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(Thi. Document is beina Printed)
WARDA
We.t Africa Alce Development · Association
(This Document is being Printed)
10.295
SEcrIOO PAGE
Preface ....................................................... iii
A c ~ ledgarent ..................................•.............. v
~ of W ~ region ••.•••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••• vii
Organizational Structure of ~ •••.••••••••••••.••••••.•••• viii
1. Research and Development Activities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1
Introduction - Organizational and Other Changes ••••••••••••••••• 1
i. Regional Upland Rice Research Station •••••••••••••••••••••••• 4
ii. Regional Mangrove 9warrp Rice Research Station ••••••••••••••• 30
iii. Regional Irrigated Rice Research Station •••••••••••••••••••• 49
iv. Regional Deepwater Rice Research Station •••••••••••••••••••• 66
v. Seed laooratory ................•............................ 82
vi. Activities on International Rice Testing and
Gentp lasrn PrograIIt'1l?s ..•••••••.•••..•.•••••••••••..•••••.•••. 82
vii. WARDA/IlTA/CARI Iron Toxicity Research Project •••••••••••••• 83
viii. Technical Assistance ••••.•••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••• 83
2. Training Deparbrnent Activities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 89
i. Regional Training Centre ..........................•......... 89
ii. Training in Member Countries •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 90
iii. Other Ac.tivities ••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••.• 9()
3. FiTlaIlces •••••••••••••••••.•••••••••.••••..••••••••••••••••••••• 92
4. MenDers of the Governing Council and Scientific
and TeChnical Cammittee •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 93
5. PerSOTU1e 1 .........................•.................•.......... 99
6. Ptlblicati<>ns ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • 1()l.
- iii -
PREFACE
The solution to the food crisis which has per-
sisted in Africa over the past decade requires the de-
termined effort of all concerned to grapple with the
problem of ensuring sustained growth in agricultural
productivity. While food production per capita has been
declining by about 1°1. per annum in Africa, the population
has been increasing steadily by about 3% per annum.
Adequate food to meet the growing needs of our population
requires increases in domestic production of about 4%
per year and sustained increases in crop yields.
Agricultural
in the effort
research has an important part
to play
to increase production and enhance
the capacity at the national and regional levels to conduct
research, if the minimum food production targets to arrest
the declining trend are to be
WARDA's overall research effort, against the
background of the desperate and urgent needs for a tech-
nological breakthrough in the sub-region, continues to
be hampered by the paucity of its resources and severe
restrictions in the use of the funds made available to
it. The fai lure of its member states to meet their finan-
cial obligations to it and delays on the part of its
donors to provide funds have resulted in a crippling
liquidity crisis, with adverse consequences for some
of its field activities. In spite of this, substantial
advances were made in the research, development and train-
ing activities of the Association in 1984.
- iv -
It is expected that the major restructuring
of WARDA's research and deve lopment programmes begun
in 1984 with the merger of its Departments of Research
and Development into a single department and with the
formulation of an Integrated Programme of Research, Develop-
ment and Training activities will enhance the effective-
ness of the Associat ion and result in the more efficient
use of its resources.
Alieu M.B.JAGNE
Acting Executive Secretary
- v
ACKNOloILE ')GEMENT
West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA)
is an intergovernmental association established in 1971
by countries in West Africa (see Map) to assist them
in finding workable solutions to problems of rice develop-
ment in the subregion. WARDA is among the . 13 research
and training centers located in different parts of the
world to promote food production in mainly developing
countries. All these centers are under the aegis of
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR) which is sponsored by Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (lolorld Bank)
and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Besides the member countries, WARDA received financia l,
material and other support during 1984, through CGIAR,
and a number of Special Project donors including:
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (World Bank)
International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD)
The European Economic Community (EEC)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
International Development Research Center (IDRC)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC)
Rockefeller Foundation
- - vi
Internat iona1 Inst itute of Tropical Agricul-
ture (IITA), and the
International Aid Agencies of
governments:
the following
Abu Dhabi
Canada (Canadian Inter-
national Development
Agency - CIDA)
Germany
Saudi Arabia
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Belgium
France
Japan
The Netherlands
United States
of America (United
States Agency
for International
Development
- USAID)
WARDA is most grateful for the continuing support
from these institutions, ~ g e n c i e s and countries.
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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION
Organizational arid Other Changes
The year 1984 began with a merger of the former
Research and Development Departments into a
and Development Department (Figure 1).
single Research
The programmes
and activities of tl}e two
quently integrated. The
were re-set. Emphasis
former departments wereconse-
focus of work and priorities
on the research activities of
the new department shifted from testing and transfer
of promising · technologies already developed from within
and outside West Africa to technology generation taking
into consideration the environmental, technical, socio-
cultural, economic, pol itical and other constraints faced
by the preCo:ninantly small-scale rice farme·rs in the
region (Figure 2).
The ecological priorities for
and development activities are:
1. upland,
ii. mangrove swamp,
iii. irrigated, and
iv. deepwater growing conditions.
rice research
-2-
I'lliURE 21 WEST AFRICA RICE DEVELOPMENT ASSOCtA'flON fo'OCUS OJ-' REGIONAL
Ht:SI;;AHCH ANlJ lJl::VU.O/,Ml::N'I' I ' HOGHAMMI'; ::;
WARDA 'I'tochnology
Gene rd l i un/ Adap t:. i Vtf,
Re!>eurch
Farmer
Const:.nlinls
I dent i ficotion
Studies
Rese .. rcher
Veri! iCCItion Tri.d
(Off-Station)
Farmer Field
Adaptive
Tried
Improved 'feC'hnolvgy
Idl:nlific ... tion from
N .. t.i on.11 .. nd
Inlenl .. liCJnuJ Rese .. rch
Extension StrittO:!gy, Educatiou
and iJell\UfI!>tratiol'ls
(Liaison wi th Natiol'lal
Exttonsion Agcllcit!,,)
Post-Adoption
dnd
Impac'l Studies
- 3 -
The research and development activities
also shifted almost completely from the headquarters
in Monrovia to the four ecologically sited Regional Rice
Research Stations at Bouake, Rokupr, St. Louis and Hopti.
Consequent ly, most of the headquarters I scientific staff
of about 22 at . the beginning of 1984 were transferred
to the regional statio.ns
one IITA liaison sc{entist
remaining scientists, made
leaving only
at the end of
up of two
five including
the year. The
economists, one
agronomist, one rural engineer and one agro-statistician,
who perform some administrative duties, are responsible
for coordinating activities among the regional stations,
organizing and .conducting regional studies, conferences
and other activities which are not the responsibility
of any single regional station.
- 4 -
I. REGIONAL UPLAND RICE RESEARCH STATION,
BOUAKE, IVORY COAST
The !egional Upland Rice Research Station at
Bouake, Ivory Coast, became functional in 1983 with princi-
pal emphasis 00 . the Technology Assessment and Transfer
Programme (TAT). Technology development was expanded
during 1984 with the transfer of scientific staff from
Headquarters.
The main activities at the station in 1984
included those of the TAT programme, varieta 1 improvement,
d i s e a s ~ and pest identification, control and management.
TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND TRANSFER (TAT) PROGRAMME
The findings of the exploratory constraints
identification study carried out in Ivory Coast in 1983
became available in 1984. These findings are highlighted
below:
Upland Rice Farming Practices
i) Land Preparation, Planting Methods and
Source of Labour
Land preparation in the forest area consists
mainly of slashing and burning the vegetation,
using hand tools. Rice is either sown direct ly
in holes or broadcast on small plots; labour
is exclusively from family sources or social
groups.
- 5 -
A wide variety in land preparat ion methods
is found in the savannah area, ranging from
manual preparation using hoes to the use of
heavy tractors (75-80 hp) with disk, ploughs
and harrows. In between, animal (oxen) traction
and small tractors (25-35 hp) are used. Rice
is sown mainly by broadcasting and to a less er
extent, in rows using seeders.
Most of the farmers interviewed in both the
forest and savannah areas acknowledged problems
in land preparation
and/or costs.
due to
ii) Land Use and Cropping Patterns
labour scarcity
In · the forest area, the land after the initial
and allowed
except where
subsequently
clearing may be used for 1 to 2 years
to lie fallow for about 3-5 years
permanent crops such as coffee are
grown on the land. Rice may be intercropped
In most
piece of land
with vegetables followed by, tubers.
cases, rice is cultivated on
for 1 to 2 seasons only.
In
in
the savannah . zone, rice
rotation with cotton and
a
is usually grown
other foodcrops
such as maize, yam and groundnuts; and commonly
intercropped with sorghum. In a fixed cultivation
system, the field is divided into three plots
and cultivated under cotton, rice and other
foodcrops.
- 6 -
In the forest area, the method of shifting
cultivation is decreasing due to (i) increasing
population growth, particularly during the
last decade and (ii) increasing cultivation
of tree crops notably coffee and cocoa for
cash, eventhough in the forest area rice is
also grown as a cash crop.
iii) Rice Varieties and Time of Planting
In the areas covered in the exp loratory survey,
about 75 to 95% of the rice cultivated are
of traditional varieties.
varieties being promoted,
Cateto and Dourado .Precoce
sful. The most recently
such as I RAT 112, I RAT
Of the
Moroberekan,
are the most
improved
Iguape
succes-
introduced varieties
104, I RAT 109, etc.
are almost unknown to both farmers and extension
agents. From the farmers point of view, the
traditional varieties are tastier, more resistant
to drought and storage pests than the improved
v;grieties. The traditional varieties are prefer-
red for subsistence while the improved varieties
are grown for the market.
The planting date in the areas with one long
rainy season varies with varieties, both improved
and traditional. For example, Moroberekan
- 7 -
is usually sown first, ancl Dourado Precoce
is sown up to July 25. In areas with one short
rainy season, only short duration varieties
such as Iguape Cateto and Dourado Precoce are
cultivated.
In areas with two rainy seasons, such as Gagnoa,
Guiberona and Quine, only one crop of rice
is cultivated during the major rainy season.
A second crop is possible during the minor
season provided labour competition from coffee
and cocoa during the Septemher-November period
can be resolved. Varieties such as I RAT 109
and IRAT 144 are promising for two crops per
year under rainfed upland conditions.
iv) Weeding and Fertilizer Use
Most of the farmers do not weed their rice
fields, particularly during the first cropping
season, as there is very little weed infestation
following the clearing of fields ltlhich have
undergone fallowing for a lengthy period of
time.
Where weeding is carried out, it is done manually
once or twice. The first weeding takes place
one month after sowing and the second weeding
- 8 ,..
generally takes place
mation. .Less than
just before
3% of the
panicle for-
farmers inter-
viewed use chemicals, notably Rondstar, to
control weeds and most of the farmers did not
apply fertilizers although they are recommended
by extension agents.
Major Constraints Identified
Some of the major constraints
upland rice cultivation in Ivory Coast are:
identified in
i) Weed infestation: This is a serious problem
under all systems of cultivation. The most
common weeds are Rotboellia exaltata and Euphorbia
heterophylla. Others include Imperata cylindrica,
Pennisetum spp, and Paspalum orbiculare.
ii) Low yields and yield stability: Yields are
iii)
iV)
low and variable ranging from 400 kg to 1000
kg/ha. This is part ly due to the fact that
yield-increasing technologies, which are avai la-
ble at the experimental stations, have not
reached the farmer level.
Land tenure: Shifting cultivation and migrant
farmers make proper land tenure difficult.
Pests and diseases: Although pest and disease
problems are mentioned; ·farmers do not consider
these as important. However, farmers consider
v)
- 9 -
damage caused by birds, followed by rodents
as more important than that caused by insects
and diseases, etc.
Soil erosion: Soil erosion is quite a problem
and tends to force farmers to abandon their
fields after a few seasons' cultivation.
vi) Ins tit uti 'on a 1 , and infrastructural problems:
The problems identified relate to:
a) poor extension services,
b) inadequate credit facilities, and
c)
On-Farm Trials
inadequate mechanization
particularly for land
and harvesting.
faci lities,
preparation
A series of on-farm researcher-managed improved
technological packages were tried during 1984. The trials
were aimed at verifying how the improved technological
packages can be adapted into the local production structure
as well as the socio-economic and other constraints faced
by farmers.
Two technological packages were tested in nine
villages located in
three distinct upland ecological
zones, namely, forest, transitional and savannah.
as : (a)
- 10 -
The technological
low leve 1 input and
packages were classified
(b) high level input. The
content of the packages were as follows:
a) Low Level Technology Input
i) Land hand tools
ii) Varieties: IRAT 112, IRAT 104 and lAC 164.
iii) Fertilizer: only urea -- 75 kg/ha in two
applications.
iv) Seed rates: 60.kg/ha, 80kg/ha, 100 kg/ha
and 120 kg/ha.
v) Other practices: all other practices were
those of the local farmers.
vi) Check: most popular local variety.
b) High Level Technology Input
i) Land preparation: animal traction or use
of tractors.
i1) Varieties: IRAT 109, IRAT 170, lAC 164.
iii) . Weeding: use of herbicides (4 1. . Rondstar
per ha) plus one hand weeding at two ¥leeks
after sowing.
Iv) Fertilizer: NPK (10-18-18) (150 kg/ha) and
urea (75 kgiha).
v) Seed rates: 60 kg/ha, 80 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha
and 120 kg/ha.
vi) Other practices: all other practices were
the same as those of the local farmers.
vii) Check: most popular local variety.
- 11 -
Yield Analysis
The yield analysis of the varieties in the
two techno'iogical · packages and by the various seed rates
are presented in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. In the
low level technological package, I RAT 104 yielded 7-9%
higher than the other two improved varieties, namely;
lRAT 112 and lAC 164. In the high level technological
package, lAC 164 yielded 2-3% higher than the other improved
varieties, namely, IRAT 109 and lRAT 170.
Yield with respect to seed rate: the highest
yie ld was obtained in the low leve 1 techno logy input,
with a seed rate of 100 kg/ha while the highest was obtained
in the case of the high level technology input with a
