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2012 Neighbourhood Plan

one Role and purpose
two The illustrative masterplan
the development framework
three Landuse
four Movement & access
five Public realm
six Built form
seven Energy, waste & water
implementation & delivery
eight Implementation
& delivery
one Public consultation
two Options & scenarios
three Retail impact assessment
four Public realm strategy
five Environmental analysis
six Resource flow assessment
seven Movement & access strategy
eight Public transport interchange
nine Triangle Site: Site specific brief
The Illustrative Masterplan
elephant & castle
The Illustrative Masterplan
2.1 The development
The consultation exercise and the detailed assessment work undertaken by the
Council have together been used to generate an illustrative masterplan for the
Framework area (Figure 2.1). The plan establishes a structure for the development in
terms of the built form and the arrangement of streets, spaces and places. It also
shows how the proposals will relate to and integrate with the existing area.
The Framework provides for approximately 650,000sqm of mixed-use development,
arranged around an integrated network of pedestrian orientated streets and spaces,
served by a high quality new public transport hub.
More specifically it provides for:
A minimum of 4,200 mixed tenure new homes to be provided in the core area of
opportunity and the wider regeneration area.
Up to 1,100 new homes to replace the existing Heygate Estate (in the wider
regeneration area).
New shops, restaurants, cafes, leisure, hotel and cultural uses focused around a
new and extended Walworth High Street, a Market Square and a Town Park.
New commercial employment floorspace (office, workshops, live work).
A comprehensive range of social, education, health and leisure facilities to serve
the needs of the existing and new populations, including:
- A new secondary school (City Academy).
- A healthy living and leisure centre.
- A new library/ life long learning centre.
An Energy Centre to provide energy services.
An energy advice centre to act as a focal point for the distribution of energy
advice to local residents and businesses and to serve as an exemplar for the
commercial application of new and emerging renewable energy technologies.
A new Civic Square at the heart of the development.
A new High Street extension to Walworth Road.
A new Market Square.
A new Town Park.
A new Square on the Walworth Road - Faraday Square.
Upgrading of St. Mary Churchyard.
Upgrading of existing spaces and provision of new play facilities within the
defined regeneration clusters in the wider regeneration area.
New signage, street furniture, lighting and public art.
A new Northern Line Station.
Improved access to the Bakerloo Line Station and improved concourse facilities.
An improved rail station and better pedestrian access.
Accommodation of the Cross river transit & City Trams.
New buses and improved bus waiting facilities.
Improved interchange between public transport modes.
A realigned road network designed to give priority to pedestrians, public
transport and cyclists.
Taxi waiting facilities.
Below ground servicing for new buildings.
A minimal amount of off street car parking to serve the operational needs of the
On street and off street cycle parking.
A Mobility Centre.
In addition to the above developers will provide affordable housing in line with the
requirements of the Framework and training and skills initiatives for local people to
access the new jobs that will be created.
figure 2.1 : the illustrative masterplan of the proposed Elephant & Castle.
t. G
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ennington Lane


Masterplan to be updated
Kent Road








figure 2.2 : illustrative aerial view of the proposed Elephant & Castle Town Centre
The Illustrative Masterplan
2.2 Character areas
The proposals for the core area of opportunity may be divided into a series of
character areas, each of which will possess its own particular function, ambience
and scale:
Character area 1: Walworth High Street extension (north & south)
Character area 2: The Civic Square
Character area 3: The railway arches & Market Square
Character area 4: The Town Park
Character area 5: Heygate Boulevard
Character area 6: St Marys Churchyard
The anticipated qualities of each of these character areas are set out below.
figure 2.3 : the character areas
1. Walworth High Street extension (north & south)
2. The Civic Square
3. The railway arches & Market Square
4. The Town Park
5. Heygate Boulevard
6. St Marys Churchyard
The Illustrative Masterplan
Walworth road High Street Extension.
The Walworth Road together with the community it serves is today severed from the
heart of the Elephant and Castle. From Heygate Street northwards inactive and
missing frontages put a stop to pedestrian movement. This together with the
barriers formed by the railway viaduct and the Elephant and Castle shopping centre
fail to draw people northwards.
The proposed linear extension of the Walworth Road forming a continuous High
Street through to what is today the northern roundabout will provide a focus for
new town centre activity. It is intended that this street will become the focus for
the area providing a direct connection between the existing Walworth Road and the
historic heart of the Elephant and Castle.
Walworth High Street (North).
This will become the heart of the new Elephant and Castle Town centre. A high rise,
high-density development focused on the Walworth High Street. Located to the
north of the railway viaduct the High Street in this area will be pedestrianised
forming a unique and safe people focused environment. The high street will be
similar in scale to that of Regents Street and will be animated by shops and leisure
facilities. The traffic free environment will encourage the functions at the edges to
spill out increasing the volume and diversity of street usage. This street will
accommodate retail pavilions, cafes, seating areas and temporary markets together
with areas for exhibiting art and space dedicated for street entertainers. This
together with the introduction of trees and subtle landscaping will help bridge the
gap between the two edges.
New modern and innovative buildings will form edges to the high street. These
buildings will have a high degree of transparency at ground floor level reducing the
barriers between internal and external space. Above distinctive, contrasting and
architecturally rich facades will enliven the street scene and give a strong sense of
Two landmark tall buildings will form the beginnings of what is to be the focus of a
cluster of high rise development. The two buildings will straddle the High Street
reinforcing the importance of the Walworth Road as well as signalling the Elephant
and Castle on the London skyline. They will be the tallest buildings in the area and
will accommodate new housing that will enjoy some of the most dramatic views of
The two landmark and streamlined buildings push through a lightweight glazed roof
structure, which covers and connects the two sides of the High Street. The roof will
provide protection from any adverse wind effects and will also create a dramatic
cover to the street space.
Walworth High Street (Middle).
Moving south through the open railway viaduct the vehicle free pedestrian space
ends and the High Street widens to accommodate the new trams and the various
bus routes that run through the area. The car is still not welcome at this point being
diverted off the Walworth Road at Heygate Street.
This part of the High Street will act as an area of transition mediating between the
large scale town centre development to the north of the railway viaduct and the
smaller scale Walworth Road buildings currently to the south of Heygate Street. The
scale and density of the building plots will reduce as one moves south. A continuous
and active street frontage will draw people through and fill what is currently a gap
along the street edge. The new buildings will at ground and first floor house new
shops, cafes, restaurants and leisure facilities with residential and commercial use
above. It is envisaged that the buildings will also provide the opportunity to
accommodate existing businesses that will need to be relocated as a result of the
removal of the existing Elephant and Castle shopping centre.
Walworth High Street (South).
From Heygate Street southwards the Walworth Road remains a fully accessible
vehicular street. The Town Hall to the east will be converted to a new museum
referred to as "The Discovery Centre" which will focus on science and education. To
the north of the new museum a new space to be known as "Faraday Square" will
provide an area for public gathering. Around the square there will be a new Healthy
Living Centre, new shops, cafes and the Faraday Museum, all of which will open
onto and animate the space. The Faraday Memorial which currently occupies a part
of the northern roundabout may be moved into "Faraday Square" making a direct
connection with the new "Faraday Museum". The "Faraday Square" will mark the
transition between the existing Walworth Road and the High Street extension to the
north and therefore will act as an important gateway into the new development
The railway viaduct forms the western boundary to the new and existing High
Street. It is envisaged that the existing railway arches and the buildings facing the
railway will become a focus for new commercial activity comprising offices,
workshops and live work accommodation.
New and improved east / west pedestrian priority links will provide access from the
existing residential areas situated either side of the Walworth Road.
figure 2.4 : illustrative sketch of Walworth High Street
The Civic Square.
This new civic space will be located at the historic heart of the Elephant and Castle
at the point currently occupied by the heavily trafficked northern roundabout. All
major radial routes passing into and through the area will converge on this space. It
will also be the focus for the public transport system where bus, train and
underground systems meet. It will be the most prominent point of arrival and
departure where visitors will be given their first and last impression of the area.
The Framework will allow for the reorganisation and reorientation of the existing
road network which in turn will allow for the creation of a significant new space at
the termination of the new and extended Walworth Road.
Due to its scale and location the new Civic Square will not only be a new square for
the Elephant and Castle but also a new square for London. The buildings
surrounding the square will form a space similar in size to that of Trafalgar Square
and therefore in scale with grand world city space. Its treatment will reflect its
status and role as a major new public transport hub. It will be an open space with a
strong circular geometry defined by trees, which will help to reinforce the square as
a point of convergence and strengthen its identity. Structures will be limited within
the square itself with an emphasis on openness, transparency and connection.
The Civic Square will act as a collector for tall buildings. It is around this space that
future tall structure will be encouraged. The two tall residential towers to the south
of the Civic Square will help to reinforce its significance and add to the primacy of
the place.
The existing pedestrian underpasses will be removed and replaced with a series of
new surface crossing points that will allow pedestrians to pass from the surrounding
areas into the new space at grade, thus increasing the accessibility to and
integration of the space into the surrounding areas.
The existing tube stations will be upgraded and modified allowing passengers to
access both the Northern and Bakerloo Lines from the Civic Square. In addition a
new tram stop will be provided on the western side of the new space.
The Illustrative Masterplan
figure 2.5 : illustrative sketch of the Civic Square
The Illustrative Masterplan
The Railway Viaduct and the Market Square.
The Railway Viaduct.
The railway viaduct is the most significant barrier running through the middle of
the core area of opportunity. It runs north / south separating the east side from the
west with ten metre high brick wall. Access to the elevated station platforms and
the quality of the station environment is very poor and needs to be completely
redesigned. Like the Elephant and Castle Road and shopping centre to the west the
railway viaduct needs to be breached for the regeneration of the area to succeed.
The demolition of the existing station building and brick infill walls to the viaduct
arches will dramatically improve the station environment and establish strong east /
west permeability. Some of the arches may be used for commercial opportunities
such as shops or cafes. Platform access via lifts and escalators will bring passengers
directly from ground floor level up into a new glazed station concourse, which will
have dramatic views north to St. Pauls Cathedral. The new roof will link into the
roof over the Walworth High Street to the east and will connect with the new
Market Square to the west.
The Market Square.
Having opened the arches to the railway viaduct and removed them as a barrier the
new Market Square will act as a destination to the east drawing people through into
a new and unique space. The railway provides animation to one edge of the square
both at high level with a steady flow of trains and at low level with people moving
through the arches between the Walworth High Street and the new square.
The Market Square will have two character areas. The central part of the square will
provide space to accommodate an open market during the day and can be used for
public gatherings to view cinema and theatre in the evening. The edges will
accommodate restaurants, cafes and speciality shops and will have a high degree of
transparency and permeability. The edges will become blurred with internal uses
being allowed to spill out into the square adding to the level of animation. The
character of the area will possess qualities similar to that of Covent Garden and
Borough Market and will provide a contrast to that of the main High Street
shopping area. The Market Square will act as the meeting place for all within the
Town Centre.
Above the restaurants and shops to three sides of the Market Square there will be
residential space. The new homes will help animate the square with balconies and
courtyard spaces. The blocks will be of a height sufficient to provide enclosure to
the square whilst still allowing the sun to penetrate the space. The scale will be
smaller and more intimate than that of the more grand city scale development
comprising the northern end of the Walworth High Street.
Streets and lanes will feed into the square encouraging movement and integration
of the square into the surrounding areas. The Market Square therefore does not only
become a destination but also a place on a route to somewhere else. This will
increase the variety, diversity and richness of the area.
figure 2.6 : illustrative sketch of the railway station concourse
figure 2.7 : illustrative sketch of the market square
The Illustrative Masterplan
The Town Park.
Moving further east beyond the Market Square the environment will become quieter
and less public. On the site of the current Heygate Estate a new Town Park will
become the focus to a new residential quarter. A publicly accessible contemporary
green space contrasts with the harder character of the Market Square and Walworth
High Street. This contrast adds to the diversity of urban spaces created within the
development area.
The space is formed in the long established London tradition of green spaces
surrounded by housing. The relationship between the park and the buildings that
surround it is perhaps a little different though. Rather than a hard straight edge
distinguishing clearly the boundary between park and structure, the edges have
been blurred reflecting the philosophy set out for the High Street and Market
Square. Fingers of green space form private landscaped courtyards between "U"
shaped building blocks bringing the park right into the development plots. By the
same token pavilions have broken away from the building plots and have been set
into the parkland in order to reinforce the notion of blurred and more organic
edges. They provide retail and caf opportunities and access to potential uses
including car parking, leisure/ sports facilities located below the park.
A one way road for the exclusive use of residents helps to further animate the Town
Park. The road will provide access to basement car parking areas and will provide
street side parking for disabled, car club users, loading and motorcycles.. Vehicular
traffic has the advantage of adding a further layer of movement to a space, which
might otherwise become inactive during certain times of the day. This will also give
added benefits for security.
The buildings surrounding the park are stepped in an east / west direction from a
high point adjacent to the Market Square down to a low point at Rodney Road. In
addition the buildings rise in a north / south direction from a low point next to the
park up to a high point along the New Kent Road and Heygate Street edges.
Terraces are produced with landscaped gardens, which are accessed from the
individual homes. The stepping delivers environmental benefit including a greater
level of sunlight penetration into the park and surrounding buildings.
figure 2.8 : illustrative sketch of the Town Park
The Illustrative Masterplan
Heygate Boulevard.
Heygate Street will be remodelled to provide a dramatic tree lined street, which will
incorporate cars, buses, cycle tracks, generous pavements and space for the new CRT
tram. Cars will be managed so that they do not dominate the streetscape. This will
help empower public transport modes to serve the community better. Pedestrians
and cycle users will also be given priority in order that they can be encouraged.
The 40-metre wide boulevard will allow for the buses and trams to run within their
own public transport only zone located in the centre of the street. Along key desire
lines new, wide and direct pedestrian crossings will allow safe and convenient
movement across the street. The pavement zone will accommodate a segregated
cycle track. The pavement to the north will be wider than the one to the south
reflecting its south facing aspect. This will also allow space for cafes and shops to
pour out into the street, adding to the animation and activity of the street scene.
As Heygate Street will become a wider and more generous street it will demand
strong edges characterised by strong urban architecture. Building heights between 6
and 8 storeys will provide an appropriate scale against the width of the boulevard.
Active frontages at ground floor will house shops, cafes, offices, service businesses
such as estate agents, public amenities such as a library as well as dentists and
doctors surgery. These will be located along the northern edge of Heygate Street.
The southern edge will also have mixed uses but will additionally incorporate
housing at ground floor. Upper levels to both sides of Heygate Street are to be for
residential use with roof gardens behind in sloping terraces.
figure 2.9 : illustrative sketch of Heygate Street
The Illustrative Masterplan
St. Marys Churchyard.
A historically significant space, which as its name suggests was once the burial
ground for St. Marys Church. The church has gone but the graves still exist within a
mounded and grass covered space dominated by mature and semi mature trees. The
churchyard is one of two green spaces within the Development Framework area-the
Town Park to the east being the other. It is different in character to the Town Park
being more informal and less structured.
The space is enclosed to the south by The London Park Hotel and to the north by the
council owned leisure centre. Both buildings have seen better days and will be
earmarked for demolition within the Development Framework. The third edge is
open against Newington Butts giving the space great transparency from the road.
The site of the London Park Hotel has a challenging context. Its relationship to the
churchyard will encourage the development of a significance building, which would
act as a backdrop to the space. To the south the site must deal with small-scale
housing and respect the context of low-rise living. Balancing the two sides will
determine the scale of the new development. An active ground floor with shops and
cafes will give animation to the south side of the churchyard. Above this there will
be residential use. The site will mark the transition between the existing
development and the new development within the core.
To the north the leisure centre site is earmarked for a new City Academy school. It
will serve the existing and new population of the Elephant and Castle and illustrates
the Councils commitment to improving the standards of education for children
within the Development Framework area. The current leisure facility will move to a
site adjacent to the new Faraday Square on the Walworth Road.
In parallel with redevelopment of these two sites the potential exists to significantly
improve the quality of the park and its animation through the introduction of new
uses and activities. In addition the potential exists to create a strong east/ west
green link between St. Marys churchyard and the proposed Town Park.
The above descriptions and supporting illustrations present the overall vision that
is anticipated for the various parts of the Elephant & Castles regeneration.
It is anticipated that development of this scale and complexity will be delivered
by a number of different developers and their architects over a period of some
10-15 years.
For these reasons the Council considers that it is essential that there is an overall
strategy to guide future development towards an overall coherent structure and
to manage environmental quality over time.
The next sections provide this guidance. Sections 3 to 7 comprise the
Development Framework for the core area of opportunity, as identified within the
London Plan and the Southwark Plan. As already stated it comprises a set of
Development Framework Plans (DFPs), supported by written guidelines, which
together establish the strategic requirements for the overall development
concept/ vision.
These plans and associated guidelines are based on the principles established by
the Southwark Plan, as noted in section one above. They set the basic structure
for the area, whilst at the same time encouraging and allowing for individual
design expression.
figure 2.10 : illustrative sketch of St. Marys Churchyard overlooked by the new school building
elephant & castle
3.1 land use mix
The key relevant land use principles, supported by the Southwark Plans policies, are:
1. Establish and maintain a high quality, vibrant, safe and integrated mix of homes, shops,
commerce, leisure, cultural and other public facilities, uses and activities.
2. Provide a significant increase in the number and diversity of new job opportunities, and
encourage the development of an enterprise culture and inward investment.
3. Provide for the economic, education, social and cultural needs of a diverse mix of
residents; including extended life long learning opportunities.
4. Provide a range of high quality recreation, entertainment, and leisure facilities.
5. Provide a balance and integrated mix of residential accommodation across the full
range of private, social, key worker and other affordable housing, with a target ratio
within the affordable element of new schemes of 50:50 for social rented and
intermediate housing.
Development Framework Plan (DFP) 1a and 1b: A vibrant and integrated mix of new uses
and activities.
The Council requires that the core area of opportunity is developed to create a new mixed-use
town centre to provide for the needs for everyday and higher-order services for the residents
of the Elephant & Castle and for the wider catchment of Southwark. The immediate priority is
to rectify existing deficiencies in provision. These new facilities should be easily accessible on
foot and by cycle for those in the Elephant & Castle area and by public transport for those in
other parts of London.
In addition the Council wishes to capitalise on the new town centres excellent public transport
accessibility, its proximity to key attractions in Central London generally and the south bank of
the Thames in particular. These provide for the opportunity to create a new Central London
destination for visitors from further afield and abroad to venues & facilities for cultural, retail,
educational, leisure and entertainment activities.
As well as providing for a dual-purpose town centre serving both local and Borough-wide
needs, and acting as a new cultural, educational, leisure focus within Central London, the core
area of opportunity must also provide for the quantitative & qualitative leaps needed to meet
the essential housing, employment, training, recreational and social infrastructure needs of
existing and future residents & businesses. These need to be accommodated both within the
new town centre and the areas around it (the core and wider regeneration area).
The Council requires that the mix of uses to be developed and sustained in the Framework area
shall be at its most intense and varied in the new town-centre core. This will be focussed upon
and relate to the proposed "high-street" of Walworth Road and its northward extension to the
new Civic Square. Along and adjacent to the "high-street" a mix of all the following town
centre uses will be encouraged:
Retail (Use Class A1)
Financial and professional services (Use Class A2)
Restaurants, cafes and bars (Use Class A3)
Other commercial leisure uses
Cultural and entertainment uses
Education and training uses
Community and civic uses
Other employment generating uses including offices and light industry (Use Class B1(a) (b)
& (c))
Hotels (Use Class C1)
Residential (Use Class C3)
The scale of deficiency of A1, A2 and A3 uses within Southwark requires a very substantial
provision of these uses across ground and first floor levels in the new town centre. However it
is not intended that these should be over-dominant and exclude other town centre uses which
provide different services, facilities and attractions and which contribute to variety and vitality.
Provision should also specifically be made to accommodate uses and activities that contribute
figure 3.2 : Development Framework Plan 1b - Upper floor land uses
figure 3.1 : Development Framework Plan 1a - Ground floor land uses
Predominantly residential/
Cultural Uses
Local facilities
Semi Private/Private Courtyards
High Street retail/mixed use
(ground and first floors)
Active ground floor uses will be
Mixed commercial/employment
Local facilities
Public Transport
Off street car parking/access
Semi Private Courtyards
1. Healthy Living Centre
2. Library
3. Energy Centre
4. City Academy
3. Energy Centre
4. City Academy
New entrance to
the northern line
St. Marys
High Street retail
located along
Walworth Road
Mixed employment
uses located along
railway to the south
Mixed uses within
the railway arches
Existing Town Hall building
converted to Faraday
Science Museum
Faraday Memorial -
potential to relocate to the
new Faraday Square
Mixed uses within the
railway arches
to establishing Elephant & Castle as a new cultural/education/ entertainment/creative business
focus in London. It is also vitally important that the town centre core contains a substantial
amount of residential accommodation, as well as employment uses, above retail, leisure and
other high-street uses.
Away from the high-street town centre spine the balance of uses is expected to change to
reflect the predominantly residential character of existing and new regeneration clusters, and
the specific constraints and opportunities that can support other non-residential uses.
The proposed broad disposition of land-uses is indicated on DF PLans 1a and 1b. For each
specific land use the following principles shall apply:
DFP 1a & 1b: Retail/ Leisure
Work undertaken by Roger Tym & Partners (RTP) as part of a Borough-wide retail capacity
study has demonstrated that there is considerable leakage of comparison expenditure from the
local catchment area to the West End and other nearby centres. If allowed to continue it is
considered that this outflow of expenditure will erode the vitality and viability of the
Boroughs existing centres, continuing a downward spiral of decline.
In order to redress this problem and create a more sustainable pattern of shopping RTP have
concluded that some 96,000sq meters gross of comparison goods retail will be required in the
Borough, as a whole over the plan period of the Southwark Plan. They have also indicated that
such retail will need to be of a type and quality that will boost the overall attractiveness of the
Borough as a retail destination.
The Elephant & Castle, as a result of its central location, accessibility by public transport and
proximity to a large residential population is considered to be well placed to take advantage of
this untapped Borough wide potential.
In view of this situation the Council has decided to promote a strategy for the accommodation
of new retail/ leisure activity which is based on a traditional High Street model. In developing
its ideas the Council has been mindful of a number of factors, including:
The GLAs hierarchy of retail centres and Elephant and Castles designated Metropolitan
Centre status.
GLA/TfLs objection to the location of large scale, car based retail at the Elephant and
The Councils own objectives in relation to the retention and reinforcement of the
Walworth Road as the focus for the area.
The Framework objective to introduce new development that successfully integrates with
and relates to the existing structure, character and grain of the area.
In the light of the above the Council proposes a linear High Street to provide the new town
centre focus for the area. In pursuit of this High Street model it is proposed that the existing
Walworth Road will be extended through the arches of the railway viaduct into a new Civic
Square, focussed on the existing northern roundabout.
A group of mixed-use urban blocks will be introduced along the length of this new High
Street extension. These buildings will provide the focus for new high quality town centre uses.
Activity and interest will be generated through the horizontal/ vertical subdivision of individual
building plots. The ground and first floor of each building shall, as a minimum, be reserved for
active town centre uses and functions such as retail/leisure/cultural uses, that will contribute
to the vitality of the street scene.
To the east of the railway viaduct a new Market Square is proposed. It is envisaged that this
space, together with the railway arches themselves, will become the focus for more local and
specialist retail activity, cafes, restaurants and an open/ semi enclosed permanent market.
This area should become a destination in its own right, a meeting place at the heart of the
town centre. It is also considered that the introduction of new commercial leisure uses such as
a cinema/theatre/music venue/performance space would be appropriate in the vicinity of the
new Market Square. The square is also intended to be a suitable venue for outdoor and
evening events.
Further east it is envisaged that the development will become more residential in character.
However, new retail/ leisure/restaurant/cultural uses will be encouraged within the lower floors
of buildings fronting onto the public realm of streets & spaces. Such uses should be allowed
to spill out into the surrounding public realm in order to help animate and activate the streets
and spaces that comprise this part of the development.
In terms of the quantum of new retail/ leisure activity the Council considers, based
on the Borough wide retail capacity and subsequent impact assessments undertaken
by RTP (Appendix 3) and a detailed assessment of the physical capacity of the core
area, that the potential exists to accommodate around 75,000 sqm gross of mixed
town centre uses within the core area, 63,500sqm gross of which will be new and
11,500sqm of which will replace existing retail as a result of the removal of the
existing shopping centre.
In addition to this retail floorspace the town centre will also accommodate a range
of non-residential floorspace. Such uses will include a new secondary school, a
library, a leisure/healthy living centre, commercial (offices, live-work, workshops),
theatres, cinemas, and other cultural uses.
In order to determine the final quantum/mix of the town centre uses the Council
will expect the developer/developers of the retail element of the core area to
undertake and submit a retail impact assessment as part of any planning application
DFP 1a & 1b: The horizontal and vertical subdivision of uses within individual
buildings and plots.
Within individual buildings and plots the vertical and horizontal subdivision of uses
will be encouraged with uses at ground floor providing activity and animation
visible from the street. All new buildings should contribute to the interest and
vitality of the street.
At ground and first floors building frontages facing onto the public street should be
rich in detail and stimulating to walk by during the day and night. Entrances to
upper floor uses should be accessed directly from the street.
DFP 1a & 1b: Employment
The creation of new jobs for local people will form a key part of the redevelopment
strategy. The London Plan makes provision for a minimum of 4,200 new jobs. In
pursuit of this minimum target and the local objective of ensuring the fullest
possible participation by and benefit for local residents the Council will seek to build
on the areas existing strengths, in terms of:
Education: The area supports a cluster of education establishments, including the
London Institute and London South Bank University. In addition Camberwell College
of Art is situated just south of the Framework area. Each of these establishments
undertakes a range of activities/ courses, some of which have a national and even
international reputation i.e. fashion, art/ design, media, green building technology.
As part of the regeneration proposals considerable scope exists to forge new and
improve existing links between these education establishments and the business
sector and as a result promote the creation of new specialist business activity. Such
links might include training, product innovation and development, research, joint
marketing and joint working.
As far as education is concerned increased specialisation is on the immediate
horizon for local secondary schools. The impending programme of investment in
secondary education will seek to encourage existing schools to develop specialisms.
Such developments will offer valuable pathways into local specialist sectors and
contribute to the development of a highly skilled and motivated local workforce.
This will be sit within a context of increased collaboration between schools and
Higher and Further Education institutions.
In view of the above the Council sees the education sector as key partners and
stakeholders in the redevelopment process.
Retail/ leisure: Existing shopping centre. The new development will accommodate a
significant amount of new retail/ leisure/ cultural activity which will create a large
and varied number of new jobs.
The proposals will, however result in the loss of the existing enclosed shopping
centre located to the east of Elephant Road. The centre supports a number of
existing businesses and hence local employment. As part of the redevelopment
proposals the Council will want to ensure that, where appropriate this existing
employment is retained within the Framework area. Thus as part of any future
proposal to redevelop the shopping centre the Council will expect prospective
developers to include a strategy to deal with the retention of these existing
businesses and jobs. The sorts of measures that should be explored by such a
strategy should include:
The active transfer of existing jobs into new businesses created as part of the
new town centre.
The provision of information support and tailored training to allow existing
businesses and employees to take advantage of new business activity.
The transfer of viable businesses into new accommodation as part of the new
extended Walworth Road and/ or the transfer of existing businesses into vacant
accommodation within the Walworth Road.
The provision of subsidised/rent free accommodation to enable new/ small
businesses to establish themselves within the new town centre.
Retail/ leisure: Existing Walworth Road/ East Street Market. These areas will have a
key role to play in the future of the Elephant & Castle. The area specific SPG for
Walworth Road sets out the Councils commitment to ensuring that the existing
roles and functions of these areas are reinforced and enhanced.
Specific proposals for include:
The retention of existing retail, except where the loss would be in favour of an
appropriate leisure use.
The introduction of measures to improve access to the centre through the
provision of improved public transport, cycling and walking opportunities.
The diversification of the range of uses and services i.e. the introduction of new
housing, student housing, employment related uses.
The promotion of residential uses above shops.
The reuse of vacant premises and conversion to leisure, commercial and
employment uses.
The introduction of measures to enhance the operation of East Street Market.
The encouragement of an evening and/ or late night economy.
The promotion of the area around the Old Town Hall as an area suitable for the
location of new leisure/ cultural uses such as The Southwark Discovery Centre, a
new leisure centre, a new library and a Healthy Living centre.
The introduction of measures to improve the quality and safety of the pedestrian
The introduction of measures to reduce the impact of vehicles on the Walworth
Further detailed guidance for the above is set out in the Walworth Road/ East Street
Market SPG.
Cultural: Southwark has already witnessed the regeneration impact that major new
cultural activity can have on a particular area. Tate Modern in its first year of
operation attracted over 5 million visitors to North Southwark and as a result has
stimulated a range of new business activity and uses.
The Council considers that a key part of establishing a new image and identity for
the Framework area will involve the attraction of new cultural activity that builds
upon and compliments the already well established portfolio of City wide attractions
in Southwark (the Tate, Southwark Cathedral, the Imperial War Museum, Borough
Market, the Ministry of Sound).
In view of this emphasis the Council proposes as part of the redevelopment process
to explore the potential for new uses that will include:
A new arts/cultural facility of national significance.
A new performance space.
A theatre.
Southwark Discovery Centre within the existing Town Hall on Walworth Road.
The provision of new short term managed workspace for new starts and small
A concentration of new and well-designed small business activity in the
Walworth Road area.
The development of a combined teaching and small business workshop facility.
The provision of improved school facilities.
The provision of tailored training and information to support existing and new
The provision of affordable childcare, nursery provision and after school clubs.
Local construction agreements.
Links to and increased funding of existing programmes and initiatives aimed at
preparing local people for employment and lifelong learning opportunities.
Planning agreements to target training and employment opportunities created
by new development for local people.
In consultation with bodies including the LDA, the London Skills Commission and
the Social Exclusion Unit, the Council proposes to evolve a series of development
related employment/ training/ enterprise initiatives that will form part of the
eventual implementation and delivery framework for the area (see section 8).
It is envisaged that private sector match funding/participation in the delivery of
appropriate employment/ training initiatives will be obtained via Section 106
agreements attached to any planning permissions granted within the regeneration
area (core area of opportunity and wider regeneration area).
The benefits sought will be assessed at the appropriate time in relation to the
development proposals put forward (see section 8).
DFP 1a & 1b: Social infrastructure.
The new development will introduce significant numbers of new people into the
area. This increase in population will generate increased demand for new and
improved social, community and leisure facilities and services.
As part of the redevelopment process the Council will seek to secure social and
community benefits that will include:
The construction of a new replacement leisure centre (including swimming pool).
The construction of a new healthy living centre.
The delivery of health provision such as dentists, health visitors, district nurses,
practice nurses, opticians, pharmacists and community mental health services to
cater for the needs of existing and new populations.
The construction of a new library
Support for additional school places and new education facilities, including the
construction of a new urban secondary school (City Academy) and early years
The promotion of links between secondary schools and the Further/ Higher
Education sectors in order to increase participation of local residents in FE and
HE training places.
Funding for community safety initiatives/ projects as a result of the new
The precise level/ type of benefits that will be sought from developers will be related
to the needs and demands generated by any redevelopment scheme and, as required
by Circular 1/97, the viability of providing them.
The benefits sought will be assessed at the appropriate time in relation to the
development proposals put forward (see section 8).
It is anticipated that the funding and delivery of these facilities will be derived from
Section 106 contributions, attached to any planning permissions granted within the
Framework area and through contributions from sources including SRB, LDA, land
sales and lottery funding (see section 8).
In addition it will be necessary to manage the process of change and
transformation. The area will experience significant reconstruction works and large
areas will be demolished and may remain vacant for temporary periods. In view of
this situation and as part of the process of generating a new image and identity for
the Elephant & Castle, the Council will actively seek to manage the transition
through the introduction of temporary uses and the staging of events, including:
The use of public art and temporary exhibitions/ installations.
The use of temporary lighting/ video/ advertising.
The introduction of advance landscape planting/ greening of the area.
Temporary/ short term use of buildings and land i.e. for artists, exhibitions,
events, markets, concerts.
Creative industries. The London Plan identifies the creative industries sector as one
of the fastest growing sectors of the London economy, and notes that Southwark is
home to an emerging cluster of this dynamic business sector. The GLA report
Creativity Londons Core Business, identifies Southwark as the Borough with the
5th highest number of creative industry employees. This sector is particularly well
represented in the area immediately to the north of the core area of opportunity.
The Council considers that the potential exists to expand this sector and as part of
this process to promote stronger links with the education sector in terms of fashion,
arts and design, and will actively sponsor proposals to encourage investment from
these sectors.
Railway arches. The railway viaduct runs north/south through the centre of the
regeneration area. The arches associated with this viaduct provide an excellent
opportunity to accommodate a rich and diverse mix of smaller/ start up business
activity. For this reason a mixed use employment zone or spine is identified for the
area associated with the railway viaduct. Within this zone, which includes parts of
the town centre buildings fronting Walworth Road, the Council will encourage new
business activity providing new flexible, low cost commercial office, live-work and
workshop space suitable for small start-up business activity.
Many of the existing buildings included within the mixed use employment zone or
spine are already in employment use. As a result, the Council will seek to protect
the employment potential of these sites and hence proposals advanced within this
zone and other similar sites adjacent to the railway viaduct will be expected to:
Demonstrate no net loss of Class B employment floorspace. An exception to this
may be justified where it can be demonstrated that substantial employment can
be provided by a use class other than Class B. i.e. retail, hotels, leisure, cultural
Protect the railway arches and their ability to accommodate existing and new
low cost employment generating activity.
In addition developers of these sites will be expected to work with the Council in
securing the relocation of key existing businesses, if necessary, and to contribute to
training initiatives identified as part of this Framework (section 8).
DFP 1a & 1b: Improving the skills base and job readiness of the local population.
Improving the skills base of the local population, new job creation and removing the
barriers to employment forms a key part of the regeneration strategy for the
Framework area.
The developers of sites within the core area of opportunity and the wider
regeneration area will be expected to deliver, contribute towards and participate in
initiatives aimed at improving the local education and employment potential of the
Such initiatives will be defined and prioritised as part of any future Planning
Application/ Environmental Impact process. Work undertaken to date suggests the
following measures:
Affordable Housing
In accordance with the London Plan, Policy 4.4 of the Southwark Plan states that the
Council will endeavour to secure 50% of all new dwellings as affordable housing. It is
however accepted that there is currently considerable imbalance in favour of social
housing at the Elephant and Castle and hence it may be appropriate to reduce the London
Plan target of 50% affordable housing in preference to the provision of more
intermediate housing than might otherwise be considered appropriate in other locations
in London. It is also acknowledged that the large infrastructure investment required at
the Elephant and Castle may necessitate the redirection of S.106 contributions away from
housing and into transport and other public realm works. In view of this situation the
precise levels of affordable housing to be provided as part of any redevelopment proposal
will thus be subject to negotiation on a site by site basis.
Refurbishment of existing Council stock.
The Council considers that it is essential that the regeneration process is as comprehensive
as possible. As part of the process it is therefore considered important that the existing
Council stock should also benefit from future investment & improvement. As a first step
in the process the Council proposes to undertake a stock condition survey & option
appraisal in order to identify the investment requirements of each Estate within the wider
regeneration area. Based on the findings of these surveys the Council will then carry out
consultation with tenants and leaseholders with a view to agreeing investment priorities
over the next 10-15 year period.
Relevant policies of the Southwark Plan apply as follows (see UDP Part 2):
Retail/ Leisure
Policy 1.8 Location of retail provision.
Policy 1.9 Change of use and new development within town centres.
Policy 1.10 Change of use within protected shopping frontages.
Policy 1.11 Protecting the range of services available.
Policy 1.12 Superstores and major retail development.
Policy 1.13 Arts, culture & tourism uses.
Policy 1.14 Hotels and visitor accommodation.
Policy 1.1 Access to employment opportunities.
Policy 1.5 Mixed use developments on employment sites.
Policy 1.6 Small business units.
Policy 1.7 Live-Work units.
Improving the skills base and job readiness
Policy 1.1 Access to employment opportunities.
Policy 1.6 Small business units.
Social infrastructure
Policy 2.1 Enhancement of community facilities.
Policy 2.2 Provision of community facilities.
Policy 2.3 Enhancement of educational establishments.
Policy 2.4 Provision of new educational establishments.
Policy 4.1 Location and density of residential development.
Policy 4.2 Quality of residential accommodation.
Policy 4.3 Mix of dwellings.
Policy 4.4 Affordable housing.
Policy 4.5 Wheelchair affordable housing.
Policy 4.6 Loss of residential accommodation.
Policy 4.7 Non self-contained housing for identified user groups.
DFP 1c: Housing
Relocation of Heygate residents.
The Heygate Estate occupies a key area within the core area of opportunity. It is proposed
that as part of the redevelopment process that the buildings will be demolished and the
existing housing will be re-provided on key sites around the Elephant & Castle.
As part of the Framework process a number of alternative sites have been considered. This
information was presented to the Executive on 11 February 2003. As a result a list of key
sites and locations have been confirmed as having the potential to deliver new housing
development to accommodate the residents transferred from the Heygate Estate (DF plan
1c: Location of early housing sites).
The majority of these sites are included within the three new regeneration areas or
clusters beyond the core area of opportunity that have been identified as part of the
Framework process, namely:
Harper Road.
Rodney Road.
South Newington.
It is envisaged that the new housing proposed within each of these areas or clusters will
be brought forward in the context of area based improvement strategies. It is anticipated
that each strategy will comprise a series of environmental projects and initiatives that will
be designed to tackle issues including:
Safety and security.
Quality of the public/ private realm.
Traffic management and car parking.
Quality of existing open space.
The provision of new and the upgrading of existing facilities to meet the needs of
existing and new residents.
These area based improvement strategies will be developed in consultation with residents
during the course of 2004. The various projects and initiatives identified will then be
costed and prioritised. Implementation will take place as and when funds become
available as part of the implementation programme associated with the decant of
residents from the Heygate Estate.
New housing within the core.
The Framework has the potential to deliver up to 4,200 new housing units in the period to
2018 (core area of opportunity and wider regeneration area). It is anticipated that the
majority of these units will be accommodated within new high quality, mixed use
apartment blocks of varied size and tenure and will cater for a range of potential housing
In delivering this housing emphasis will be given to the creation of truly sustainable
mixed used neighbourhoods of the highest quality. In this regard the new housing will be
expected to:
Embrace, as appropriate the concept of Lifetime Homes, which can adapt to changing
personal needs and circumstances.
Deliver a broad range and mix of housing types, size and tenure, including an element
of affordable housing.
Demonstrate exemplar standards in terms of energy efficient building design
Take on board the Councils ambitions in terms of waste minimisation and water
Use sustainable and durable construction materials.
Promote travel by modes other than the car.
Deliver the highest quality of both architectural and urban design.
Deliver a safe, high quality and diverse public realm.
Ensure high standard of residential amenity in terms of sunlight/ daylight penetration,
provision of outdoor amenity space, appropriate mitigation against adverse
environmental/ pollution effects.
Contribute towards the delivery of the social and community infrastructure required
to support the new and existing population.
On appropriate sites allow for mixed use development
Figure 3.3 : Development Framework Plan 1c: Location of early housing sites
CDF boundary
Core area of opportunity
Early Housing sites
Other private sites
Rodney Road Regeneration
Harper Road Regeneration Cluster
South Newington Regeneration
Harper Road:
New Kent Road


t. G




t R
Rodney Road
Regeneration Cluster
South Newington
Regeneration Cluster
Early housing sites
1 Prospect House
4 Wansey Street*
6 New Kent Road
9 Brandon Street
11a Wadding Street/Stead Street
11b Rodney Road
13a Dickens Square
13c Harper Road (LBS offices)
13d Harper Road
15 Pocock Street/Surrey Row
16 Library Street
17 Leroy Street
19a Newington South (front of
Hanworth House)
23 Townsend Street
24 Manciple Street
25 Chatham Street
26 Welsford Street
27 Royal Road
Private Sites
(sites providing 30% affordable)
A Braganza Street
B London Park Hotel
C Castle House
D Newington Causeway
E Steadman Street
* planning application already submitted
Movement & circulation
elephant & castle
Movement & circulation
4.1 Movement & circulation
Regeneration proposals offer a unique opportunity to illustrate how good urban
design and excellent transport infrastructure can work together to achieve the
benefits of sustainable development.
Detailed transport proposals have been developed for the area and are described
in Appendices seven and eight. They are underpinned by the following key
6. To give priority to pedestrians, cyclists, and public transport users rather than
the private car.
7. To create an improved and highly efficient public transport interchange.
8. To limit and mitigate the effects of traffic, reduce pollution, and provide a
minimum level of car parking, consistent with a high density, public transport
rich location.
DF Plans 2a, 2b and 2c identify the Councils strategic proposals in relation to
circulation and movement within the Framework Area (core area of opportunity and
wider regeneration area) in terms of:
The reorganisation of the strategic highway network.
Route hierarchy.
Junctions that will require improvement.
Location of surface pedestrian crossing points.
Pedestrian/ cycle priority routes and zones.
Cycle routes.
The key elements of the sustainable transport strategy for the area may be
summarised as follows:
DFP 2a, 2b & 2c: Measures and initiatives to limit negative traffic impacts.
Elephant & Castle serves as a major focus for inter Borough traffic movements. The
strategic roads that pass into and through the area carry large volumes of traffic.
The impact on the environment is significant in terms of creating problems of noise,
air pollution, severance, safety and visual impact.
The redevelopment proposals provide the opportunity to reorganise the road system,
reprioritise movement and introduce measures to ensure the efficient management
of the high volumes of traffic.
Based on a rigorous assessment of pedestrian movement patterns within the area
and an assessment of the volumes of traffic using the system the Council proposes:
To close Walworth Road between Heygate Street and the Southern roundabout
to general car traffic.
To remove the southern roundabout.
To close of part of the northern roundabout connecting New Kent Road and the
Elephant & Castle Road.
To close London Road to general traffic and the establishment of a public
transport corridor, useable by cyclists.
To introduce measures to increase pedestrian/ cycle priority and comfort on
Heygate Street, Elephant & Castle Road, New Kent Road and the northern
To remove all pedestrian underpasses and provide high quality at grade
To upgrade key junctions and introduce new high quality straight pedestrian
crossing facilities.
To introduce additional crossings to reflect key pedestrian desire lines.
Developers will be expected to work with the Council and Tfl to secure the phased
delivery of this preferred highway strategy.
figure 4.1 : Development Framework Plan 2a - Movement and Circulation (Vehicular)
figure 4.2 : Development Framework Plan 2b- Movement and Circulation (Pedestrian)
figure 4.3 : Development Framework Plan 2c - Movement and Circulation (Cycle)
Inner Ring Road (and CCZ
Congestion Charge Zone
Walworth Road - High Street
Heygate Street - Boulevard
Other key approaches
Public transport only
Residential access road & cycle
Underground service/car park
access (ramp)
Key junction improvements
Key approaches
Other approaches
Pedestrian/cycle crossing points
Key pedestrian routes
Other pedestrian routes
Pedestrian priority zone within
the core
Existing cycle routes
Proposed cycle routes
Existing partly completed cycle
Cycle routes proposed as part of
the DF
Pedestrian/cycle crossing points
Cycle/pedestrian priority area
Centralised cycle parking facility
Movement & circulation
DFP 2a: Greening the trafficked streets
The reorganisation of the strategic highway network will create the opportunity to
introduce measures that will significantly improve the environment of the strategic
road network.
Such improvement works will focus on:
The key strategic approach roads of Newington Causeway, Southwark Bridge
Road, St. Georges Road, London Road, Kennington Lane, Kennington Park Road.
Existing Walworth Road.
Elephant & Castle Road.
Heygate Boulevard.
Guidelines in relation to the minimum spatial requirements for each of the key
routes that form part of the highway network of the area are described in Figures
4.4 to 4.7.
Environmental improvement works associated with the reorganisation of these
routes will include:
Pavement widening.
The introduction of segregated cycle lanes.
The introduction of street trees.
The provision of facilities necessary to accommodate the bus and/ or the Trams.
The provision of new high quality straight pedestrian crossing points, and the
removal of underpasses.
The rationalisation and removal of unnecessary street clutter.
The introduction of new high quality street furniture i.e. signage, seating and
The use of a simple palette of high quality and durable paving materials.
The introduction of public art.
Further guidance in relation to the design approach the Council intends to adopt in
relation to the improvement of each of the above routes is included within Public
Realm strategy attached under Appendix 4.
DFP 2a: Key junction improvements
In line with the proposals to alter the strategic highway network there will be a
requirement to undertake improvements to the key junctions, in order to maximise
the safety of all road users pedestrians and cyclists in particular.
