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The copyright of this report belongs to the author under the terms of the Copyright Act 1987 as qualified by Regulation 4(1) of the Multimedia University Intellectual Property Regulations. Due

acknowledgement shall always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this report.

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this work has been done by myself and no portion of the work contained in this report has been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification of this or any other university or institute of learning.

I also declare that pursuant to the provisions of the Copyright Act 1987, I have not engaged in any unauthorised act of copying or reproducing or attempt to copy / reproduce or cause to copy / reproduce or permit the copying / reproducing or the sharing and / or downloading of any copyrighted material or an attempt to do so whether by use of the Universitys facilities or outside networks / facilities whether in hard copy or soft copy format, of any material protected under the provisions of sections 3 and 7 of the Act whether for payment or otherwise save as specifically provided for therein. This shall include but not be limited to any lecture notes, course packs, thesis, text books, exam questions, any works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression whether provided by the University or otherwise.

I hereby further declare that in the event of any infringement of the provisions of the Act whether knowingly or unknowingly the University shall not be liable for the same in any manner whatsoever and undertakes to indemnify and keep indemnified the University against all such claims and actions.

Signature: ________________________ Name: Student ID: Date: Salah Mohammed Salah 1041110956 January5th 2011

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DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to my parents For ,Such endless love and support & All my beloved family . . . . . . , : .

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the people who have guided me throughout this project and made this project a success, I am sincerely grateful to my project supervisor, Mr. Aaras Y. , Dr. Chuah Teong , for his continuous guidance, valuable advice and immense effort. Not to forget to express my appreciation for my project moderator, Dr. Chuah Teong , who pointed out shortcomings in the project and helped increase its standard.

I would like to thank heartily Mr. Abdullaziz Aljamimi, who had tried his best to help me in the programming part of this project, I would like to thank all my family members and my friends for their help and moral supports, it makes my project a wonderful and meaningful memory,

For sharing and caring, I really get fruitful experience within years passed in MMU. I managed to learn many things beside my study. How nice to have friends from different cultures and races; this is what I call (Integrity within Diversity)!!! I wish a load of peace and harmony for Malaysia and the World overall.

Finally, I want to express my deepest appreciation to all of those who have helped me directly or indirectly in the completion of this project

ABSTRACT

With the exponential growth in communications, telecommunication companies and corporate are trying to start migrating from the traditional electrical network as their main way of communication within and off their building. This is mainly due to the high bandwidth provided; however, the optical networks have drawbacks, one of them is the high building cost. Essentially ,this project is an optimization problem, the WDM technology has a vast impact in the recent years in the telecommunication industry, due to the speedy growth in the internet traffic and the new services such as HD, resolution image and the video conferencing the, demand in for high bandwidth has increased greatly, but due to the high price of the WDM systems or network devices, it is costly to build such a networks, many researchers have been interested in minimizing the overall network cost, one of the area of interest, is minimizing the number of Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs). Add and drop multiplexers are major cost factor in building WDM networks, because they are significantly expensive, as a matter of fact an appropriate network design plan can help in minimizing the overall cost, and hence WDM is turning out to be a more cost-effective alternative compared to laying more fibers

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Table of Contents

COPYRIGHT ............................................................................................................... ii DECLARATION ........................................................................................................ iii DEDICATION ............................................................................................................ iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................... v ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ vi Table of Contents ....................................................................................................... vii List of Tables................................................................................................................ x List of Figures ............................................................................................................. xi CHAPTER1: Introduction............................................................................................ 1 1.1 Overview: ........................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Motivation .......................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Problem statement .............................................................................................. 2 1.4 Project Objectives .............................................................................................. 2 1.5 Methodology ...................................................................................................... 3 1.6 Report Outline .................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER 2 : WDM Network Overview ................................................................... 7 2.1 Introduction to optical network: ......................................................................... 7 2.2 The importance of WDM: .................................................................................. 7 2.3 Definition of WDM:........................................................................................... 8 2.4 Evolution of WDM Networking: ....................................................................... 9 2.4.1: Point-to-Point WDM Systems: ................................................................ 10 2.4.2: Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) ........................................ 11 2.4.3: Fiber and Wavelength Cross connects -- Passive Star, Passive Router, and Active Switch ..................................................................................................... 12 2.5: WDM NETWORK CONSTRUCTIONS: ...................................................... 14 2.5.1-Broadcast-and select (local) optical WDM:.............................................. 14 2.5.2-Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks: ..................................................... 15 2.6: TYPES OF WDM TECHNOLOGY: .............................................................. 16 2.6.1-CWDM: .................................................................................................... 17 2.6.2: DWDM: ................................................................................................... 18

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2.7: Traffic Grooming: ........................................................................................... 19 2.7.1: Definition: ................................................................................................ 19 2.7.2: Traffic grooming in WDM:...................................................................... 19 2.8 Summary .......................................................................................................... 20 CHAPTER 3: Literature Review ............................................................................... 21 3.1 Traffic Grooming ............................................................................................. 21 3.2 Previous work done on Traffic Grooming ....................................................... 23 3.2.1 Traffic Grooming on SONET ring networks ............................................ 24 3.2.1.1 Single-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Rings .................................... 25 3.2.1.2 Multi-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Ring ....................................... 26 3.2.2 Grooming in Interconnected SONET/WDM Rings .................................. 27 3.2.3 Static Traffic Grooming ............................................................................ 28 3.2.4 Dynamic Traffic Grooming....................................................................... 29 3.3 Routing and Wavelength Assignment .............................................................. 29 3.3.1 Problem Formulation of RWA .................................................................. 29 3.3.2 Solution Approach .................................................................................... 30 3.4 Routing algorithms ........................................................................................... 31 3.4.2 Adaptive routing........................................................................................ 32 3.4.3 Least congested path routing..................................................................... 33 3.5 Summary .......................................................................................................... 34 CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND FINDINGS ............................... 35 4.1 Traffic grooming and ADMs minimizing problem .......................................... 35 4.1.1 Problem Definition .................................................................................... 35 4.2 Algorithmic Approach ..................................................................................... 37 4.2.1Basic Methodology .................................................................................... 37 4.3 Unidirectional rings .......................................................................................... 40 4.3.1. Algorithms Parameters: ............................................................................ 40 4.3.2 Drawing Model ......................................................................................... 40 4.3.3Algorithm I (m=1) ...................................................................................... 42 4.3.3 Illustrative Numerical Example using our Algorithm1 with GUI: ........... 44 4.4 Bidirectional rings ............................................................................................ 47 4.4.1Construction Bidirectional circles (Algorithm 3, m=1) ............................. 47 4.4.2 Algorithmic 3 procedures: ........................................................................ 47 4.4.3 Flow chart of Algorithm3 ........................................................................ 50 4.4.4 Illustrative numerical example using our Algorithm3 with GUI: ............. 51

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4.5 Algorithm II with grooming (m>1) .................................................................. 56 4.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 56 4.5.2 Basic Procedures ....................................................................................... 57 4.5.3 Lower bound of ADMs solution (m>1) .................................................... 58 4.5.4 Flow chart ................................................................................................. 60 4.5.5 Illustrative Example of DLB ..................................................................... 64 4.6 Summary .......................................................................................................... 65 CHAPTER 5: DISSCUSION ON FINDINGS .......................................................... 66 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 66 5.2 No Grooming case (m=1) ................................................................................ 67 5.2.1 Example 1 : Wavelength requirement with no grooming (m=1) .............. 68 5.2.2 Example 2: ADMs requirement without grooming (m=1) ....................... 69 5.3 Analytical Results for Grooming (m>1) .......................................................... 71 5.3.1 ADMs Comparison for unidirectional SONET/WDM ring. ..................... 72 5.3.2ADMs Comparison for Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring ........................ 73 5.4 Saving Percentage due to the proposed Algorithms ........................................ 75 5.5 Summary .......................................................................................................... 78 CHAPTER 6: Conclusions & Recommendations ...................................................... 79 6.1 Summary of Objectives Accomplished ............................................................ 79 6.2 Recommendations for Future Work ..................................................................... 80 REFERENCES........................................................................................................... 81 Appendix A: LIST OF ACRONYMS ........................................................................ 86 Appendix B: Source Code .......................................................................................... 88

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List of Tables

Table 1.1 Gantt chart for Part 1 ................................................................................... 4 Table 1.2 Gantt chart for Part 2 ................................................................................... 5 Table 2.1 Brief Comparison between CWDM and DWDM [10] ............................. 18 Table 4.1 Algorithm 1 Results .................................................................................. 46 Table 4.2 Algorithm 3 Results. ................................................................................. 55 Table 4.3 Finding the appropriate DLB value . ........................................................ 59 Table 4.4 Unidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio ........... 64 Table 4.5 Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio ............. 65 Table 5.1 Numerical results of wavelengths comparison ......................................... 68 Table 5.2 Some values of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3 ......................... 70 Table 5.3 comparison between different N, number of ADMs, and m. .................... 75

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 WDM signal with multiple signal wavelengths [4]......8 Figure 2.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing [6]....................................................... 9 Figure 2.3 Evolution of WDM. [7] .............................................................................. 9 Figure 2.4 A four-channel point-to-point WDM transmission system with amplifiers .................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.0 Figure 2.5 A Wavelengths Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM). ................................ 111 Figure 2.6 (a): 4 x 4 passive stars ........................................................................... 132 Figure 2.6 (b): 4 x 4 passive routers (four wavelengths) ........................................ 133 Figure 2.6(c): 4 x 4 active switch (four wavelengths) ............................................. 143 Figure 2.7 A passive-star-based local optical WDM network .................................. 14 Figure 2.8 A wavelength-routed (wide-area) optical WDM network ....................... 15 Figure 2.9 shows the wavelengths spacing in CWDM technology.[11] ................. 16 Figure 2.10 The wavelengths spacing in DWDM technology.[11] ......................... 17 Figure 3.1 Traffic Grooming ................................................................................... 221 Figure 3.2 Node architectures in a SONET/WDM ring network.............................. 24 Figure 3.3.(a) SONET/WDM network ...................................................................... 24 Figure 3.3.(b) Two possible configurations to support the traffic requests in Fig 15(a) .................................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 3.4 SONET/WDM ring with/without a hub node.......................................... 26 Figure 3.5 sample interconnected-ring network topology and simplified architectures of the junction node.................................................................................................... 27 Figure 4.1 Add-Drop Multiplexers ............................................................................ 35 Figure 4.2 Basic Methodology ................................................................................. 38 Figure 4.3 Basic Methodology using GUI ................................................................ 39 Figure 4.4. (a) GUI of drawing demo ........................................................................ 41 Figure 4.4. (b) Sampled ring network. ..................................................................... 41 Figure 4.4.(c) WDM ring network with optical bypass ........................................... 42 Figure 4.5 Flow chart of Algorithm1 ......................................................................... 44 Figure 4.6.(a) construct circle with GUI .................................................................. 45 Figure 4.6. (b) Number of circles constructed due to node1 (egress node). ............ 45 Figure 4.6. (c) output results of Algo1. (m=1) ......................................................... 46

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Figure 4.7. (a) Construct circles when N is even (S=N/2) ........................................ 48 Figure 4.7. (b) Construct circles when N is even (1<=s<=N/4)................................ 48 Figure 4.8. (a) Flow chart of Algorithm3................................................................. 50 Figure 4.8. (b) End of Algo3 flow chart................................................................... 51 Figure 4.9. (a) Construct a circle with 2 clockwise connections. ............................ 52 Figure 4.9. (b) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections ................................ 52 Figure 4.9. (c) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3............. 53 Figure 4.9 (d) Results from Algorithm3 (N=10)...................................................... 53 Figure 4.9.(e) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections s=N\4. ..................... 54 Figure 4.9. (f) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3 (s=N/4) 54 Figure 4.9.(g) Results from Algorithm3 (N=12)...................................................... 55 Figure 4.10 AlgorithmII general GUI. .................................................................. 57

Figure 4.11.(a) Algorithm II basic flow chart. ........................................................... 60 Figure 4.11. (b) FindM() flow chart. .......................................................................... 61 Figure 4.11.(c) FindM() flow chart continues.. .................................................... 62 Figure 4.11.(d) FindM() flow chart continues... .................................................. 63 Figure 4.11.(e) End flow chart of the function FindM() and AlgoII. ........................ 64 Figure 5.1 Wavelength requirement for unidirectional and bidirectional ring ....... 69

Figure 5.2 Number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3. .............................. 71 Figure 5.3 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Unidirectional ring with m=1, 5, 10, 15. ................................................................................................... 73 Figure 5.4 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Bidirectional ring with m=1, 5, 10, 15. ................................................................................................... 74 Figure 5.5 Saving percentage in ADMs for unidirectional ring............................... 76 Figure 5.6 Saving percentage in ADMs for bidirectional ring................................. 77

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CHAPTER1: Introduction

1.1 Overview:

Current era requires a new technology which would be able to handle the bandwidth hungry services, so the next-generation of optical networks is characterized with high bandwidth with the rapid growth of traffic; it is the solution for the current high demands of traffic.

Optical networks, in particular, wavelength division multiplexing technique, has become the most promising networking choice to meet ever-increasing demands on bandwidth since the emergence of bandwidth intensive communication or computing applications, such as multimedia conferencing, data browsing in the World Wide Web, and video-on-demand services.

Over the last decades, there has been a significant research activity on the traffic grooming problem, one important aspects of interest is minimizing the cost of the network, that can be achieved through different techniques, such as minimizing the numbers of add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) used in the network, one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to perform traffic add/drop on that wavelength. These ADMs are quite expensive; therefore networks overall cost could be minimized by minimizing these end line equipments.

1.2 Motivation

Optical Networks are quite a new technology but its emergence provides a lot of advantages such as meeting the high demands for higher

bandwidth, revenue generation and lesser operational time, a network upgrade based on WDM technology is the favored choice for service providers, since building such networks can be a cost-effective.

WDM is the basic technology of optical networking which allows an optical fiber to carry traffic on multiple channels by assigning to each channel a unique wavelength in which the corresponding traffic is transmitted.

Fortunately, I have realized the importance of WDM technology and its advantages as mentioned above, which gave me a massive motivation towards this project. As well as, this technology can be used in the working environment for many company attaches, such as the switching central office, where a high bandwidth is required to carry the traffic demands over a single fiber optic. Traffic grooming and wavelength assignment are an effective mechanism to reduce the numbers of needed ADMs, which will directly minimized the cost of the network, in addition this is helping the services providers in utilizing the network resources, that will help in spreading the technology to support the high demand for the customers satisfaction as well as for the service providers revenue generation.

The principle consideration of network performance is limited by processing capability of the networks electronics elements, the cost of electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) are absolutely high, so by using appropriate traffic grooming and wavelength assignment which is defined as the intelligent allocation of the

demands onto available wavelength such that the number of ADMs is minimized, this results in cost-effective WDM network.

The projects objectives are: Study the WDM technology To know the technology basic structure, evolution, and types of WDM. To understand the traffic grooming It is important to understand the concept of traffic grooming.

To suggest an algorithm to minimize the number of ADMs This is the essential object of this project, to find an optimal cost solution for the network. Analyze the numerical result Compare and analyze the result extensively, in order to conclude this report and suggest some recommendation for the future work.

1.5 Methodology

This project is considered as my final year project. It consists of two parts which must be done within two semesters of the university studying plan. During the first trimester, an extensive research on the previous work related to this project, since more knowledge is needed to know how to analyze it, how to develop the algorithm to achieve the objectives of this project, to know the parameters, the constraints, in the second trimester, some design model were examined and stimulated to have some experimental result on that designs, then a deep and extensive analysis were done. The chronological methodology of how this project was carried out is shown below:

Literature reviews on optical network and WDM technology: including network types and their elements, history and future.

A study on Traffic Grooming was done. Analyzing the past researches. Presentation part 1; discussed about the literature reviews. Research for possible solutions to minimize ADMs more practically. Testing and implementing the algorithms which were developed Adjusting and improving the performance of the algorithms. Project documentation and writing.

WEEK NUMBERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1H 2H 3H 4H

Discussion on the topic with supervisor Literature review on background theory Analyzing past researches Presentation part one

Table 1.1 Gantt chart for Part 1

TASKS Part one review Development of the algorithm Research improved results Discussion on idea with supervisor Report writing Report submission Presentation part two on solutions for

WEEK NUMBERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1H 2H 3H 4H

The organization of the rest of this report is as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on background, evolution, architecture, and types of WDM network as well as traffic grooming. Besides that, Chapter 3 explains the previous work done on Traffic Grooming. Some basic structure of the SONET and WDM networks nodes are discussed as well, and some suggested solutions to minimize the number of the needed ADMs. A further elaboration for the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) and different types of routing techniques were presented. Chapter 4 is my main framework, which is extensively described the problem in details, and the developed algorithms, which used to minimize the ADMs, the findings and tables of results are introduced with different suggested models. Chapter 5 is the beating of excitation to my report, it discusses the findings and the numerical results, and shows relations between the parameters of the algorithms, which all presented in term of graphs and data is analyzed. Finally my sixth chapter, which concludes the report with a summary of the work done and suggests a number of recommendations for future work that assist in developing the algorithms which minimizes the number of ADMs, or minimizing the overall cost of the network.

This chapter will show a brief introduction of optical network and have a good description about WDM and its evolution, structure as well as traffic grooming. Optical network definition is presented in section 2.1, through section 2.2 until section 2.6, all about WDM network: importance, definition, evolution, structure, and types. Then section 2.7 is regarding traffic grooming and finally the summary in section 2.8.

Optical networks are high-capacity networks based on optical technologies and components that provide routing, grooming, and wavelength based service which is used to satisfy increasing bandwidth demands of todays applications, such as video, music transferring, multimedia interaction, live TV, Internet and other digital services. [1] Optical networks can be basically categorized as [2]: First Generation Optical Networks. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

(SONET/SDH). Second Generation Optical Networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM),(The heart of optical network). Optical Networking Components. Wavelength Routing Networks.

Wavelength division multiplexing is one of the important enabling technologies for optical networking. It partitions the optical bandwidth into a large number of channels as well as allows multiple data streams to be transferred along the same fiber simultaneously.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) offers the promise to satisfy the requirements of bandwidth for internet infrastructure, and provide a scalable solution for supporting bandwidth needs of future applications in both local and wide areas. Using WDM, the fiber bandwidth is divided into multiple channels, each operating at a given wavelength, and specific data rate tailored to the speed of electronic devices. [3] A network improvement based on WDM technology is the favored choice for service providers since WDM is cost-effective, flexible and scalable technology for increasing capacity of a fiber network. As a result, many service provider and enterprise corporations are turning to wave division multiplexing technology. WDM architecture concept is simply based on transmitting multiple signals, every signal with a different wavelength instead of transmitting a single signal on a single wavelength; each remains a separate data signal and non-effected by other signals on the fiber. [3]

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology multiplexes many separate optical signals into a combined signal that is transported over a single fiber. The composite signal is demultiplexed at the receiver end and then each unique wavelength is retrieved. [5]

Deployment of WDM technology over different optical networks, such as synchronous optical network (SONET) leads to fully exploit the important bandwidth of optical fiber by combine multiple wavelengths over a single fiber. As a result, a massive fiber bandwidth over a terabit per second is available in each fiber.

2.4.1: Point-to-Point WDM Systems: WDM is the most technology being deployed by several telecommunication industries for point to point communication. Due to the growing demand for higher bandwidth by end users, this progressively increasing demand on communication bandwidth forced service providers to increase the deployment of point-to-point WDM systems, so WDM is turning out to be a cost-effective alternative compared to laying more on fibers. The relative costs of upgrading the transmission capacity of a point-to-point transmission link from OC-48 (2.5 Gbps) to OC-192 (10 Gbps) via three possible solutions [8]:

Installation or burial of additional terminating equipment and fibers (the multifiber solution) A four-channel WDM solution (see FIG.2.4) where a WDM multiplexer combines four independent data streams, each on unique wavelength, and send them on a fiber; and a demultiplexer at the fibers receiving end separates out these data streams; and

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2.4.2: Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) or sometimes called as optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) is the key component for WDM systems to select and route different channels. Precisely, it is an optical telecommunications device that is able to add or drop individual wavelengths without separating all wavelengths, it is an used device used in wavelength-division multiplexing systems for multiplexing and routing different channels without conversion of wavelength into electrical format [8].

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2.4.3: Fiber and Wavelength Cross connects -- Passive Star, Passive Router, and Active Switch In order to obtain a network of multi-wavelength fiber links, we need suitable fiber interconnection devices. These devices fall under three categories [8]: Passive star: is a ``broadcast'' device, so a signal that is inserted on a given wavelength from an input fiber port will have its power equally divided among all output ports. It is also used to build local WDM networks. Passive router: can perform separate routing for each of the incident wavelengths on an input fiber to the same wavelength on separated output fibers. Mainly, the passive router has found as a multiplexing (mux)/demultiplexing (demux) device.

Active switch: this switch allows wavelength reuse, and it can support N^2 simultaneous connections through itself just like the passive router. It is used for constructing wide-area wavelength routed networks.

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Figure 2.6. (c): 4 x 4 active switch (four wavelengths) No doubt to predict that WDM is here to stay! WDM standardization efforts, for instances, to set up a standard set of wavelengths to facilitate WDM equipment interoperability, are currently in progress under the watch of the International Telecommunications. [8].

2.5.1-Broadcast-and select (local) optical WDM: This type of construction results when WDM network shares a common transmission medium and employs a simple broadcasting mechanism for transmitting and receiving optical signals between network nodes . For example, a local WDM optical network can be constructed by connecting network nodes via two-way fibers to a passive star as shown in figure 2.7. An optical information stream is produced when a node sends its transmission to the star on one available wavelength using a laser. The star combines optically all information streams from multiple sources, and then each streams power signal is equally split and forwarded to all of the nodes on their receiver fibers. The received node is tuned to only one of the wavelengths, so the information stream is received. [8]

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One advantage of this type of network lies in its simplicity and broadcasting capability. However, it needs a large number of wavelengths because the wavelengths cant be reused.