seed rate of 80 kg/ha. Comparing the results, one can
infer that a better seedbed preparation using animal
traction or small tractors seems to have remarkably
contributed to the · higher yield with the high level input
technological package,
- 12 -
Table 1 Average Yields of Varieties in the 1984 Trials
Technological
Package
Low
High
Variety
I RAT 104
I RAT 112
lAC 164
lAC 164
I RAT 109
I RAT 170
Average Yield
(kg/ha)
2354
2195
2161
2820
2755
2738
Table 2: Average Yield by Seed Rate Applied*
Technological
Seed rate (kg/ha)
Package 60 80 100 120
Low 2023 2040 2155 2106
High 2661 2756 2613 2616
*Average for all varieties.
- 13 -
Farm Unit Profile of Participating Farmers
Labour
The nucleus family of participating farmers
constitutes the major labour force available to the farmers.
This family consists of the wife or wives, children
and sometimes other close relat ives (brothers, sisters,
nieces, and nephews). The farmers are fairly old with
an average age ·of 50 years. These older farmers ~ . J i t h
their larger families (polygamy) are more represented
in the savannah areas than in the forest region. Farmers
with larger number of wives as well as larger families
are also represented in farmers operating with high input
technology (draught cultivation and intermediate motori-
zation).
Land Use
Land use varies in the two main vegetational
zones (Table 3). Average area cultivated by a farmer
in the forest area is about 8.3 hectares out of which
2.2 hectares or 27% are devoted to rice.
- 14-
Table 3 Land use of participating farmers in forest
and savannah areas
I I
Total
I
Area'
I
Percentage
of Cultivation
Cultivated I Under
I
of Rice in
(Hectares)! Rice
I
Total Area
I
' I
Av. Cve'/.
I
Av. CV/o
I
%
I
I
I
Manual Cultivation Forest
8.3 47
I
2.23 59
I
27
Manual Cultivation Savannah 3.76 54
!
1. 56 55
I
41
I I
Total Hanual Cultivation 4.85 66
I
1. 73 58
I
36
Draught Cultivation 10.3 42
I
2.37 36
I
20
! I
Intenrediate
27.36 19
I
8.9 25
I
25
I I
- 15 -
In ' the savannah areaS, the average size of
farms cultivated manually is about 4 hectares out of
which about 41,?o (1.56 ha) is ' devoted to rice. Where
ox-drawn imp lements are used to ti 11 . the land,
size of holding is about to;3 hectares of
20% (2.37 ha) is devoted to rice. Among
the average
which about
farmers who
use tractors and accompanying implements to cultivate
the land, the average holding is about 27.4 ha out of
which 38.3% and 32.5% are cultivated under cotton and
rice respectively.
Capital
The farm equipment available to the farmers
varies with the technology the farmer is using. In manual
cultivation, the equipment consists mainly of simple
hand tools. In draught cultivation, the equipment consists
of draught animals and draught equipment as well as simple
hand tools. Farmers using intermediate mechanization
technology also have tractors with implements as well
as simple hand tools. However, a few of the farmers
had tractors as well as draught animals.
Participating Farmers Opinion on Improved Varieties
Findings concerning how collaborat ing farmers
evaluated the new improved varieties are contained in
Table 4. For IRAT 112, about 53% of the farmers appreciate
its earliness, taste and cooking quality, while 40% of
- 16 -
them found that IRAT 112 was too short. For IRAT 109,
its earliness and good yielding potential were appreciated
by 8370 of the farmers, but 70% of them found it
either too short or not very tasty. IRAT 170 was preferred
by nearly 83% of the farmers despite some problems with
shattering. percent of the farmers found
lAC 164 excellent in terms of all the nine parameters
measured in the lIadvantages
ll
category. Only 17% of them
indicated problems with lodging and 9% with shattering.
- 17 -
Table 4 of farmers opinions on advantages and disDevantages of Unproved
variet4!:S.
-r I I
I
Total I A D V AN TAG E 5
1
D I · 5) A D V ANT AGE S
V/\Etlm:::s
I r-uroerl
I 1 II I I I I
I
I I !
I of . I 1 I
t
l
I
3
I
4 5
1
6 7
1
8 9
I
2
.1
j
1
4
1
5
I
6
1
7
I I 1 I 1 ! I
I FaIn!rs I I
I I I I I I I
I
I ! i 1
I,
I
-I
-.---
I
IRAT 112
1
30 1 53.3 : 53.31 53.31
..
40.01 6.7130.01
-
6.91 40.01
- 1 -
116.71
4
6.11
-
j16.7
1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1
IRAT 109
1
23 1 32.61 3 ... 1j 30.41 82.61 39.11 39.1139.1 139.1 I 39.1169.6 \69.6169.6 169.6 152.2 117.41 -
I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1
IRAT 104
1
30 I 30.01 16.71 16.71 .30.0( 16.71 16.71 - '116.7 1 16.71 - 136.7 j36.7136.7116.7116.7: -
1 1 1
I
I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 t I 1 I I I
InAT 170
t
23 1 32.61100.01100.0(100·01 91.31100.0182.6 le2.6 t 69.61
I
I· -
130.4 130.4 I -
1
1 I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1
lAC 164
1
54 1 7 i • 7i 77. 71 77. 71 77. 71 77.71 77.7177.7 177.7 I 55.51 -
I - 1 -
1 9.3 148.1 116.71 9.3
I I
I t I 1 I
t
I
I
I
I I 1
I
1
I
I
Source Ivory · Coast survey of rice farmers, 1983.
Note These evalua:ions (f improved vari.cties were made using local variety as a reference.
Advantages
1 = cycle length
2 = acceptable taste
3 • fast cooking quality
4 = gooa vield
5 = little lodging
6 = plant heiEht acceptable
7 = fer ""air" on leaves and grains
8 = good exertion
9 • less labour requirement
Disadvantages
1 = Plant too short
2. taste nbt acceptable
3 = slow in cooking
4 = too much shattering
5 = highly to birds and rodents
