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QUANT-TOOL KIT NUMBERS


Types of Numbers: Natural numbers (Positive integers) Whole numbers (Non-negative integers) Negative integers Integers Even numbers Odd numbers Prime numbers (exactly 2 factors) Composite numbers (more than 2 factors) Perfect numbers (Sum of all the factors is twice the number) Co-primes (relative primes) (Two numbers whose HCF is 1) Twin primes (Two prime numbers whose difference is 2) : Rational numbers (
p form, p & q are integers, q 0 ) q

: : : : : : : : : :

1, 2, 3, 4,.... 0, 1, 2, 3,.... 1, 2, 3,.... ...., 2, 1, 0,1, 2,..... ...., 2, 0, 2, 4,.... (2n) ....., 3, 1,1, 3,... (2n + 1) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,.... 4, 6, 8, 9,10,.... 6, 28, 496, .. 2 & 3, 8 & 9,.. 3 & 5, 5 & 7,.
2 3 , , 2, 0.5,.. 3 2

Irrational numbers (which cannot be represented in the form of a fraction) : 2,


3

5 , e, ,

0.231764735...) : : : : : 0.2, 1.25, 0.3333. 0.23, 2.374, . 0.33., 0.121212, 0.2317 0.33., 0.121212 0.245555, 0. 2343434

Decimal Numbers Terminating Decimal Numbers (which terminates) Non Terminating Decimal Numbers (Which doesnt terminate) Pure Recurring Decimals (All the figures after decimal point repeats) Mixed Recurring Decimals (Some figures after decimal repeats) Pure recurring decimal to fraction conversion Ex. 0.ababab .. =
ab 99 abc a 990

Mixed recurring decimal to fraction conversion Ex. 0.abcbcbc =

1 is the neither prime, nor composite. 2 is the only even prime. If x & y are two integers, then (x + y) ! is divisible by x !. y! The product of n consecutive numbers is divisible by n!. (xn + yn) is divisible by (x + y), when n is an odd number. (xn yn) is divisible by (x + y)(x y), when n is an even number. (xn yn) is divisible by (x y), when n is an odd number. The difference between 2 numbers (xy) (yx) will always be divisible by 9.

Some Important points: Every number N can be written as N = ap bq cr . . (a, b, c,. are prime numbers.) If p, q, r . are even, N is a perfect square. If p, q, r are multiples of 3, N is a perfect cube.

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Number of factors of N = (p+ 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) ..


a p +1 1 Sum of the factors of N = a 1 b q +1 1 . b 1

Number of co primes of N , which are less than N = N (1 1/ a ) (1 1/ b) .


N N (1 1/a) (1 1/b). 2
n1

Sum of these co-primes =

Numbers of ways of writing N as a product of 2 co-primes = 2 numbers in N If n is a prime number, (n 1)! +1 is divisible by n.

, n is the number of different prime

If n is a natural number and p is a prime number, then (np n) is divisible by p The last digit of the powers of 2,3,7,8 repeats after every 4th power. The last digit of any power of 0,1, 5,6 is always 0,1,5, 6 respectively. The last digit of the powers of 4 and 9 repeats after every 2nd power. The last two digits of any number is the remainder obtained by dividing that number by 100.

Divisibility Rules:

2 or 5 check last digit. 4 or 25 check the last two digits. 3 or 9 check the sum of the digits. 11 check the difference of (sum of the digits in the even places) and (the sum of digits in odd places)

LCM / HCF
HCF = Highest Common Factor LCM = Least Common Multiple LCM of fractions = HCF of fractions = LCM of numerators HCF of deno min tors HCF of numerators LCM of deno min ators

Product of two numbers = L.C.M. H.C.F. If HCF (a, b) = H1 and HCF (c, d) = H2, then HCF (a, b, c, d) = HCF (H1, H2). If LCM (a, b) = L1 and LCM (c, d) = L2, then LCM (a, b, c, d) = LCM (L1, L2).

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IMPORTANT RESULTS
Sr No. Type of Problem Approach of Problem

1. 2. 3.

Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will exactly divide x, y, z. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and z leaving remainders a, b and c respectively. Find the LEAST NUMBER which is exactly divisible by x, y and z. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and z leaves the remainders a, b and c respectively. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and z leaves the same remainder r each case. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.

H.C.F. of x, y, and z (greatest divisor). H.C.F. of (x a), (y b) and (z c). Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and z (least multiple). Then, it is always observed that (x- a) = (z b) = (z c) = K (say).

4.

Required number
= (L.C.M. of x, y and z) (K).

5. 6.

L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r. H.C.F. of (x y), (y z) and (z x).

AVERAGE
Average = Sum of items Number of items

Weighted average of x1, x2, .xn, which are in the ratio r1 : r2 . rn is. r1x 1 + r2 x 2 + ..... + rn x n r1 + r2 + ..... + rn

The average of consecutive numbers or the numbers which are in A.P is the middle number or the average of the first and the last number. If each number is increased / decreased/ multiplied/ divided by a number k, the average is also increased/ decreased/ multiplied/ divided by k.

PERCENTAGE
% change =
F.V. I.V x 100 I.V

Where F.V = Final value I.V = Initial value

Percentage to Fraction conversions:


1 = 100% 1 1 = 20% 5 1 = 11.11% 9 1 = 7.69% 13 1 = 50% 2 1 = 16.67% 6 1 = 10% 10 1 = 7.14% 14

1 = 33.33% 3 1 = 14.28% 7 1 = 9.09% 11 1 = 6.66% 15

1 = 25% 4 1 = 12.5% 8 1 = 8.33% 12 1 = . 6.25% 16

If a quantity increases by x %, it becomes (1 +

x ) times. 100

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If a quantity decreases by x %, it becomes (1

x ) times. 100 xy % 100

If there is successive increase of x% and y%, then the net change will be x + y +
Cost Price: Selling Price: Profit/Loss: Profit/Loss %: Margin: Marked Price: Discount:

C.P. is the price at which one buys anything S.P. is the price at which one sells anything This is the difference between the selling price and the cost price. If the difference is positive it is called the profit and if negative it is called as loss. This is the profit/loss as a percentage of the C.P. Normally is in % terms only. This is the profit as a percentage of S.P. This is the price of the product as displayed on the label. This is the reduction given on the marked price before selling it to a customer. If the trader wants to make a loss he can offer a discount on the cost price as well

Profit = S.P C.P % profit =


Pr ofit 100 C.P

Discount = M.P S.P % discount =


Discount 100 M.P

(C.P = Cost price, M.P. = Marked price, S.P = Selling price)

RATIO & PROPORTION


If two quantities are in the ratio a : b , we will assume them as ak and bk. ( k is any multiple) If

a c e = = , then b d f

e a + c + e a + c e k 1a + k 2c + k 3 e a c = = = = = b d f b+d+f b+df k 1b + k 2 d + k 3 f

Partnership & Share: If there is profit in the business run by two partners A and B then,

Amount of A ' s investment No. of months of A ' s investment Profit of A = Profit of B Amount of B' s investment No. of months of B' s i nvestement
Proportion:

1. 2.

If x is directly proportional to y, If x is inversely proportional to y,

x1 x = 2 y1 y2 x1y1 = x2y2

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Qc Qd c d m

Amount of Cheaper quantity Amount of Dearer quantity C.P. of unit qty of 1st constituent. C.P. of unit qty of 2
nd

c m dm

constituent.
mc

Mean Cost price of unit qty of mixture


Qc d m = Qd m c

Gives us the ratio of quantities in which the two ingredients should be mixed to get the mixture.
Mixtures: If a vessel contains x litres of milk and if y litres be withdrawn and replaced by water,

Milk left in vessel x y = Initial quantity of Milk in vessel x


If this operation repeated n times in all, then :

Milk left in vessel after nth operation x y = Initial quantity of Milk in vessel x

ALGEBRA
Laws of indices:

am an = am + n

(a ) = a
m n

mn

an = 1 n a

(ab)m = ambm
a
1 n

If am = an and a 1, 0, 1, then m = n. If am = bm, m 0, a = b, if m is odd. a = b, if m is even.