The extent of these improvements are outlined under Appendix 7. Developers will be
expected as part of any Travel Assessment(s) to work with the Council and Tfl in
relation to confirming the extent and design of improvements and securing
subsequent implementation.
figure 4.4 : URBAN STREET - proposed section and images of New Kent Road - the Inner Ring Road
figure 4.5 : HIGH STREET - proposed section and images of Walworth Road (at Faraday Square)
figure 4.6 : URBAN STREET - proposed section and images of Elephant & Castle Road (at the Tabernacle)
figure 4.7 : BOULEVARD - proposed section and images of Heygate Street
private space
in front of
pavement with
bus shelters at
bus stops
bus lane
wide pavement
forming principle
bus lane
road and
bus Lane
tram Lane
new tree
shared bus
and tram
road and
road and
bus lane
tram Lane
4.5m 4.0m 3.7m 1.4 5.2m 4.0m 5.0m
8.0m 4.0m 1.4 4.4m 1.4 4.8m 6.0m
4.2m 3.6m 3.9m 3.9m 0.8 3.0m 7.5m 2.65m 7.0m
6.0m 1.8m 6.5m 3.5m 3.5m 3.5m 6.5m 3.5m 1.8m 3.3m
Movement & circulation
DFP 2b: A high quality pedestrian environment
Walking and cycling will comprise the prime means of intra-area movement within
the Framework area. In view of this situation there is a need to establish a high
quality walking environment that is easy to use and understand, that is well
designed, is attractive, safe and well integrated into the surrounding area.
DF Plan 2c (Figure 4.9) identifies the network of pedestrian priority links proposed
for the core area. The figure also identifies the location of new and improved
surface crossing points. These proposals have been defined through analysis
undertaken by Space Syntax. They represent what is considered by the Council to be
the most appropriate strategy in terms of linking key destinations and ensuring the
effective integration of the core area of opportunity into the strategic and area
wide movement network.
In terms of quality and treatment the pedestrian priority network will be expected:
To respond to the needs of diverse user groups, including children, the elderly
and mobility impaired.
To provide wide, straight and well defined crossings.
To be overlooked by appropriately scaled buildings.
To be safe, well lit and animated by well detailed, interesting and open building
facades at ground level.
To incorporate interest and diversity in terms of use, character and function of
each route within the hierarchy.
To have a strong local identity that defines the Elephant & Castle.
To provide clear definition between car, pedestrian, cycle where appropriate.
To provide protection against unpleasant climatic extremes i.e. rain/ cold/wind/
heat and glare.
To use high quality street furniture, lighting and materials.
Further detail in respect of the treatment of the public realm is contained under
Appendix 4. Developers advancing proposals within the Framework area will be
expected to take on board and develop the guidelines contained within this
DFP 2c: Facilitating cycling
Cycling offers great potential for sustainable transport. It is healthy and offers a
larger catchment area than walking and can reduce demand on other modes of
The Framework proposes:
The implementation of a comprehensive and integrated network of dedicated
cycle routes, safe crossings and cycle priority measures.
Comprehensive signing of routes and destinations.
The provision of cycle parking in prominent, secure and accessible locations
throughout the development.
The provision of bike & ride facilities at all public transport stations throughout
the development to facilitate easy interchange of cycling with public transport.
The provision of a cycle station for between 1,000 to 1,500 bikes at the heart of
the public transport hub i.e. in the vicinity of the railway arches associated with
the railway station.
The provision of protected and secure cycle parking within residential, retail,
commercial development:
- 1 space per residential unit, plus 1 space per 10 units for visitors.
- 1 space per 250 sqm of retail use and B1 use.
- 1 space per 500 sqm for B2-B8 use.
The provision of shower/ changing/ storage facilities for employees within
commercial buildings.
The introduction of bike hire schemes such as City Bike.
The delivery of a high quality network of cycleways and cycle related facilities will
be obtained via direct development and/ or Section 106 contributions and other
public sector funding sources (Section 8).
figure 4.9 : Development Framework Plan 2c - Cycle movement
figure 4.8 : Development Framework Plan 2b - Pedestrian movement
Key approaches
Other approaches
Pedestrian/cycle crossing points
Key pedestrian routes
Other pedestrian routes
Pedestrian priority zone within
the core
Existing designated cycle routes
Existing proposed cycle routes
Existing partly completed cycle
Cycle routes proposed as part of
the DF
Pedestrian/cycle crossing points
Cycle/pedestrian priority area
Centralised cycle parking facility
from London Bridge from
from Tower
areas to the
from residential
areas to the
from residential
areas to the
Movement & circulation
4.2 Accommodating public transport
Elephant & Castle is one of Londons most important public transport hubs with
some 13 million passengers using it each year.
The TfLs Interchange Plan classifies the interchange at the Elephant & Castle as a
category B interchange which means it is included under other major central
London interchanges. It is the highest priority interchange in category B.
Improving such key interchanges via new integration initiatives is identified as being
vital in the Mayors Transport Strategy (July 2001) and is one of the Mayors top ten
key transport priorities.
Improvements to the public transport system serving the Elephant & Castle are
already planned. Thameslink 2000 will improve the existing rail services. More
frequent buses will serve the area and plans are being formulated for the
introduction of two tram services through the Elephant & Castle.
The area is designated as a Transport Development Area (TDA). As a result of this
designation considerable scope exists to enhance the quality of existing transport
facilities, increase the levels of integration and enhance pedestrian access to and
between each mode of public transport.
In view of this situation the Framework transport strategy makes provision for the
DFP 2d: The establishment of a high quality transport hub at the heart of the
core area of opportunity.
Ease of pedestrian access to and the provision of high quality interchange between
the various public transport modes at the heart of the area forms one of the key
drivers of the transport strategy.
As part of the process of formulating its ideas the Council has reviewed the existing
situation in terms of:
The numbers and proportion of passengers interchanging between modes at the
Elephant & Castle.
The numbers and proportion of passengers arriving at the Elephant & Castle and
passing into the surrounding area.
The quality and convenience of interchange between modes.
An important factor that has influenced the Councils approach to the creation of a
new high quality transport hub is the fact that of the total numbers of passengers
using the Elephant & Castle, some 50% interchange between modes and the
remainder pass into the surrounding areas.
This fact has been extremely important in terms of defining how the transport hub
should operate. It is the Councils view that public transport at the Elephant &
Castle cannot function in the same way as a more traditional and accepted model of
a public transport interchange. It is the Councils view that the many complex
movements that comprise transport movement and interchange must be woven into
the fabric of the place rather than confined within a box or a series of below
ground structures, comprising tunnels and links.
The Council propose to create a place of interchange and arrival at the heart of the
area. This place will comprise a series of pedestrian orientated linked spaces and
places which are attractive, distinctive and safe. The various public transport
facilities will be integrated into these spaces and places.
The key elements of the proposed strategy are shown on DFP 2b (Figure 4.10). In
evolving this strategy the Council has sought and will continue to seek through the
detailed design stages:
To provide sufficient capacity to accommodate both interchange and
terminating passengers.
To ensure the integration and connection of public transport facilities into the
surrounding area.
To minimise walking distances between modes.
To provide high quality and direct, at grade access to and between modes.
To minimise changes in level and direction.
To ensure access for all.
To design for 24-hour security.
To cater for waiting passengers in terms of safety, provision of information,
passenger comfort and provision of appropriate weather protection.
The delivery of these improvements will form a key part of the redevelopment
proposals and hence the Council recognise the importance of ensuring that such
improvements are viable within the context of the redevelopment proposals.
In view of this situation the Council will continue to work with Tfl and the GLA to
secure the delivery of a high quality and deliverable public transport hub at the
Elephant & Castle.
Specific proposals in relation to the treatment of each mode may be described as
DFP 2d: Rail Service Improvements
The mainline rail station serves Thameslink and Southeast Trains. Thameslink trains
run from Brighton to Bedford, whilst Southeastern Trains operate throughout south
east London and Kent.
The main infrastructure proposals potentially affecting Elephant & Castle mainline
station are the Thameslink 2000 proposals. Should this scheme go ahead it is
proposed that the platforms will be lengthened at the station, enabling it to
accommodate longer trains and thus carry more passengers. This combined with
reduced vehicle headways and improved signalling is expected to increase capacity
by over 50%
The existing Station, including the ticket hall and the platforms areas are
unattractive and in need of refurbishment. The station platforms are located some
10meters above street level and are accessed via two sets of stairs. Pedestrian access
to bus and tube from the rail station is inadequate, comprising a poor quality and
indirect system of subways and links.
As part of the regeneration proposals for the core area the Council will work with
developers, the Strategic Rail Authority, network operators and Tfl to secure a viable
set of improvements that will include:
The provision of new access points, comprising escalators, lifts and stairs in order
to increase the movement capacity of the station and improve interchange with
the tube, bus and taxi.
Improved station facilities including the provision of enhanced waiting, ticketing
and information facilities.
DFP 2d: Tube (LUL)
Elephant & Castle is served by the Bakerloo and Northern lines. Access to the
Northern Line is provided via a station situated to the south-east corner of the
roundabout. The Bakerloo line station is situated to the north of the northern
Both stations suffer from a number of qualitative and capacity constraints
Limited access for the mobility impaired,
Passenger congestion, principally in the interchange passageways.
Poor quality interchange between the two stations, via an underground
Poor quality and inadequate subway system between the Bakerloo station and
the Elephant & Castle shopping centre.
The severance of the Bakerloo station from the area due to the presence of the
northern roundabout.
As part of the preparation of this Development Framework existing and future
entry/ exit volumes for the Northern and Bakerloo Line stations have been
quantified based upon the land use mix and level of development proposed by the
Framework (Appendix 8).
figure 4.10 : Development Framework Plan 2d - Movement and Circulation (Public transport)
Proposed Bus Stops
Proposed City Tram route
Proposed Cross River Transit -
Tram route
Public Transport only links
Bus priority routes
Proposed Tram Stops
Entrances to train station
Enhanced entrances to Bakerloo
& Northern Stations
Bus terminating and layover
Movement & circulation
figure 4.11 and 4.12 : dimensions required for tram route and at tram stops
As a result of this assessment it is concluded that whilst the Bakerloo Line will
operate within capacity in the future, there will be problems with the Northern Line
These problems relate primarily to the capacity of the existing lifts. Based on LUL
guidelines, it is estimated that the existing lifts will need to be replaced by a bank
of three escalators in order to provide sufficient entry/ exit capacity to the station.
The replacement of these lifts with escalators will also have significant knock-on
effects for the overall design of the Northern Line station requiring reconstruction
at both ticket hall and underground levels.
Appendix 8 provides an outline station specification for a new Northern Line Station
based on LUL guidelines and the predicted volumes of passenger traffic.
In addition to these essential works it is considered that the following qualitative
improvements will be required:
The provision of direct pedestrian access from the Civic Square into the two
underground stations.
Enhanced entrances to the Bakerloo line station and improved concourse
The removal of the subway connections to the Bakerloo line.
Provision of a new passageway link between the Bakerloo and Northern Line.
Unlike the existing passageway, this new passageway should be straight
throughout its length, thus avoiding blind corners.
The replacement of the sub-station situated in the centre of the northern
roundabout with a new below ground facility.
The Council will, as part of the redevelopment proposals work with the developers of
the core area of opportunity, LUL, Metrolink, Tfl and the GLA to identify a feasible
and viable set of proposals that will significantly enhance the quality of service at
the Elephant & Castle.
DFP 2d: Integrating the Tram.
The new tram services (Cross River Transit CRT & City Tram) are intended to add an
intermediate mode choice between the bus and Underground travel.
The trams will pass through the area and will provide an important new public
transport connection linking Kings Cross to Waterloo and providing a new link
through to Peckham and Stockwell.
The Council see the Tram proposals as performing a key element in the regeneration
of both the Framework area and Southwark as a whole in terms of both connecting
the core with the areas to the south west and south east of the Elephant & Castle
and reinforcing the areas public transport links with central London.
In view of this potential the Tram will need to be fully integrated into the
redevelopment. It is recognised that one or both of the trams may be introduced
before the regeneration project is complete, and hence appropriate provision needs
to be made at each stage of the redevelopment to allow the Tram, its tracks,
overhead system and stops, to be integrated successfully into the road network and
urban spaces.
The Framework establishes a preferred route for the Tram and identifies convenient
locations for stops DFP 2b (Figure 4.10), comprising:
London Road (public transport only)
The northern roundabout (stop 1)
Elephant & Castle Road.
Walworth Road extension (public transport only)
Heygate Street (stop 2).
Rodney Road (stop 3).
It is understood that the majority of the Tram route alignment will be contained
within the existing road network and will be segregated from vehicular traffic. In
view of this situation sufficient space has been allocated within each of the
strategic route proposals to accommodate the Tram and its associated infrastructure.
DFP 2d: Bus service extensions and improvements.
The provision of a bus service that is reliable, frequent and easy to use is a key
objective of the Council. As a result of the development a further increase in bus
use can be expected. In addition alignment changes might be required as a result of
the Tram.
Framework proposals include:
The provision of a bus only link between the Elephant and Castle and the
junction of Heygate Street and the Walworth Road.
The designation of London Road as a public transport only corridor.
The introduction of appropriate new bus priority measures on the strategic road
The provision of bus stops and waiting facilities in the vicinity of the main rail
interchange on New Kent Road to facilitate an easy exchange between the
different modes.
The provision of new/ improved bus stop/ waiting facilities along Elephant &
Castle Road, Newington Causeway, Rodney Place and Walworth Road in order to
improve linkages between different routes and modes and to facilitate easy
interchange with short distances between routes.
The introduction of a bus waiting/layover facility and potential refuelling station
(for alternative fuels), situated in the southern part of the core area, in the
vicinity of the railway line.
The provision of safe, clearly signed and direct walking routes to bus stops from
homes and work places.
The provision of two to three boarding bays reserved for the setting down/
picking up of coach passengers. A possible location might be within London
Road, close to the underground and local bus service stops.
As part of the redevelopment proposals the Council will continue to work with
London Buses and Tfl to improve the level of access, service and increase passenger
accessibility and comfort.
DFP 2d: Taxis at the interchange.
Taxis are an important part of the integrated transport strategy and are established
as a significant mode of travel in South London.
In the context of car-reduced residential and car-free retail/ commercial
development, as envisaged by the Framework it is likely that the demand for taxis
will increase. In view of this situation the Framework makes provision for taxi pick-
up and drop-facilities on New Kent Road in the vicinity of the railway viaduct, on
the access street within the residential district to the east of the railway viaduct,
London Road and Heygate Street.
It is anticipated that further potential stops will be identified as part of the detailed
development proposals.
In addition it is considered that the potential exists to introduce Rickshaws/
Pedicabs. Several companies operate in London offering noiseless and pollution free
methods of transportation and hence the opportunity to introduce a central
rickshaw stand within the core area as an integrated part of the main interchange
should be explored as part of the process the redevelopment process.
DKE = 2.95m
DKE = 2.95m
0.3 0.6
5% maximum
gradient to ramp
demark tram
2.95m min clear width to
figure 4.15 : Pedestrian access to tubes from the new Civic Square
figure 4.14 : PUBLIC TRANSPORT ONLY ROUTE - proposed section through London Road
figure 4.13 : PUBLIC TRANSPORT ONLY ROUTE - proposed section through Walworth High Street (north of Heygate)
bus and
tram Lanes
bus shelter
at bus stop
bus /
cycle track
existing Bakerloo line
entrance to the north
of the proposed Civic
Inner Ring Road to the
north of the Civic
Tube entrance directly
onto the Civic Square
and facing the
underground entrance for
the Northern Line
new link under road to provide
direct access from tube station to
Civic Square
existing lift access
existing lift replaced
with a bank of three
Tube entrance
directly onto the
Civic Square
Proposed new
development to the south
of the Civic Square
Proposed Civic Square
(gateway space to new
town centre and
provides access to
surrounding bus stops
and tram stop)
tram lanes
8.0m 4.1m 2.65m 0.6 2.65m 4.0m 8.0m
varies 4.5m 2.65m 0.6 2.65m 4.5m 3.0m
Mobility Centre in the Civic Square
In view of the emphasis that is being given in the transport strategy to alternatives
to the car it will be necessary to inform people of the mode choice and travel
options. In particular special attention will need to be given to the cycling and car
club proposals as they are almost unused and unknown in this country at the
present time.
