0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

376 Aufrufe20 SeitenFeb 21, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

376 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Types of Numbers: Natural numbers (Positive integers) Whole numbers (Non-negative integers) Negative integers Integers Even numbers Odd numbers Prime numbers (exactly 2 factors) Composite numbers (more than 2 factors) Perfect numbers (Sum of all the factors is twice the number) Co-primes (relative primes) (Two numbers whose HCF is 1) Twin primes (Two prime numbers whose difference is 2) : Rational numbers (

p form, p & q are integers, q 0 ) q

: : : : : : : : : :

1, 2, 3, 4,.... 0, 1, 2, 3,.... 1, 2, 3,.... ...., 2, 1, 0,1, 2,..... ...., 2, 0, 2, 4,.... (2n) ....., 3, 1,1, 3,... (2n + 1) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,.... 4, 6, 8, 9,10,.... 6, 28, 496, .. 2 & 3, 8 & 9,.. 3 & 5, 5 & 7,.

2 3 , , 2, 0.5,.. 3 2

3

5 , e, ,

0.231764735...) : : : : : 0.2, 1.25, 0.3333. 0.23, 2.374, . 0.33., 0.121212, 0.2317 0.33., 0.121212 0.245555, 0. 2343434

Decimal Numbers Terminating Decimal Numbers (which terminates) Non Terminating Decimal Numbers (Which doesnt terminate) Pure Recurring Decimals (All the figures after decimal point repeats) Mixed Recurring Decimals (Some figures after decimal repeats) Pure recurring decimal to fraction conversion Ex. 0.ababab .. =

ab 99 abc a 990

1 is the neither prime, nor composite. 2 is the only even prime. If x & y are two integers, then (x + y) ! is divisible by x !. y! The product of n consecutive numbers is divisible by n!. (xn + yn) is divisible by (x + y), when n is an odd number. (xn yn) is divisible by (x + y)(x y), when n is an even number. (xn yn) is divisible by (x y), when n is an odd number. The difference between 2 numbers (xy) (yx) will always be divisible by 9.

Some Important points: Every number N can be written as N = ap bq cr . . (a, b, c,. are prime numbers.) If p, q, r . are even, N is a perfect square. If p, q, r are multiples of 3, N is a perfect cube.

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 1

a p +1 1 Sum of the factors of N = a 1 b q +1 1 . b 1

N N (1 1/a) (1 1/b). 2

n1

Numbers of ways of writing N as a product of 2 co-primes = 2 numbers in N If n is a prime number, (n 1)! +1 is divisible by n.

If n is a natural number and p is a prime number, then (np n) is divisible by p The last digit of the powers of 2,3,7,8 repeats after every 4th power. The last digit of any power of 0,1, 5,6 is always 0,1,5, 6 respectively. The last digit of the powers of 4 and 9 repeats after every 2nd power. The last two digits of any number is the remainder obtained by dividing that number by 100.

Divisibility Rules:

2 or 5 check last digit. 4 or 25 check the last two digits. 3 or 9 check the sum of the digits. 11 check the difference of (sum of the digits in the even places) and (the sum of digits in odd places)

LCM / HCF

HCF = Highest Common Factor LCM = Least Common Multiple LCM of fractions = HCF of fractions = LCM of numerators HCF of deno min tors HCF of numerators LCM of deno min ators

Product of two numbers = L.C.M. H.C.F. If HCF (a, b) = H1 and HCF (c, d) = H2, then HCF (a, b, c, d) = HCF (H1, H2). If LCM (a, b) = L1 and LCM (c, d) = L2, then LCM (a, b, c, d) = LCM (L1, L2).

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 2

IMPORTANT RESULTS

Sr No. Type of Problem Approach of Problem

1. 2. 3.

Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will exactly divide x, y, z. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and z leaving remainders a, b and c respectively. Find the LEAST NUMBER which is exactly divisible by x, y and z. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and z leaves the remainders a, b and c respectively. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x, y and z leaves the same remainder r each case. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x, y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.