2.5.2-Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks: This type of network employs wavelength routing to transfer data traffic. As shown in the figure below, it basically consists of an optical switching fabric, comprising active switches, both connected via fiber links to form an arbitrary physical topology where every end user is connected by a fiber link. The network node is a combination of an end-user and its corresponding switch. [8]

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Figure 2.8 A wavelength-routed (wide-area) optical WDM network Lightpath is the fundamental mechanism of communication in a wavelength routed network. A lightpath is a direct optical transmission channel between two nodes in a network and may pass more than one fiber link. Furthermore, if two or more lightpaths are traversing the same fiber link, they must be on different channels to prevent interference with each other.

In the upper figure, lightpath has been established between several nodes, such as node A with node C on wavelength channel ( 1) where active switches 1,6,and 7 route the lightpath among them, node B with node F on wavelength (2),and node H with node G on wavelength (1).[8]

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WDM comes into flavors: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). 2.6.1-CWDM: It is a robust technology increases fiber capacity in 4, 8, or 16 increments. It uses a wide spectrum to create 16 channels at 2.5Gbps by increasing the channel spacing between wavelengths on the fiber where the spacing is about 10 to 20nm as shown in the following figure:

Figure 2.9 shows the wavelengths spacing in CWDM technology.[11] The main purpose of CWDM is short-range communication; typically it is used for short-distance application. On the other hand, it limits maximum propagation distance.[9],[10]

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2.6.2: DWDM: The higher numbers of wavelengths has lead to what we call Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. It briefly described as a set of optical channels, each is using different wavelength but single fiber is shared among them. DWDM is characterized by its narrow spectrum which can pack 16 0r more channels and decreasing the wavelength spacing to about 1-2 nm .DWDM systems typically provide 1-44 channels of capacity.[9],[10]. In the few short years of WDM deployment, the performance has been improved dramatically, channel count has risen up to 80-160 channels, and channel spacing has shrunk from 500GHz to 50GHz and less. Have a look to the figure below:

Figure 2.10 The wavelengths spacing in DWDM technology.[11] DWDM will continue to provide the bandwidth for large amounts of data and long-range communication. In fact, the capacity of systems will grow as technologies advance that allow closer spacing, and therefore higher numbers, of wavelengths packed tightly together.[9],[10].

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CWDM Defined by wavelengths Short-range communications Uses wide-range frequencies Light signal isn't amplified Wavelengths spread far apart Wavelength drift is possible

DWDM Defined by frequencies Long-haul transmissions Narrow frequencies Signal amplification maybe used Tightly packed wavelengths Precision lasers required to keep channels on target

2.7.1: Definition: Traffic grooming issue becomes central in networks design. It has a variety of meanings but shortly, it is the process of packing low-rate traffic streams to higher speed streams which considered as a single entity to meet the goals of network design such as cost minimization. The main objective of grooming is to minimize the numbers of electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) required. [12] Absolutely, traffic grooming is an important concern for next generation optical WDM networks to cost-effectively perform end to end automatic provisioning. As well as, the outcomes of grooming efforts include [13]: Circuits channels and time-slot assignments able to be changed. Improvement of capacity utilization. Elimination of wavelength continuity and distinct channel in some circuits. Increase in the number of utilizable routing possibilities. Decompose the problem into easier sub-problems to solve it simply.

Data in WDM networks, is essentially earmarked and shifted in all optical channels where the light path is formed between a pair of network nodes of optical channels, so this data can be delivered over several channels using multiple wavelengths simultaneously. [14]

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Basically, traffic grooming in this network can be defined as allocation of subwavelength tributaries onto full wavelength channels which results in very efficient utilization of network resources. For instance, we can efficiently utilize the network capacity by packing several flows from multiple network connections with subwavelength into the same lightpath.[15] To enhance traffic grooming, each node of WDM ring, should use an electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) which employed to multiplex or combine low rate traffic streams onto individual wavelengths with higher rates. In addition, this ADM is necessary at a node if it has data to be transmitted to or received from another network counterpart. [16]

2.8 Summary

This chapter has touched the concept of optical network and the WDM technology with its historical evolution, basic structure and how rapidly the traffic demands have grown in the recent decades. It also has shown how the users population has increased and required larger bandwidth to satisfy their services usage, such as high definition videos, video conferences, and image resolution. As we know, the WDM technology was introduced to support the high bandwidth which satisfies the customers demand, networks upgrade based on WDM technology had gone through some level on inventions such as Point-to-Point WDM Systems, Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer and fiber interconnection devices, with different network constructions such as Broadcast-and select optical WDM and Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks. Service providers have faced different challenges in launching the optical WDM network projects, one of the major factors is the cost factor, hence many researchers have been focusing in the cost of many optical network systems by using traffic grooming technology, and how it can be optimized in different ways.

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One of the essential considerations in designing WDM networks is traffic grooming, routing and wavelength assignments, in order to meet network design goals, this chapter provides a deep and wide literature review on the traffic grooming in section 3.1, then previous work done on traffic Grooming was discussed in section 3.2, after that routing and wavelength assignments is presented in section 3.3, routing algorithms are shown in details in section 3.4, in the end, the chapter is concluded with a brief summary in section 3.5.

Telecommunication networks recently have faced large increase in traffic demands, the main breakthrough was in implementing optical wavelength division multiplexing network, where this high bandwidth can be split across multiple WDM on a single fiber link, this led to the traffic grooming in networks, which refers to grouping low rate traffic streams into higher speed streams, which can be considered as single entities [20]. In brevity, traffic grooming is thus defined as the intelligent allocation of the demand onto available wavelength such that the network cost is minimized. As we know, in WDM each wavelength can be viewed as channel that provides an optical connections between two nodes, which practically called light-path, then this light-path needs to be routed and assigned a wavelength, this process referred to as a routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem. Nonetheless RWA has deficiencies in term of efficient utilization of network resources; telecommunication carriers adopted a technique that can efficiently group the low speed traffic streams into high capacity channels. This efficient technique named as RWA problem with grooming (GRWA). [19] Additionally, GRWA comprises of three sub-problems that are grooming (grouping), other [17]: Grooming simply combines multiple low rate traffic into one channel. routing and wavelength assignment which are interrelated to each

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Routing assignment performs allocating the route of light-path to each traffic flow in a provided set of commodities. We indicate a source-destination node pair with traffic demand as a commodity.

Wavelength assignment is the processes of assign incoming commodities to

Figure 3 .1 Traffic Grooming Furthermore, traffic grooming is usually divided into four sub-problems, which are not necessarily independent [18]: Determining the virtual topology that consists of light paths routing the light paths over the physical topology Performing wavelength assignment to the light paths routing the traffic on the virtual topology Traffic-adaptive has become the key technology WDM networks, in order to meet network design goals such as cost optimization, traffic grooming is receiving an extensive research attention, and some of these researches indicate that all of these sub-problems of traffic grooming are proven to be NP-hard [18].

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The problem of designing WDM networks has been considered deeply as the WDM systems start being deployed commercially. Due to the importance of traffic grooming problem in designing WDM network, it has received many research activities. In order to save network cost and to improve network performance there are different multiplexing techniques can be used for traffic grooming in different domains of optical WDM networks [21]: Space-division multiplexing (SDM) partitions the physical space to increase the transmission bandwidth. For instance, bundling of multiple fibers into a cable or use multiple fibers within a network link. Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) partitions the available frequency spectrum into a set of independent channels. The use of FDM within an optical network is termed (dense) wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM or WDM) which enables a given fiber to carry traffic on many distinct wavelengths. WDM divides the optical spectrum into coarser units, called wavebands, which are further divided into wavelength channels. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) divides the bandwidths time domain into repeated time-slots of fixed length. Using TDM, multiple signals can share a given wavelength if they are non-overlapping in time. Dynamic statistical multiplexing or packet-division multiplexing (PDM) provides virtual circuit service in an IP/MPLS over WDM network architecture. The bandwidth of a WDM channel is shared between multiple IP traffic streams (virtual circuits).

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3.2.1 Traffic Grooming on SONET ring networks Todays physical layer network infrastructure is mostly built around synchronous optical network (SONET) ring because of high capacity and inherent reliability, which is constructed using fiber ( one or two) pairs used in order to provide protection to connect SONET add drop multiplexers (ADM). In a SONET network, one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to execute traffic add/drop on that particular wavelength, with the advancement of WDM, a single fiber can support over a hundred wavelengths simultaneously, this will lead the construction of the network to a very high building cost since we will need a large number of ADMs at every network node, even though a lot of traffic is only bypassing an intermediate node, with the new optical devices such as optical add-drop multiplexers (O-ADM) (wavelength add-drop multiplexers (W-ADM)), it is possible for a node to bypass most of wavelength channels optically without the need for local ADMs at each wavelength and only drop the wavelengths carrying the traffic destined to the node [18]. WDM is mainly used as a point-to-point transmission technology, where many wavelengths are supported and each wavelength in such a SONET/WDM network is operated at OC-N line rate, e.g., N=48. Each ADM has the ability to separate a high rate SONET signal into lower rate components, WDM has the ability to support multiple SONET rings on a single fiber pair, the SONET systems hierarchical TDM schemes allow a high-speed OC-N channel to carry multiple OCM channels (where M is smaller than or equal to N). The ratio of N and the smallest value of M carried by the network is called grooming ratio, electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) are used to add/drop traffic at intermediate nodes to/from the high-speed channels [21].

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In single-hop nodes within a logical ring communicate with each other straightforwardly, however, the traffic on a wavelength cannot be switched to other wavelengths unless there is a wavelength converter at the networks nodes, so OC-M low-speed connections are groomed on to OC-N wavelength channels where the traffic demand should be satisfied and the network design optimized by minimizing the total needed number of ADMs. [21] & [22] [23]

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Figure 3.3.(b) Two possible configurations to support the traffic requests in Fig 15(a). Figures 3.3.(a) and 3.3.(b) show an example in which, by carefully grooming traffic in the SONET/WDM rings, minimizing the number of ADMs can be achieved. [21] Figures 3.3.(a) shows a SONET/WDM ring network with 6 unidirectional connection requests. Each node is also equipped with an O-ADM (not shown in the figures). Assume that the SONET ring is also unidirectional (clockwise), the capacity of each wavelength is OC-N, and it can support two OC-M low-speed traffic requests in TDM fashion, i.e., N = 2M, in order to support all of the traffic requests, 8 ADMs are used in the network. Figure 3.3(b).(a), shows a possible configuration. By interchanging the connections (1,3) and (2,3), wavelength 2 (red) can be optically bypassed at node 2, which results in one ADM savings at node 2. Figure 3.3.(b). (b) illustrates this configuration. [21] 3.2.1.2 Multi-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Ring In Multi-Hop network architecture there are some nodes equipped with Digital Cross connects (DXCs), in this type of architecture traffic from one wavelength/time-slot can be switched to any other wavelength/time-slot at the hub node, where the hub node is the node at which the DXC installed as in node 3 in

26

figure 3.4, a conversion from optical to electronic at the hub node is required for the traffic since there is a wavelength/time-slot exchange occurs, this grooming approach is called multi-hop grooming. [21] & [23]

Figure 3.4 SONET/WDM ring with/without a hub node The point-to-point WDM ring network (PPWDM ring) is a network type where there is a DXC at every node.

3.2.2 Grooming in Interconnected SONET/WDM Rings Numerous numbers of researchers have extended their studies of traffic grooming in SONET/WDM, to include the interconnected-ring topology, since most of todays backbone networks are built up from a combination of interconnected-ring [18].