As part of the transport proposals it is considered that it would be appropriate to
establish a mobility centre at a central point within the development i.e. within the
Civic Square. It is envisaged that this centre will bring together a wide range of
services including personal journey planning, ticket purchase, car-club operation and
parking management. In terms of accessing information it should be possible to
either speak to someone in person at the centre, or make contact via the internet or
by telephone.
DFP 3a & 3b: City Logistics. servicing & deliveries.
The environmental impact of services and delivery vehicles should be minimised via
the adoption of measures including:
The largest freight deliveries to the core retail area organised via an integrated
below ground system comprising a central service bay located under the Market
Square and a system of tunnels and tugs that will deliver goods to individual
buildings/ occupiers (DFP 3b). This system envisages controlled access from the
New Kent Road.
In the remainder of the core area servicing will take place off road and within
the curtilage of new buildings. Service vehicles should not conflict with
pedestrian routes.
The incorporation of appropriate off site refuse facilities.
The preparation and adoption of a Delivery and Service Management Plan for
the core retail/ residential area which will show how the impact of service
vehicles will be minimised and alternative modes encouraged (see appendix 7).
The detail of the proposed transport strategy will be developed in consultation with
prospective developers as part of any Transport Assessment(s) submitted in support
of planning applications within the core area.
Relevant policies of the Southwark Plan apply as follows:
Policy 5.1: Locating development.
Policy 5.2: Transport Assessments.
Policy 5.3: Walking and cycling
Policy 5.4: Public transport improvements.
Policy 5.5: Transport Development Areas.
Policy 5.6 : Car parking.
Policy 5.7: Parking standards for the mobility impaired.
Movement & circulation
4.3 Car ownership, car parking and servicing
A key objective of the Council is to reduce the reliance on the car and encourage
movement by other more sustainable modes.
The capacity of the street network and in particular the Inner Ring Road is already
constrained. Current levels of car traffic are reduced as a consequence of the
Congestion Charge. However to accommodate the development aspirations of the
Framework this reduction needs to be consolidated and the generation of car traffic
by the development limited.
In view of the above, limiting the level of on-site parking provision is seen as key to
reducing congestion and to achieving a sustainable transport solution. It is therefore
proposed to adopt a highly restrictive car parking strategy for the development
within the core area of opportunity.
DFP 3a & 3b: Car parking
In pursuit of this strategy of restraint the Council proposes to impose the following
car parking standards within the Framework area (core and wider regeneration area):
Core area of opportunity:
Residential: A maximum of 0.25 spaces per residential unit. (The Council will want
to keep the quantum of car parking to a minimum through the introduction of car
clubs and car sharing schemes).
Retail/ Leisure/ Cultural: Car parking will be limited to essential user (disabled) and
operational needs only.
Offices: Car parking will be limited to essential user (disabled) and operational needs
Light industry: Car parking will be limited to essential user (disabled) and
operational needs only.
Wider Regeneration Area.
Residential: Southwark Plan standards will apply.
Retail/ Leisure/ Cultural: Southwark Plan standards will apply.
Offices: Southwark Plan standards will apply.
Light industry: Southwark Plan standards will apply.
DFP 3a & 3b: Off-street parking.
All parking within the Core area of opportunity will be off street and, unless specific
limitations dictate otherwise, shall be contained within basement/ semi-basement
car parks. Entrances to these car parks shall be located on the more secondary
streets as shown on DF Plans 3a and 3b (Figures 4.16 and 4.17) and the impact of
such access points on the public realm should be minimised through the
introduction of appropriate design measures.
DFP 3b: Disabled car parking
Development proposals should include an appropriate level of car parking/ car based
access for disabled people in accordance with Council Standards contained within
the Southwark Plan.
DFP 3b: Integration of car clubs
The integration of an area based car rental service or car club will be encouraged as
part of the redevelopment proposals.
To be effective such a facility should be integrated into the development at an early
stage and should be designed to provide an efficient, convenient and cost effective
alternative to owning a car (see Appendix 7).
figure 4.17 : Development Framework Plan 3b - Car parking and servicing (below grade)
figure 4.16 : Development Framework Plan 3a - Service and access at grade
Vehicle access and service routes
(at grade)
Off-street car parking
Shared service and car park
access ramp
Routes to car park (below grade)
Central Service Zone
(below grade)
Tug route (below grade)
Car parking areas (below grade)
Public realm
elephant & castle
Public realm
5.1 Public realm: open spaces and places
This section provides a description of the Councils proposals in relation to the
treatment and character of the public realm in the core area of opportunity. This is
key to the consideration of the identity of the Elephant & Castle.
In addition, it is proposed that Area Based Improvement Strategies will be
prepared for the three Regeneration Clusters (DFP1c) in the wider regeneration
area in early 2004. These will contain a series of proposals and initiatives aimed at
the enhancement of open spaces and the public realm associated with the
rehousing of residents of the Heygate Estate.
Key principles relating to the public realm are:
9. Contribute directly to the creation of a lively, safe and attractive public realm
comprising streets and spaces with active frontages, high quality landscaping
and priority for use by pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users.
10. Enable the Elephant to have its own clear and positive identity which builds on
the strengths of the area and reflects its function as a major new destination
in London South Central.
11. Support an integrated network of high quality, safe urban spaces and public
routes into the surrounding districts that will draw people into and through the
area, encourage activity, and improve its appearance.
12. Maximise and extend ecological diversity in existing and new spaces.
DFP 4: New spaces and places
The Framework (core area of opportunity) proposes a hierarchy of six key spaces; three
urban squares, one pedestrian street and two parks (one new and one existing) (DFP 4,
Figure 5.2).
Each of these spaces is located at a key nodal point within the movement system and
has a specific role and function to play within the Framework area:
The Civic Square. A City space or new World Square, located at the historic
intersection of the key radial transport routes. It will be highly visible and will
provide a major point of arrival and departure for public transport.
Walworth High Street extension. The key pedestrian shopping street. A busy
commercial street that will support the most significant shops and town centre
The Market Square. A district space serving the more specialist shopping needs of
the resident and business populations. Situated to the east of the railway viaduct
it will support a new market and a range of smaller more specialist shops, cafes
and restaurants. It will be a place to pause and spend time.
St. Marys Churchyard. An informal historic greenspace that contains a large
number of mature trees. It will provide a setting for a new City Academy and
major new residential development. It will also provide an opportunity to
introduce new recreation and leisure uses and activities to serve the new and
existing populations.
The Town Park. A neighbourhood greenspace enclosed by predominantly residential
development. It will support a range of informal and formal facilities to meet the
social and recreational needs of the surrounding populations.
Walworth Square/Faraday Square. A local square on the Walworth Road, connected
to the proposed Faraday Museum and proposed new leisure/healthy living Centre.
It will provide an exhibition space and a location for more localised activity and
meeting - a meeting point on the Walworth Road.
The scale, quality, design treatment of each of these spaces will reflect their intended
function. Further guidance in relation to the treatment of each space is provided
figure 5.1 - scale relationships of the proposed spaces
1. the Civic Square and Trafalgar Square
2. the Market Square and Somerset House
3. Walworth Square and Soho Square
4. Walworth Road Extension and Regent Street
figure 5.2 : Development Framework Plan 4 - Public Realm: New and upgraded spaces and places
City-scale identity (Civic Square)
Pedestrianised High Street
District identity (Market Square)
District identity (St. Marys
Local identity (Faraday Square)
Local identity (Town Park)
Railway arches
Public realm
figure 5.3 : strategy diagram for the Civic Square
figure 5.4 : a flexible space capable of supporting a range of
events and activities
figure 5.5 : precedent examples
central pedestrian
clear space for
movement and
occasional events
new strong
edge to square
new strong
edge to square
sunny zone to
north of the
inner ring road
is a major
source of
pollution and
transition zone to
protect space
from noise and
activity zone around
edge (possibility for
key crossing
points across
inner ring road
London college
of Printing
tram stop
bakerloo line




northern line
Civic Square
A new World Square for London.
A key point of arrival and departure by public transport.
A point of orientation.
A busy and well used space which people will pass into and through, a meeting
place and a place that will become a focus for events.
Key issues to be addressed:
High volumes of traffic and hence noise and pollution.
Segregation and severance of the space from surrounding areas.
Pedestrian access via a series of poor quality subways.
Poor definition and enclosure provided by existing buildings.
Lack of animation and enclosure from the surrounding buildings.
Underground access points segregated from the main space.
Orbital cycle facilities to divert cyclists from the core area.
Design guidelines (figure 5.3):
A space similar in scale to Trafalgar Square.
Edges, enclosure, containment:
Reorientation of road network to both define a strong geometric shape to the
space and reduce the land take of the highway network.
The use of tree planting, paving, structures and buildings within the space to
reinforce the geometry of the space and provide an appropriate level of
enclosure and containment to the space.
Pedestrian access:
Removal of subways and the introduction of wide pedestrian footpaths along
the edge of the space and wide pedestrian crossings on key desire lines.
The main function of the space is to access public transport services. It should be
possible to access both the tram and the two tube stations directly from the new
Civic Square.
Animation and activity should be provided through the introduction of a series
of small pavilions located around the edge of the space, containing such uses as
flower shops, newspapers, coffee takeaway.
The two buildings proposed for the top of the Walworth Road extension should
establish a strong edge to the space. The ground/ first floor facades should be
transparent, accommodate new commercial activity and should open directly
onto the space.
The space should be able to adapt to support a range of events and activities
such as a skating ring in winter, temporary exhibitions, gatherings and
It is suggested that the square might have a slight concave surface to
exaggerate the circular form of the space and to raise the pedestrian slightly
above the traffic and hence enhance the visibility across the square.
The tram stop should be located at the edge of the space to allow the centre of
the space to be used for other purposes and people activities.
The entrances to the tubes should have a unique and distinct identity within the
The adverse effects of noise and pollution from traffic should be minimised
through the introduction of measures that might include walls of running water,
bands of tree planting and/ or acoustic shelters.
Further guidelines in relation to materials, lighting and street furniture are
provided in the public realm strategy (Appendix 4).
figure 5.6 : section through Walworth High Street (pedestrianised)
figure 5.7 : plan of Walworth High Street (pedestrianised)
figure 5.8 : precedent examples
2.5m 3.25m 1.5m 2.0m 3.25m 3.25m 2.0m 1.5m 3.25m 2.5m
Walworth High Street extension (north)
The most important street/link through the area.
A busy new commercial street, that with Walworth Road south will provide the
focus for town centre activity.
A generous pedestrian tree lined boulevard, enclosed by new buildings
comprising double height commercial floorspace with residential/ office above.
Design guidelines (figure 5.6):
Regent Street without the cars.
Pedestrian walking, sitting, eating and browsing.
A designated cycle lane.
A formal line of street trees to bring down the scale of the buildings.
Active facades a minimum of 15 entrances per 100 meters.
Pavilion buildings, temporary stalls within the central space to accommodate
smaller scale retail activity.
Use of material to differentiate between zones i.e. cycle lane, central walking
zone and browsing zone.
Use of robust, hard-wearing materials that are easy to clean.
Further guidelines in relation to materials, lighting and street furniture are
provided by the public realm strategy (Appendix 4)
activities from inside
buildings can spill
out into space
tree planting
within street
street furniture
and benches
beneath trees
stalls and kiosks can
bring activity to
within the space
clear pedestrian
movement zone at
either side of street
next to retail edges
new retail and active
uses at ground floor
Public realm
New Market Square
A tightly defined space enclosed by the railway viaduct and by a variety of
distinct new mixed use buildings.
A district wide destination at the centre of the development. All pedestrian
routes feed into the space.
A highly active space supporting a vibrant mix of uses and activities.
A place for more local/ specialist shopping and a place where people can linger,
sit in comfort, eat, drink and watch the world go by.
Key issues to be addressed:
Opening up the railway viaduct to allow people to flow into the space from the
areas to the west of the railway viaduct.
Provision of improved access to the station at the upper level.
Provision of appropriate protection from noise generated by the railway.
Design guidelines:
Similar in scale to the central piazza at Somerset House.
A multi functional space capable of accommodating an outdoor market , a
concert and or performance space within its central zone.
The potential to introduce some kind of active element such as a water feature
when the market is not in use.
Outdoor cafes and restaurants along the south and south western facing facades
A diverse range of commercial activities within the ground and first floors of
buildings enclosing the spaces. No blank facades.
The introduction of new commercial activity into a number of the arches.
Benches and seating to provide a secondary edge and boundary to the market
zone localised in the centre of the space.
Guidelines in relation to materials, lighting and street furniture are provided in
the public realm strategy (Appendix 4).
figure 5.9 : strategy diagram for the Market Square
active uses
within railway
access to square
through the
railway arches
central zone for
south facing
edge for outdoor
sitting and
retail/active u
retail/active uses

figure 5.10 : a multi-functional space
figure 5.11 : precedent examples
figure 5.12 : strategy diagram for St. Marys Churchyard
pavilions in the
park provide
new edge to park
making transition
between hard &
soft landscape
existing mature
trees retained
where possible
to noise and
pollution required
along edge of
crossing point provides
pedestrian cycle access
to space
zone for
school building




south facing
edge for outdoor
sitting and
St. Marys Churchyard
Key gateway into the development from the south and west.
A mature landscape well overlooked by new development.
An historic parkland setting.
A place for informal/ formal recreation/ sport activity.
Issues to be addressed:
Introduction of measures to protect the space from the adverse impacts of
traffic on Newington Butts.
Design guidelines:
The space will provide a setting for a new urban school (City Academy) and a
major new residential development (on the site of the former London Park
Active uses to be introduced into the ground floor of the new residential
building (i.e. new leisure uses including a gym, new health facilities, retail, cafe
Informal and formal recreation activity.
Major pedestrian/cycle route through the park.
The creation of a new entrance onto Elephant & Castle Road.
The reinstatement of the boundary to the park comprising replacement railings.
The establishment of hard landscaped and well-lit pathways immediately
adjacent to the school and the new residential development.
The introduction of a new edge to the park which could comprise a series of
steps and paving zone. This will provide an area of seating where it will be
possible to overlook sports activities taking place within the Park. (Figure 5.13).
The introduction of a series of pavilions on the northern edge of the park to
accommodate new commercial activity such as a nursery, cafe and sports
activities and to act as a meeting point within the Park.
Retention of existing Plane trees and carrying out essential arboricultural works.
Selective removal of less desirable trees to open up the centre of the space and
reduce shading.
Introduction of new lighting and special effect lighting at gateways and on
Introduction of bulb planting to produce colour in Spring.
Removal of historic railing in front of London Park Hotel.
figure 5.13 : new defined edge to the park
figure 5.14 : precedent examples
figure 5.15 : strategy diagram for Town Park
Public realm
houses provide
activity within
the space
cultural facility
providing transition
between the Market
Square and the
town park
formal zone &
active spaces
around the edge of
the park
semi private
courtyards with direct
visual relationship
with central
residential access
road : traffic calmed
& integrated into
sunny side of
space for
sitting/eating out
The Town Park
A contemporary modern park combining areas of hard and soft landscape.
A green oasis, a relaxing sunny place, quiet and intimate in character.