H.C.F. of x, y, and z (greatest divisor). H.C.F. of (x a), (y b) and (z c). Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and z (least multiple). Then, it is always observed that (x- a) = (z b) = (z c) = K (say).

4.

Required number

= (L.C.M. of x, y and z) (K).

5. 6.

AVERAGE

Average = Sum of items Number of items

Weighted average of x1, x2, .xn, which are in the ratio r1 : r2 . rn is. r1x 1 + r2 x 2 + ..... + rn x n r1 + r2 + ..... + rn

The average of consecutive numbers or the numbers which are in A.P is the middle number or the average of the first and the last number. If each number is increased / decreased/ multiplied/ divided by a number k, the average is also increased/ decreased/ multiplied/ divided by k.

PERCENTAGE

% change =

F.V. I.V x 100 I.V

1 = 100% 1 1 = 20% 5 1 = 11.11% 9 1 = 7.69% 13 1 = 50% 2 1 = 16.67% 6 1 = 10% 10 1 = 7.14% 14

x ) times. 100

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 3

If there is successive increase of x% and y%, then the net change will be x + y +

Cost Price: Selling Price: Profit/Loss: Profit/Loss %: Margin: Marked Price: Discount:

C.P. is the price at which one buys anything S.P. is the price at which one sells anything This is the difference between the selling price and the cost price. If the difference is positive it is called the profit and if negative it is called as loss. This is the profit/loss as a percentage of the C.P. Normally is in % terms only. This is the profit as a percentage of S.P. This is the price of the product as displayed on the label. This is the reduction given on the marked price before selling it to a customer. If the trader wants to make a loss he can offer a discount on the cost price as well

Pr ofit 100 C.P

Discount 100 M.P

If two quantities are in the ratio a : b , we will assume them as ak and bk. ( k is any multiple) If

a c e = = , then b d f

e a + c + e a + c e k 1a + k 2c + k 3 e a c = = = = = b d f b+d+f b+df k 1b + k 2 d + k 3 f

Partnership & Share: If there is profit in the business run by two partners A and B then,

Amount of A ' s investment No. of months of A ' s investment Profit of A = Profit of B Amount of B' s investment No. of months of B' s i nvestement

Proportion:

1. 2.

x1 x = 2 y1 y2 x1y1 = x2y2

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 4

Qc Qd c d m

Amount of Cheaper quantity Amount of Dearer quantity C.P. of unit qty of 1st constituent. C.P. of unit qty of 2

nd

c m dm

constituent.

mc

Qc d m = Qd m c

Gives us the ratio of quantities in which the two ingredients should be mixed to get the mixture.

Mixtures: If a vessel contains x litres of milk and if y litres be withdrawn and replaced by water,

If this operation repeated n times in all, then :

Milk left in vessel after nth operation x y = Initial quantity of Milk in vessel x

ALGEBRA

Laws of indices:

am an = am + n

(a ) = a

m n

mn

an = 1 n a

(ab)m = ambm

a

1 n

Surds or Radicals: If a is a rational number and n is a positive integer such that the nth root of a

i.e. a1/n or

radicand.

1/n

RationalisingFactor

If the product of two surds is a rational number, then each one of them is called the rationalizing factor (R.F) of the other. The rationalizing factor of a +

b is a

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 5

2. 5. 8.

loga1 = 0

3. 6. 9.

4. 7. 10.

log n (m) =

a

logba = 1 log a b

a loga m = m

1 .logam n

FactorTheorem

If (x a) is a factor of f(x), then f(a) = 0. (Or) if f(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of f(x),

Quadratic equations: The general form of Quadratic Equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0 A quadratic Equation will have two roots.

b b 2 4ac 2a

b a c a

Relationbetweenrootsandcoefficientofanequation

Let 1' 2' 3' ., n be the n roots of the equation:

a0 xn + a1 xn1 + a2 x n1 . + an1 x + an = 0 Then we have the following relations: Sum of the roots taken one at a time ( 1 + 2 +.+ n) = (a1/a0).

Sum of the roots taken two at a time ( 1 2+ 2 3 +. n 1 ) = (a2/a0) Sum of the roots taken three at a time ( 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 +..+ n 1 2) = (a3/a0) ----------------------------------------------Product of the roots = ( 1 2 3. n) = {( 1) n an / a0}.