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Service providers required the assistance of researchers on extending the traffic grooming study from a single -ring to the interconnected-ring topology which helped them in designing their networks. [21] Figure 3.5 illustrates an interconnected SONET/WDM ring network with various architectures can be used at the junction node to interconnect the two SONET rings [21].

Figure 3.5 Sample interconnected-ring network topology and simplified architectures of the junction node.

Static traffic, also known as permanent traffic, assumes that the whole set of light-path demands is known in advance, and it will not alter with time [18], and the problem is then to set up light-paths for these light-path demands in a global fashion while minimizing network resources such as the number of wavelengths [39] or the number of fibers in the network [32]. Alternatively, one may attempt to set up as many of these demands as possible for a given fixed number of wavelengths per fiber-link [33].

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Dynamic traffic presumes that the light-path demands arrive in the network one by one, and it will change with time [32]. Two types of dynamic traffic can be distinguished: scheduled light-path demands (SLDs) and random light-path demands (RLDs) [31] [34] [35]. Scheduled light-path demands are connection requests for which the setup and tear-down dates are known in advance [36]. Conversely, random light-path demands are characterized by random arrival and life duration processes [37] [38].

As mentioned previously, the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) is critically important for maximizing the efficiency of the network, the RWA problem is to raise the number of established connections, in this problem we need to select a suitable path and wavelength among all the possible choices for each connection so that no two paths sharing a link are assigned the same wavelength, each connection request must be given a route and wavelength. The wavelength must be consistent for the entire path, unless the usage of wavelength converters is assumed. Two connections requests can share the same optical link, provided a different wavelength is used [24] [30].

3.3.1 Problem Formulation of RWA The Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is defined as follows: Given a network topology and a set of light-path demands to be set up and given a constraint on the number of wavelengths, we need to determine the paths and the wavelengths that should be assigned to the light-path demands (traffic connection or traffic demand) so that a certain optimality criterion (performance metric) is achieved [18]

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The RWA algorithms available in the literature differ in their performance metrics and traffic assumption: the performance metrics used generally fall under one of the following three categories: Number of wavelengths required to set up the arrived or given set of lightpath demands [25] [18]. Light-path demands blocking probability also called throughput which is defined as the ratio between the number of blocked light-path requests and the total number of light-path demands arrived or given [26]. Number of fiber resources handled at the routing nodes (fiber cost). Traffic assumptions generally fall into one of the following three categories: static, incremental, and dynamic [27] [28]. 3.3.2 Solution Approach RWA problem is well known for NP-complete characteristics [18], Numerous studies have investigated the routing and wavelength assignment problem, these studies often set the light-bath establishment problem as an integer linear program (ILP) with the objective to minimize the resources required to establish the given set of light-path demands[29]. Sometimes it is only possible to solve small networks, hence an alternative approach is used, by which the RWA is separated into two sub-problem and consider it disjointedly, first sub-problem is the routing sub-problem which is the selection of the link to complete the traffic request subject to the resource availability, the second sub-problem is wavelength assignment, which is the search and the assignment of available wavelength to path selected from routing sub-problem [30].

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As explained earlier, the routing and wavelength assignment may be processed within two separate steps. In this section, we give brief descriptions of the main algorithms proposed in the literature for the routing; there may be insufficient network resources to set up a light-path, in which case the connection request will be blocked. Thus, the objective is to choose a path which maximizes the probability of setting up a given connection, while at the same time attempting to minimize the blocking for future connections. Approaches to solve the routing sub-problem can be broadly classified into four types: Fixed Routing (FR), Fixed Alternate Routing (FAR), Adaptive Routing (AR) and Least Congested Path Routing (LCR) [41] [42] [44] [45]. Among these approaches, fixed routing is the simplest while adaptive routing yields the best performance. Alternate routing offers a trade-off between complexity and performance [46]. 3.4.1.1 Fixed routing Fixed routing is the simplest algorithm, in which a single fixed path is predetermined for each source-destination pair, the same fixed route for a given source and destination pair is always used. Typically this path is computed ahead of time using a shortest path algorithm, such as Dijkstra's Algorithm [24]. If resources along the fixed path are in use, future connection requests will be blocked even though other paths may exist. When a Light-path Demand (LD) is to be set up, the network will attempt to establish a light-path along the fixed path [43]. It checks whether some wavelength is free on all the links on the path. If none is free on this fixed route, then the LD is blocked. If more than one wavelength is available, a wavelength selection algorithm can be used to select the best wavelength. A fixed routing approach is easy to implement and has a short set up time; however, it is very limited in terms of routing options and may lead to a high level of blocking. In order to minimize the blocking in fixed routing

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balances the load evenly across the network links, while this approach is very simple, the performance is usually not sufficient.[47]

3.4.1.2Fixed alternate routing Fixed alternate routing [45] is an extension of fixed path routing, instead of having just one fixed route for a given source and destination pair, several routes are stored. The probes can be sent in a serial or parallel fashion. For each connection request, the source node attempts to find a connection on each of the paths. If all of the paths fail, then the connection is blocked. If multiple paths are available, only one of them would be utilized [43]. Although this algorithm is slightly more complex than the FR algorithm, it has also the advantage of simplicity and shorter connection set-up time. Add to that, it has better performance than the FR algorithm as a choice among multiple shortest paths has to be done. However, the candidate paths for a node pair

may not include all the possible paths. As a result, the performance of the algorithm is not the best achievable [40]. 3.4.2 Adaptive routing

Adaptive routing algorithm also called unconstrained routing algorithm [48], the major issue with both fixed path routing and fixed alternate routing is that neither algorithm takes into account the current state of the network. If the predetermined paths are not available, the connection demand will become blocked even though other paths may exist. Fixed Path Routing and Fixed Alternate Routing are both not quality aware. For these reasons, most of the research in RWA is presently taking place in Adaptive algorithms [24]. It is expected to achieve better performance than the FR and FAR algorithms. Adaptive routing does not predetermine the candidate paths for any node pair. Instead it keeps up to date the network state information, this state information is dynamic and is updated whenever a connection is established or torn down, when a new LD is to be set up for a source destination pair, it chooses the best path (based on some cost criterion) among all the possible paths, thus, by exploring

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all possible paths, it attempts to increase the acceptance rate of connection requests [43].

In order to select the optimal path, a cost is assigned to each link in the network based on present network state information, such as wavelength availability on links, a least-cost routing algorithm is then executed to find the least cost path, since the AR algorithm considers all possible paths, it results in better performance than the FR and FAR algorithms. In spite of this merit, the algorithm has longer setup times than the FR and FAR algorithms. Additionally, this algorithm is more suitable for centralized implementation and less amenable to distributed implementation. [40] A number of adaptive routing schemes that do exist which rely on local information rather than global information, the advantage of using local information is that the nodes do not have to retain large amount of state information; however, routing decisions tend to be less optimal than in the case of global information [43]. 3.4.3 Least congested path routing Least congested path routing [44] selects the path with least congestion among the possible paths connecting a source node and a destination node in the network. The congestion of a path is usually determined from the number of free wavelengths available on the entire path. Generally the greater the number of free wavelengths, the less congested is the path. The cost of a path is determined by the wavelength availability (congestion) along the path. Take in mind, if more than one path has the same cost, then the path with shorter hop count is preferred. Once the path is chosen, a wavelength assignment algorithm is then employed to select the wavelength(s), by selecting the least congested path; the algorithm tries to keep as many path-free wavelengths as possible in order to help satisfying many of future LDs. [44] The performance of this algorithm is expected to be better than the FR and FAR algorithms. Since this algorithm is based on alternate routing, it has been

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shown in [42] that LCR performs much better than fixed and fixed-alternate routing, its performance is expected to be poorer than the that of the AR algorithm.[40]

3.5 Summary

Traffic grooming, routing and wavelength assignments are essential considerations in designing WDM networks, in order to save network cost and to

improve network performance there are different multiplexing techniques can be used for traffic grooming in different domains of optical WDM networks

Moreover, the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) is critically important for maximizing the efficiency of the network; approaches to solve the routing sub-problem can be broadly classified into four types: Fixed Routing (FR), Fixed Alternate Routing (FAR), Adaptive Routing (AR) and Least Congested Path Routing (LCR).

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Throughout this chapter, we propose the developed algorithms for traffic grooming and wavelength assignments which are used to reduce the number of ADMs and also the number of wavelengths. Section 4.1 shows the problem definition. Algorithms overview is shown in section 4.2.Then, Unidirectional ring case with Algorithm1 is shown in section 4.3, and also Bidirectional ring with Algorithm3 is shown in section 4.4.Besides that, Algorithm II is shown in section 4.5 and then we end this chapter with brief summary in section 4.6.

Traffic grooming is a common theme around which our entire work is focused, which refers to various problems, such as network planning, topology design (based on static traffic demand), and dynamic circuit provisioning (based on dynamic traffic demand),as though traffic grooming is essentially an optimization problem..[21] 4.1.1 Problem Definition Throughout this chapter, we define the problem of traffic grooming as well as the wavelength assignment for networks, We then present a restricted versions of the problem that will be studied in depth. The cost of the network relays on Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) which is simply defined as an electronic device which is installed at an intermediate point on a transmission line in order to enable new signals to come in and existing signals to go out. However, the number of used ADMs can be dramatically reduced by appropriate traffic grooming and using wavelength ADMs (WADMs). It is obvious in a SONET/WDM ring network, one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to perform traffic add or drop at each of its endpoints of that exact wavelength, with the advent of WDM, a single fiber can support over a hundred wavelengths simultaneously.[18]

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Figure 4.1 Add-Drop Multiplexers Recently, new optical components has emerged such as optical add-drop multiplexer (O-ADM) (or wavelength add-drop multiplexing (W-ADM)), has achieved noticeable reduction in the needed number of ADMs at every node since WADM capable of bypassing a lot of traffic at intermediate node. As well as, employing wavelength routing at each node by using a WADM which able to add (and drop) only the wavelengths carrying traffic originated from (and destined to) a node. [14] Furthermore, various studies and researchers have found that, the overall number of ADMs can be further minimized in different ways. For instance, if two traffic connections (traffic required) are assigned into the same wavelength, then both will share single ADM instead of two ADMs. [18] On the other hand, if a network is not properly designed, more ADMs may be needed to carry the same amount of traffic. This problem is not desirable in metroarea and enterprise networks where there are few users sharing the system cost.As a result, with careful analyzing of the network needed resources and utilizing these resources with the appropriate network design planning , we can obtained large reduction in the network cost.[22]

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Hence, minimizing the Number of ADMs will rise up some issues which are, for a given low-speed set of traffic demands, which low-speed demands should be groomed together, how wavelength assignment can be used to minimize ADM cost for a given topology and routing. Which wavelengths should be used to carry the traffic, which wavelengths should be dropped at a local node and how many ADMs are needed at a particular node? [18]

The whole problem of traffic grooming is NP-complete which turns out to be integer linear programming (ILP).Traffic grooming in SONET/WDM rings makes a fruitful contribution to reduce the number of ADMs. We have adopted similar strategy on [49] and [51], to propose near-optimal solution algorithms for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment to minimize both the number of wavelengths and the number of ADMs. However, we consider the static traffic pattern in SONET/WDM rings, where the traffic from one node to another may require a fraction of the total bandwidth of one wavelength. By using a minimum number of wavelengths, the saving in ADMs due to traffic grooming and wavelength routing are significant, especially for massive network size. The generality of this approach is the validity to be applied in unidirectional or bidirectional rings having an arbitrary number of nodes and also grooming ratio (factor), under both of uniform and non-uniform traffic (optional). Here, we will consider the uniform traffic pattern. We have considered Matlab software to perform our basic simulation with the wonderful use of graphic user interface (GUI). 4.2.1Basic Methodology To our best knowledge, our heuristic algorithms are based on the scheduling algorithms which describe the problem of traffic grooming and wavelength assignment, this proposed approach has two main phases called, circle construction and circle grooming. First phase is to construct as few circles as possible to include all available connections with an egress node, where each circle consists of multiple

37

nonoverlapping connections as to minimize the number of wavelengths (W).In short words, we bundle all connections (h) from one node to another into a superconnection which is then assigned to one wavelength, so we reduce the number of wavelengths by suitably filling each wavelength. Second phase, once the circles are constructed, another heuristic algorithm is used to groom up to (m) circles onto a wavelength (W=C/m) ring while trying to overlap as many as possible end nodes belonging to different circles which will result in small number of ADMs.[49] The distinguished merit of this work is that, the wavelength assignment has largely accomplished during circle construction phase where wavelength assignment actually consists in distributing connections on different wavelength without contention, this will help to improve the network performance.