A focus for informal and formal recreation activity to serve the needs of existing
and new residents.
A safe environment well overlooked by residential development.
Integrated into the surroundings by a series of well used small-scale residential
Design guidelines:
Reference point:
Park Citroen, Paris.
The central zone of the space to comprise a landscaped greenspace for sitting
and relaxing, comprising informal grassed areas, tree/ shrub planting, pedestrian
links and seating areas.
The edge of the Park to be occupied by more formal activities i.e. childrens play
areas, ball courts, barbecue areas and more formal gardens/ seating areas for
elderly residents.
The provision of a series of pavilions/ follies providing a secondary edge to the
park. It is envisaged that these spaces could accommodate indoor seating areas,
greenhouses, nurseries, indoor play, zones, an Internet cafe etc.
A small local street that will provide local access to the residential areas.
Private/semi private landscape courtyards associated with the new residential
A cultural facility occupying the transition point between the Market Square and
the Town Park.
A predominantly soft landscaped central area-comprising areas of formal
The internal residential access/ cycle road should be seen as an integral part of
the space, comprising a shared surface. Measures should be integrated in order
to keep traffic speeds to a minimum.
A relationship should be created between the private/semi private residential
courts and the main Town Park through an integrated landscape treatment.
Further guidelines in relation to materials, lighting and street furniture are
provided in the public realm strategy (Appendix 4).
figure 5.16 : formal activities around the edge of the park
figure 5.17 : precedent examples
Walworth Square
A space providing the potential to be used for outdoor exhibitions associated
with the proposed Discovery Centre.
The exhibition area adjacent to the Walworth Road will be more public in
The area to the rear of the exhibition space will have a more local character and
use. This end of the Square will be more protected from the traffic, noise and
pollution from the Walworth Road.
The exclusion of traffic will allow for a more calm and pedestrian friendly
environment to be created.
Issues to be addressed:
Exclusion of traffic from the space.
Modification of Town Hall to accommodate new museum.
Relocation of Heygate tenants and demolition of existing buildings.
The possible relocation of the Faraday memorial and its modification to provide a
space for outdoor exhibitions associated with the Discovery Centre.
Design guidelines:
An exhibition space. It is possible that the former Faraday Memorial could be
relocated and modified to provide a series of small exhibition spaces to be used
in connection with the Discovery Centre.
Introduction of small retail units on southern edge of buildings facing onto the
Introduction of Healthy Living Centre into the building on the east or north side
of the Square.
Introduction of more locally based activities in the western part of the Square
i.e. childrens play area, seating/ waiting areas.
The surface of the Square should be connected to the surrounding buildings in
order to allow the life and functions inside of the building to flow out into the
The existing bushes and greenery around the Town Hall should be removed to
allow the Square to connect to the proposed new Museum.
The creation of a quieter green area in the eastern part of the space comprising
tree planting, seating areas and perhaps a childrens pay area.
The carrying out of landscape treatment to the space out into and across the
Walworth Road to extend the space and create a relationship with the buildings
located to the west of the Walworth Road.
Further guidelines in relation to materials, lighting and street furniture are
provided in the public realm strategy (Appendix 4).
figure 5.18 : strategy diagram for Walworth/Faraday Square
south facing
edge for outdoor
sitting and
Possible location for
Faraday Memorial
with new public
uses within the
square - acts as
noise barrier to road
retail uses and
public buildings
provide active
frontages around
the square
sheltered/quiet zone
within the square

figure 5.19 : elements and uses within the Walworth/Faraday Square
figure 5.20 : precedent examples
Public realm
The detailed design of these spaces that comprise the core area will form a
fundamental part of the detailed design programme. It is anticipated that in due
course the Council will run a series of design competitions in respect of the Key
As part of the process the Council will work with developers to ensure the
establishment of a high quality and well managed public realm.
DFP 4: Existing public spaces and places
The area suffers from a quantitative shortage of designated public open space. In
addition the quality of much of this existing open space is relatively poor in terms
of both amenity quality and levels of facility provision.
The area does, however contain a number of informal green spaces and amenity
areas that have no clear or specific definition or function. These areas are located
primarily within the existing residential estates in the wider regeneration area.
As part of the Framework process the Council proposes to promote a strategy to
upgrade and improve the quality of the existing open space network. This strategy
will also aim to enhance levels of pedestrian and cycle accessibility to the open
space network from existing residential areas.
A key component of the strategy involves the identification of three local park
improvement clusters:
Harper Road Local Park cluster; comprising Harmsworth Park, Dickens Square,
Newington Gardens and one of the amenity spaces within the Rockingham
Estate adjacent to Falmouth and Rockingham Roads.
Rodney Road Local Park cluster; comprising Victory Community Park, Nursery
Row Park and existing residential amenity space.
South Kennington: Kennington open space.
Each of these local park clusters is situated within one of the three proposed
Regeneration Clusters as identified in DFP1c.
It is proposed that these local park clusters and associated public realm will be
upgraded and improved. Such improvements will include:
The introduction of new functions/ activities to meet the particular needs of the
residents of each regeneration cluster i.e. the elderly, young children, teenagers
education etc.
The introduction of improvements in terms of legibility, accessibility, boundary
treatments and connectivity.
The provision of access for all.
Measures to improve safety and security i.e. increased natural surveillance,
lighting and landscape improvement.
Improved levels of planting, the creation of new habitats and enhanced
Improved cycle and pedestrian links to the open spaces from the surrounding
residential neighbourhoods.
As already stated it is envisaged that a series of projects and proposals in relation to
each of the area based improvement strategies will be developed in early 2004 in
consultation with residents as part of the development of the Heygate relocation
DFP 4: Public realm enhancement within the wider regeneration area
In addition to improving the existing network of local parks the Council also
proposes, as part of the Framework process, to introduce a programme of public
realm enhancement works. These works will be targeted at key streets and spaces.
It is envisaged that these works will address issues including:
The management of traffic in the area.
Image and identity.
Safety and security.
Establishing a sense of place.
Greening of the urban environment.
Improving legibility, permeability and identity of different districts that comprise
the area.
Improving pedestrian and cycling connectivity.
Promotion of green lanes concept.
Improving air quality.
Public art.
Proposals in respect of these issues will be addressed as part of the development
of the Area Based Strategies.
Funding in respect of these works will be obtained from contributions derived from
sources including land sale proceeds, Section 106 contributions, SRB and the LDA.
DFP 4: Ecological biodiversity
Considerable scope exists to enhance the ecology and biodiversity of the area. As
part of the redevelopment process the Council will want to ensure opportunities are
taken to green the built environment and extend the ecological diversity of existing
open spaces through:
New habitat creation including new tree planting, altering grassland
management regimes and the introduction of water bodies.
Developing a network of intensive and extensive greenroof/brownroof areas.
Introducing planting on buildings.
New tree planting.
As part of the detailed design the Council proposes that a comprehensive ecological
survey of existing open space areas will be undertaken in order to guide and inform
the development of detailed ecological proposals for the development of the core
area of opportunity and the Area Based Improvement Strategies.
Relevant policies of the Southwark Plan apply as follows:
Policy 3.14: Safety in design
Policy 3.27: Other open space
Policy 3.28: Biodiversity
Built form
elephant & castle
Built form
DFP 5a: Built form: Spatial requirements.
Based on a detailed analysis of pedestrian movement patterns and sunlight and
daylight criteria DFP 5a (Figure 6.4) establishes the above principles for the location
of buildings within each development plot and the desired form and structure of the
built form. The key factors that underpin this layout are:
The alignment of the Walworth Road.
The disposition of key pedestrian desire lines.
The desire to open up view corridors into the development from the surrounding
Microclimate considerations.
DFP 5b & 5c: Building heights and the location of tall buildings.
The June consultation document introduced a proposed strategy for building height.
This strategy identified a tall building zone, focussed on a central area at the heart
of the core area of opportunity.
The consultation document, however stated that prior to making any decision in
relation to the number and location of tall buildings that the Council would
undertake further environmental and townscape testing to assess the performance
and impact of tall buildings.
This more detailed work has now been undertaken and DFPs 5b and 5c (Figures 6.6
and 6.7) confirms the strategy in relation to building height and the location of tall
buildings within the core area of opportunity. Where heights are expressed they are
done so in metres above ground level.
The proposed strategy comprises:
The designation of core cluster zone at the heart of the development where it is
envisaged that the tallest, city scale buildings will be located. The illustrative
masterplan envisages that this core cluster will comprise two mixed use towers,
straddling the Walworth Road, at the centre of the development block and at
the termination point of long views from each of the surrounding approach
The designation of a secondary tall building cluster zone, comprising key sites
located around the core cluster and the Civic Square, including the London
College of Printing, Peronet House and Castle House. It is envisaged that any
proposals advanced within this zone, whilst being lower in height and scale than
the buildings located within the core cluster will contribute to the creation of a
coherent and dynamic skyline for South London.
The designation of a more local tall building zone adjacent to St. Marys
churchyard. The zone occupies a gateway location when approaching from the
southwest. It also faces onto St. Marys churchyard - one of the key open/ leisure
spaces within the core area of opportunity. In view of this situation it is
considered that the zone has the potential to support a prominent landmark
figure 6.1 : A comfortable microclimate
figure 6.2 : High quality tall buildings within the core
figure 6.3 : Ground plane and rooftop spaces
This section provides more detailed guidance in relation to the built form, in
accordance with the following key principles:
13. Create buildings which are sustainable, well designed and flexible.
14. Indicate the most appropriate locations for tall buildings.
15. Create buildings which deal efficiently and appropriately with waste, water
and energy use.
Specific design guidelines on the treatment of the built form are provided below.
figure 6.4 : Development Framework Plan 5a - Spatial requirements
development plots
existing buildings to be retained
residential courtyards to open out
onto public greenspace
mandatory build-to line
mandatory pedestrian link
other key links through
development plots
key view corridors
key dimensions in metres
centre line of proposed circulation
Built form
building that will signify and reinforce the transition between existing and new
development and will provide a stunning backdrop to the churchyard space.
However, in view of the objective to locate the tallest buildings at the centre of
the development, at the point where all views into the area converge, it is
envisaged that any buildings within this local zone will be subservient in height
to the buildings located within the core and secondary clusters. The precise
height and form of the eventual development will be subject to more detailed
analysis and testing in line with the objectives set out below and the criteria set
out in the Councils SPG on tall buildings.
Outside of the tall building zones the establishment of a building height profile
that falls away from the centre, in response to the existing context and built
form profile.
The establishment of a height profile that maximises environmental and
microclimate benefits and reduces exposure of residents and open spaces to
noise and pollution.
In advancing proposals for tall buildings within the three zones the Council will
expect schemes to be of outstanding architectural and urban design quality and to
comprise an exemplary standard of sustainable construction. In particular and in line
with the draft London Plan, tall buildings should:
have ground levels that are largely accessible to the public. In addition the
buildings will be expected to interact with the streetscape providing frequent
doors and windows, atria and active ground floor uses;
be suited to their wider context in terms of their relationship to other buildings,
streets, public and private spaces;
be attractive city elements when viewed from all angles and contribute to an
interesting skyline. The tops of the buildings, in particular should be well
have accessible upper floors with public access to viewing platforms;
illustrate exemplary standards of sustainable construction and resource
management and potential for renewable energy generation and recycling;
avoid harmful microclimate effects or adverse effects on local amenity;
have an acceptable relationship to aircraft and telecommunication networks;
be appropriate in terms of their impact on managed views and the setting of
historic assets.
In pursuit of these London Plan objectives the Councils SPG on tall buildings
identifies the specific design criteria against which applications for tall buildings
within the Elephant & Castle will be assessed. It also sets down the submission
requirements for planning applications for a tall building. Developers submitting
applications within the defined cluster zones will be expected to adhere to this SPG
figure 6.5 : tall buildings at the centre will reinforce the identity of the area and
will act as a major point of orientation in South London
(1) view of approach along Walworth Road
(2) view of approach along New Kent Road
(3) view of approach along Kennington Park Road/Newington Butts
(4) view of approach along Newington Causeway
(5) view of approach along St. Georges Road
(6) view of approach along London Road (from St. Georges Circus)
1 2
5 6
Relevant policies of the Southwark Plan apply as follows:
Policy 3.11: Quality in Design
Policy 3.12: Design Statements
Policy 3.13: Urban Design.
Policy 3.14: Safety In Design.
Policy 3.15: Conservation of the Historic Environment.
Policy 3.16: Development in Conservation Areas .
Policy 3.17: Listed Building Consent.
Policy 3.18: Setting of listed buildings or conservation areas.
Policy 3.19: Archaeology.
Policy 3.20: Tall Buildings.
Policy 3.21: Strategic Views.
Policy 3.22: Important Local Views.
Policy 3.23: Outdoor Advertisements.
Core Cluster : Area suitable for
the tallest city scale buildings
Secondary Cluster : Area suitable
for tall/landmark buildings which
will compliment and reinforce the
central area and hence core
Local Cluster : locations where
tall buildings may be appropriate,
subject to more detailed testing
min 4 metres
low scale
medium scale
higher scale
max 14 metres
min 14 metres
max 29 metres
min 29 metres
max 49 metres
figure 6.7 : Development Framework Plan 5c - Tall buildings strategy
figure 6.6 : Development Framework Plan 5b - Indicative Approach to Building Heights
+135m in
height (above
ground level)
Built form
DFP 5a : Built form: Environmental conditions: Microclimate
In order to mitigate impacts, maximise environmental and microclimate benefits and
reduce exposure of residents and pedestrians to noise and pollution the Council will
require the integration of microclimate and environmental concerns into the
detailed design of the development.
Analysis of sunlight, daylight and wind criteria has helped to develop the built form
and public realm strategies that are contained within this Framework document.
Figure 6.12 provides a summary of existing conditions. Figure 6.13 provides guidance
in relation to some of the measures and opportunities that the detailed design
should seek to adopt and integrate. Such measures include:
Solar access:
Adoption of a built form that encourages solar penetration to public spaces.
The massing of the built form so as to benefit from maximum passive solar gain
in winter.
The massing of the built form to benefit from maximum daylighting.
The creation of a sunlit, wind protected public realm.
Use soft landscape and green space to reduce heat island effect within the
public realm and on buildings.
Explore opportunities to harvest solar energy for solar thermal and photovoltaic
Exclude and control to reduce solar gains and radiant temperatures during
summer months.
Harvest daylight all year round but control glare.
Design surfaces and open areas to reduce heat island effect.
Provide protection from the wind while maximising natural ventilation.
Use landscape and building massing to create shelter at pedestrian level by
lifting cold winter winds over the development.
Introduce a stepped and articulated building profile in order to reduce wind
Locate and design tall buildings to bring high level clean, winds to street level
without prejudicing the wind environment.
Use landscape elements at pedestrian level to protect people from the wind chill.
Harvest summer breezes to reduce discomfort due to temperatures and high
Explore opportunities to harvest wind for renewable energy.
Pollution and noise:
Harvest winds for pollution dispersal.
Use landscape/ building elements to absorb or form a barrier to protect from
Use vegetation to clean air and provide evaporative cooling.
Use of water to clean air.
Design streetscape to reduce funnelling and urban canyon effects.
Investigate the potential of tall buildings to encourage vertical mixing and
dispersal of polluted air.