Formation of equation from roots:

If and are the roots of any quadratic equation then that equation can be written in the form X 2 ( + )X + = 0 i.e. X2 (sum of the roots) X + Product of the roots = 0

Nature of the roots: If b2 4ac < 0, then roots are Imaginary If b2 4ac = 0, the roots are real and equal If b2 4ac > 0, the roots are real and distinct If b2 4ac is perfect square, the roots are rational _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 6 www.TCYonline.com

If If If a > b, a c > b c a > b ac > bc if c > 0 and ac < bc if c < 0 a > b 1/a < 1/b |x a| = x a if x > a and |x a| = a x, if x < a a2 + b2 + c2 ab + bc + ca 2 1+ 1

3.

a/b + b/c + c/a 3 a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 4abcd a3 + b3 + c3 3abc |a + b| | a | + | b | |a b| | a | | b | A.M G.M H.M. A.M = Arithmetic mean, G.M = Geometric mean, H.M = Harmonic mean If x + y + z is given, the maximum value of xyz will come when x = y = z. If x + y + z is given, the maximum value of x p y q z r will come if x, y, z are in the ratio p : q : r For any Quadratic expression; ax2+bx + c, The min. or max. value will come at x = b/2a If a < 0, the value is maximum. a > 0, the value is minimum. The min/ max value =

4ac b 2 . 4a

FUNCTIONS

Odd function: A function f is said to be odd if it changes sign when the sign of the variable is changed. i.e. If f( x) = f (x).

Even function: A function f is said to be an even function if it doesnt change sign when the sign of the variable is changed. i.e. if f( x) = f (x).For example f (x) = x4 + x2 . NOTE:

There are many functions which are neither odd nor even i.e it is not nessesary for a function to be either even of to be odd. E.g: g (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 9 is a function in x which is neither even nor odd. (g o f) (x) = g [ f(x)] (fog)(x) = f [ g(x)]

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 7

PROGRESSIONS

A.M =

a1 + a 2 ... + a n n

n

A.M is Arithmetic mean G.M is the Geometric mean H.M is the Harmonic mean

G.M = H.M =

a1.a 2 .......a n

n 1 + 1 + ....... 1 an a1 a2

n1

,

a(r n 1) r 1

n=

n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6

2

a 1 r

( n is the sum of the first n natural numbers) ( n2 is the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers)

( n3 is the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers)

n2 =

n(n + 1) n3 = 2

M1D1H1E1 M2D 2H2E 2 = W1 W2 M = Number of men, H = Number of hours, D = Number of days E = Efficiency W = Amount of work

Distance = Speed Time Relative speed of A & B: If A and B are travelling with speeds VA and VB respectively, Relative speed of A with respect to B : VA VB VA + VB

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 8

Resultant Speed: A boat is moving with a speed of B and the water is flowing with a speed of W, The resultant speed : B+W (Same direction) : BW (Opposite direction) Average speed =

A man travels first half of the distance at a velocity v1, second half of the distance at a velocity v2 then, Average velocity =

If the distance is covered in three equal parts with different speeds v1, v2 and v3 then, Average velocity = 3 v 1v 2 v 3 v 1v 2 + v 2 v 3 + v 3 v 1

Circular motion with three people:

If three persons A, B, and C are running along a circular track of length d meters with speeds Va , Vb , Vc respectively

Trains

(i) When a train approaches a stationary object (a tree, a stationary man, a lamp-post; we assume the length of the object to be infinitely small; provided its length isnt mentioned) Time taken by the train to cross Pole = (ii)

length of the train Speed of the train.

When a train approaches a platform, the time taken by the train to cross the platform is same as the time taken by the train to cross a distance equal to its own length plus the length of the platform at its own velocity. Time taken to cross the platform = Length of Train + Platform Speed of train

(iii)

For two trains having lengths l1 & l2 and traveling in the same direction with speeds v1 & v2 respectively (v1 > v2). Time taken to cross each other completely = l +l total distance .= 1 2 relative speed v1 v 2 l1 + l 2 . v1 + v 2

(iv)

Similarly, for two trains traveling in the opposite direction: Time taken to cross each other completely = total distance /relative velocity =

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 9

SETS

A set is a well-defined collection of elements.