Surds or Radicals: If a is a rational number and n is a positive integer such that the nth root of a

i.e. a1/n or
radicand.

a is an irrational number, then a

1/n

is called a surd or radical of order n and a is called the

RationalisingFactor
If the product of two surds is a rational number, then each one of them is called the rationalizing factor (R.F) of the other. The rationalizing factor of a +

b is a

b and vice versa.

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Logarithm: 1. loga0 = not defined

2. 5. 8.

loga1 = 0

3. 6. 9.

logam + logan = logamn logba = log c a log c b

4. 7. 10.

loga mn = n logam logaa = 1


log n (m) =
a

m logam logan = loga n


logba = 1 log a b

a loga m = m

1 .logam n

Remainder Theorem: If f(x) is divided by x a, the remainder is f (a)

FactorTheorem
If (x a) is a factor of f(x), then f(a) = 0. (Or) if f(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of f(x),
Quadratic equations: The general form of Quadratic Equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0 A quadratic Equation will have two roots.

The roots are

b b 2 4ac 2a
b a c a

Sum of the roots =

Product of the roots =

Relationbetweenrootsandcoefficientofanequation
Let 1' 2' 3' ., n be the n roots of the equation:
a0 xn + a1 xn1 + a2 x n1 . + an1 x + an = 0 Then we have the following relations: Sum of the roots taken one at a time ( 1 + 2 +.+ n) = (a1/a0).

Sum of the roots taken two at a time ( 1 2+ 2 3 +. n 1 ) = (a2/a0) Sum of the roots taken three at a time ( 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 +..+ n 1 2) = (a3/a0) ----------------------------------------------Product of the roots = ( 1 2 3. n) = {( 1) n an / a0}.
Formation of equation from roots:

If and are the roots of any quadratic equation then that equation can be written in the form X 2 ( + )X + = 0 i.e. X2 (sum of the roots) X + Product of the roots = 0

Nature of the roots: If b2 4ac < 0, then roots are Imaginary If b2 4ac = 0, the roots are real and equal If b2 4ac > 0, the roots are real and distinct If b2 4ac is perfect square, the roots are rational _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 6 www.TCYonline.com

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INEQUALITIES/ MAX. MIN.


If If If a > b, a c > b c a > b ac > bc if c > 0 and ac < bc if c < 0 a > b 1/a < 1/b |x a| = x a if x > a and |x a| = a x, if x < a a2 + b2 + c2 ab + bc + ca 2 1+ 1

3.

a/b + b/c + c/a 3 a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 4abcd a3 + b3 + c3 3abc |a + b| | a | + | b | |a b| | a | | b | A.M G.M H.M. A.M = Arithmetic mean, G.M = Geometric mean, H.M = Harmonic mean If x + y + z is given, the maximum value of xyz will come when x = y = z. If x + y + z is given, the maximum value of x p y q z r will come if x, y, z are in the ratio p : q : r For any Quadratic expression; ax2+bx + c, The min. or max. value will come at x = b/2a If a < 0, the value is maximum. a > 0, the value is minimum. The min/ max value =
4ac b 2 . 4a

FUNCTIONS
Odd function: A function f is said to be odd if it changes sign when the sign of the variable is changed. i.e. If f( x) = f (x).

For example: f (x) = x 3


Even function: A function f is said to be an even function if it doesnt change sign when the sign of the variable is changed. i.e. if f( x) = f (x).For example f (x) = x4 + x2 . NOTE:

There are many functions which are neither odd nor even i.e it is not nessesary for a function to be either even of to be odd. E.g: g (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 9 is a function in x which is neither even nor odd. (g o f) (x) = g [ f(x)] (fog)(x) = f [ g(x)]

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PROGRESSIONS
A.M =
a1 + a 2 ... + a n n
n

A.M is Arithmetic mean G.M is the Geometric mean H.M is the Harmonic mean

G.M = H.M =

a1.a 2 .......a n

n 1 + 1 + ....... 1 an a1 a2

A.P: a, a + d, a + 2d, .. ( a = first term, d = common difference) nth term, Tn = a + (n 1) d