Introduce acoustic controls in relation to the station and elevated railway
viaduct to reduce noise impact. (Figure 6.14)
Introduce appropriate mitigation measures to protect the internal environment
of buildings, such as the use of environmental buffer facades, which may be
active or passive, using double skin or other technologies so as to ensure fresh
air does not lead to polluted air and noise entering a dwelling. (See Figure 6.14).
Further guidance in relation to the above is provided in Appendix 5: Environmental
figure 6.8 : Use of greenspace to reduce the
heat island effect
figure 6.9 : Solar panels on south facing facades
figure 6.10 : roofs and terraces provide the opportunity
to harvest rainwater and reduce heat island effect
figure 6.11 : Solar shading on south facing
figure 6.12 : existing environmental conditions
figure 6.13 : environmental conditions - framework response
figure 6.14 : sections of proposed development indicating measures that could be employed to
mitigate against negative environmental influences
Towers positioned to reduce
overshadowing and minimise impact on
residential environment
Built form protects central park from
cold North spring winds
Built form
DFP 5d : Development Edges
Section 2 identified and described the various different areas that comprise the core
area of opportunity - ranging from busy commercial shopping streets and grand
boulevards to quiet residential streets and informal greenspaces. The intended
ambience, role and function of each character area will call for a specific design
response in relation to the treatment of the built form and public realm.
The overall form and location of the individual development blocks are established
by DF Plans 5a and 5b. The distribution of uses is defined by DF Plans 1a and b. This
section is intended to supplement these Framework Plans and in the context of the
intended characters of each part of the Framework provide urban design guidelines
to help secure an appropriate response to the built form.
The purpose of this guidance is not to prescribe particular styles of architecture, but
rather to set the parameters for achieving a best practice in urban design.
The section deals specifically with the character of the edges of the development
blocks that comprise the core area of opportunity. These edges are considered
important because they:
Form the interface between the public and private realms.
Define the streets and spaces that comprise the new development.
Form the main built elements that people will see and relate to.
Contain the main areas of interaction between people and buildings.
The success of the urban area will depend upon the quality of the edges. In general
terms the key issues that will need to be considered and balanced in the design
Access points: In order to help animate and activate the street, buildings should
incorporate a variety of residential and commercial access points located at
regular intervals within the ground floor facade.
Activity: Buildings, especially the ground storeys should be active, robust and
make the area feel safe and well used.
Facades: Buildings that work well usually have a faade comprising of a number
of distinct but related elements that respond in an appropriate manner to the
context in which they are set. Often these comprise the base (or street level), the
middle (central part of the building) and top (roof or upper level) and they can
be arranged in various ways.
Composition: The edges of every building and block should be considered in
relation to its nearest neighbour and across spaces. Groups of buildings should
be composed together and key principles established in order to create a degree
of consistency and hence cohesion in scale, mass and built form.
Articulation: The treatment of the edges in three dimensions will make the
difference between a robust and interesting townscape and a bland, flat
Public and private: Understanding the difference between public (fronts) and
private (backs) and the appropriate treatments required for each will be a critical
element in the design. Public facades have a relationship with the public realm
and need to consider their activeness and visibility within the wider townscape,
whilst backs have a more private and domestic role to play.
DFP 5d identifies the different edge conditions within each of the character areas
that comprise the core area of opportunity, as follows:
Commercial/shopping Street Edge - Walworth Road and its continuation north
and the Market Square;
Urban Street Edge - New Kent Road and The Elephant and Castle;
Boulevard Edge - Heygate Street;
Public Space Edge - around St Marys churchyard and the new town park;
Pedestrian Street Edge - small connecting pedestrian priority streets;
Residential Street Edge - primarily residential streets e.g. Wansey Street ;
Railway Line Edges along either side of the railway viaduct; and
Courtyard Edge within the development blocks themselves.
For each of these conditions the aspirations in relation to character and treatment
in respect of each edge is set out below
figure 6.21 : images of edge conditions (1) a lively commercial shopping street, (2)
mixed uses on an urban street, (3) an urban boulevard, (4) public space edge, (5) a
pedestrian street, (6) a residential street edge, (7) a railway line edge, (8) a
courtyard edge, (9) and (10)residential entrance s
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
9 10
figure : 6.23 - Development Framework Plan 5d - Built form development edges at ground floor
Commercial/shopping Street Edge
Urban Street Edge
Boulevard Edge
Public Space Edge
Pedestrian Street Edge
Residential Street Edge
Railway Line Edge 1 (northern)
Railway Line Edge 2 (southern)
Courtyard edge
transition between public and
private spaces
Built form
figure 6.24 : issues affecting the Commercial/shopping edges
figure 6.25 : issues affecting the Urban Street Edge
Urban Street Edge
Existing streets characterised by high volumes of car traffic and public transport.
These edges will be viewed along their full length and hence the buildings flanking
these streets will have an important role to play in the communication of the new
and improved vision to passers by.
These edges will be characterised by:
Wider, grander scale streets enclosed by a robust built form.
A street edge comprising of a single carefully composed elevation or as a
minimum comprising a number of continuous features.
Non residential uses at ground level to deal with the traffic and noise that will
be created.
The use of facades to deal effectively with noise and pollution. This may be
either as part of the building itself, landscape and/or a wider pavement zone.
Fine detailing and interesting relief in facades.
The use of high quality materials.
Fewer functions - offices residential and smaller shops.
Commercial/shopping Street Edge
The large commercial shopping areas that will give identity to the whole area, with
stores and restaurants spilling out onto a generous pedestrianised boulevard (the
Walworth Road) and spaces such as the Market Square and Faraday Square.
These edges will be characterised by:
Double height retail units with residential, office, leisure above.
High degree of transparency at ground and first floor.
Many entrances (15 - 20 units per 100m).
No closed or passive units.
Modern buildings.
Introduction of street trees, seating and street furniture to bring valuable
activity to spaces and therefore impact on the edges of the development blocks.
Robust design, good lighting and night time activity to encourage pedestrian
In the case of the Walworth Road, use of lighting, public art in the transition
space under the railway viaduct.
In the case of Walworth Road a reduced scale of building towards the existing
Walworth Road in response to the scale and character.
active edge at
ground floor
Opportunity for screened
buffer zones to provide a
degree of protection from
noise and pollution but
still provide overlooking
of street
bus stop within
landscape strip
Potential for winter
gardens on upper floors
Opportunity for a second
active use at first floor.
Banners etc to ensure good
visibility from street level
Opportunity for
balconies/sky gardens on
upper stories
Residential uses above
provide overlooking of
Retail or other
key active uses
on ground floor.
figure 6.26 : issues affecting the boulevard street edges
figure 6.27 : issues affecting the public space edges
Human scale at
street level
Residential uses
on upper floors
Balconies and terraces provide
overlooking of public space
and allow apartments to
benefit from views
Roof gardens and roof lines
can step down to open spaces
private courtyards
public open
opportunity for
some active
ground floor uses
pedestrian routes
vehicular and
cycle access
Boulevard Edge
The boulevards have much in common with the larger urban streets but they will
perform a more internal function within the core area and have a more local
patronage. They will be enclosed by new development on both sides of the street.
This will present an opportunity for well composed and considered townscape. The
edges that make up this townscape will need to establish a human scale at street
level so that the spaces feel comfortable and useable, particularly for pedestrians
and cyclists.
The edges will be characterised by:
A larger street with more local based businesses.
Smaller ground floor units (10 -12 units per 100m).
Relief and interest in the facades.
Residential lobbies/entrances onto the street.
The use of facades to deal effectively with noise and pollution. This may be
either as part of the building itself, landscape and/or a wider pavement zone.
Public Space Edge
Residential neighbourhoods facing onto public open greenspaces. The edges will be
characterised by:
Frequent residential access points all along these edges to ensure that the spaces
will be busy and well used. Corners are a good location for entrances as two
edges can benefit from the activity.
No direct vehicular access points into development blocks along these edges.
They should all be located on the side routes away from the open space.
Articulation at ground level. In general it should not be possible to access any
private open space i.e. courtyards directly from the public spaces, although they
may be visible.
Private external spaces such as balconies and terraces that benefit from views
overlooking the public spaces should be maximised. It will also be appropriate in
some locations to step development back from the edges so that daylighting and
sunlighting is maximised.
The edges provide containment to the open spaces and the different
development blocks will generally be seen together. Therefore the overall
composition, continuation of faade elements and scale will need to be
approached in a coherent way. These edges are some of the most important in
terms of the overall visual impact of the development.
Possible privacy zone or buffer between building and public realm.
Height varies between
individual buildings
Built form
figure 6.28 : issues affecting the pedestrian street edges
figure 6.29 : issues affecting the residential street edges
Opportunity for active
ground floor uses that give
vitality and increased
pedestrian movement to the
Residential uses
above mixed use
ground floors
Lighting and
feature of
d streets
Overlooking of
street from
balconies and
residential units
4-6 storey blocks with
entrances from the street.
Opportunity to vary the
building line with set
backs/balconies etc
Opportunity for landscape/On
street parking zone on both
sides of the road with narrow
carriageway. Opportunity for
shared surfaces etc.
Overlooking of street
Pedestrian Street Edge
Small/intimate scaled streets with pedestrian priority and minimal vehicular traffic.
They will form key through routes between different areas of the framework and
will be those (apart from the high street) most often used by pedestrians. Intimate
in scale these edges will be characterised by:
Entrances and smaller scale active uses (e.g. shops or services with a local
function) to help enliven and make the streets more inviting to users.
The edges of the streets will be seen from close to (rather than in wide expansive
views). For this reason the detail, shelter, activity and robustness of the edges
will be important in terms of how successful they are and how well they are
used. Shelter from canopies or the edges of buildings will also be useful to
make these streets more comfortable and it may be appropriate for some of
them to be covered with open glazed structures.
Narrower widths and hence the lighting and daylighting right down to ground
level will need to be considered. The setting back of upper storeys of
development to reduce the apparent scale and the creation of a strongly
articulated ground floor level may be an option.
Residential Street Edge
Small scale/intimate streets with predominantly residential land uses. These edges
will be characterised by:
Living at ground level along these routes and therefore a suitable separation to
maintain privacy from the pavement edge will be important, particularly for
ground floor apartments (bedrooms, bathrooms etc.). This can be provided in a
number of ways e.g. short front gardens, railings and raised ground floors.
The scales of development will vary but need to be related carefully to their
context and to the role that they will play in the townscape (i.e. landmark
elements, continuous frontages etc.).
figure 6.30 : issues affecting the railway line edges
figure 6.31 : issues affecting the courtyard edges
Railway arches can either form
retail or employment uses OR
pedestrian routes.
Potential for acoustic and
overlooking measures on upper
floors adjacent to the railway
Active uses at
ground and first
floors around
cental railway
arch area
Pedestrian and cycle
corridors alongside
railway arches
Balconies etc help
animate and provide
overlooking of
Opportunity for
mixed uses at
ground floor
Railway Line Edges
Ranging from the most public edges along the northern part of the site to the less
busy and less active edges towards the south and the Walworth Road. Buildings
overlooking or located in close proximity to the railway line will need to deal
appropriately with the issues of noise, vibration, overlooking, pedestrian and user
safety, appropriate uses; and the creation of positive environments. Wherever
possible along the railway line these edges are to be used as strategic pedestrian and
cycle routes.
For the two different areas of railway edge the issues will vary as follows:
NORTHERN RAILWAY EDGES (north-east of Walworth Road). This section of the
railway line will form part of the most public and well used elements of the core
area. In some cases the railway edge will contain public spaces and the edges of
the busiest streets. The edges of the development facing the railway will need to
carefully consider noise impacts and views. The edges on both sides should be as
active as possible so that well used, safe routes are created that do not become
back alleys for the development. Views should be focussed to look over the
railway line, rather than onto it and the design and location of the nearest
development will be key to making this work. The railway arches should be
reused for appropriate active uses.
SOUTHERN RAILWAY EDGES (south-west of Walworth Road). This area is further
back from the busy area of the Walworth Road, to the rear of new development
blocks. This zone is to become a focus for new mixed use/employment activity.
Thus it is anticipated that the ground floor of the development and the railway
arches themselves will be utilised for a range of businesses. The upper floors will
comprise live/work, commercial office and/or residential. As far as residential is
concerned an appropriate level of acoustic/vibration control will need to be
introduced. A new strategic cycle route will be introduced along the railway
Courtyard Edge
These internal courtyard spaces will need careful consideration to overcome
potential issues related to daylighting, sunlighting and overlooking. Much of these
issues will depend on the uses, scale of development and proximity of development.
Although these edges will not contain active commercial activity and will
essentially be more private they will still benefit from a level of animation and
articulation e.g. by balconies, bays, staircases etc. Careful consideration of access
and security of the spaces within these courtyards will also be important and will
often dictate the success of the overlooking development around them.
These edges will be characterised by:
Residential development designed to overlook the predominantly semi-private
The spaces within primarily residential courtyards have a great opportunity for
the creation of a semi-private communal open space useable by all residents.
Access will need to be carefully controlled and managed and it may be
advantageous to have short private gardens or terraces at a similar level to the
courtyard for the nearest level of apartments. These should generally only have
a low fence, hedge or wall around them so that they feel visually like part of the
courtyard space itself.
Mixed use courtyard spaces will be some of the most difficult to design
successfully and the nature and usage of the spaces will need to be carefully
considered. If designed well, the potential for a space shared between workers
and residents at different times of the week could be beneficial to all - but the
management and maintenance of the space will be vital and it may be that in
the end it functions more as a visual amenity than as a space that is actually
Energy, waste & water
elephant & castle
Energy, waste & water
7.1 Energy
Forecast Energy Demands and CO2 Emissions
Securing energy efficient development and reducing energy consumption and CO2
emissions is becoming an increasingly important consideration in the design of new
development. Buildings in use account for 50% of energy use and the projected
increase in housing and office floorspace in London will place additional upward
pressure on Londons energy consumption, which will increase C02 emissions.
The regeneration of the Elephant & Castle and the scale of development envisaged
provides a perfect opportunity to introduce and adopt a range of innovative
measures to minimise energy consumption.
It is estimated, based on the land use mix and quantum of floorspace envisaged by
the Framework and a business as usual approach to the redevelopment, that CO2
emissions attributable to domestic and non-domestic buildings within the core
development area will increase from 12,608 tonnes per year to 28,441 tonnes per
year (Figure 7.1B). Approximately 60% of this increase would be attributed to the
significant expansion of retail and commercial activity envisaged. It should be
noted that these forecast energy demands and CO2 emissions allow for the impact
of the introduction of the new Part L Building Regulations (2002).
In view of this situation and in order to meet the aims and objectives of the various
national, London wide and Borough policies and initiatives, the Council proposes to:
Promote a zero carbon growth strategy within the confines of the Elephant &
Castle Framework Area. Figure 7.1B estimates this will require a 55.7% reduction
on the business as usual scenario.
Designate the Elephant & Castle Framework Area an Energy Action Area as
defined in the Mayors Energy Strategy for London.
Supply at least 10% of the total forecast energy demand using building mounted
renewable technologies by the time the development is completed.
Develop a planned sequence of energy targets for residential, commercial office
and retail developments.
Establish a private/ public joint venture company (ESCo) as a special purpose
vehicle whose core business is the provision of heating, cooling and power at a
community/ district level.
