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Rare gas a) Helium inside weather balloons b) Neon (orange light) 2. OXYGEN 3.

CARBON DIOXIDE used in fluorescent lamp 1.NITROGEN - oxygen is used to - Product during: c) Argon a) Respiration b) decay a) Combustion inside filament lamp - most in the air because inactive c) burning (combustion) b) Respiration d) Krypton (green light) - Does not burn & not support d) rusting c)Decay used in fluorescent lamp combustion - oxygen need for survive - Absorbed by green plant e) Xenon - oxygen set free during photosynthesis do photosynthesis in camera & anaethestic e)radon Component of air % 4. Water vapour, dust & microorganisms Nitrogen 78 - these things varu in air Oxygen 21 Carbon dioxide 0.03 - most microorganisms in ari are bacteria spore from fungi

THE COMPOSITION OF AIR

Inert(rare) gas 0.97 Dust, water vapour & varies microorganisms

Air is mixture because i) Gases in air not present in fixed amount ii) Gases in air can be separated during burning, decay, rusting respiration Test for oxygen Properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide - By using a glowing splint or makes a lighted splint burn brighter. - This because oxygen only gas that support combustion but doe not burn Test for carbon dioxide - Carbon dioxide confirmed if it turns lime-water chalky - Because gas carbon dioxide is the only gas that can turn limewater chalky. INHALED AIR AND EXHALED AIR GAS OXYGEN CARBON DIOXIDE NITROGEN INHALED AIR 21% 0.03% 78% EXHALED AIR 16% 4% 78%

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE Solubility in water - O2 is slightly soluble in water - CO2 more soluble in water solubility in sodium hydroxide -O2 is not soluble in sodium - CO2very soluble in sodium hydroxide hydroxide

ch

Reaction with glowing splint - O2 support combustion - CO2 does not support combustion Reaction with a lighted spint -O2 support combustion & - CO2 does not support combustion & does not burn does not burn Reaction with limewater -O2 not react with limewater - CO2 turns lime water to chalky Reaction with hydrogen carbonate indicator -Hydrogen carbonate not change in colour. O2 is neutral gas - CO2 turn hydrogen carbonate from red to yellow. CO2 is an acidic gas Reaction with damp litmus paper -Damp litmus paper not change - CO2 change litmus paper from O2 is neutral gas blue to red . CO2 acidic gas - O2 is a little denser than air - CO2 is denser than air

The important (uses ) of gas carbon dioxide( CO2) in the air CO2 is use to do fizzy (carbonate) drinks e.g coca-cola -CO2 is used to rises the cake or bread - CO2 is used in health salts e.g ENO fruit salt -CO2 is used to extinguisher fire - CO2 used in store room to preserve fruit - CO2 is used as dry ice by cream hawkers to get low temperature OXYGEN AND COMBUSTION / BURNING - Combustion is chemical reaction which take place when a substances (fuel) combine with oxygen - Product combustion ( energy, water vapor & CO2 ) - Burning of hydrocarbon (e.g: kerosene, gas, candle, petrol) produce energy, carbon dioxide and water vapour Kerosen + Oxgyen ----- carbon dioxid + light & heat + water (energy) CONDITION OF COMBUSTION a) Oxygen : supply O2 to a fire. b) Fuel: petrol/diesel/gas/ candle c) Heat : give high temperature heat

The Important (uses) of gas in the air

1. OXYGEN ( O2 )
- O2 need all living thing to do respiration - O2 produce by plant during photosynthesis -O2 need by process a) combustion ( oxygen support combustion/burning) b) Rusting C) decay -O2 stored in cylinder is used by :a) Mountain climbers to do respiration b) divers c) Fireman d) Patients problem breathing

sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide cell to oxidising - Oxygen and food (glucose) in body
(burning) to produce energy, carbon dioxide & water

OXYGEN AND RESPIRATION

Sources: burning of fossil fuels in Glucose + O2 % powers station vehicles, factories---- enegy + water + carbon dioxide Causes: acid rain, corrode the lining of the respiratory system, corrode houses and properties Tabacco tar and nicotine -Sources: cigarette smoke Causes: can lead to lung cancer, damage brain cell & heart.

Air Pollution

Lead Sources: Burning of petrol containing lead in vehicles and insecticides - Causes: i) accumulates in the body ii) damages the nervous system

Dust Causes; - Cough, asthma, lung cancer - Dirties thing & environment

Pesticides Source: excessive pesticides used in agriculture and fogging to kill mosquitoes Causes: Poisoning defect unborn babies EFFECT FROM THE CIGARETTE SMOKING

THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION a) Health Problems - Dust, harmful gases & soot causes i) Headaches ii) Asthma iii) Bronchitis b) Radioactice waste thrown into the environment causes; i) giddiness & vomiting, infertility, cancer and defects to unborn babies c) Haze caused by dust & smoke causes; i) Reduce visibility ii) increases the risk of road accidents d) Destruction of habitats - Acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide which dissolve in water to form acid rain have destroyed large area of forest and made ponds and rivers unsuitable for plant and animals. So the natural habitats are destroyed. e) Global warming -The earth atmosphere contains excess carbon dioxide from factories. Carbon dioxide traps heat radiated from the ground and prevent it from escaping into outer space, As a result, the earth temperature is rising. This phenomena is called the green houses effect or global warming. f) Thinning of the ozone layer - The ozone layer in the atmosphere of the earth protect us from the harmful rays of the sun. As a result harmful ultraviolet rays can causes skin cancer, cataract and lowering of the bodys defence system

CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION A) RUBBISH - Do not allow open burning in residential areas B ) MOTOR VEHICLES -Used unleaded petrol in motor vehicles - Ensure that the engines of motor vehicles do not give out excessive exhaust gases and black smoke C) CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) - Reduce the use CFC and other gases which destroy the earth ozone - Use ozone friendly gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) D) NUCLEAR SUBSTANCES - store and throw radioactice wastes in the recommended ways - Ban nuclear tests through an international agreement to be organized by the United Nations. E) REFORESTATION -Replant forests for absorbing carbon dioxide. This reduce global warming. F) AGRICULTURE - Advise farmers to reduce the use of pesticides. - Encourage farmers to use biological control. E) EDUCATING THE PUBLIC - Educate members of the public to be aware of the dangers of air pollution and how to control them. - This can be done through campaigns in

- Smoking is cause many deaths through disease such as; a) EMPHYSEMA - This condition in which the airsacs cannot function properly. As a result the patient is short of breath. B) NICOTINE - stimulate the nervous system -damage brain tissues - hardens blood vessels ( blood difficult to flow. C) TAR - Consists of tiny black particles -forms in the lungs as a sticky liquid. - corrodes th lungs (acidic) D) CARBON MONOXIDE - Is poisonous gas -Combines with haemoglobin in the blood causing the body to be lack in oxygen

ENERGY is the ability to do work.

VARIOUS TYPES OF ENERGY a) HEAT ENERGY - A hot object has heat energy -An object become hotter when absorbed heat - Heat energy flows from a place high temperature to the place lower temperature. - Heat energy used to:a) to dry wet clothes b) to boil water and cook c) to warm our bodies b) LIGHT ENERGY - An object gives out light possesses light energy. Sun is primary resources of light energy - We will not see things without light energy reaches our eyes. - Light energy useful: a) Supplies energy to solar system(solar energy) b) used in traffic light to control traffic. c)Used by green plant to do photosynthesis c) CHEMICAL ENERGY - Sources of chemical energy are: a) Food- to supply energy to living things to carry activities b) Fuel- to supply energy for cooking, and for machines and vehicles to do work. c) Batteries-convert chemical energy to electric energy d)Chemical substances: eg acid/alkali - Chemical energy from a chemical reaction may appear in different form such as; i) heat and light from a burning candle ii) Sound( from a exploding fire cracker) iii) Electricity from the battery d)ELECTRIC ENERGY - Produce by electric current or electric charges - Source of electric energy include; a) Lightning b) batteries c) Solar cell d) Generators in power stations e) Dynamo - Useful of electric energy i) to light lamp ii) To heat water iii) to operate appliances such as TV, radio, computers

e) SOUND ENERGY - Produce by vibrations (getaran). - Sound energy travels outwards through solid, liquid and gases but cannot travel by vacuum - Sources of energy include: i) thunder ii) horns iii) musical instrument iv) Voice from animal and human v) Giving warning such as ambulances and police car. f) KINETIC ENERGY - Any object is moving possesses kinetic energy. - Object have kinetic energy include: i) wind ii) waves iii) a spinning fan iv) an aeroplane in flight - Kinetic energy is useful i)to turn turbines and dynamos in the river to generate electricity ii) Kinetic energy in the wind is used for sailing ships g) POTENTIAL ENERGY - The object possesses potential energy when the object: i) Higher position. Eg in the top of mountain ii) Its condition examples the object can a) Compressed such as span, balloon b) Stretched such as rubber band, springs c) Can bent such as metal, plastic ruler h) NUCLEAR ENERGY - Nuclear energy stored in the nucleus of an atom -Nuclear energy is released in the form of ; i) Light energy ii) Heat energy iii) sound energy - Nuclear useful for: i) used to power submarines ii to turn generators in power stations to produce electric

Energy form the sun * energy in wind, waves and rain * energy in fossil fuel( petroleum, coal & natural gas *energy in plant, animals and human beings *energy for operating appliances e.g solar, calculators and solar cookers

THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVATIO N

a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed b) Energy can be changed from one form to another.

SOURCES OF ENERGY solar ( sun) g) Nuclear wind waves/tidals h) Fossil fuel hydro geothermal Biomass

Sources of energy

RENEWABLE SOURCES: - are energy sources which cannot be used up.

- can be replenished after they have been used - they are always available NON- RENEWABLE SOURCE - are energy sources which will be used up one day - cannot be replenished after use - The formation of a non-renewable energy source takes a very long time

2.

Fill in the blanks below to understand the importance of conserving energy.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Energy cannot be __________________ or ________________. This is known as the principle of the Conservation of Energy. Energy can be ____________________ from one form to another. We use energy to do ____________________________________. Every time energy is used, a part of the energy is _____________ as _______________________. Non-renewable energy sources are being _____________ because of continuous energy use. We have to ____________________ energy sources to make them available for a long time.

2.

Figure 2 shows four sources of energy that found in region X.

(a)

Name sources of energy labelled A, B, C and D in the figure 2. A_________________________ B________________________ C_________________________ D________________________

(b)

Which type of energy sources in the figure above are .... (i) non-renewable ?_________________________________________________ (ii) renewable ?____________________________________________________

(c)

(i) What is the energy source C made up of ? _______________________________________________________________ (ii) State the method that commonly is used to obtain source C ? _______________________________________________________________

(d) Which type of energy source is considered as the primary source of energy on the earth? __________________________________________________________________

.3

Figure 3 shows a solar panel (a) What source of energy is used by the solar panel ? _________________________________________________________________ (b) State two uses of the solar panel : i)_________________________________________________________________ ii)_________________________________________________________________ c) State the energy change in a solar panel ?

_________________________________________________________________ (d) Give an advantage of using a solar panel _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 4. Figure 6 shows a durian is falling down from a tree

(a)

What from of energy does the durian have in each of following position ? P : ______________________________________________________________ Q : ______________________________________________________________ (b) i. ii. As the durian falls to the ground, what forms of energy are.. increasing ? _______________________________________________________________ decreasing ? _______________________________________________________________

HEAT - Heat is form of energy - Can travel through a vacuum - Causes the things hot - Moves from a hot place to the a cooler place - Measured in Joules (J) - Causes the metal expand - Can causes a change of state . Examples ice to melt and water boil when absorbed heat

Heat from electric energy - Heat produce whenever electric energy passes through a wire - Exp: electric iron, toaster, lamp lightehd Heat from solar - Solar energy is converted to heat. Solar cells used to produce electrical energy

Heat form sound Energy. - Heat produce when sound energy such as a loud noise, is absorbed by the wall of a room

Heat from kinetic energy Rubbing our hands together produce heat. This because due to friction between the hands.
Boiling water Providing hot shower Starting chemical processes TEMPERATURE * is the degree of hotness or coldness of substances * is measured in kelvin (K) CONVECTION OF HEAT -Convection is heat transfer (move) through fluid by the movement of the fluid particles. - Convection occurs in fluid mater.

