A group of hyphae is called mycelia, hyphae are the individual strands. ARE YEASTS UNICELLULAR OR MULTICELLULAR? . Yeasts are unicellular WHAT IS A FUNGAL INFECTION OCCURRING DEEP WITHIN THE BODY CALLED? . Systemic mycoses WHAT CAUSES OPPORTUNISTIC MYCOSES? . caused by normal microbiota or fungi that are normally present in the body (non pathogenic) and are usually caused by a weak immune system. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI? . Hostile to bacteria . Optimum pH is at 5 or below . Resistant to osmotic pressure (hypertonic solutions) . Low moisture content (dry conditions) WHAT IS THE NAME OF FUNGAL MENINGITIS? . Cryptococcus neoformans WHAT ARE LICHENS? . Relationship of an autotroph (algae) and heterotroph (fungi) . symbiotic relationship, algae provides and secretes carbohydrates, fungus provides holdfast (area to live). IS ALGAE AUTOTROPHIC OR HETEROTROPHIC? . algae is autotrophic. Uses photosynthesis

DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF INDIRECT DAMAGE (DINOFLAGELLATA) . Dinoflagellata contain strong neurotoxins that fish digest. The neurotoxin does not harm fish but is toxic to humans. ARE PROTOZOANS UNICELLULAR OR MULTICELLULAR? AUTOTROPHIC OR HETEROTROPHIC? . Protozoans are unicellular . heterotrophic. WHAT ARE CYSTS PRODUCED BY PROTOZOA? . Cysts are structure produced by protozoans under abnormal conditions (like endospores) WHAT IS THE FATAL FROM OF MALARIA WHICH CAN PASS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER? . Plasmodium falciparium WHAT ARE HELMINTHS? . helminths are parasitic worms DESCRIBE THE ANATOMY OF A VIRUS . Outer part --> protein coat (capsid) --> capsomeres . Inner part --> Nucleic acid --> DNA or RNA . Some contain envelope . Some have spikes ARE VIRUSES SPECIFIC WHEN INFECTING? . yes host specific, cell specific, organ specific DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF BACTERIOPHAGE MULTIPLICATION (LYTIC CYCLE) . attachment: phage cell attaches by tail fibers to host cell . Penetration: phage lysozyme opens cell wall, tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell. . Biosynthesis: Production of phage DNA and proteins in host cell . Maturation: assembly of phage particles in host cell . Release: phage lysozyme breaks cell wall of the host. HOW IS CONTACT INHIBITION AFFECTED BY VIRAL INFECTION? . contact inhibition: cells multiply systematically, they do not multiply excessively. Cell infected with virus, loses contact inhibition and starts dividing uncontrollably.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VIRAL LYTIC CYCLE AND LYSOGENIC CYCLE? . Lytic cycle: phage causes death of host cell . Lysogenic cycle: Phage DNA incorporated in host DNA. Passed on through generation and eventually awakened. WHAT ARE ONCOGENES? . under certain conditions oncogenes can be activated and contact inhibition of cells is lost. (formation of cancer) WHAT ARE PRIONS? . Most resistant . infectious proteins, inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments. WHAT IS ETIOLOGY? . The study of the cause of a disease. WHERE ARE NORMAL MICROBIOTA FOUND IN THE BODY? . Normal microbiota are present everywhere in the body. except the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system WHAT ARE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS? . Some microbiota are opportunistic pathogens . once defenses become weak, normal microbiota can become opportunistic and turn against host. WHAT IS MICROBIAL ANTAGONISM? . competition between microbes WHAT WAS THE MICROORGANISM IN KOCHS POSTULATE? WHAT DISEASE DID IT CAUSE? . Bacillus anthracis: causes anthrax WHAT IS A COMMUNICABLE DISEASE? . disease that is easily spread from one host to another WHAT IS A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE? . disease that is easily spread from one host to another WHAT IS A NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE? . disease that is not transmitted from one host to another

WHAT IS AN ENDEMIC DISEASE? . disease constantly present in a population (all year round) WHAT IS AN EPIDEMIC DISEASE? . disease acquired by many hosts in a short time. WHAT IS A PANDEMIC DIEASE? . worldwide epidemic WHAT IS HERD IMMUNITY? . immunity in most of a population. DESCRIBE ACUTE DISEASE AND LATENT DISEASE . Acute disease: symptoms develop rapidly . Latent disease: disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BACTEREMIA AND SEPTICEMIA? . Bacteremia is bacteria in the blood . Septicemia is growth of bacteria in the blood. WHAT IS A SYSTEMIC INFECTION? . an infection that occurs throughout the body. WHAT IS TOXEMIA? . toxins in the blood VIRUSES IN THE BLOOD IS CALLED . viremia WHAT ARE NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS? . are acquired as a result of hospital stay. 5-15% of all hospital patients acquire nosocomial infections WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INFECTION? . PI: infection that causes the initial illness . SI: opportunistic infection after a primary infection WHAT IS A SUBCLINICAL DISEASE? . No noticeable signs or symptoms DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORBIDITY RATE AND MORTALITY RATE

. Morbidity rate: number of people affected/total population in a given time period. . Mortality rate: number of deaths from a disease/total population in a given time. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENDOTOXINS AND EXOTOXINS? . Endotoxins are apart of the outer portion of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria. they are liberated when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart. . Exotoxins: cause intense immune response (fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shock, death, food poisoning. Produced mostly inside gram positive bacteria as part of their growth and metabolism. They are then secreted or released following lysis into surrounding area