Cardinalnumberofaset

The number of elements contained in a set is known as the cardinal number of that set. On the basis of cardinal number a set can be an Empty Set or a Singleton Set. A set is said to be empty or void or null set if it has no elements and its cardinal number is 0.

Subsets

Let A and B be two sets. If every element of A is contained in B, then A is called the subset of B. If A is subset of B, we write A B, which is read as "A is a subset of B" or "A is contained in B". Facts and Rules: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. AA=A A=A AU=U A A = U & & & & AA=A A= AU=A & AB=BA A A =

AB=BA

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) n(B C) (C A) + n(ABC) n (A B) = n (A) n (A B)

INTEREST

S.I =

Ptr 100

n

(S.I = Simple Interest, P = principle, t = time, r = rate of interest) (C.I = Compound Interest)

r C.I = P 1 + P 100

CompoundInterest

r A = P 1 + 100

n

(Compounded Annually)

r A = P 1 + 2 x 100

2n

4n

r A = P 1 + 4 x 100

(Compounded Quarterly)

Where, r = rate per cent year (% p.a.) n = time in year, A = Amount The difference between C.I and S.I after two years is p

r 100

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 10

CLOCKS

The angle between the hands = 30 H

11 M 2

(Where H Hour reading & M Minute reading) The hands will coincide once in every 65

5 minutes. 11

In 12 hours, the hands will coincide 11 times. The hands will make an angle (0 < < 180 ), 22 times in 12 hours.

Overallgain/loss

After every 65 then Gain/loss per day by a watch, is given by

5 720 min. = min. the two hands will coincide. If the hands of a clock coincide every x min, 11 11

720 60 24 x x 11

CALENDER

To find the number of weeks in an ordinary year:

365 = 52 weeks + 1 odd day (remainder) 7

366 = 52 weeks + 2 odd days (remainder) 7

400th year is a leap year or a century multiple of 400 is a leap year, rest are not. 100 years has 5 odd days 200 years has 3 odd days 300 years has 1 odd day 400 years has 0 odd days. And so on

PERMUTATIONS / COMBINATIONS

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 11

Cr = Pr =

n! (n r )! r ! n! (n r )!

C0 = nCn = 1, nC1 = n

Pr = nCr r !

P0 = 1, nP1 = n, nPn = n !

r things can be selected from n things in nCr ways. r things can be arranged in n places in nPr ways. n things can be placed in n places in n! ways. The number of arrangements when things are not all different such as arrangement of n things, when p of them of one kind, q of another kind, r of still another kind and so on, then the total number of permutations is given by n! . (p ! q ! r !.......)

The number of permutations of n different things taking r at a time when each thing may be repeated any number of times in any permutations is given by (n n n n n..r times) i.e. nr ways. Number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time in which p particular things will always occur is npCrp Number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken 'r' at a time in which 'p' particular things will never occur is

np

Cr

DistributionofIdenticalObjects

The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each whom can receive 0, 1, 2, or more items ( n) is n + r 1Cr 1.

OR

The total number of ways of dividing n identical objects into r groups, if blank groups are allowed, is n + r 1Cr 1. The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important, is

(mn )! 1 (n! ) m m!

The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important, is

(mn )! 1 (mn)! m! = (n! ) m m! (n! ) m

Total number of rectangles formed by n horizontal and m vertical lines in a plane = mC2 x nC2.

n

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 12

PROBABILITY

Probability =

Two events are mutually exclusive if the intersection of two events is null (A B = ) If E and F two events then P(E U F) = P(E) + P(F) - P(E and F together ) If an event E is sure to occur, we say that the probability of the event E is equal to 1 and we write P (E) = 1. Such events are known as certain events. If an event E is sure not to occur, we say that the probability of the Event E is equal to 0 and we write P(E) = 0. Such events are known as impossible events. The probability of E not occurring, denoted by P(not E), is given by P(not E) or P E = 1 P(E). P( A ) = 1 P(A)

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) P (A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) P(B C) P(C A) + P(A B C) The odds in favour of occurrence of the event A are defined by P (A): P A and the odds against the occurrence of A are defined by P A : P (A).