6 .. "hair" and/or lodging
7 = poor yield/tillering
- 18 -
VARIETY IMPROVENENT
The activities of the varietal
programme have been so far limited to:
improvement
i) Evaluation of some promising germplasra involving
44 entries.
ii) Progeny selection from F2 lines of the cross
IRAT 109 x Mizuhata Machi made earlier.
iii) Identification of promising varieties for yield
trials from the HARDA lET and IRTPs.
iv) Survey and evaluation of varieties on the TAT
on-farm trials and the farmers' fields.
v) Varietal suitability to mechanization specially
for shattering aspect.
From these activities, the
were obtained and observations made:
following results
- Fran the first set of gcmplasm (44 entries) evaluated
in 1984, 12 were selected for preliminary yield trials.
The varieties are being multiplied.
- Eleven varieties were chosen fran IURCN and IURYN of 1983
for observational trials.
- varieties were selected fran IET of 1984 for observa-
tional trials.
- fixed lines of the cross !RAT 109 x Mizuhata
M:x::bi were selected for observation.
- 19 -
- A local variety, CNN<CNsa<A, was chosen fran farners'
fields for thorough study. The variety has excellent growth
behaviour, adaptability, diS<'.8se resistance and good grains.
1Wo other farners' varieties, MAI.aJKA and TCl.JB.l>JOJ, were
also chosen for intensive study.
- !RAT 136 appears to be rrore suitable for rrechanica1 harvest-
ing as it does not shatter, whereas a lot of shattering
was observed in IRAT 13 and IRAT 104. Mechanical harvesting
of IRAT 13 and IRAT 104 will therefore lead to very serious
grain losses.
Under the upland conditions, the rrost irrportant desirable
traits of a variety are:
1. Good grain quality as detennined by trans1uscent, slender,
trediun to long grain.
2. Blast resistance.
3. Height of 120-1.50 an for ~ d control and ease of harvest.
4. Deep root system for drought tolerance.
A recently identified superior variety is lAC 64. It has
been extensively tested in the TAT trials in Ivory Coast. It showed
very good perfonnance with acceptable plant type and grain quality.
- 20 -
PESTS AND DISEASES
Pests
Several pest species were observed during the
on-farm trials (Table 5). The incidence and severity
however, appeared to be great ly influeoced by a number
of factors among which the stage of crop growth, varieties
grown and geographical location seemed to be of paramount
importance. Stemborers were cosmopolitan and endemic
in all locations but the level of severity varied at
the time of the visit. Termite attack was severe at
Odienne and N'golodougou, while rice bugs were prominent
at Man. Sesamia
SEE
were the most important stemborer
on upland rice. Preliminary observations on data collected
on the trials indicated that at most locations, insect
pest infestations were not high enough to evaluate for
varietal resistance.
Major insect Eests of upland rice
Many of the insect pests \\1ere common to all
rice ecosystems but their relative abundance varied.
There are those that are strict ly upland and they are
classified into internal stemborers, leaf feeders, stem
and leaf suckers, root feeders and grain suckers.
Internal stem feeders
These pests include lepidopterous stemborers
and internal stem feeding diptera, the stalk-eyed flies.
- 21 -
- 22 -
Damage caused by these pests are the characteristic
'deadhearts' and 'whiteheads' which .are the results of
internal stem feeding activities . during the vegetative
and reproductive stages of plant growth respectively.
Three genera of lepidopterous stemborers found on upland
rice are Sesamia, Chilo and Maliarpha.
a) Pink borers (Sesamia sep.)
The pink borers are the roost inporcimt stenborers on
upland rice in terms of the damage they cause due to
their voracious feeding habits.
'00 species of Sesamia which are canron in West Africa,
Sesamia calamistis occur all over Ivory Coast
and.§.. nonagroides botanephaga (T. and B.) is found mainly
in the forest zone.
b) White borer (Haliarpha
This is a unique rice stemborer found widespread and
predaninant in many rice ecosystems in West Africa.
There is only one knavn species attacking rice in Africa.
It is monophagous, feeding only on rice. During the
off-season, it survives in a state of larval diapause
at the base of rice stubbles. The feeding activities
occur at lower internodes with the result that deacfuearts
and whiteheads are not usually fanned.
-23-
c) Striped borers (Chilo spp.)
In Ivory Coast, six species of Chilo are reported to
occur but only three, Olilo diffusilineus de Joannis),
f. zacconius (Blesz) and f. aleniellus (Strand) are found
on rice. Olt of the three, f. diffusilineus and f.
conius VRre fOlttld to be pests of upland rice. C. zaCConillS
is fOlmd in the savannah zone while C. aleniellus is
found in the forest zone.
d) Stalk-eyed fly (Diopsis spp.)
Leaf feeders
The stalk-eyed fly is an inportant indigenous pest of
rice in West f.frica. It is CatmJrl on irrigated rice
but also attacks upland rice in the hunid trcpical zone.
Several species such as Diopsis (thoracica) macroph--
thalna, Q. apicalis, Q. tenuipes and D.collaris have
been reported but the IlPst inportant are D. macrophthalma
and £. apicalis.
Irrportant leaf-feeding insect pests on upland rice in West
Africa are the ladybird beetles, Epilachna similis
Spodoptera exerpta; grasshoppers; leaf folders and leaf-sucking han:pteran,
