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Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458


All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Ficks First Law of Diffusion and Solute flux
(for Dilute Solutions)
In x direction:

In 3D:

In fixed coordinate system:

x
C
D J
i
ij ix
c
c
=
2
i ij i
C D J V =

s i i ij i
v C C D N

+ V =
Relates diffusion and convection!!
Mass-conservation (in the presence of convection)
3
i i
i
R N
t
C
+ V =
c
c

| |
| | | | production of rate flow of rate net
on accumulati of rate
_ _ _ _ _
_ _
+ =
Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Table 7.1
Ficks second law of diffusion
(in the presence of convection)
Diffusion equation
5
( )
( )
i i ij i
i
i i i ij i i
i
R C D v C
t
C
R v C C D R N
t
C
+ V = V +
c
c
+ V V = + V =
c
c
2

( )
ij i i
C v v C v C V + V = V

i i ij i
i
R C D C v
t
C
+ V = V +
c
c
2

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Table 7.2
Steady state diffusion and convection
across a membrane
Complete governing equation:





Simplified:
7
i
i i i
ij
i
z
i
y
i
x
i
R
z
C
y
C
x
C
D
z
C
v
y
C
v
x
C
v
t
C
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
C
D
z
C
v
i
ij
i
z
c
c
=
c
c
General solution:
Boundary conditions:


Final solution:


Peclet number: (time for diffusion/time for
convection):
Flux:

8
( ) B D z v A C
ij f i
+ = / exp
( )
( ) B D L v A C L z C
B A C z C
ij f L i
i
+ = u = =
+ = u = =
/ exp ) (
0
0
( )
( )
(


u u =
Pe
L z Pe
C C C C
L i
exp 1
/ exp 1
) (
0 0
ij f
D L v Pe / =
( )
(

u
= + =
Pe
C C
C Pe
L
D
v C
dz
dC
D N
L
f i
i
iz
exp 1
) (
0
0
Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Figure 7.3 Effect of convection upon concentration distribution across membrane.
Dimensional Analysis of the diffusion equation
Dimensionless variables (isotropic spatial dimension):



Dimensionless diffusion equation:


Peclet number (Reynolds number and Schmidt number):
10
( )
2 2 * *
* * *
0
*
/ / / , /
/ , / , / , /
L tD D L t t v v v
L z z L y y L x x C C C
ij ij
i i
= = =
= = = =

ij
i
i i
ij
i
D C
L R
C C v
D
L v
t
C
0
2
*
2
* * * *
*
*
+ V = V +
c
c

Sc
D
L v
D
L v
Pe
ij ij
= = = Re
v
v
A special case (vessel with one dimensional flow):


Dimensionless variables:



Dimensionless equation:
11
( )
2 * *
* *
0
*
4 / , /
/ , / , /
R tD t v v v
L z z R r r C C C
ij z z
i i
= =
= = =
(

c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
1
z
C
r
C
r
r r
D
z
C
v
t
C
i i
ij
i
z
i
(
(

c
c
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2 *
*
2
2
*
*
*
* * *
*
*
*
*
1
4
2
z
C
L
R
r
C
r
r r z
C
v
L
R
Pe
t
C
i i i
z
i
Since R<<L and in steady state in vessel with one
dimensional flow:


Steady state: axial convection is balanced by radial
diffusion:


12
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
*
*
*
* * *
*
*
*
*
1
4
2
r
C
r
r r z
C
v
L
R
Pe
t
C
i i
z
i
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
*
*
*
* * *
*
*
1
4
2
r
C
r
r r z
C
v
L
R
Pe
i i
z
13
Why axial diffusion is unimportant?
Although convection is a significant means of
transport, why radial diffusion cannot be
neglected?