WAY TO PRODUCE HEAT

EXAMPLES OF THE USES OF HEAT IN OUR DAILY LIFE

Heat from chemical energy a)From fuel burns Carbon + oxygen --- co2 + heat+ light b) Heat produce during respiration -Glucose + oxygen ----- CO2 + water + energy

Incubating eggs Providing warmth Producing steam to

TEMPERATURE - Temperature is degree of hotness or coldness of an object - The temperature of an object rises when heat is added to it, but falls when heat is removed from it - The SI unit is Kelvin. Other unit is Celsius and Fehrenhite

The differences between heat and temperature


HEAT * is the total amount of energy of a substances * is measured in Joule (J)

HEAT FLOWS IN THREE DIFFERENT WAYS

CODUCTION OF HEAT -Conduction is heat transfer (move ) from hot place to cold place in the metal rod - Conduction occurs in solid mater and this solid is good conductor of heat
hot particles vibrate more heat metal rod heat flow cold particles vibrate less

RADIATION OF HEAT - Radiation is transfer of heat energy in the form of electromagnetic waves without using a medium -All hot objects, for example; a lighted candle, a cup of hot coffee and even our body give out heat energy by radiation.
lighted bub

When the warm air has cooled down, it moves to the bottom and is warmed again warm air rises, carrying heat with heat

Air

- When the hot end of a metal rod is thermometer heated, the particles (atom) receive cool air moves in - When a thermometer is placed below -When a fluid (liquid or gas) is heated, more energy and vibrate faster. a lighted bulb, the thermometer it expand an become less dense. - The more active vibrating particles registers a rise in temperature, - The heated fluid rises and cooler knock their neighbours. In this way showing that and 1 . Figure 1 passed fluid flows investigate the As the stronger vibration areshows the experiment to in to take its place. difference between heat heat from the bulb has eached it. result, a convection current is set up in along the metal rod. So heat transfer - Heat has moved from lighted bulb to the fluid. along the metal rod the thermometer by process radiation - Heat is carried upwards by the liquid or gas when they moves upwards mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm

temperature.

(a)

State the hypothesis for this experiment.

_________________________________________________________________ (b) State the variables involved in this experiment. Manipulated variable Responding variable Controlled variable (c)i. In which beaker will the water show a higher rises in temperature? _________________________________________________________________ ii. Give one reason for your answer in (c)i. _______________________________________________________________ (d) What is the relationship between the heat content and the temperature in an object? _________________________________________________________________ (e) What conclusion can be made for this experiment? _________________________________________________________________ 2. Using the words given, fill in the blanks with the correct answer.

(i) Heat flows through a medium in three different ways. _____________ , convection and ____________________. (ii)Different solids conduct heat at different rates. Solids that conduct heat well are called _______________Those that do not conduct heat well are called __ (iii) ______________ is the process of heat transfer through liquids and gases. (iv)Heat can flow through a ______________________ by radiation. (v)Breezes occur as a result of convection currents. At night, the breeze that blows is known as __________________breeze. (vi) In the day, the breeze that blows is known as ____________breeze. (vii) When a gas is heated, the hot gas ____________ and becomes less______ 3. Figure 2 shows experiments P and Q to investigate the transfer of heat through a liquid and a gas.

Figure 2

(a) Explain how is heat transferred in both experiments. P: ___________________________________________________ Q: ___________________________________________________ (b) What is the purpose of using the glowing splinter in experiment Q? ______________________________________________________ 4 Figure 3 shows an electric kettle that is produced based on the principle of heat transfer.

a) Briefly explain how X functions in the electric kettle. _____________________________________________________________ b) How does the process of convection occur in liquid? _______________________________________________________________ c) Explain how the convection current helps us in boiling water. _________________________________________________________________ 5 Four identical tins are filled with equal volumes of water of the same temperature. The tins are set up as shown in figure 4

a)The tins have covers made of two types of surface, black surface and shiny surface. Describe how these two types of surfaces absorb heat. _________________________________________________________________ (b)The tins rest on sheets of copper and wood. (i) Which type of sheet is a good insulator ?

________________________________________________
(ii)Which type of sheet is a good conductor?

________________________________________________ (c) In which tin is the temperature of the water at its


(i) (ii) lowest ? ________________________________________________________ highest? ________________________________________________________

THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON THE STATE OF MATTER

Heat can change matter from one state to another. A change of state of matter involves absorption and release of heat Absorption Release absorption release Liquid
The Physical processes that are involved in the change of state of matter

Solid

Gas

APPLICATION OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF MATTER 1. Mercury thermometers - On hot day, the mercury expands and rises in the capillary tube, showing a rise in temperature. - When it is cold, the mercury contracts and falls in the capillary tube showing a fall in temperature. 2. Thermostat in an electric iron - Thermostat are used in electric irons, kettles, refrigerators, ovens and air-conditioners - When the temperature of an electric iron in use gets too hot, the brass on the bimetallic strip expands more than the iron. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend upwards and break the circuit. - When the electric iron cools, the bimetallic strips returns to its former position and closes the circuit.