To achieve the zero growth strategy and hence the 55.7 % reduction anticipated will
necessitate the adoption of a fairly innovative set of measures and standards that
could include:
Reducing heating and hot water demands by providing increased levels of
insulation, reducing infiltration losses and promoting ventilation strategies which
incorporate either passive stack systems or mechanical systems with heat
Encouraging developers to exploit sources of free heating and cooling.
Examples include:
- Ground coupled heat pumps.
- Groundwater based heat pumps.
- Solar water heating.
- Increased thermal mass and night-time cooling.
Providing building control systems which optimise the use of artificial lighting
and maximise the use of available daylight
Encouraging developers to explore innovative lighting strategies for new retail
premises including the introduction of daylight as a substitute for artificial
background lighting in malls, supermarkets and the upper floors of department
Promoting the use of active facades for commercial buildings: Examples
- Pre-fabrication of building integrated renewables such as photo-voltaic cells
- Double skin facades
Encouraging, where appropriate, developers to explore wind assisted ventilation
figure 7.1A : delivered energy consumption (BaU)
figure 7.1B: Estimated CO2 Emissions (BaU)
strategies coupled with low pressure drop HVAC systems as a means of reducing
fan power.
Investigating the potential for building mounted wind turbine technology within
the confines of the Elephant and Castle Framework Area. Examples of new
technologies in this field are:
- Ducted wind turbines.
- Aeolian roof wind energy systems.
- Combined augmentation technology turbines.
Developing an integrated community heating and combined heat and power
(CHP) proposal for the core area of opportunity (see Appendix 5 and 6).
Investigating the viability of a dual fuel CHP plant which uses a mixture of
natural gas and waste derived fuels/ biomass.
Assessing the viability of a fuel processing plant located within the confines of
the site of the proposed new materials reclamation and recycling centre at Old
Kent Road (operational in 2008).
Potential fuel resources include:-
- Waste oils from restaurants and canteens.
- Biogas derived from anaerobic digestion of municipal organic waste
- Wood fuel derived from arboricultural waste arisings and timber packaging
waste such as palettes which can no longer be reused
- Hydrogen produced by reformation of hydrocarbons or by an electrolyser
powered by renewable energy.
Based on the existing baseline context (see Appendix 6: Resource Flow Assessment)
the Council will continue to develop its energy strategy for the core area of
opportunity. As part of the process developers will be expected to work with the
Council to help it realise its strategy for zero carbon growth.
7.2 Water resources
The drought of 1995-96 changed the perceptions in the UK that water can be taken
for granted. The 1995-96 OFWAT annual report noted that about 20.2 million
customers (39%) were affected by hosepipe bans, 8.2 million customers (16%) were
at risk from drought orders and an additional 177,000 (0.8%) of properties in
England and Wales were affected by low water pressure.
Rising demand for water particularly for domestic uses has led to an increasing
strain on water supplies in the south and east and in parts of the Midlands. OFWAT
have forecast that from 1995 to 2015 the domestic water demand in England and
Wales will increase from 8,300 to 9,300 mega-litres per day equivalent to an
increase from 163 litres per capita per day to 184 litres per capita per day.
The Environment Agency report, Water Resources for the Future (Environment
Agency 2000) indicates that abstractions from surface water are already at their
limit in the summer for much of England and Wales and also in the winter for parts
of the south and east.
Climate change is likely to increase further the pressure on water resources in the
south and east in summer. Increased demand for housing in these areas will exert
additional pressure. This will be exacerbated as household water consumption
continues to outstrip growth in household numbers.
In November 2004, OFWAT will set new price limits for water and sewerage
companies for the five years from 2005 to 2010. In general, companies are
proposing very substantial increases in customers bills. In the Greater London area,
Thames Waters preferred strategy will require an increase of 35% in average
household water bills and an increase of 6% in average household sewerage bills.
In England and Wales, improvements in services, maintaining base services, further
improvements to water quality and the environment could drive the average
household bill up from an estimated 234 in 2004-05 to 306 in 2009-10.
Forecast Water Demand
It is estimated, based on the land use mix and quantum of floorspace proposed by
the Framework and current patterns of water demand that the total water demand
within the core area will increase from approximately 219,230 m3/yr to 622,240
m3/yr (Appendix 6). This represents almost a three-fold increase in demand, the
majority of which can be attributed to the proposed increase in the quantum of
residential development. Non-potable uses are estimated to account for 35% of the
forecast demand, i.e. approximately 215,533 m3/yr.
In view of this situation and in order to reduce the potable water demand it is
proposed that:
A range of water awareness and demand management techniques should be
introduced as part of the redevelopment.
Alternative sources of supply within the confines of the Elephant & Castle
Framework Area should be explored and that a site-wide reclaimed water system
should be developed (1).
A planned sequence of water targets for residential, commercial office and retail
developments will be developed.
(1) A water installation used to collect, store, treat and distribute water, other than potable water direct from the mains,
the purpose of which is to reduce both the amount of mains supply water used by a premise and the amount of waste
water entering the sewer from that premise.
To achieve the above objectives the following opportunities will be encouraged/
The installation of water meters in all new residential and commercial
developments as an incentive to reduce demand
The specification of low water demand fixtures and fittings. Examples are:
- Water efficient white goods
- Low flush WCs
- Tap aerators and sprays
Energy, waste & water
figure 7.2A : estimated water demand (BaU)
figure 7.2B: Estimated water demand (BaU)
figure 7.3 : estimated total municipal waste arising (BaU)
- Flow regulation
The specification of drought tolerant native plant species in parks and gardens.
The use of vacuum drainage systems and waterless urinals.
The use of air for commercial/industrial cleaning processes as a substitute for
The use of non-potable water for street cleaning and vehicle wash-down
The exploration of new technologies aimed at improving the efficiency of
cooling towers. Examples include:
- Ozone treatment of cooling tower water to reduce the quantity of blowdown.
- Treatment and reuse of blowdown water.
- Closed loop systems which recover water from the vapour plume.
Harvesting rainwater for direct non-potable supply
The development of a reclaimed water system to supply potable and/or non-
potable demands within the core development area. Examples include:
- Borehole abstraction and advanced water treatment to potable standards.
- Borehole abstraction for direct non-potable supply.
- Advanced wastewater treatment to near potable standards.
- Private distribution system and/or common carriage agreement.
Based on the existing baseline context (see Appendix 6: Resource Flow Assessment)
the Council will continue to develop its water strategy for the core area of
7.3 Waste reduction and management
Since 1995, Southwarks waste has being growing at a rate of 4% per year. The vast
majority of the municipal waste produced (83%) was disposed of by landfill outside
of London. In the light of Government legislation restricting what can be placed
into landfill sites means that the Council and the community must find more
sustainable ways of managing its waste.
The London Plan identifies the importance of working in partnership with borough
councils to minimise waste, increase reuse, recycling and composting of waste and
reduce the amount that goes into landfill.
The Mayors strategy establishes a series of waste targets that boroughs should aim
to meet.
Figure 7.3 estimates the level of municipal waste arisings as a result of the land use
mix and quantum of development proposed for the core area of opportunity. In
order to minimise the amount of waste produced in the demolition, construction
and operation of the development a waste management strategy is needed.
Opportunities that might be explored as part of this waste management strategy
could include:
Kerbside collection expanded to include all recyclable from street properties.
An increase number of bring and collect sites.
Incorporation of convenient recycling facilities. For high rise residential
buildings, refuse chutes could be provided with double or split chutes. For low
rise residential buildings two small wheely bins, one for recyclables and one for
other waste.
Integration of public recycling facilities, located so that they are easily
serviceable for collectors and standard collection vehicles.
Recovery and recycling of bulky and fly tipped waste.
All residual waste sent to Existing Energy from waste plant.
All residual waste sent to a mechanical Biological Treatment Plan with outputs
to Existing Energy from Waste plan.
All residual waste sent to a Anaerobic Digestion Plant.
Putrescible kitchen and garden waste collected from street properties composted
in an in-vessel composter.
Waste from medium/ high rise properties sent to separation plant.
Intensive education and waste minimisation programme introduced and
education facility built, as part of the proposed energy centre.
Composting of household organic materials, leaf litter and plant material form
managed parks and roof gardens within the development.
Use of reclaimed materials, prefabricated materials, recycling and reuse of
building materials on site.
Based on the existing Local Waste Strategy (see Appendix 6: Resource Flow
Assessment) the Council will develop an area specific waste strategy for the core
area of opportunity.
7.4 Achieving headline objectives/ aspirations
It is the Councils intention to establish a special purpose delivery vehicle (EESCo) to
deliver energy and environmental services to Elephant and Castle and the wider
Borough. With this aspiration in mind, the Council is in the process of scoping a
feasibility study to identify the legal, financial and organisational structures required
to engage private sector expertise in the operation and delivery of integrated
energy, water and waste management services across the Borough.
In this respect the Council has already embarked on a three year project called Zero
Emissions Neighbourhoods (ZEN) the aims of which are:
To establish a neighbourhood energy plan.
To investigate the potential for setting up an Energy Services Company to deliver
a sustainable energy strategy.
To establish the potential for various renewable energy systems.
As part of this process the Council will be conducting a review of other projects
where local authorities have successfully entered into partnership with specialist
private sector companies to achieve their strategic best value targets and so improve
the economic, social and environmental well-being of their areas.
It is the Councils intention that the EESCo will provide the focus for energy and
water related feasibility studies pertaining to the redevelopment of Elephant and
Castle with the longer term aspiration of offering services to the wider community,
both public and private sector.
The feasibility studies will establish the benchmark against which the Council will
monitor social, economic and environmental improvements and will assist with the
setting of targets and indicators for resource consumption over the duration of the
Elephant and Castle redevelopment.
The EESCo will provide the operational mechanism for the procurement of energy
services such as community heating and combined heat and power, energy
efficiency measures, water demand management and alternative sources of water
supply such as renewable energy and reclaimed water systems.
It will also provide a means of integrating Council functions across a wide range of
issues such as the recovery of value from waste in the form of refuse derived fuels,
the recovery of free energy and rejection of heat using borehole water supplies and
the introduction of innovative technologies to improve the resource consumption of
public sector buildings including schools, health centres and leisure facilities.
The functions of the EESCo will be open to public scrutiny through the consultation
Energy and Environmental Services Concept
The energy and environmental services concept involves the delivery of a package of
measures including:
The development of alternative sources of water supply.
Comprehensive water management services including metering and demand
The supply of heat, cooling and power.
Installation of energy efficiency measures in both the public and the private
Energy advice.
Materials recovery and fuel processing
Bulk purchasing of water and renewable energy.
The Government and the GLA offer strong support for the development of energy
and environmental services as a fundamental mechanism for achieving the social,
economic and environmental benefits that increased competition in the energy
supply, water supply markets can bring about.
In addition, the Local Government Act includes discretionary powers for principal
local authorities in England and Wales to do anything which they consider likely to
promote or improve the economic, social or environmental well-being of their area.
To this end, the well-being legislation is regarded as a power of first resort and the
Council has the power to: incur expenditure; give financial assistance to any person;
and enter into arrangements or agreements with any person.
Energy, waste & water
Figure 7.4 : Energy
Figure 7.5 : Water
Figure 7.6 : Waste
Figure 7.7 : Microclimate
Figure 7.8 : Ecology
In this respect, the establishment of an Energy and Environmental Services Company
(EESCo) would demonstrate the Councils commitment to the sustainable
redevelopment of Elephant and Castle in the following key areas::
Social: Tackling fuel poverty, health and poor living conditions; providing
employment and regeneration
Environmental: Energy efficiency and CO2 savings; fuel flexibility for the future;
the transition to a low carbon/ hydrogen economy; water efficiency and the
development of alternative sources of water
Economic: Lower capital investment; lower running costs; corporate reporting
Energy Services Company (ESCo)
The term ESCo is used to describe a company which provides a comprehensive range
of energy services: heating; cooling; lighting; power etc and energy efficiency
measures concerned with end use. Essentially, the ESCo approach is that an ESCo
installs energy efficiency measures and the capital cost, operation, maintenance and
billing costs associated with those measures is recouped from the energy savings
that follow.
The benefits an ESCo could bring within the context of an integrated energy
strategy for Elephant & Castle and the wider Borough include:
Access to private finance
Shared risk
Bulk purchasing of fuel and hence reduced supply costs
Bulk purchasing of renewable energy
Specialist engineering advice including feasibility analysis
Project management resources
Maintenance of energy efficiency measures
Self sustaining mechanism for achieving energy efficiency targets at the lowest
An ESCo may be an existing utility company, or its subsidiary, an industrial or
commercial energy management company, or a joint venture involving a local
authority in partnership with organisations in the private sector with expertise in
the energy field.
In the case of local authorities, there are a number of specific issues which affect
their participation in energy services provision. For example, the present framework
of local authority controls creates a constraint upon the way deals involving capital
expenditure are constructed.
In this respect, the Government is currently looking at the scope for replacing the
existing system of borrowing controls with a prudential system. This new framework
is intended to provide much greater freedom to local authorities to enter into
normal commercial transactions and to finance for capital expenditure without
Government consent in areas where they can afford to service the debt without
Government support.
It is the Councils intention therefore to examine this new legal and financial
framework with the intention of establishing a public/ private joint venture ESCo to
undertake energy related feasibility studies, implement energy efficiency projects
and design, build and operate new energy plants within the Borough. The ESCo
would provide green energy solutions and enter into energy services contracts with
customers in both the public sector and the private sector. It would take on the
responsibility for the design and implementation of the plant, maintenance and
security of supply.
As such, the Council will require its partner(s) in the procurement process to actively
engage with the ESCo in evaluating energy efficiency options including CHP and
will encourage the active participation of the community at all stages of the
Water Services Company
Competition within the water supply industry has been very limited. The
Government and water regulator Ofwat are looking to increase competition by
means of common carriage i.e. allowing competitors to access the public water
supply networks owned by the regional monopoly suppliers (e.g. Thames Water). The
Competition Act 1998, which came into force on 1 March 2000, gives Ofwat powers
to impose substantial financial penalties on water companies that unreasonably
deny access to their pipes, or offer unreasonable terms of access.
The scale and impact of redevelopment of the core development area at the
Elephant & Castle provides an incentive to undertake a detailed feasibility study to
examine the legal, financial and infrastructure implications of establishing a joint
venture water services company to deliver potable and non-potable water services
at competitive prices to residential, and business customers.
It is envisaged that the company could develop new borehole water supply and
advanced treatment facilities within the confines of the Development Framework
Area and source water from other locations by entering into common carriage
agreements with the incumbent network operators.
In addition the company could offer a more comprehensive water management
service including advice on metering, optimisation and demand management.
The objective of the Council is to develop a comprehensive and implementable
energy, waste and water strategy for the core area of opportunity.
The above introduces a number of aims and objectives which have been developed
in the context of the Southwark Plan (Parts 1 and 2 and the subject specific SPGs)
and other initiatives currently being pursued by the Borough.
The Council propose to work with its various partners and prospective developers to
develop a workable set of proposals that will help deliver the zero growth targets set
for energy and the reductions in waste production and water consumption.
Relevant policies of the Southwark Plan apply as follows::
Policy 3.1: Environmental effects.
Policy 3.2: Protection of amenity.
Policy 3.3: Sustainability appraisal.
Policy 3.4: Energy efficiency.
Policy 3.5: Renewable energy.
Policy 3.6: Air quality.
Policy 3.7: Waste reduction.
Policy 3.8: Waste management.
Policy 3.9: Water.
Policy 3.10: Efficient Use of land.