Locris spp. The alll1)'lNOnns are polyphagous and attack other upland creps.
They inflict severe damage by their swanning habits and voracious feeding.
- 24-
Root feeders
Tennites are by far tt'1e rost inportant root feeding insect
pests of upland rice in West Africa. Several species were found associated
with upland rice, am.::Il'Ig which Macrotenres and Microtenres are the rrost
predcminant. Other root feeders ioclude the rolc cricket, Gryllotalpa
africana (P. de Beauv.) and aphids.
Grain suckers
Several species of insects have been recorded as rice grain
suckers but the inportant ones found on upland rice are Aspavia annigera,
Stenocoris c1avifonnis Ahnad, Mirperus jaculus Thun, Riptortus dentipes
F and Dysdercus supertitiosus F. These bugs feed on grains at milky
and dough stages. Infested grains rrey ramin mpty, partially filled
or nay develop a brown spot where the stylets are inserted. Bacteria
. .
and ftmgi are · also introduced during feediIl8 activities. Grain suckers
are inplicated, to a large extent, in the so-called glt.m2 discolouration.
IlaImge caused by these pests is significmt as it irwolves losses both
in grain yield and quality.
Pest Control
Varietal resistance
Many upland rice insect pests are also found on irrigated
rice, and irwestigations on resistance in rice varieties to these pests
had been undertaken under irrigated conditions. These results arc relevant
to t.pland rice inasrruch as these tested rice varieties could be utilized
as parents in the development of uplpnd rice varieties.
- 25-
Screening for varietal resistance to insect pests is Going
on at lITA, NCR! (Nigeria) and IDESSA (Ivory Coast). For exarrple, in
Ivory Coast, several rice varieties have been screened and those identified
as resistant to starhorers include Noroberekan, Madeba D, C6 6, Kototouro
S 7, and S 1.
Diseases
A review of literature on the work alrea&; done and visits
to various research institutions in the region revealed the follewing
diseases ~ i c h are listed in order of bnportance:
Neck blast
Leaf blast
Seedling blast
Brown spot
Panicle disco-
louration
Leaf scald
False srrut
Narrow brown
Pyricularia oryzae
Pyricularia oryzae
Pyricularia oryzae
Drechs lera oryzae
Drechslera oryzae
Rhync.hosporiun oryzae
Ustilaginoidea virens
leaf spot Cercospora oryzae
Sheath blight Corticiun sasaakii
Sheath rot Acrocylindrium oryzae
Bacterial blight Xantharonas oryzae
Rice yellow
rrott le virus
Nematodes
- 26-
The result of a series of surveys which were carried out
in upland rice areas of Ivory Coast confiITl'¥2d the presence of these
diseases. H ~ v e r , the incidence of bacterial blight and the rice yellow
IlPttle virus which are typiealbf lowland/swarrp/irrigated rice cultures
in upland rice needs further study.
The existing rrethods of disease control in the region include
the use of regulatory rrethods through plant quarantine irrportation and
exportation laws to prevent the introduction of exotic diseases; cultural
rrethods which involve judicious use of fertilizers, reroval of alternative
hosts by burning in sare cases and crop rotation to reduce pathogen
population in the soil; biological control rrethods using antagonisrrs
and natural enanies to pathogens; chanical treat:mmts as foliar spreys
or seed disinfectants to ' prevent or eradicate prevalent diseases ; and
finally the use of resistant cultivars. Although the latter appears
to be the roost feasible and econanical rreans of control, reports of
the break-down of r esistance in pranising varieties were encountered
in literature.
The plant pathology programre in upland rice and in the
concept of integrated disease control regards the use of resistant cul-
tivars as a major control Treasure and chemical control as a last resort
in case of a sudden break-down in the resistance of a variety. Research
activities in upland rice pathology will be tailored along these lines.
- 27 -
Results of field surveys
Observations were made on seven varieties involved in t,.'e
TAT on-fann trials at eight sites nnd also the coordinated variety trials
conducted in Ivory Coast in 1934.
a) Rice blast disease (P. oryzae)
The rice variety lAC 164 appeared to be the only variety
that had maintained its level of resistance to leaf blast infection.
IN:, 164 was also fOtmd to be free of neck b12st. It was outstanding
in its resistant reactions at all levels of seed rates and different
envirornental conditions (Table 6) at various sites iocluding N'golodougou,
Ivory Coast, an area of high disease pressure. IRAT 112 and IRAT 109
were affected by seedling blast but recovered two weeks later. Despite
this recovery, the two varieties scored highest in tenns of susceptibility
to leaf blast at the vegetative phase. Neck blast reaction scores of
!RAT 109 and IRAT 112 varied fran 3-4. The two varieties are m::xlerately
susceptible to neck rot.
b) Bro.m spot (D. or;Tzae)
All the varieties exhibited highly resistant to resistant
reactions to brCMn spot at Gblapleu. In Nanciougou, reaction scores
of 3-4 were obtained. For IRAT 104, at Gbaana, the score was (3.5)
(MS). At N'golodougou, 19u:lpe Cateto also s h ~ d n syrcpton of (3.5)
(t13) •
c) Leaf scald (R. oryzae)
Traces of leaf scald were found on lAC 164 with a reaction
score of 3.3 (MR) at Gblapleu. At N'golodougou, 19uape Cateto, mAT . 109
Table 6
<0
( > ~
('01"