Drawing Model

Algorithm 3: construct

circles when N is even. (No traffic grooming (m=1))

Algorithm 1:

construct circles. (No traffic grooming (m=1))

Algorithm II:

Grooming circles (m>1)

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Generally, our main framework is represented using Graphic user interface (GUI) in MATLAB, which is shown in this figure

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4.3.1. Algorithms Parameters: These algorithms focus on the WDM ring networks with egress (all from-one) traffic, in which an unidirectional traffic is considered, a number of nodes for such a network, number of connections, traffic grooming ratio (factor),traffic required, number of wavelengths to carry the demanded traffic, numbers of ADMs to perform wavelengths adding and dropping at a specific node. List of parameters: N: Number of nodes in the network. C: Total number of circles formed (capacity). D: Total number of ADMs. W: Number of wavelengths Wmin: Minimum number of wavelengths. m: grooming ratio segment: indicates the connection between node i and node j. 4.3.2 Drawing Model This model illustrates a humble SONET/WDM ring network drawing with arbitrary number of nodes ,wavelengths and network rang to handle the traffic requests in the WDM ring network, as well as, it enables us to select any node in the ring network to bypass it optically. We designed this demonstration by graphic user interface (GUI) as shown in figure 4.4.(a).

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Figure 4.4.(a) GUI of drawing demo For example, if we key in six nodes to construct the ring network with optional ranges value, and the traffic will be carried onto two wavelengths, this network will look as following figure below.

Figure 4.4. (b) Sampled ring network. Then, we improved this drawing model for the case of optically bypass, where the user is required to choose which node to be bypassed for each wavelength in the ring network. For example, in the first wavelength (black line), node two (white color) assumed to be bypassed, and in the second wavelength (red line), node

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five is considered as bypassed. The bypassed node will have different color from others, so we obtain the following figure:

Figure 4.4. (c) WDM ring network with optical bypass 4.3.3Algorithm I (m=1) As mentioned previously within the basic methodology, this algorithm performs circuit construction without grooming consideration (m=1) in

unidirectional SONET/WDM ring. This is can be done by combining multiple connections having common end nodes to form the minimum number of circles that are needed to support all requested connections of uniform traffic. Then, these circles suitably feed into various wavelengths which results in the minimum number of (Wmin) wavelengths too. Moreover, our approach can effectively separate wavelength assignment from traffic grooming, and thus help to simplify both problems and obtain efficient solutions. For example, after the circles had been already constructed, it has been absolutely determined that the connections in each circle will be assigned the same wavelength, also how many numbers wavelengths (W) to be used. [49]& [50] 4.3.3.1 Algorithmic1 procedures: As we know, the simplest case where the traffic from one node to another requires the full bandwidth of a wavelength. In this case, each node needs to

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establish one connection to every other node for a total number of connections [N (N-1)] from all nodes in the ring network (i.e. if we have 6 nodes, then the total number of connections is 30). This will result in a large number of wavelengths and add-drop multiplexers, so we try to minimize the number of wavelengths needed to establish all this connections. The following steps will aid our algorithm1 explanation: 1- Let the number of nodes in the ring network ranges from (1) to (N-1) and the connection from node (i) to another node (j) represented as (i , s),where node j is (s) hops away from node i and j= (i+s) mod N. Hereupon ,such this connection will have a stride of s. Additionally, this algorithm combines two connections share the same end nodes (e.g. from (i to j) and vice versa ) with complementary strides, (s) and (N-s) to form a full circle.[49] 2- Practically, it combines two connection (i ,s) and (i +s, N-s) in one circle using insideloop (i ,N) function and then call the function RahalNetworkDrawing1 to draw the segment (connections) , hence the total number of circle constructed is C=N (N-1) /2 .. (1) (when m=1) which is already minimized. 3- Once the circles are formed, immediately we assign them arbitrarily into the available wavelengths such that, one wavelength to each circle, which result in the minimum number of wavelengths as Wmin=C=N (N-1)/2. (2) In case of no grooming it is well know C=Wmin . 4- Since there are at least two ADMs on each wavelength carrying at least one connection, one ADM for the source and the other for the destination of the connection, so the total number of ADMs is D=2.Wmin= N (N-1). (3) 5- Finally, place the results in the GUI.

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Start

i=1

s=1

s>N-i

Yes

No

s=s+1

No

i>N-1

Yes

Increment (i)

End

Figure 4.5 Flow chart of Algorithm1 4.3.3 Illustrative Numerical Example using our Algorithm1 with GUI: First, lets require from the user to key in the number of nodes to build up the network, and the user entered N=8 as the shown below:

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Figure 4.6. (a) Construct circle with GUI Second, we click on Create Circle button and start to draw the ring network and consider every node as an egress node until all of the circles that include all connections are constructed such as considering node 1 as an egress node in the figure 4.6.(b),then node 2 and so on.

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Last, we determine the C, Wmin and D. According to our given equations, C =8x7/2=28, and Wmin=28, also D=56, as verified in our algorithm1 output as shown in figure 4.6. (c).

Figure 4.6.(c) Output results of Algo1. (m=1) The following table shows some of the date represented, when we choose various numbers of nodes (N) and the corresponding result of total number of circles (C), minimum number of wavelengths (Wmin), and total number of ADMs (D).

N 7 8 9 12 15 20 25

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As we can observe from the table above, for arbitrary number of (N), the C and Wmin are equal, even if, the D is doubled of C which is actually equal to the number of connections N (N-1), and then this large number of D will be minimized by AlgorithmII as it will described later.

Under this section, we consider uniform traffic in bidirectional rings where the shortest path (having the least number of hops) routing is assumed. We have two types of connections, clockwise connections and counter-clockwise connection; however, we will focus on clockwise connections only. 4.4.1Construction Bidirectional circles (Algorithm 3, m=1) This algorithm is focused on circle construction in bidirectional ring network, which yields in a significant lower numbers of circles, wavelengths, and ADMs compared to algorithm1which used in the unidirectional ring network. We will adopt same approach on [49], to construct full circles in bidirectional ring where it combines up to four clockwise non-overlapping connections, so the bandwidth of one wavelength can fully utilized. Note that, when m=1, a bidirectional SONET/WDM ring employing our proposed algorithms behaves as a fully optical ring when no grooming is employed, so more wavelengths and ADMs are obtained compared to grooming Algorithm II which will be described later. 4.4.2 Algorithmic 3 procedures: In our approach which is based for number of even nodes (N), this algorithm is used to combine either two or four clockwise connection with two complementary strides (s) and (N/2 s) to construct bidirectional circles with the shortest path. Then, one wavelength is assigned to the circle, so the minimum number of wavelengths and circles required will be: C=Wmin= (N^2)/8, for even N (4)

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In addition, from unidirectional rings we obtain D= 2.Wmin= N (N-1) which is inefficient in bidirectional ring. At the end of this algorithm, we will get less number of ADMs than that obtained in Algorithm1 in unidirectional case. Generally, the procedures are similar to algorithm1 but special steps are proposed such as the following:

Step1: When s= N/2, two connections only with same strides are combined to form a circle. As shown in figure 4.7.(a), we combine (i, N/2) and (N/2+i, N/2) in one circle. Then, jump to step3 to combine the rest of the connections until include all of them.

Step2 -: When s= N/4, four clockwise connections (solid lines) are combined to one circle such as combination of (i, N/4), (N/4+i ,N\4), (N/2+i, N/4) and (3N/4+i ,N/4) in one circle as shown in figure 4.7.(b) .Next, continue with step3 .

Figure 4.7.(b) Construct circles when N is even (1<=s<=N/4) Step 3: stride (s) with value ranges from 1 to N-2/4 ,we start to combine (i ,s), (i+s, N/2 -s),(N/2+i,s) and (N/2+i+s,N/2-s) in one circle. Moreover, algorithm3 will

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continue constructing the circles until covering all connections and get the total number of circles as: C = N^2/8=Wmin(5) Step4: Finding the total number of ADMs. As we know in bidirectional ring, each wavelength carries two to four connections, so at least one ADM is needed to establish a connection with assuming that the other end of this connection is always shared with another connection. As a result, we will obtain tighter number of ADMs than unidirectional ring which is Total number of ADMs (D) = N (N-1)/2.(6) Finally: Place the results in the GUI.

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Sart

Take (N)

i=1

Combine (i,N/2) & (N/2 +i, N) In one circle Call RahalNetworkDrawing1 for plotting Update C & W Place values of C&W in the GUI No i>(N-2)/4 +1 Yes No (N/4)=0 Yes i=1

Increment (i)

Combine (i,N/4) , (N/4 +i ,N/4), (N/ 2+i,N/4) and (3N/4 + i, N/4) Call RahalNetworkDrawing1 Update C,W Place values of C&W in the GUI

i>(N-2)/4 +1

No

Increment i

Yes

50

i=1

Update C&W

No

i>N/2

Yes

Increment i

Calculate ADM

END

Case 1: when s=N/2 First, lets require from the user to key in the number of nodes(N) to build up the network, and lets say N=10 was entered .Next ,our algorithm will start to draw the connections and start combining two connections only in a circle, then combining four connections in a circle until covering all of the connections demanded. For more illustration, the following supporting figures enhance our algorithm execution:

51

52

Finally, we show the obtained values of C, Wmin , and D in the GUI as below:

53

First, if we require from the user to key in the number of nodes as N=12, then our algorithm will start combine 4 connections in a circle. More illustration in the following figures:

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Finally, we show the obtained values of C, Wmin , and D in the GUI as below:

Figure 4.9.(g) Results from Algorithm3 (N=12). The following table shows data represented for various numbers of nodes (N) and their corresponding values of C, Wmin, and D. Let N= 10, 12,14,16,18, and 20

N 10 12 14 16 18 20

C 13 18 25 32 41 50

Wmin 13 18 25 32 41 50

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4.5.1 Introduction Basically, we supposed that the traffic from one node to another is expressed as a number of connections each requiring a base bandwidth (i.e. OC-3) of the total bandwidth of wavelength (i.e.OC-48). Throughout this section, we will try to achieve our main objectives such as examine lower bound of ADMs (DLB) and lower bound of wavelengths (WLB) when m>1. The role of grooming is to group carefully as many circles as possible up to (m) circles onto each wavelength (e.g. sixteen OC-3 into one OC-48 ring), as a result, the number of ADMs and wavelengths are reduced. After fitting the tributaries onto a circle, then Algo II performs grouping of the circles. For this algorithm, the required number of ADMs for a particular wavelength is equivalent to the number of end nodes involved, thus this heuristic attempts to match as many end nodes as possible when grouping the circles, in order to minimize the number of ADMs. It is clear that any algorithms that grooms many circles onto each wavelength will use the lower bound of wavelength where (WLB= C/m), where C is the minimum number of circles result from Algorithm1 or Algorithm3 and m is the grooming ratio. Moreover, this algorithm will introduce new variables such as [51]: tempC: Number of circles groomed so far. DLB: Lower bound on D(Minimum number of ADMs) Wt: Number of wavelengths (Wt=Wmin), predetermined value mw: is array with the number of actual circles groomed in each wavelength ( w) w: wavelength index d(mw): minimum number of ADMs needed on each wavelength.. tempDLB: the total minimum number of ADMs required on each wavelength. DLB: lower bound of D. The general GUI for this algorithm is as shown in figure 4.10. Briefly, the user only required to enter the suitable appropriate grooming ratio (m), and then enjoy the results.