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Electrolyte transport
charged biological molecules
Ions
Their transport is affected by electrical
potential (e.g., membrane potential,
electrophoreses)
15
Electroneutrality:



Current is the total flux (F- Faraday constant):
16
0
1
=

=
M
i
i i
z C

=
=
n
i
i i
z N F i
1

Nernst-Planck equation (flux, Ficks law)


Flux induced by electrical potential:





Flux in fixed coordinate system (convection
and electrical potential):
17
+ V =
+ V =
=
RT
F z C D
J
N f
F z C
J
v C J
i i ij
e
i
A
i i
e
i
mi i
e
i
*
*
*

v C
RT
F z C D
C D N
i
i i ij
i ij i

+ + V V =
Transport of 1:1 (M
+
X
-
) between 2 electrodes
Governing equation:


1D, Steady state for each
component with no reaction:


Since the anions dont react at
the electrodes (z=0, or L):

Total current:

18
1
FA FN i
M
= =
+
2 1
, A N A N
X M
= =
+
i i
i
R N
t
C
+ V =
c
c

0 , 0 =
c
c
=
c
c
z
N
z
N
X M
0
2
= =

A N
X
Transport due to an applied electric potential
Electroneutrality:

The fluxes (related to concentration):




Combining the above two equations:





Constant fluxes (different):


19
C C C
X M
= =
+
dz
d
RT
CF D
dz
dC
D N
X
+
+ = =

0
(Concentration and flux)
dz
d
RT
CF D
dz
dC
D
F
i
N
M
+
= =
+
+
+
dz
dC
D
F
i
+
= 2
Solving the above equation to get
concentration and using boundary conditions at
z=0,L (C=C0, C=CL)

The current density and flux:


The potential difference (Nernst equation):



20
) (
0 0 L
C C
L
z
C C =
L
C C
D
F
i
N
L
C C
FD i
L L
) (
2 ,
) (
2
0 0

= =

=
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A+
=
+
0
ln
C
C
F
RT
dz
dC
CF
RT
dz
d
L
General diffusion equation of binary electrolyte
Flux of the positive charged particles in fixed
coordinate system:


Diffusion equation for anions and cations:
21
v C
RT
F z C D
C D N

+
+ + +
+ + +
+ + V V =
) (
2
+ V V + V = V +
c
c
+ +
+
C
RT
F z D
C D C v
t
C
) (
2
+ V V + V = V +
c
c

C
RT
F z D
C D C v
t
C
General diffusion equation of binary electrolyte
Combining the two equations:


Diffusion equation:
22
C
D z D z
D D
F
RT
C
2
) ( V
|
|
.
|

\
|

= + V V
+ +
+
C D C v
t
C
eff
2
V = V +
c
c
+ +
+ +

=
D z D z
D D z z
D
eff
) (
Electric potential resulted from binary electrolyte transport
across an uncharged membrane
No applied electric potential. 1D steady state diffusion:


From:

We obtain after integration:



Integrating again (diffusion potential):
23
0 =
c
c
z
N
i
C
D z D z
D D
F
RT
C
2
) ( V
|
|
.
|

\
|

= + V V
+ +
+
dz
dC
C D z D z
D D
F
RT
dz
d
+
+ + +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+ 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= + +
+ +
+
L
C
C
Ln
D z D z
D D
F
RT
L
0
) 0 ( ) (
Why there is electric potential difference across the membrane after diffusion?
Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Table 7.4
General relations for diffusion of electrolytes
Flux of the each charged particles in fixed coordinate
system (Nernst-Planck equation):



Diffusion equation for the each kind of charged
particles:



Electroneutrality:
25
v C
RT
F z C D
C D N
i
i i ij
i ij i

+ + V V =
) (
2
+ V V + V = V +
c
c
i
i ij
i ij i
i
C
RT
F z D
C D C v
t
C
0
1
=

=
M
i
i i
z C
Binary electrolyte transport across a charged membrane (e.g.
cell membrane)
Electrical potential changes linearly across the
thickness of the membrane (constant field);
Each ion behaves independently;
Uniform property of membrane.



Governing equation (no convection, 1D, steady
state):

After integration:

26
L
V
L dz
d
m L
=
+ +
~
+
0
dz
dC
L
V
RT
F z D
dz
C d
D
i m
i ij
i
ij
=
2
2
0
| |
|
|
.
|

\
|

u
u =
) /( exp( 1
1 ) /( exp( ) (
0
0
RT F z V
RTL Fz z V C C
C C
i m
i m i iL i
i i i
Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, Second Edition
George A. Truskey, Fan Yuan, and David F. Katz
Figure 7.6 Relationship between normalized outward ionic current and normalized transmembrane voltage for
different values of C
L
/C
0
.