1
<5'
t Varietie
I
IRAT 104
I
I
I RAT 109
I
I
I RAT 112
I
I
IRAT 136
I
I
ITA 144
I
I
I RAT 170
1
I
lAC 164
1
1.0
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
- 28 -
Comparison of Test Varieties to Leaf Blast
in Different Locations
Varietal Reactions to Leaf Blast
I
I
I
1
1
2 3
1
4 5
1
6 7
I
I
1
HR
I
MS MS
I I I - I
I
I 1 I I
I
I
MS
I
R
1
MS
I
MS
I
I I I I
MS
I
S S
I I - I I
R
I
I I I I
I
I I I I
S
I
I I I
. I
I
-
I I I I
MS
I
I I I I
0-
I
I
MS
I
R
I
I1R
I
MS
1
I I 1 I
R
1
R R
I
R
1
HR
1
HR
1
R
1
I 1 1 1
1.4
=
Highly resistant (HR)
2.4
=
Resistant (R)
3.4
=
Moderately Resistant (MR)
4.4
=
Moderately Susceptible (MS)
5.4
=
Susceptible (S)
=
Not planted
Locations:
1.
=
Gblapleu
2.
=
Bogouine II
3.
=
Mandougou I
4.
=
N'golodougou I
5.
%: N'golodougou II
6.
=
Mandougou II
7.
=
In CVT Man
8.
=
In CVT Odienne
' I
1
1
I 1
1
8
1
I I
I
1 I
I I
I
MS
I
I 1
I
MS
1
I I
I
MR
I
I I
I
S
I
I I
1
MS
1
I I
I
R
I
1 I
and !RAT 170 exhibited leaf scald infection which was negligible.
CXJIl.AOORATICN WIlli ornER INSTI'IUI'ICNS
The station collaborated with the folloong national and
institutions in its activities in 1984:
a) National institutions
Ivory COc1.st - Horkshop on t<'Ochnology evaluation
- Workshcp by IITA/OFRIC on on-fann trials'
design
Burkina Faso - l>1orkshop on fanning syste:ns in Africa
Niger - Saninar on pest m .. maganent strategy in Sahel
Nigeria - Tour NCR!, IART and NAFPP to survey upland
rice research activities in Nigeria
b) International institutions
TAC - in Rare and Addis Ababa
IRRI - To give lectures at the 2nd Upland Rice Training
Q)urse at Los Banos, Philippines
lITA - To collect infonmtion on upland rice research acti-
vities.
- 30 _
II. REGIONAL 11ANGROVE SWAMP RICE RESEARCH STATION,
ROKUPR, SIERRA LEONE
The research and development activities of
this station were reviewed and priorities reset in 1984.
The new priorities are:
i) varietal improvement,
ii) pest control management,
iii) soil fertility and crop management,
iv) technology assessment and transfer, and
v) training of farmers, researchers and their
assistants and university students.
The station's 1984 activities covered the
mangrove areas of Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea Bissau,
Senegal and The G.ambia.
VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT
One of the objectives of the varietal
programme
ment /is to develop or identify from within or
the region high yielding varieties with pest and disease
improve-
outside
resistant,
toxicity tolerant, and ot!1er good agroncmic and organoleptic characte-
ristics to replace those being grCMn in the mangrove swanp areas in
the region. The varietal inpI'OVE'mmt programre enccnpasses testing
and/or evaluating prorrdsing varieties and hybridization.
- 31 -
The NE."W Introductions
Five hundred and t:YIenty-seven new materials were screened
in the Initial Evaluation Trials (Th"Ts); 322 were tested for adaptability
to mangrove swmp conditions out of which 77 were selected for further
testing. Eight of the varieties gave higher grain yields and also received
higher phenotypic acceptability scores than ROK 5, the check variety.
Thirty varieties were tested for early rmturity and yield
against R<l<. 5. Six of the varieties gave higher yields and all were
early rmturing with intennediate plant height. These v;nuld be further
tested in the short season areas of the region.
One htmdred and seven varieties were tested for salinity
and alkaline tolerance, and also for ability to withstand tidal intmdation.
Based on seedling vigour, plant height, gror...'tb duration and resistance
to seedling blast and lodging, 28 lines were selected for further testing
or for use as parents in breeding activities.
Out of the 20 varieties tested in acid lowland soils,
only three showed adaptability and will be further tested in the next
season.
Promising Varieties/Advanced Lines
a) Observational Yield Trials (0Yr)
The trials were conducted with several pranising and
advanced lines of short, rrediun, long and very long ch.lration varieties.
The nll'lbcr of varieties selected for further studies are shown in Table
7. The perfonnance of the best pranising and advanced lines are shcMn
in Table 8.
-
3
2