()

()

()

Binomial Distribution: If n trials are performed under the same condition and probability of success in each trial is p and q = 1 p then the probability of exactly r successes in n trials is:

Square Rectangle Parallelogram a2 lb ab sin = ah

1 d1 d2 2 1 (a + b) h 2 1 bh 2

(a is side) ( l = length, b = breadth) (a and b are two sides and is the angle between them, h is the height)

Rhombus Trapezium

(d1 , d2 are the diagonals) (a and b are the two parallel sides and h is the distance between them)

Triangle

(b is the base, h is the height) (a and b are two sides and is the angle between them )

a+b+c 2

= = Equilateral triangle

1 ab sin 2

s( s a)( s b)(s c ) , s =

3 2 h2 h = 3 a = 4 2 3

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 13

r2

r2 360 3 2 6 a 4

( r is the radius) ( is the angle made by the sector at the center ) radiusRegular ( a is side)

( s a )(s b)( s c )( s d) , s =

Cyclic Quadrilateral

VOLUME

Nature of the solid Shape of the solid Lateral/ curved surface area

h

S. No

Volume

Abbreviations Used

1.

Cuboid

l

2h (l + b)

2(lb + bh + lh)

lbh

2.

Cube

a

4a

a

6a

a = length of edge

3.

Right prism

4.

2rh

r

2r(r + h)

r2h

5.

1 (Perimeter 2

Right pyramid

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 14

6.

r(l + r)

r

r l

1 2 r h 3

7. Sphere

4r2

4 3 r 3

8.

Hemisphere

2 3 r 3

GEOMETRY

Diagonals of Cube and Cuboid:

l2 + b

3

+ h

Polygons:

Sum of all external angles of any polygon = 360o Sum of all internal angles = (n 2) 180o Number of diagonals in a polygon = nC2 n =

Pythagoras Theorem AB2 + BC2 = AC2 Basic Trigonometric Ratios

n(n 3) 2

A

H B B C

If is one of the angle other then right angle, then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). In this type of triangles, we can have six types of ratios. These ratios are called trigonometric ratios. Sin =

P B , Cos = H H

Tan =

P B

Cosec =

H H B , Sec = , Cot = P B P

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 15

Cosine Rule In triangle ABC with sides a, b, c, we have the following rules;

Cos A =

b2 + c 2 a2 2bc

Cos B =

c 2 + a2 b2 2ac

Cos C =

a2 + b2 c 2 2ab

Triangles

A triangle is a polygon of three sides. Triangles are classified in two general ways: by their sides and by their angles.

Typesoftriangle

Based on sides, triangles have been classified into three categories. 1. Scalene triangle: A triangle with three sides of different lengths is called a scalene triangle. 2.

Isosceles triangle: An isosceles triangle has two equal sides. The third side is called the base. The angles that are opposite to the equal sides are also equal. Equilateral triangle: An equilateral triangle has three equal sides. In this type of triangle, the angles are also equal, so it can also be called an equiangular triangle. Each angle of an equilateral triangle must measure 60o, since the sum of the interior angles of any triangle must equal to 180o. N

3.

B

Scalene

M

Isosceles

D

Equilateral

Triangles are also divided into three classes on the basis of measure of the interior angles.

Obtuse angled triangle: When the measure of the largest angle of the triangle is greater than 900 then it is an obtuse angled triangle.

Acute angled triangle: In which all angles are less than 90o e.g.

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 16

Right Angled Triangle: A triangle whose one angle is 90o is called a right (angled) Triangle.