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Figure 4.10

4.5.2 Basic Procedures Our approach borrows some ideas from [51], this algorithm is proposed to determine a reasonably lower bound on the number of ADMs when (m) circles can be groomed onto each wavelength. Our heuristic provides a procedure on whose basis the optimal solution can be obtained. The basic idea is as follows This approach would require examining all possible values of (m w) for every wavelength. However, without loss of generality, we could assume that 1m1m2m3mw m since the assignment of the wavelength can be arbitrary. We call the function FindM () recursively, to determine (mw) in a wavelength index descending order such as it finds (mw), then( mw-1) ,and so on. We try to determine all (mks) values with w+1kWt at time (mw) for a given wavelength index (w),to obtain the number of circles groomed so far is tempC = Additionally, one circle at least needs to be groomed onto wavelengths with index from 1 to (w-1), so the maximum number of possible circles that could be groomed onto (w) is [C-tempC-(w-1).]

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According to our assumption mw mw+1, and U is the upper bound on the number of circles which is updated to Um (w+1), and hence we have to determine the upper bound of circles to be groomed onto each wavelength (w) as the minimum of upper bound of the circles groomed on the wavelength (w+1) or (C-tempC-w+1) such as, Mmax= ceil (min([U (C-tempC(w)-w+1)]) and mw=Mmax .

Moreover, some circles (C-tempC) left ungrouped, so they will be allocated onto (w)wavelength as long as it is not the last wavelength where x=ceil((C-tempC(w))/w):Mmax and (x=mw(w)) .Hence, FindM (w-1) is called to determine possible values of every m w-1 . on other words, this way has limited the possible values of every mw as well as the number of examined solution by the algorithm

At last, for every {mw} solution obtained, the calculation of corresponding number of ADMs required (tempDLB) is explained in next section 4.5.3.

4.5.3 Lower bound of ADMs solution (m>1) No doubt, obtaining the lower bound on D (DLB) is our main objective of this algorithm when grooming is employed. This can be derived with two main steps which are: I. II. Determination of a reasonable DLB, for any given value of mw. For any given values of C, Wt and m, find an optimal solution {mw} that gives the minimum tempDLB. Furthermore, these steps are explained in details as follow: First, lets assume that (mw) is the actual number of circles groomed onto particular wavelength (w) where 1wWt.Therefore, C will be calculated as the summation of (mw) from w=1,2,3 till Wt (C= Second, we assume the minimum number of ADMs needed (w) wavelength as d(mw). Third, in order to get (mw) circles on every (w), we require to have ) on each

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mw ,as well as, in order to make the d(mw) as the minimum number of ADMs on (w) as intended, we supposed to have

< mw. Depend on this observation, we can obtain a unique value for any given (mw).Hence = n (n-1)/2 (mw), where n is the

number of end nodes (or ADMs) for the purpose of practical calculation. For instance, let mw =10, then A (A-1)/2 10, How we are going to find d (mw)????? If we start with A=10, then according to A (A-1)/2, we get (45) which is hugely larger than ( mw=10) . Next, proceed with smaller values until get the suitable one that verifies our conditions.

A 9 8 7 6 5 4

Table 4.3

As we can see, d(mw)= 5 is the appropriate value, thats mean ,at least five ADMs are needed to groom ten circles on the same wavelength.. Accordingly, for a given set of (mw), where w=1,2,3,,W, which we refer to it as a solution denoted by {mw},so we can obtain a distinctive d(mw) for each (w), so the total minimum number of ADMs required could be calculated as tempDLB =

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Lastly, the solution {mw} that results in the minimum tempDLB among all possible solution is called optimal solution .Hereafter, we set DLB to be equal to the corresponding minimum tempDLB and the best solution with the lowest tempDLB found is recorded .

Start

Initialize global factor of mw This function will be in a separated flow chart Call find M(w)

End

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Start

No

Set w = Wt

Yes

K=w+1

tempC=0

TempC = tempC+mw(k)

K=K+1

No

K>Wt Yes Upper bound (U)=mw+1

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No w>1 Yes

Set upper bound of circle groomed onto a wavelength as Mmax= min(U, (C-tempC-w+1))

Increment mw mw=mw+1

mw>Mmax

No

Yes

End

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mw=C - tempC

tempDLB = 0

k=1

n=mw(k) continue

No

(n(n-1))/ 2>mw(k)

Yes

n=n-1

No

(n(n-1))/2 = mw(k)

Yes

No

n=n-1

(n(n-1))/2<mw(k)

d(mw(k))=n

Yes

d(mw(k))=n+1

k>Wt

Yes

No

k=k+1

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No

DLB>TempDLB

Yes

DLB = tempDLB

Show results

End

Figure 4.11.(e) End flow chart of the function FindM() and AlgoII.

4.5.5 Illustrative Example of DLB . We will introduce some represented tabled data to show the reduction of number of ADMs with grooming and no grooming. After circles are constructed, we choose an arbitrary grooming ratio and obtained (DLB). WLB = C/m, then the lower bound of D is

N 8 9 12 17 20 25

WLB(m=2) 14 18 33 68 95 150

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As we can notice from the table above, the reduction in the number of ADMs when grooming ratio (m=2) is about 25%, when (m=4) is about 50%, and when we increase m we can obtain more reduction in ADMs number.

The following figure represents the results for DLB and WLB when employing various grooming ratio for bidirectional ring .

Wmin

D(m=1)

WLB (m=2)

DLB (m=2) 12 27 38 48 75

DLB (m=5) 8 16 20 28 40

8 12 14 16 20

8 18 25 32 50

8 18 25 32 50

28 66 91 120 190

4 9 13 16 25

4.6 Summary

The suggested algorithms were developed in such a way that it is useful for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment under uniform traffic in both unidirectional and bidirectional SONET/WDM ring. As we know, network cost is dominated by Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs), hence the number of the needed ADMs should be minimized to reduce the network cost. In this chapter, Algorithm1 and Algorithm3 are employed to construct a minimal number of circles in both unidirectional rings and bidirectional rings with even (N). After the circles are constructed, AlgorithmII is proposed to examine how grooming the circles onto different wavelength can effectively reduce the number of ADMs as well as minimize the number of wavelengths. Hence, all of the related data such as the flowcharts, tables and results were presented.

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This chapter concerns about our developed algorithms and represents the numerical results yield. In section 5.1, brief introduction then section 5.2, no grooming case (m=1), where the number of wavelengths and ADMs are compared for unidirectional and bidirectional rings with no grooming supported by an illustrative example. Moreover, section 5.3 shows deep analytical results when grooming is employed for both rings as well as extensively comparison of ADMs for every ring. In section 5.4, saving percentage is discussed. At the end, the chapter is concluded with a summary in section 5.5.

5.1 Introduction

The network construction is built up based on the egress node, where all the traffic is directed from one node, such as this type of network is common in different access networks. In this section, we have two types of algorithms with no grooming implementation which are Algo1 and Algo3. These algorithms illustrate how we could construct SONET/WDM rings network for both unidirectional and bidirectional without grooming technique. Then, AlgoII will groom the constructed circles and provide better results. In order to have a good base of comparison between them, we show the correlation between the algorithms and the recorded results in a very effective manner and provide numerical values and represent them in useful graphs to capture the main points.

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For more elaboration, lets assume that, we have a network with 6 nodes (N= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) for an egress node (node number 1), so this network contains five traffic connections to be carried from node one to the other node (1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 and 1-6). Besides that, we assumed that one wavelength is assigned to carry a single traffic connection, thus we need five wavelengths to carry these five connections, which is equal to (N-1). Furthermore, the number of required ADMs at the egress node (node 1) is five, since we have five traffic connections to be added to the five wavelengths, each wavelength needs an ADM to add these traffic, so overall we need five ADMs at the egress node 1,also at each node ( 2 ,3, 4,5, and 6) there will be one wavelength dropped, therefore five ADMs are needed at these node ,totally we need ten ADMs for this network which can be expressed as, Total ADMs = 2x (N-1). More to the point, if we have unidirectional ring egress node, we have to add one more connection from 6 to 1,as a result ,two more ADMs and one more wavelength are required ,at the end ,we will get W=N and ADMs= 2xN. Moreover, it is clear that the number of ADMs is directly proportional to the required number of wavelength, however; the number of the required wavelengths is huge and wavelength is not utilized efficiently. Applying our Algorithms strategy will result in significant improvement in minimizing the cost of network by reducing the number of ADMs used on each wavelength at every node. As mentioned earlier, Algo1which used for unidirectional ring, will combine multiple connections in one circle and assign this circle onto a wavelength. Although we have not yet employ grooming, but we already manage to get minimal number of wavelengths compared to the previous technique.

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5.2.1 Example 1 : Wavelength requirement with no grooming (m=1) In the case of no grooming, it is clear that C=W, and for an arbitrary number of node (N) in unidirectional ring, we have C=W= N (N-1)/2. (1) As stated by Algo3, combination can be up to 4 clockwise connections and results in minimum number of circles and wavelengths, where C LB=WLB =N^2/8 for even N.. (2) Lets have a comparison of wavelengths requirement in SONET/WDM rings for both unidirectional ring and bidirectional ring with no traffic grooming. By default, we assume 10N50, for this arbitrary number of nodes we find the required number of wavelengths according to the equations given in 1&2. For example, if we choose N= 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 for unidirectional ring and N= 20, 24, 30, 35,40,45,50. Unidirectional ring N 20 25 30 35 40 44 50 W 190 300 435 595 780 946 1225 Bidirectional ring (N even) N 20 24 30 36 40 44 50 W 50 72 113 162 200 242 313

.

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Further illustration is shown in Figure 5.1, where all the number of nodes (even and odd) and their corresponding wavelengths when (m=1) are represented

Figure 5.1

As we can observe from the figure, unidirectional ring requires huge number of wavelengths compared to bidirectional ring. It is clear that, bidirectional ring has fewer strongly makes a sensible improvement in terms of wavelength used. 5.2.2 Example 2: ADMs requirement without grooming (m=1) A large part of the network cost is in the electronics multiplexing equipment such as ADMs. Clearly, minimizing the number of ADMs in the network will reduce the cost. The absence of grooming techniques and wavelength assignment, the number of ADMs is drastically increased. In this example, we study the case of ADMs with no grooming for both unidirectional and bidirectional rings and how algorithm1 and algorithm3 obtained the number of ADMs .In the case of Algo1, each circle needs 2 ADMs, one for every end node involved within the circle. Generally, whenever grooming is absent, the

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number of ADMs required on each full circle is equal to the number of connections in the circle as DUni= N (N-1). (3) On the other hand, the number of ADMs in bidirectional ring is tighter than unidirectional ring, since Alg3 combines up to 4 connections in one circle, then assign this circle to one wavelength ,this means, each wavelength will carry two to four connections which assists to get lower number of ADMs as follows: DBi= N (N-1)/2 .. 4 If we use the same number of nodes 10N50 ,then we find the number of ADMs for both ring directions as stated in equations 3&4. N 10 20 25 35 44 50 Uni.ADMs 90 380 600 1190 1892 2450 Bi.ADMs 45 190 300 595 946 1225

Table 5.2 Some values of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3

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Figure5.2 Number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3. Obviously from figure 5.2, the number of ADMs for unidirectional ring is twice than bidirectional ring which is so costly to build up a network. Whenever more connections are combined and share the same wavelength, we will obtain significantly fewer numbers of ADMs. We can see clearly the huge number of ADMs used in this type of

networks, which will cause a very high network building cost and we target to restrict ADMs in minimum number.

In the previous shown analysis, we noticed that the number of ADMs is quite large, however, in this section; some numerical results of ADMs (D) are represented with their corresponding lower bounds. Initially, we will compare the numerical

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results for ADMs with grooming and with no grooming. Algorithm II attempts to minimize the number of ADMs and wavelengths obtained from Algo1 and Algo3. 5.3.1 ADMs Comparison for unidirectional SONET/WDM ring. In Figure 5.4, we plot the number of ADMs vs. the number of node on the unidirectional ring for grooming and no grooming cases. First, lets assume the effective number of nodes considered is 5N20 and we compare the number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 (m=1) and Algo II (m>1). For instance, let N= 10, then the number of ADMs results from Algorithm1 is D= 90 with no grooming as well as the number of circles constructed is W=C= 45.As we move further to employ grooming using Algorithm II, we are required to select suitable arbitrary grooming ratio in order to specify the lower bound of wavelengths to be used, where WLB can be evaluated as C/m. For the case when N=10, if we choose m= 5 then WLB =9 and lower bound of D (DLB) = 36, and if m=10 then WLB = 5 and DLB =25, also if m=15, then WLB = 3 and DLB =18 and so on. All of these numerical results is shown on the GUI output. Figure (5.3) we plot the number of ADMs vs. the number of nodes on unidirectional ring with m= 5, 10, 15 and compare them with no grooming (m=1). Plotted in the figure are the lower bounds of ADMs (DLB) obtained from AlgoII for every value of m.

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Figure 5.3

The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Unidirectional ring with m=1, 5, 10, 15.

As one can see from the figures, when no grooming (m=1), the number of ADMs is absolutely very large, on the contrary, when grooming mechanism is employed (m=5, 10, 15), we obtain lesser numbers of ADMs which will effectively reduce the cost of ADMs which often makes up a significant portion of the total cost for a WDM/SONET ring. Have an insight for N=20, initially when m=1, number of ADMs (D= 380), which is so much compared to m=5 (DLB =152) , m=10 (DLB =95) , and m=15( DLB =78). These values of ADMs are definitely the lower bounds obtained from Algorithm II and grooming ratio is very important factor to get minimum number of ADMs. 5.3.2ADMs Comparison for Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring In Figure (5.4) we plot the number of ADMs vs. the number of node on the bidirectional ring for both cases of grooming and no grooming. First, lets assume the

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effective number of nodes even and odd, is ranged as 5N20 and we compare the number of ADMs obtained from Algo3 (m=1) and Algo II (m>1) This section is similar to the pervious section 5.3.1 for unidirectional ring with consideration of the initial values of D, C, and W obtained from Algo3 are less than those obtained from Algo1 due to bidirectional connections and ability to combine up to four connections in one circle. Figure (5.4) we plot the number of ADMs vs. the number of nodes on unidirectional ring with m= 5, 10, 15 and compare them with no grooming (m=1). Plotted in the figure are the lower bounds of ADMs (DLB) obtained from AlgoII for every value of m.

Figure 5.4 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Bidirectional ring with m=1, 5, 10, 15. As one can observe from the figure, when no grooming (m=1), the number of ADMs is very large but still less than those obtained from Algo1 , on the contrary, when grooming mechanism is employed (m=5, 10, 15), we obtain significantly less numbers of DLB compared to previous algorithms. For instances, with N=18, D=

153 from Algo3 which is already halved the D results from Algo1.Moreover, when m=5, 10 and 15, we obtained DLB = 36, 25, and 18 respectively.

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Number of ADMs(DLB)

m=10 80 95 25 25

m=15 66 78 18 23

Table 5.3 comparison between different N, number of ADMs, and m. Before closing this section 5.3, the analytical solutions provide us with valuable insight. For instance, based on comparing the optimal solutions for the two cases, we can clearly see how the grooming ratio would affect the minimum number of ADMs needed. As we can see, as the grooming ratio (m) increased from 1 to 5, the number of ADMs decreased to less than half of the initial value. In addition, by performing these heuristic algorithms, we could at least obtain good bounds on optimal solutions. However, to verify our optimality for our solutions, we provide a tighter lower bound on the minimum number of ADMs required as well as we solutions. develop a heuristic algorithm that can produce good

Clearly, we have proven the number of ADMs required is minimized and we did show the lower bounds as well. We can easily show the saving percentage (P) on the number of ADMs due to the proposed traffic grooming algorithms for both unidirectional and bidirectional ring. The saving percentage (P) can be calculated as P = Without Grooming DLB /without Grooming, where Without Grooming = N x WLB and WLB =N x (N-1)/2/m.

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Figure 5.5 and 5.6 show the saving percentage for both unidirectional and bidirectional ring respectively vs. the number of Nodes. The number of nodes ranged from 5 to 25, and grooming ratio selected as m = 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18.

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Observation feedback

From the figures one can observe that as m increases for a fixed N, the saving percentage decreases because of more circles need to be groomed onto each wavelength , so more ADMs are involved . For example, when N=15 in

unidirectional ring, we obtain different value of saving percentage depend on the grooming ratio used, such as m= 2 gives P= 80%, m=6 gives P= 73%, m=10 gives P= 66%, m=14 gives P=58% and m=18 gives P=51% as approximated from the plot 5.6. Furthermore, it is noticeable that as N keeps increasing, the percentage keeps increasing as well and then gradually saturates. In unidirectional ring, the saving percentage can be as high as 88%, whereas for bidirectional ring the saving percentage as high as 78% when m=2 and N=25.Even when m= 18, the saving percentage is still functioned, 70% for unidirectional and 40% for bidirectional.

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5.5 Summary

We have considered the problem of traffic grooming and wavelength assignment. we suggested algorithms to resolve these issues. The proposed algorithms strived to obtain the targeted results .Our demonstrated results reveal that we achieved the lower bound of ADMs as well the wavelengths. This implies that the objectives of this project were accomplished where the overall networks cost is minimized, based on the proposed algorithms results and analysis. It is time now to proceed to future work and recommendations for further analysis for any possible improvements.

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In this report, a comprehensive study was done on various approaches to solve the optical networks cost optimization employing traffic grooming technique, there was also an algorithm which was developed and tested in different models, the analysis of the records have shown a positive results and good optimal solutions. This chapter summarizes the objectives achieved in this project in the next section 6.1. Recommendations for improvements and future work will be presented in section 6.2.

All people aimed the success; while in this project the success choose me. On the other hand, the main intention of this project was to minimize the total cost of the WDM networks by minimizing the number of ADMs, which are significantly expensive .The building cost of such a network could be optimized by attaining the minimal number of ADMs, thus the service provider and customer can interchange satisfaction and make this advance technology provided for the public.

An efficient traffic grooming algorithm has been developed for both unidirectional and bidirectional rings in such a way the lower bounds on the number of ADMs required are established, more important, our proposed algorithm performs very well in reducing the number of ADMs besides minimizing the number of wavelengths as well. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieved very good savings.

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As the WDM is an attractive technology, provides a high bandwidth, on the order of tens of Gigabits in big demands , more study and research on WDM network design goals such as cost optimization as well as the network elements need to be done in order to use the least number of higher layer components when building such a network.

In addition, It was already known that the problem of minimizing this cost is NP-Complete for path networks, hence more research should be

concentrating on the heuristic solutions where a more practical solution can be provided to obtain better outcomes.

The developed was implemented, but without providing any real time connection only theoretically. Hence, being able to provide this feature in the future of this project will be brilliant. However, there are a number of improvements recommended for future work on the application. Some of these improvements that can be added are: Running this algorithm on more practical topologies : This will show a better practical performance to avoid practical limitation. Analyzing the ratio between grooming ratio and the required connections : This may lead an improvement in the suggested algorithms. Finding a dynamic relationship between the parameter of this algorithm: The number of wavelengths, grooming ratio, the number of circles constructed or groomed and number of nodes, such as division of circles constructed by grooming ratio to obtain the lower bound of minimum

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Routing Using

Congestion and Neighborhood Information. ieee-acm-tn, 7(5):779786, Oct. 1999. [45] S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee. Fixed-Alternate Routing Wavelength Conversion and

acm-tn, 10(3):351367, Jun. 2002 [46] Hui Zang 2002, ,WDM mesh networks: management and survivability [47] Lu Ruan, Dingzhu Du, September 1, 2001 Optical networks: recent advances. [48] A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu. Adaptive Wavelength Routing in All-Optical Networks. ieee-acm-tn, 6(2):197206, Apr. 1998. [49] X. Zhang and C. Qiao, On scheduling all-to-all personalized connections and cost-effec- tive designs in WDM rings, IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 7, pp.435445, June 1999. [50] X. Zhang and C. Qiao, Scheduling in unidirectional WDM rings and its extensions, in SPIE Proc. Vol. 3230, All Optical Communication Sys-tems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues III, 1997, pp. 208219. [51] Xijun Zhang and Chunming Qiao: An Effective and Comprehensive Approach for Traffic Grooming and Wavelength Assignment in

SONET/WDM Rings, IEEE/ACM Transaction On Networking, Vol.8, No.5, October 2000, pp.608-617.