Sum of first n terms: S n =

n n [2a + (n1)d] = (First term + Last term) 2 2

G.P: a. ar. ar2,

(a = first term, r =- common ratio)


n1

nth term, Tn = a.r

,
a(r n 1) r 1

Sum of first n terms: S n =

Sum of infinite terms of G.P


n=
n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6
2

a 1 r

( n is the sum of the first n natural numbers) ( n2 is the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers)
( n3 is the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers)

n2 =

n(n + 1) n3 = 2

TIME & WORK


M1D1H1E1 M2D 2H2E 2 = W1 W2 M = Number of men, H = Number of hours, D = Number of days E = Efficiency W = Amount of work

TIME & DISTANCE


Distance = Speed Time Relative speed of A & B: If A and B are travelling with speeds VA and VB respectively, Relative speed of A with respect to B : VA VB VA + VB

(Same direction) (Opp. direction)

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Resultant Speed: A boat is moving with a speed of B and the water is flowing with a speed of W, The resultant speed : B+W (Same direction) : BW (Opposite direction) Average speed =

Total dis tan ce total time 2v1v 2 v1 + v 2

A man travels first half of the distance at a velocity v1, second half of the distance at a velocity v2 then, Average velocity =

If the distance is covered in three equal parts with different speeds v1, v2 and v3 then, Average velocity = 3 v 1v 2 v 3 v 1v 2 + v 2 v 3 + v 3 v 1
Circular motion with three people:

If three persons A, B, and C are running along a circular track of length d meters with speeds Va , Vb , Vc respectively

d d Time of meeting for the first time = LCM and Va Vc Va Vb

d d d Time when they meet first time at starting point = LCM , , Va Vb Vc

Trains
(i) When a train approaches a stationary object (a tree, a stationary man, a lamp-post; we assume the length of the object to be infinitely small; provided its length isnt mentioned) Time taken by the train to cross Pole = (ii)
length of the train Speed of the train.

When a train approaches a platform, the time taken by the train to cross the platform is same as the time taken by the train to cross a distance equal to its own length plus the length of the platform at its own velocity. Time taken to cross the platform = Length of Train + Platform Speed of train

(iii)

For two trains having lengths l1 & l2 and traveling in the same direction with speeds v1 & v2 respectively (v1 > v2). Time taken to cross each other completely = l +l total distance .= 1 2 relative speed v1 v 2 l1 + l 2 . v1 + v 2

(iv)

Similarly, for two trains traveling in the opposite direction: Time taken to cross each other completely = total distance /relative velocity =

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SETS
A set is a well-defined collection of elements.

Cardinalnumberofaset
The number of elements contained in a set is known as the cardinal number of that set. On the basis of cardinal number a set can be an Empty Set or a Singleton Set. A set is said to be empty or void or null set if it has no elements and its cardinal number is 0.

Subsets
Let A and B be two sets. If every element of A is contained in B, then A is called the subset of B. If A is subset of B, we write A B, which is read as "A is a subset of B" or "A is contained in B". Facts and Rules: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. AA=A A=A AU=U A A = U & & & & AA=A A= AU=A & AB=BA A A =

AB=BA

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) n(B C) (C A) + n(ABC) n (A B) = n (A) n (A B)

INTEREST
S.I =
Ptr 100
n

(S.I = Simple Interest, P = principle, t = time, r = rate of interest) (C.I = Compound Interest)

r C.I = P 1 + P 100

Amount = principle + interest

CompoundInterest
r A = P 1 + 100
n

(Compounded Annually)

r A = P 1 + 2 x 100

2n

(Compounded Half- yearly)


4n

r A = P 1 + 4 x 100

(Compounded Quarterly)

Where, r = rate per cent year (% p.a.) n = time in year, A = Amount The difference between C.I and S.I after two years is p

r 100

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CLOCKS
The angle between the hands = 30 H

11 M 2

(Where H Hour reading & M Minute reading) The hands will coincide once in every 65
5 minutes. 11

In 12 hours, the hands will coincide 11 times. The hands will make an angle (0 < < 180 ), 22 times in 12 hours.

