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Synthetic inorganic chemistry Although some inorganic species can be obtained in pure form from nature, most are

synthesized in chemical plants and in the laboratory. Inorganic synthetic methods can be classified roughly according the volatility or solubility of the component reactants. Soluble inorganic compounds are prepared using methods of organic synthesis. For metal-containing compounds that are reactive toward air, Schlenk line and glove box techniques are followed. Volatile compounds and gases are manipulated in vacuum manifolds consisting of glass piping interconnected through valves, the entirety of which can be evacuated to 0.001 mm Hg or less. Compounds are condensed using liquid nitrogen (b.p. 78K) or other cryogens. Solids are typically prepared using tube furnaces, the reactants and products being sealed in containers, often made of fused silica (amorphous SiO2) but sometimes more specialized materials such as welded Ta tubes or Pt boats. Products and reactants are transported between temperature zones to drive reactions.

Volatility- is the measure of the tendency of a substance to vaporize. It has also been defined as a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes. Solubility- is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the used solvent as well as on temperature and pressure. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may also speak of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas (see vapor-liquid equilibrium instead). The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (fully miscible) such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is often applied to poorly or very poorly soluble compounds. Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a socalled supersaturated solution, which is metastable. Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve or liquefy a substance, because the solution might occur not only because of dissolution but also because of a chemical reaction. For example, zinc is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, but does dissolve in it by chemical reaction into zinc chloride and hydrogen, where zinc chloride is then soluble in hydrochloric acid. Solubility does not also depend on particle size or other kinetic factors; given enough time, even large particles will eventually dissolve.

Organic synthesis- is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions. Organic molecules can often contain a higher level of complexity compared to purely inorganic compounds, so the synthesis of organic

compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry. There are two main areas of research fields within the general area of organic synthesis: total synthesis and methodology.

Schlenk line techniques- (also vacuum gas manifold) is a commonly used chemistry apparatus developed by Wilhelm Schlenk. It consists of a dual manifold with several ports.[1] One manifold is connected to a source of purified inert gas, while the other is connected to a high-vacuum pump. The inert gas line is vented through an oil bubbler, while solvent vapors and gaseous reaction products are prevented from contaminating the vacuum pump through a liquid nitrogen or dry ice/acetone cold trap. Special stopcocks or Teflon taps allow for vacuum or inert gas to be selected without the need for placing the sample on a separate line. Schlenk lines are useful for safely and successfully manipulating air sensitive compounds. The high vacuum is also often used to remove the last traces ofsolvent from a sample. Vacuum gas manifolds often have many ports and lines, and with care it is possible for several reactions or operations to be run simultaneously. When the reagents are highly susceptible to oxidation, traces of oxygen may pose a problem. Then, for the removal of oxygen below the ppm level, the inert gas needs to be purified by passing it through a deoxygenation catalyst. This is usually a column of copper(I) or manganese(II) oxide which reacts with oxygen traces present in the inert gas.

Glove box techniques- used to manipulate air-sensitive (oxygen- or moisture-sensitive) chemicals.

A common form of glovebox, seen with gloves turned inside-out

Vacuum manifold-or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engine's intake manifold and Earth's atmosphere.

Valves- is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Liquid nitrogen- is nitrogen in a liquid state at a very low temperature. Liquid nitrogen is a compact and readily transported source of nitrogen gas without pressurization. Further, its ability to maintain temperatures far below thefreezing point of water makes it extremely useful in a wide range of applications, primarily as an open-cycle refrigerant, including:
             

in cryotherapy for removing unsightly or potentially malignant skin lesions such as warts and actinic keratosis as a coolant for CCD cameras in astronomy to store cells at low temperature for laboratory work in cryogenics as a source of very dry nitrogen gas for the immersion freezing and transportation of food products for the cryopreservation of blood, reproductive cells (sperm and egg), and other biological samples and materials as a method of freezing water pipes in order to work on them in situations where a valve is not available to block water flow to the work area in the process of promession, a way to dispose of the dead for cooling a high-temperature superconductor to a temperature sufficient to achieve superconductivity for the cryonic preservation in the hope of future reanimation. to preserve tissue samples from surgical excisions for future studies to shrink-weld machinery parts together as a coolant for vacuum pump traps and in controlled-evaporation processes in chemistry.

   

as a coolant to increase the sensitivity of infrared homing seeker heads of missiles such as the Strela 3 as a coolant to temporarily shrink mechanical components during machine assembly and allow improved interference fits as a coolant for computers[4] in food preparation, such as for making ultra-smooth ice cream.

Cryogens- The branches of physics and engineering that involve the study of very low temperatures, how to produce them, and how materials behave at those temperatures.

Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide.