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A new method for hierarchical image steganography.

BY SIRISHA.MOTHIKI Ph:9573397032 M.V.D TANUJA ph:9440594512

ABSTRACT: A good steganographic technique embeds information in to a carrier image with virtually imperceptible modification of the image. The present paper found a novel fact that by inserting the hidden message bit using Least Significant Bit (LSB), the grey value of the image pixel either remains same or increments or decrements by one. The present paper is focused on this issue and found that such ambiguity of grey level values by LSB method comes between successive even and odd grey level values only. In the present paper a new method called non linear hierarchical steganography on 5X5 window pixel values, is proposed based on the above technique. The novel method inserts hidden message on 5X5 windows based on their grey level values and coordinate positions. The present approach allows for high robustness, embedding capacity and enhanced security. A detailed algorithm is furnished along with the results of its application on some sample images.
Key words: grey level value; hidden message; even and odd; non linear; robustness

INTRODUCTION: One of the grounds for discussion in the field of information security is the hidden exchange of information. To this end, various methods such as cryptography, steganography, coding, etc have been used. To fight against those people like hackers, intruders and those stealing information usually we use the cryptography method. In cryptography, the information is encrypted with a key and only the person who has the key can decrypt and read the information. So without the key, nobody can access the information. But encrypted data will attract the attention. In recent years, steganography is widely used for hidden exchange of information. The word steganography is a Greek word that means writing in hiding. While implementing this method, the main purpose is to hide data in a cover media so that other persons will not notice that such data is there. This is a major distinction of this method with the other methods of hidden exchange of data because, for example, in the method of cryptography, individuals see the encoded data and notice that such data exists but they cannot comprehend it. However, in steganography, individuals can notice at all that data exists in the sources[1].

Most steganography jobs have been performed on images [2], video clips [3], text [4], music and sound [5]. It has also been implemented on such varying systems as computers and mobile phones [6]. Nowadays, however, information security has improved considerably with the other mentioned methods. The steganography method, in addition to application of cover exchange of information, is also used in such other fields as copyright protection, preventing e-document forging, etc [7]. In this paper we provide a new architecture platform for hierarchical grey level modification steganography system, which embeds binary data with in the spatial domain of the grey scale images by modifying the grey level values of the nonlinearly selected pixels. This paper is organized as follows: In section II methodology is given. The results and discussions are given in section III and the final section gives conclusions. II. METHODOLOGY: The present method of non linear hierarchical steganography is implemented on a 5 x 5 window. The successive even and odd values are treated as same in the 5x 5 window. If two pixel grey level values have the same value then the least coordinated value by row wise will be treated as highest value. The process is repeated for each 5X5 non overlapped window. The above process is applied on the following images and good results are obtained III. RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS: The proposed method is applied on more than 32 different images of size NXM where N and M are greater than or equal to 64. However the present paper shows four of them of size 100X100. The results indicate robustness of the image and difficulty in breaking the embedded code. Each character length has been made as 12 bits by appending four bits to each of the character.

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Fig 6(a) Fig 3(a), 4(a), 5(a), 6(a): original images

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Fig 3(b), 4(b), 5(b), 6(b): stego images with hidden text start attacking IV. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed steganographic method is non linear because message characters are interested based on the value of the grey level and its co-ordinate position. The present method identified the ambiguity of grey level values, arises between successive even and odd values after inserting the hidden message using LSB. Future work includes extending the method based on descending order of pixel grey level values and appending more number of pixels for each character, which makes the method as more dynamic. And it will become more difficult to break the text. The present method can also be applied on any window size. Thus the present method outperforms the existing LSB methods. REFERENCES:

[1] J.C. Judge, "Steganography: Past, Present, Future, "SANS white paper, November 30, 2001, "", lass visited: 10 February 2006. [2] R. Chandramouli, N. Memon, "Analysis of LSB based image steganography techniques," Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, 710 Oct. 2001, pp. 1019 - 1022. [3] G. Dorr and J.L. Dugelay, "A Guide Tour of Video Watermarking," Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 18, issue 4, 2003, pp. 263-282. [4] A.M. Alattar and O.M. Alattar, "Watermarking electronic text documents containing justified paragraphs and irregular line spacing," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5306, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, June 2004, pp. 685-695. [5] K. Gopalan, "Audio steganography using bit modification," Proceedings. of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, (ICASSP '03), vol. 2, 6-10 April 2003, pp.421-424. [6] M. Shirali Shahreza, "An Improved Method for Steganography on Mobile Phone," WSEASTransactions on Systems, Issue 7, Vol. 4, July 2005, pp. 955-957. [7] F. Hartung and B. Girod, "Copyright Protection in Video Delivery Networks by Watermarking of Pre-Compressed Video," Multimedia Applications, Services and Techniques - ECMAST '97', Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1242, Springer, Heidelberg, 1997, pp. 423-436.