Overallgain/loss
After every 65 then Gain/loss per day by a watch, is given by
5 720 min. = min. the two hands will coincide. If the hands of a clock coincide every x min, 11 11

720 60 24 x x 11

CALENDER
To find the number of weeks in an ordinary year:
365 = 52 weeks + 1 odd day (remainder) 7

To find the number of weeks in a leap year:


366 = 52 weeks + 2 odd days (remainder) 7

400th year is a leap year or a century multiple of 400 is a leap year, rest are not. 100 years has 5 odd days 200 years has 3 odd days 300 years has 1 odd day 400 years has 0 odd days. And so on

PERMUTATIONS / COMBINATIONS

Event A Event B Then either (A or B) A and B (both simultaneously)

can occur in can occur in can occur in can occur in

m ways. n ways. m + n ways (Sum Rule) m n ways (Product Rule)

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Cr = Pr =

n! (n r )! r ! n! (n r )!

C0 = nCn = 1, nC1 = n

Pr = nCr r !

P0 = 1, nP1 = n, nPn = n !

r things can be selected from n things in nCr ways. r things can be arranged in n places in nPr ways. n things can be placed in n places in n! ways. The number of arrangements when things are not all different such as arrangement of n things, when p of them of one kind, q of another kind, r of still another kind and so on, then the total number of permutations is given by n! . (p ! q ! r !.......)

The number of permutations of n different things taking r at a time when each thing may be repeated any number of times in any permutations is given by (n n n n n..r times) i.e. nr ways. Number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time in which p particular things will always occur is npCrp Number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken 'r' at a time in which 'p' particular things will never occur is
np

Cr

DistributionofIdenticalObjects
The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each whom can receive 0, 1, 2, or more items ( n) is n + r 1Cr 1.
OR

The total number of ways of dividing n identical objects into r groups, if blank groups are allowed, is n + r 1Cr 1. The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important, is
(mn )! 1 (n! ) m m!

The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important, is
(mn )! 1 (mn)! m! = (n! ) m m! (n! ) m

Total number of rectangles formed by n horizontal and m vertical lines in a plane = mC2 x nC2.
n

C0 + nC1 + .. + nCn = 2n.

n persons can sit around the circular table in (n 1)! ways

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PROBABILITY
Probability =

No. of favourable outcomes No. of all possible outcomes

Two events are mutually exclusive if the intersection of two events is null (A B = ) If E and F two events then P(E U F) = P(E) + P(F) - P(E and F together ) If an event E is sure to occur, we say that the probability of the event E is equal to 1 and we write P (E) = 1. Such events are known as certain events. If an event E is sure not to occur, we say that the probability of the Event E is equal to 0 and we write P(E) = 0. Such events are known as impossible events. The probability of E not occurring, denoted by P(not E), is given by P(not E) or P E = 1 P(E). P( A ) = 1 P(A)
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) P (A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) P(B C) P(C A) + P(A B C) The odds in favour of occurrence of the event A are defined by P (A): P A and the odds against the occurrence of A are defined by P A : P (A).

()

()

()

If A and B are independent events P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

Binomial Distribution: If n trials are performed under the same condition and probability of success in each trial is p and q = 1 p then the probability of exactly r successes in n trials is:

P(r) = nCr pr qn r AREA


Square Rectangle Parallelogram a2 lb ab sin = ah
1 d1 d2 2 1 (a + b) h 2 1 bh 2

(a is side) ( l = length, b = breadth) (a and b are two sides and is the angle between them, h is the height)

Rhombus Trapezium

(d1 , d2 are the diagonals) (a and b are the two parallel sides and h is the distance between them)

Triangle

(b is the base, h is the height) (a and b are two sides and is the angle between them )
a+b+c 2

= = Equilateral triangle

1 ab sin 2

s( s a)( s b)(s c ) , s =

(a, b, c are the three sides )

3 2 h2 h = 3 a = 4 2 3

a ( a is the side, h is the height )

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Circle Sector Regular hexagon

r2
r2 360 3 2 6 a 4

( r is the radius) ( is the angle made by the sector at the center ) radiusRegular ( a is side)
( s a )(s b)( s c )( s d) , s =

Cyclic Quadrilateral

a+b+c +d ( a , b, c, d are sides) 2

VOLUME
Nature of the solid Shape of the solid Lateral/ curved surface area
h

S. No

Total surface area

Volume

Abbreviations Used

1.