A

80

A b

60

C Acute angled

40

B a Right angled

If a, b, c denote the sides of a triangle, then (i) Triangle is acute angled if c2 < a2 + b2 (ii) Triangle is right angled if c2 = a2 + b2 (iii) Triangle is obtuse angled if c2 > a2 + b2

PropertiesofTriangle

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sum of the three angles is 180o. Sum of exterior angles of any triangle is equal to 360o. An exterior angle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. The sum of the two sides is always greater than the third side. The difference between any two sides is always less than the third side. The side opposite to the greatest angle is the greatest side and the side opposite to the smallest angle will be the shortest side.

Similar Triangles

AB BC AC = = DE EF DF

Centroid: (a) The point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. (Median is the line joining the vertex to the midA point of the opposite side). (b) The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1. (c) To find the length of the median we use the theorem of Apollonius. AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2)

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 17

Incentre: This is the point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle.

(a) (b)

BL AB = LC AC AI b + c = IL a

c

b I

C a

Mid-point Theorem A line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle must be parallel to the third side and equal to half of A that (third side).

In the adjacent triangle ABC, if D and E are the respective mid-points of sides AB & AC, then DE II BC and DE =

1 BC 2

D B

E C

Properties of a Circle 1. If two chords of a circle are equal, their corresponding arcs have equal measure. 2. Degree measure of an arc is the angle subtended at the centre. Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the center. 3. A line from centre and perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. 4. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. 5. When two circles touch, their centres and their point of contact are collinear. 6. If the two circles touch externally, the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii. 7. If the two circles touch internally, the distance between the centres is equal to difference of their radii. 8. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by A the arc at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. P Let O be the centre of the circle.

BOC = 2 P,

B

O 2P

9. 10. 11.

There can be one and only one circle through three non-collinear points. The angle inscribed in a semicircle is 90o. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally or internally at P, then PA PB = PC PD

A B P D B C

A P C

12.

A P T

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 18

13.

(The dis tan ce between their centres)2 (r1 r2 )2

P Q r1 O r2 O

14.

( The dis tan ce between their centres )2 ( r1 + r2 )2

O r1 R

S r2 O

i

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

Distance formula: If A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) be two points, then

| AB | =

( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y 2 y1 )2

x2 + y2

Section formula: The point which divides the join of two distinct points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) in the ratio m1 : m2 internally, has

m1x 2 + m2 x1 m1y 2 + m2 y1 , m1 0, m2 0, m1 + m2 0 , m1 + m2 m1 + m2

m1 x 2 m 2 x 1 m 1 y 2 m 2 y 1 m1 0, m2 0, m1 m2 0 , m m m1 m 2 1 2

In particular, the mid-point of the segment joining A (x1 y1) and B (x2, y2) has the co-ordinates

x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 , 2 2

Centroid and Incentre formulae: Centroid: It is the point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. Incentre: It is the point of intersection of the internal angle bisectors of the angles of a triangle. If A (x1, y1), B (x2, y2) and C (x3, y3) be the vertices of a triangle, then its centroid is given

x + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 , by 1 3 3

Where a = | BC |, b = | CA | and c = | AB |.

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 19

Equation of a line: One point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the point (x1, y1) and having slope m is y y1 = m (x x1). Two-point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y y1 =

y 2 y1 (x x1 ) x 2 x1

Intercept form Equation of a line (non-vertical) with slope m and cutting off intercepts a and b from the x-axis and y-axis

respectively is

x y + = 1. a b

Some important points: (a) Slope of a line parallel of x-axis is zero. (b) Slope of a line parallel to y-axis is not defined.

Slope of a line equally inclined to equal the axis is 1 or 1. Slope of a line making equal intercepts on the axis is 1. Slope of the line through the points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b 0, is a . b y 2 y1 x 2 x1

Slopes of two parallel (non-vertical) lines are equal. If m1 and m2 be the slopes of two perpendicular lines (which are oblique), then m1m2 = 1. Length of perpendicular from the point (x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is

L=

ax 1 + by 1 + c a2 + b2

(j)

cd a 2 + b2

Area of triangle:

If A (x1, y1), B (x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are the vertices of a triangle then its area is equal to = 1 mod of x 2 y 2 1