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No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Acronyms WDM LAN PC TDM ADM WADM DSL IP MPLS SDM FDM CWDM Description Wavelength Division Multiplexed Local Area Network Personal Computer Time Division Multiplexed Add/Drop Multiplexer Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer Digital Subscriber Line Internet Protocol Multiprotocol Label Switching Space-Division Multiplexing Frequency-Division Multiplexing Coarse Multiplexing Dense Multiplexing Packet-Division Multiplexing NP-Complete Routing and Wavelength Assignment Integer Linear Program Scheduled Light-path Demand Random Light-path Demand Fixed Routing Fixed Alternate Routing Adaptive Routing Least Congested Path Routing Light-path Demand Service Level Agreement Wavelength-Division Wavelength Division

13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

DWDM PDM NP-C RWA ILP SLD RLD FR FAR AR LCR LD SLA

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27 28 29 30 31 32

Graphic User Interface Algorithm 1 Algorithm 3 Algorithm II Multimedia University Faculty Of Engineering

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Algorithm1 code ************************************************ function Algorithm1()

% define Number of circles and Number of ADM as a global variable for % General Use with another functions global NumofCircles NumberofADMs clc % Clear the Screen hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NumberOfNodes');% Find the Object NumberOfNodes N=str2num(get(hh,'String')); % read the content of the textfield to N

figure sum=0; % Intialize the number of connection for i=1:N-1 % construct N-1 circles k=1; segment= InsideLoop(i,N) between the nodes. clf RahalNetworkDrawing1(N,segment,'b') RahalNetworkDrawing1 to draw the segment % call the function %call the function insideloop to create the segment

****************************************************************** ***** sum= sum+ size(segment,1);% The Number of connections for each step NumofCircles=sum/2 % find the number of circles NumberofWavelength=sum/2 % find the number of wavelengths NumberofADMs=sum % find the number of ADMs

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hh=findobj(0,'Tag','Numberofcircles'); % Find the Object Numberofcircles set(hh,'String',num2str(NumofCircles)); % write the content to the textfield hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NumberofWavelength'); NumberofWavelength set(hh,'String',num2str(NumberofWavelength)); % write the content to the textfield hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NumberofADMs'); % Find the Object NumberofADMs set(hh,'String',num2str(NumberofADMs)); % write the content to the textfield % Find the Object

pause; end

%% This algorithm combine to connection each loop of s in a matrix of size % kx3 segment(k,1) is the number of the connection ,segment(k,2) is the % source node and segment(k,3) is the distination node k=1; for s=1:N-i;

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function Algorithm3()

% This algorithm construct clockwise circles in bidirectional rings for % uniform traffic (even N)

hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NumberOfBiNodes');% Find the Object NumberOfBiNodes N=str2num(get(hh,'String')); % read the content of the textfield to N

for i=1:(N-2)/4+1 %special case for s=N/2 where 2 connections only are combined.

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pause

end

NumofCircles

****************************************************************** if mod(N,4)==0 % if rim(N,4)==0, 4 clockwise connections are combined. k=1 for i=1:(N-2)/4 +1

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pause

end end

NumofCircles ****************************************************************** **

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segment(k,1)=k; segment(k,2)=i+N/2; % in the case we have i+N/2+s larger then N the node number will % out of the range so we check this condition if (i+N/2+s<=N) % if it is smaller or equal we continue as normal segment(k,3)=i+N/2+s; else segment(k,3)=mod(i+N/2+s,N);%if it is larger than N we take the modulus end k=k+1;

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segment(k,3)=i; k=k+1;

end pause

end

hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NumberofBiADMs'); set(hh,'String',num2str(NumberofADMs));

Algorithm II

function ADMLBCallback(NoCircle,NoADMs)

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Wt = ceil(NoCircle/m); % place the lower bound number of Wavelengths in tbe GUI hh = findobj(0,'Tag','WLBText'); set(hh,'String',num2str(Wt));

C=NoCircle;

% Wt number of wavelengths % DlB: ADMs lower bound % C is the Number of Circles formed % tempC is the number of circles groomed so far % mw is array with the number of circles in each wavelength it is % initialize to zeros.es formed

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%to

track

the

program

**************************************************** % disp(['this is w : ' num2str(w)]) % pause % ****************************************************************** ****** global Wt C DLB tempC m mw

%% block 1 %m=[1 :Wt] % grooming ratio (No of circles per Wavelength) d=zeros(1,Wt); if w==Wt % ///// the function will enter this block only in the first call tempC(w)=0;% for the first wavlength we set the bound to the grooming ratio % disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : ',num2str(tempC(w))])

U=m ;% Upper bound on the number of circles on a wavelength (?w) assigned %to m where m is the grooming ratio

elseif w<Wt %from the second call and so on, the function will enter this block % this for loop is to find the number of circles groomed so far as % the summation of mw(k) with k= w+1 to Wt

for k=w+1:Wt % this for loop is to find the sum of the groomed circles tempC(w)=tempC(w)+mw(k); end % disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : ',num2str(tempC(w))]) U=mw(w+1); % update the upper bound of the circles to be groomed on the

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% wavelength w end %% block 2 if w>1 % we have to determine the upper bound of circles to be groomed on to % wavelength (w) as the minimum of upper bound of the circles groomed on the wavelength (w+1) or (C-tempC-w+1) Mmax=ceil(min([U (C-tempC(w)-w+1)]) );

% for mw(w) to make a recursive calls of the function FindM() to find % the optimum solution for x=ceil((C-tempC(w))/w):Mmax % loop mw(w)from each minimum value which is (C-tempC)/w to x maximum value Mmax. % we used x instead of mw(w) and then assingned x to it because we % can not use indexed value in the for loop mw(w)=ceil(x) ; FindM(w-1) % make a recursive call of the function FindM() end

else %% block 3 mw(1)=C-tempC(w); a= tempC(w)+mw(1); disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : ',num2str(a)]) tempDLB=0;

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%***************************************************************** ********* % this blok is to find d(mk) by using unique algorithm for n=mw(k):-1:1 if n*(n-1)/2> mw(k) continue; elseif n*(n-1)/2== mw(k) d(mw(k))=n; break; % GO OUT FROM THE LOOP else d(mw(k))=n+1; break; end end %***************************************************************** *********

tempDLB=tempDLB + d(mw(k)); end % compare the obtained lower bound of ADM (tempDLB) by the pre-set DLB if DLB > tempDLB DLB=tempDLB ;% if the obtained is smaller we update the pre-set value mw % just to show on the screen

end

end % the next to statements is to place the result in the GUI hh=findobj(0,'Tag','DLBText');

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set(hh,'String',num2str(DLB)); end --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drawing Demo codes clc %% Getting data from GUI text field hh=findobj(0,'Tag','NodesText'); N=str2num(get(hh,'String')); hh=findobj(0,'Tag','RangeText'); MaxRange=str2num(get(hh,'String')); hh=findobj(0,'Tag','WavelengthText'); W=str2num(get(hh,'String')); %% Checking the validity of Data and sending message to user if W<1 || N<2 || MaxRange<=0 hh=findobj(0,'Tag','MessageText'); set(hh,'String','Wrong Parameters'); exit else hh=findobj(0,'Tag','MessageText'); set(hh,'String',''); end

*********************************************************** nodesNum=[1:N]';%create arry of the number of nodes from 1 to N CenterX=MaxRange/2;%to place the center of the Network in the Center of the space Range Theta=0;

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CenterY=MaxRange/2;%to place the center of the Network in the Center of the space Range Theta=0;%first node in the zero position with angle zero. % Number of wavelength Raduis=MaxRange/3; figure for j=1:1:W % draw number of circles as the number of wavelength Theta=j*W-W %Raduis=MaxRange/(2+j); %to make the radius of the indiviual ring. for i=1:N nodesX(i)=Raduis*cos(Theta)+ CenterX;%to set the position of the node. nodesY(i)=Raduis*sin(Theta)+ CenterY; Theta=Theta+2*pi/N; end

char str1 ;%to store the type of colour % To check the number of ring and assign black and red color % alternatively,starting from the outer ring. if mod(j,2) str1= 'k'; else str1='r'; end

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segments = [(1:N); floor(1:N); [ceil(2:N) 1]]' %Store The connecton % First column is the number of the connection %Second Colomn is the Staring Node %Third Column is the ending Node % Example : %segment(a,b,c) Connection number a % from Node b to Node c

char str2;% To store the Background Color of the node str2='g'; Bypass=0; Bypass=input('Enter the Bypass Node: ') for s = 1:N

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if s==Bypass%Check if the Node is bypassed str2='W';% if the node is bypassed set the color to white end if (s <= N) text(nodesX(s),nodesY(s),['N' num2str(s)],'FontSize',14,... 'BackgroundColor',str2,... 'EdgeColor','b'); str2='g'; end plot(nodesX(segments(s,2:3)'),nodesY(segments(s,2:3)'),str ); end hold on end

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adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1); circles=adm/2; AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles,adm,m(j)); end hold on plot(N,AA,'Color',c(j),'Marker',s(j)) BarAA(:,j+1)=AA; end title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming','m = 5','m = 10','m = 15',2) figure(3) bar(N,BarAA) title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming','m = 5','m = 10','m = 15',2) grid on

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N=5:1:20; WithoutGrooming=N.*(N-1)/2; figure(4) plot(N,WithoutGrooming','ks-') grid on BarAA(:,1)=WithoutGrooming; c=['rbgmk']; s=['o*sdh']; m=5:5:15; for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1)/2; if mod(N(i),2)==0 circles=ceil(N(i)^2/8); else circles=ceil((N(i)^2-1)/8); end AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles,adm,m(j)); end hold on plot(N,AA,'Color',c(j),'Marker',s(j)) BarAA(:,j+1)=AA; end title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming','m = 5','m = 10','m = 15',2)

figure(5) bar(N,BarAA)

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title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming','m = 5','m = 10','m = 15',2) grid on

Analysis code 2 %% Unidirctional Ring Saving Percentage Plotting clear all close all clc N=2:1:25; c=['rbgmk']; s=['o*sdh']; figure(2) m=2:4:18 for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1); WLB=N(i)*(N(i)-1)/2/m(j); circles=adm/2; AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles,adm,m(j)); WithoutGrooming(i)=N(i)*WLB; end AA Saving= (WithoutGrooming-AA)./WithoutGrooming hold on plot(N,Saving, 'Color',c(j),'Marker',s(j)) BarSaving(:,j)=Saving; end

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title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2','m = 6','m = 10','m = 14','m = 18',2) grid on

% gtext('Note this divergence!') figure(3) bar(BarSaving) title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2','m = 6','m = 10','m = 14','m = 18',2) grid on **************************************************************** %% Bidirctional Ring Saving Percentage Plotting clear all clc N=2:1:25; % WithoutGrooming=N.*(N-1); % WithoutGrooming=(N.^2); figure(4) c=['rbgmk']; s=['o*sdh']; m=2:4:18 for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) WLB=(N(i)^2)/8;

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adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1); % circles=adm/2; if mod(N(i),2)==0 circles=ceil((N(i)^2/8)); else circles=ceil(((N(i)^2-1)/8)) end AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles,adm,m(j)); WithoutGrooming(i)=N(i)*WLB; end Saving=(WithoutGrooming-m(j)*AA*2)./WithoutGrooming hold on plot(N,Saving, 'Color',c(j),'Marker',s(j)) BarSaving(:,j)=Saving; end title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2','m = 6','m = 10','m = 14','m = 18',2) grid on figure(5) bar(BarSaving) title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2','m = 6','m = 10','m = 14','m = 18',2) grid on

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