Cuboid
l

2h (l + b)

2(lb + bh + lh)

lbh

l = length b = breath h = height

2.

Cube
a

4a
a

6a

a = length of edge

3.

Right prism

(perimeter of base) Height

2 (area of one end) + lateral surface area

Area of base height

4.

Right circular cylinder

2rh
r

2r(r + h)

r2h

r = radius of base h = height of the cylinder

5.

1 (Perimeter 2

Right pyramid

of the base) (slant height)

Area of the base + lateral surface area

1 (Area of 3 base) height

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6.

Right circular cone

r(l + r)
r

r l

1 2 r h 3

h = height r = radius l = slant height r = radius

7. Sphere

4r2

4 3 r 3

r = radius 2r2 3r2

8.

Hemisphere

2 3 r 3

GEOMETRY
Diagonals of Cube and Cuboid:

The length of diagonal of a cuboid =

l2 + b
3

+ h

The length of a diagonal of a cube = a


Polygons:

Sum of all external angles of any polygon = 360o Sum of all internal angles = (n 2) 180o Number of diagonals in a polygon = nC2 n =
Pythagoras Theorem AB2 + BC2 = AC2 Basic Trigonometric Ratios
n(n 3) 2

In a right triangle ABC, if be the angle between AC & BC.


A

H B B C

If is one of the angle other then right angle, then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). In this type of triangles, we can have six types of ratios. These ratios are called trigonometric ratios. Sin =
P B , Cos = H H

Tan =

P B

Cosec =

H H B , Sec = , Cot = P B P

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Cosine Rule In triangle ABC with sides a, b, c, we have the following rules;

Cos A =

b2 + c 2 a2 2bc

Cos B =

c 2 + a2 b2 2ac

Cos C =

a2 + b2 c 2 2ab

(a, b, c are the sides opposite to the angles A, B, C respectively )

Triangles
A triangle is a polygon of three sides. Triangles are classified in two general ways: by their sides and by their angles.

Typesoftriangle
Based on sides, triangles have been classified into three categories. 1. Scalene triangle: A triangle with three sides of different lengths is called a scalene triangle. 2.
Isosceles triangle: An isosceles triangle has two equal sides. The third side is called the base. The angles that are opposite to the equal sides are also equal. Equilateral triangle: An equilateral triangle has three equal sides. In this type of triangle, the angles are also equal, so it can also be called an equiangular triangle. Each angle of an equilateral triangle must measure 60o, since the sum of the interior angles of any triangle must equal to 180o. N

3.

B
Scalene

M
Isosceles

D
Equilateral

Triangles are also divided into three classes on the basis of measure of the interior angles.
Obtuse angled triangle: When the measure of the largest angle of the triangle is greater than 900 then it is an obtuse angled triangle.

In the figure ABC is an obtuse triangle where C is an obtuse angle


Acute angled triangle: In which all angles are less than 90o e.g.

PQR is a acute triangle because largest angle is less than 90o.

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Right Angled Triangle: A triangle whose one angle is 90o is called a right (angled) Triangle.

A
80

A b
60

110o B C Obtuse angled B

C Acute angled

40

B a Right angled

If a, b, c denote the sides of a triangle, then (i) Triangle is acute angled if c2 < a2 + b2 (ii) Triangle is right angled if c2 = a2 + b2 (iii) Triangle is obtuse angled if c2 > a2 + b2

PropertiesofTriangle
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sum of the three angles is 180o. Sum of exterior angles of any triangle is equal to 360o. An exterior angle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. The sum of the two sides is always greater than the third side. The difference between any two sides is always less than the third side. The side opposite to the greatest angle is the greatest side and the side opposite to the smallest angle will be the shortest side.