2 x3 y3 1

x1

y1 1

1 x 1 (y 2 y 3 ) + x 2 (y 3 y 1 ) + x 3 (y 1 y 2 ) 2

www.TCYonline.com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page : 20

- TSD 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TSD 3Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- 153 TG Math Problems E-bookHochgeladen vonq9yx
- TSDHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- RatiosHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TSD 5Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- CL procmock 9 2011Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- CAT Quant Cheat SheetHochgeladen vonrachelversa
- PracCAT16Hochgeladen vonapi-3696096
- ReasoningLecture1W-12Hochgeladen vontamilanba
- ReasoningLecture3W-12Hochgeladen vontamilanba
- Fundamentals of Modern MathsHochgeladen vonankit_4440
- Number SystemHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- aimcat 1212Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- CL prockmock 7 2011Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- prockmock 8 solnHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- prockmock 8Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 9 soln 2011Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG tsdHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Profit Abd LossHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TSD 4Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Averages 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Ratios 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- AveragesHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 10 solnHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 10Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- %ilesHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- ReasoningLecture2W-12Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Time Coaching ClassHochgeladen vonApurva Borar
- 771488 ExplainationsHochgeladen vonPramit Narayan

- MeinKampf englishHochgeladen vonyuvasenthil
- Mathematical CirclesHochgeladen vonDavid García Casas
- Distribution SolnHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- ReasoningLecture3W-12Hochgeladen vontamilanba
- ReasoningLecture2W-12Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- ReasoningLecture1W-12Hochgeladen vontamilanba
- %ilesHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 10Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 10 solnHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- AveragesHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Ratios 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Averages 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Averages 3Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TSD 4Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Profit Abd LossHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TSD 5Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG 1Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG tsdHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG tsd 2Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- TG 3Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- Exlusion and InclusionHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- number system ConceptsHochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain
- procmock 9 soln 2011Hochgeladen vonAbhishek Jain

- 12th First Term Paper Maths 2011-12-1Hochgeladen vonvishaljalan
- University of British Columbia - St. Venant TorsionHochgeladen vonFrancisco Contreras
- Carl Benjamin Boyer - Cardan and the Pascal triangleHochgeladen vonlagatadezinc5733
- JCG2012Hochgeladen vonNikos Zarifis
- midterm review assignments 1718Hochgeladen vonapi-368121935
- S6 11-12 (Core) Paper 1Hochgeladen vonKathy Wong
- Chapter 6Hochgeladen vonMohan Rao
- Convert Recurring Decimals to FractionsHochgeladen vonCally Chew
- MEC420 Chapter 1Hochgeladen vonMohdFirdaus
- Lecture 13Hochgeladen vonBenjamin Mullen
- Boundary Element AcousticsHochgeladen vonsh1999
- AQA-MFP4-W-QP-JUN09Hochgeladen vonÖzgür Oz Yilmaz Mehmet
- Significant FiguresHochgeladen vonRyan Mills
- Math Paper Class 9Hochgeladen vonMantu Das
- Petr Veverka - Infinite Time Maximum PrincipleHochgeladen vonPetr Veverka
- Proj 1.docxHochgeladen vonBanana
- 0201361868_SM_Ch1Hochgeladen vonabdul_348
- Math Paper f4 - MidHochgeladen vonnur shahirah
- azarHochgeladen vonillmrpinheiro
- Kundur Word Pequeña SeñalHochgeladen vonJhonathan Iza
- 12 Complex NumbersHochgeladen vonsid18june1996
- Additional Math Paper 1(Solaf)Hochgeladen vonRelify WE
- FB 18 - Math.pdfHochgeladen vonJeffreyBerida
- TME 707 Chapter 1Hochgeladen vonAbimbola
- On compact operatorsHochgeladen vonPaul Mariatte Blue
- An Improved Upper Bound for Leo Moser’s Worm ProblemHochgeladen vonspuffordf
- Isomorphisms in Linear Algebra: A Formal ApproachHochgeladen vonJoseph Heavner
- assignment2.pdfHochgeladen vonManoj Mallick
- Exponentials Polynomials, And Fourier Series More Yield Curve Modelling at the Bank of CanadaHochgeladen vonmounabs
- FMEA - Student ManualHochgeladen vonRajkumar35

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.