3. Telegraph wires - Telegraph wires are put up so that they sag on a hot day. This allows the wires to contract at night when it is cold 4. Fire- alarms - Below show an automatic fire alarm an electric circuit. - In case of fire, the temperature in the room rise, the brass on the bimetallic strip expand more than the iron, causing the strip to bend towards the metal contact. - The circuit of the fire-alarm is closed and the alarm bell rings, warning people of the fire.

Figure 1 shows a simple moel of a fire alarm system built by Muthu to study the principle of expansion and contraction of metals.

Figure 1 (a) Identify metal X and Y shown in the figure above. ___________________________________________________________ (b) i. Why is a bimetallic strip used in this experiment? ii _______________________________________________________ Why does the bimetallic strip bend towards the contact screw when there is a fire? ________________________________________________________ _ (c) Clearly explain how the fire alarm system work. __________________________________________________________ (d) __________________________________________________________ After testing the fire alarm system, Muthu realises that the model does not function. Give two reasons for the failure of fire alarm system. i. _____________________________________________ ii. _______________________________________________________

C O N D U C T O R

- A conductor is a material that allows heat through it easily - A good conductor becomes hot or cold easily - Examples of good conductors : mercury, silver, copper, aluminium, zinc, iron, lead - uses of heat conductors in daily life: a) cooking utensils f) Refrigerators have copper pipes for b) wire gauze carrying the cooling agent. The pipes c) Soldering iron remove heat from the agent d) car radiators e) Fins on motor cycle engines - Insulators also called poor conductors of heat, conduct heat much more slowly - Generally, non-metals are good insulators - A vacuum is the best insulators - examples of good insulators: cork, air, water, glass, cotton, asbestos, plastic and polystyrene -Uses of insulators in daily life: a) Handles of pots and pans b) Styrofoam to prevent ice from melting. Styrofoam prevent heat from going into container, c) Saw dust. Ice cover with saw dust to prevent heat from melting quickly d) Blanket trap air among its fur and also air between it and the body. e) Fiber glass is placed in refrigerators and ovens to prevent heat transfer f) Igloos to prevent warmth in the igloo from escaping to the air outside it

I N S U L A T O R S

ABSORPTION , RADIATION AND REFLECTION


1. All objects can absorb, radiate(release heat by radiation) and reflect heat 2. A black, dull object absorbs heat better than a white, shiny object 3. A black, dull object radiates heat better than white, shiny object 4. A white, shiny object reflects heat better than a black, dull object

Nature of object

Heat absorption

Heat radiation

Heat reflection

Black & dull

Good

Good

Bad

White & shiny

Bad

Bad

Good

1.
An experiment was set up as shown in the figure above. (i) What is the aim of the experiment? ______________________________________________________ ii) What is the variable that responds? ______________________________________________________ (iii) Which thumbtack falls first? _____________________________________________________ (iv) What conclusion can you make from this experiment? ______________________________________________________ v) What kind of object is a good (a) radiator of heat? _____________________________ (b) reflector of heat? _____________________________

(vi)Food in which pot, a shiny one or a black one, can be cooked faster? Why? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. thermometer hot water

beaker A painted black a) What are the;

beaker B painted with shiny paint

i) Constant variable:_________________________________________________________ ii)Manipulated variable:_______________________________________________________ iii) Responding variable:_______________________________________________________ b) what will happen to the hot water in the beakers after a while ? _______________________________________________________________________________ c) What is the thermometer reading in A compared with B after a while. Explain.

ANALYSING COMPOUND, ELEMENT AND MIXTURE


ATOM: An atom is the smallest particle in matter. Atom similar to one another. Examples: all copper atoms are similar to one another. MOLECULE: Is particle of matter made up two or more atoms. A Molecule may be made up of two or more atoms of the same kind.

