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CHAPTER 3: INTEGRATION [ckgubid/AMF5/W8/Mon/KYRHG] Name: (I) Symbol of Integration (II) Integration is the reverse process of differentiation. If dy !

f ' ( x ) , then dx

f ' ( x) dx ! y  c , where c is a constant.

Examples: (i) Soln: @ dy ! 2x dx Given y ! x 2  c , where c is a constant, find dy . Hence, find dx

2 x dx.

2 x dx ! x

c dy . Hence, find 9 x 2  4 x dx . dx

(ii) Soln:

Given y ! 3 x 3  2 x 2  c , where c is a constant, find dy ! 9x 2  4x dx

9x

 4 x dx ! 3 x 3  2 x 2  c

Exercise 1 Differentiate each of the following expressions with respect to x. (a) y ! 4 x 2  3 (b) y ! 4 x 4  5x 3  4 (c) y! 4 5 x

(d)

y ! 4 x  1

(e)

y ! 2 x (2 x  1) 4

(f)

y!

3x 2x 1

y ! u.v

dy dx

!v

du dx

u

dv dx y!

u v

dy dx

v !

du dx

u v
2

dv dx

(III) INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

a
Examples: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

d x ! ax  c

6 dx ! 6 x  c  4 dx ! 4 x  c 3 3  4 dx !  4 x  c 0.9 dx ! 0.9 x  c T dx ! Tx  c

x
Examples: (a)
5 x dx !

dx !

x n 1 c n 1

x 51 c 5 1 x6 ! c 6 x101 c 10  1 x 11 ! c 11

(b)

10  x dx ! 

(c)

x dx ! x dx ! x c 1 1 2
3 1 1 2

1 2

Note:

x2 ! c 3 2
3

2x 2 2 x3 !  c or c 3 3

(d)

1
3

dx ! 1 x 3 dx ! 1x 31 c  3 1
2

n ax dx !

ax n 1 c n 1

Examples: (a)

2x

2 x 51 dx ! c 5 1 2x 6 ! c 6 x6 ! c 3

(b)

4 4 x 3 dx !  dx 3 3x 3 4 x 31 c ! 3  3 1 ! ! 4 x 2 c 3( 2)

2 x 2 c 3 2 ! 2 c 3x (c)

3 x

dx !

3 x
1 2 

dx
1 2

! 3x dx ! 3x c 1  1 2
1 2
1

1  1 2

3x ! c 1 2

! 6x 2  c !6 x c

or

ax  b n1  c ax  b dx !
n

(a )(n  1)

Examples: (a)

( 4 x  7)

4 x  7 4 1  c dx !
( 4)(4  1) 20

4 x  7 5  c !
(b)
5 4(2  5 x) dx !

4(2  5 x) 51 c (5)(5  1) 4( 2  5 x) 6 c  30 2( 2  5 x) 6 ! c 15 !

(c)

(1  x)

dx ! 3(1  x )  4 dx 3(1  x)  41 ! c (1)(4  1) ! 1(1  x)  3  c 1 ! c (1  x ) 3

Exercise 1. Integrate each of the following: 2 (a) 6 x  x  1 dx (c) 2.

(b) (d)

(1  x)(2  x

) dx

5  2x  x 4  3x x dx
3

dx

Find the integral for each of the following: (a) (c)


5  3(2 x  3) dx

(b)

4(1  2 x) 3 3 dx

(3x  1)

2

dx 4

3.

Given that

5(1  2 x)

dx ! m(1  2 x ) n  c , find the values of m and of n.

Other Examples y Integrate each of the following expressions with respect to x. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (g)

1  x dx ( x  2)( x  3) dx x  x  5 dx
2

4x3  x 2  2x dx x 4 2 x 2  3x dx 4 2 3 x ( x  5x ) dx 16 x 2  9 4 x  3 dx 3x 2  x  2 x  1 dx