Similar Triangles

If ABC and DEF are similar


AB BC AC = = DE EF DF

Area of ABC AB BC AC = = = Area of DEF DE EF DF

Centroid: (a) The point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. (Median is the line joining the vertex to the midA point of the opposite side). (b) The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1. (c) To find the length of the median we use the theorem of Apollonius. AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2)

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Incentre: This is the point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle.

(a) (b)

BL AB = LC AC AI b + c = IL a
c

b I

C a

Mid-point Theorem A line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle must be parallel to the third side and equal to half of A that (third side).

In the adjacent triangle ABC, if D and E are the respective mid-points of sides AB & AC, then DE II BC and DE =
1 BC 2

D B

E C

Properties of a Circle 1. If two chords of a circle are equal, their corresponding arcs have equal measure. 2. Degree measure of an arc is the angle subtended at the centre. Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the center. 3. A line from centre and perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. 4. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. 5. When two circles touch, their centres and their point of contact are collinear. 6. If the two circles touch externally, the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii. 7. If the two circles touch internally, the distance between the centres is equal to difference of their radii. 8. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by A the arc at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. P Let O be the centre of the circle.

BOC = 2 P,
B

O 2P

9. 10. 11.

There can be one and only one circle through three non-collinear points. The angle inscribed in a semicircle is 90o. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally or internally at P, then PA PB = PC PD
A B P D B C

A P C

12.

If PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent, then PT2 = PA PB

A P T

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13.

The length of the direct common tangent (PQ) =


(The dis tan ce between their centres)2 (r1 r2 )2
P Q r1 O r2 O

14.

The length of the transverse common tangent (RS) =


( The dis tan ce between their centres )2 ( r1 + r2 )2

O r1 R

S r2 O
i

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY
Distance formula: If A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) be two points, then

| AB | =

( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y 2 y1 )2

In particular, distance of a point P (x, y) from O (0, 0) is | OP | =

x2 + y2

Section formula: The point which divides the join of two distinct points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) in the ratio m1 : m2 internally, has

the co-ordinates and externally, is

m1x 2 + m2 x1 m1y 2 + m2 y1 , m1 0, m2 0, m1 + m2 0 , m1 + m2 m1 + m2

m1 x 2 m 2 x 1 m 1 y 2 m 2 y 1 m1 0, m2 0, m1 m2 0 , m m m1 m 2 1 2

In particular, the mid-point of the segment joining A (x1 y1) and B (x2, y2) has the co-ordinates

x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 , 2 2
Centroid and Incentre formulae: Centroid: It is the point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. Incentre: It is the point of intersection of the internal angle bisectors of the angles of a triangle. If A (x1, y1), B (x2, y2) and C (x3, y3) be the vertices of a triangle, then its centroid is given

x + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 , by 1 3 3

ax + bx 2 + cx 3 ay 1 + by 2 + cy 3 , and the incentre by 1 , a+b+c a+b+c

Where a = | BC |, b = | CA | and c = | AB |.

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Equation of a line: One point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the point (x1, y1) and having slope m is y y1 = m (x x1). Two-point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y y1 =

y 2 y1 (x x1 ) x 2 x1

Intercept form Equation of a line (non-vertical) with slope m and cutting off intercepts a and b from the x-axis and y-axis

respectively is

x y + = 1. a b

Some important points: (a) Slope of a line parallel of x-axis is zero. (b) Slope of a line parallel to y-axis is not defined.

(c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

Slope of a line equally inclined to equal the axis is 1 or 1. Slope of a line making equal intercepts on the axis is 1. Slope of the line through the points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b 0, is a . b y 2 y1 x 2 x1

Slopes of two parallel (non-vertical) lines are equal. If m1 and m2 be the slopes of two perpendicular lines (which are oblique), then m1m2 = 1. Length of perpendicular from the point (x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is
L=
ax 1 + by 1 + c a2 + b2

(j)

Distance between parallel lines; ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + d = 0


cd a 2 + b2

Area of triangle:

If A (x1, y1), B (x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are the vertices of a triangle then its area is equal to = 1 mod of x 2 y 2 1
2 x3 y3 1

x1

y1 1

1 x 1 (y 2 y 3 ) + x 2 (y 3 y 1 ) + x 3 (y 1 y 2 ) 2

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