A molecule of nitrogen has to atom nitrogen

Molecule can consists of two or more different atom.

o H H
A molecule of water has two atom hydrogen and one atom oxygen

ELEMENT - An element are substance made up of one types of atom only. - An Element is the simplest substance. It cannot be broken down by common chemical reaction. - An element may formed by atoms or molecule of similar atoms. - Examples: A) Iron is an element formed by atoms of iron B) Oxygen is an element formed by oxygen molecule, each molecule consisting of two oxygen atom COMPOUND - A Compound is a substance which consists of two or more elements chemically combined together compound Elements present ater Hydrogen and oxygen Ammonia Nitrogen and hydrogen Sodium chloride Sodium and chlorine Copper sulphate Copper, sulphur and oxygen a) By burning an element in air molecule of ammonia molecule carbon

- Compound can be made in the following ways:

Magnesium oxide is produced when magnesium is burnt in air. Magnesium + oxygen (air) magnesium oxide

b) By heating two elements Copper sulphide is formed when a copper powder and sulphur is heated Copper + sulpher heated copper sulphide

c) By reacting a suitable element with water Sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen

- A compound can be separated in chemically method . examples ELECTROLYSIS - From experiment to break down copper chloride., copper will deposit on negative rod and chlorine in positive rod

An experiment was conducted to separate the mixtures as shown in the figure above. The following steps were carried out: Step 1 : 50 ml of water was added to 25 ml of oil in beaker X. Step 2 : 50 ml of water was added to 25 ml of methanol in beaker Y Step 3 : Each mixture was poured into a separating funnel in order to separate the constituents. One mixture was successfully separated whereas the other was not. Step 4 :The remaining mixture was poured into a fractional distillation apparatus in order to separate the constituents. (a) Describe the appearance of the mixture in (i) beaker X__________________________________________________________________

(ii) beaker y_________________________________________________


(b) Name the variable that is (i) kept constant___________________________________________________________

(ii) manipulated__________________________________________________________ (c) The mixture in which beaker was separated:

(i) by a separating funnel_____________________________________________________


(ii) by fractional distillation?______________________________________________ (d) Explain the results in (c). ________________________________________________________________________ (e) During fractional distillation, what is the temperature when the water is distilled out?

________________________________________________________________________ 2 Figure above contains sawdust and sugar solution

a) Name a substance is a mixture or compound___________________________________ b) What method that you can use to separate the sawdust and the sugar solution c) _________________________________________________________________________ suggest one method to obtain sugar from sugar solution ________________________________________________________________________

sawdust

sugar solution

METAL AND NON METAL

ELEMENT

NON METAL

METAL

solid

liquid

solid

liquid

gas

* silver * iron *lead

* mercury * silicon

* carbon * Phosphours

* Bromine

* Hydrogen * Oxygen * Helium

The Properties of Metal and Non Metal Metal


Difference s

Non metal

shiny Ductile can bent and stretched Good conductor of heat Good conductor of electricity High melting point Malleable (can be flattened

Appearance Ductility Heat conductor Electricity conductivity vi Melting Point Malleability

Dull Not ductile (cannot be bent or stretched Bad conductor of heat Bad conductor of electricity except for carbon Low melting Point Not malleable (cannot be flattened

Answer all the questions.

Section A
1 (a) How are metals and non-metals different from the following aspects? (i) electrical conductivity

________________________________________________________________ ii) malleability ________________________________________________________________ iii) surface appearance ________________________________________________________________ (iv) melting points ________________________________________________________________ (b) Classify the following as metals or non-metals corrects.

copper silicon Metal

Zinc Sodium

mercury Sulphur Non-metal

carbon naphthalene

EXERCISE 1. what is density:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. What unit of density-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Name two factor that influence the density of a substances i)---------------------------------------ii)--------------------------------------------------------

4What the density of water------------------------------------------------------------------------5 If the density of stone is 4g/cm and the mass is 40g, find its the volume 6. The mass of a substances is 400g. Its volume 200cm. Find its density. 7. State why some object float in the water ?------------------------------------------------------

8. What is ; a) Mixture:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------b) Compound-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c) Element------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Draw the particle of mixture, compound and element in the boxes provided.

Element

Compound

Mixture

10. State 3 differentiate between compound and mixture mixture compound

11 What is renewable energy---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 Give 5 examples of renewable energy i)-----------------------------------ii)------------------------------------iii)------------------------------------------ iv)--------------------------------------v)_________________________ 13. What is non renewable energy---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. List 3 examples of non renewable energy: i)_________________ ii)----------------------iii)----------------15. State 3 ways to use and manage energy source to avoid wastage of energy i)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

16.Suggest two reason what is the important of conserving energy sources