-
T
a
b
l
e

7

N
o
n
-
R
e
p
l
i
c
a
t
e
d

O
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

Y
i
e
l
d

T
r
i
a
l
s

1
9
8
4

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

N
o
.

o
f

C
h
e
c
k

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
e
s
t

v
a
r
i
e
-
N
o
.

o
f

V
a
r
i
e
t
y

o
f

v
a
r
i
e
t
i
e
s

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

y
i
e
l
d

o
f

t
i
e
s

y
i
e
l
d
-
v
a
r
i
e
t
i
e
s

t
r
i
a
l

t
e
s
t
e
d

c
h
e
c
k

i
n
g
h
i
g
h
e
r

s
e

l
e
e
t
e
d

f
o
r

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

t
h
a
n

t
h
e

f
u
r
t
h
e
r

t
e
s
t

(
k
g
!
h
a
)

c
h
e
c
k

S
h
o
r
t

d
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

T
i
d
a
l

l
i
m
i
t

4
3

I
R

1
0
7
8
1
-
3
4
1
6

1
8

1
8

z
o
n
e

1
4
3
-
2
-
3

H
e
d
i
u
m

d
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

T
i
d
a
l

m
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

6
0

R
O
K

5

3
1
1
1

2

8

s
w
a
m
p

L
o
n
g

d
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

D
e
e
p

t
i
d
a
l

1
1
0

K
u
a
t
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- 33 -
Table 8 Performance of some selections from the
entries in the Observational Yield Trials (OYTs),
1984
--------------------------------------------------
Short Duration to 135 days)
WAR 74-23-2-2-B-1 5930 119 118 135
WAR 74-23-Rl-1-2-1 5849 129 119 129
IR 1356-9>'1 3818 116 82 135
WAR 81-2-1- 2 3823 118 94 125
IR
of 27 plots) 3416 84 134
Mediun Duration (136-155 days)
WAR 27-28-1-3-1 3348 138 121 131
WAR 24-2-1-1 3409 144 121 138
ROK 5* (Mean of 31 plots) 3111 136 152
Long Duration (156-179
WAR 38-62-4-3-1 3710 256 127 164
WAR 50-51-2-1-1 3338 151 108 162
WAR 52-384-3-2-1 3208 157 129 160
IR 54-39-3-2;0-1 3144 1L() 137 158
Kuatik Kundur* of
55 plots) 1662 120 169
Very Long Duration (180
WAR 36-33-2-3-1 3508 138 168 181
WAR 87-4-R2-1-1 3453 122 118 179
WAR 87-4-Rl-1-1 3343 272 129 178
Ra<. 10>'<' (Mean of 25 plots) 1807 162 186
*O'Ieck variety
- 34-
'The selected short and rrediltll duration varieties will
be further tested in areas where salt incursion early in the season
forces farmers to grw short to .rrediltll duration vdrieties. The long
duration varieties selected could provide alternatives for cultivation
in the mangrove SWCITps of Sierra Leone and Guinea having salt-free period
of about five tronths. The very long duration varieties have potential
for use in Sierra Leooe and Guinea where very long duration and
sensitive rice varieties are found.
b) Replicated Yield Trials (RYTs)
Seven replicated yield trials, four in associated and
three in tidal mangrove swanps were corrlucted. The nurber of varieties
tested, the check varieties and those pranising varieties yielding better
are shown in Tables 9 and 10.
KAIJ 2036 which perfonred best in the category
had low spikelet sterility and high tillering (Table 10). It can . serve
as a donor of these characteristics in the hybridization progranrnz.
In the 12S-129-day category, the three top varieties, B 54416Kn 47-
1-1, IR and KAU 2039 were short statured. Their early I1l3turity
makes them potential candidates for use in bunded water controlled mangrove
swanps with less than 4 of salt-free period. In the 130-13S-
day category, all the test varieties had lower levels of spikelet sterility
than Ra< 5; and t.\.lo of then, B 2039Kn-7-2-S-3 and KAIJ 2019, had low
iocidence of seedling blast, and mature earlier than RCK 5.
In the rrediltll duration varietal trial in tidal rrengrove
swarrp, Rohyb 15-WAR-3-3-B-2 arerged the best variety. It has potential
for use in salt limited short season areas in Guinea, Guinea Bissau,
The Glri>ia, Senegal and Sierra I..eooe, areas where early maturity is
desirable so that farmers can harvest the crop before the iocursion
of saline flood water.
i)
ii)
iii)
i)
ii)
- 35-
Table 9 Some Data on the Replicated Yield Trials
(RYTs), 1984
Varieties Location No. of Check No. of
varieties
of yielding
higher than
Characteristics trial varieties varieties check variety
Short duration Associated
swamps 30
120-124 days
"
10 IR 13240-39-3
3
125-129 days
"
12 IR 2797-125-3-2-2
3
130-135 days
"
8 ROK 5 4
Medium duration Associated
swamps 12 IR 3259-P5-160-1 2
Medium duration Tidal swamps 12 ROK 5 4
Lung duration
"
"
160-179 days
"
II
14 Kuatik Kundur 7
180-200 days
"
"
12 ROK 10, CP 4
and Kuatik Kundur
- 36 -
Toble 10 Results of the KPnlic;:ted
.
Yield Trials (RYTs) , 1904
Yield lIeig.'1t Gru..th Filled 1((x) St<!rility
Variety pl.:mt dur ation ttHers grain t.'Ci(;ht
kg/ba
(em)
.
per panicle (9!1)
'-
Shert duration
120
-
124
2036 3123 100 125 314 45 21.7
2013 2851 102 125 282 57 1'1.7 15.2'
C 22 2791 87 125 2IB 34 24.4 19.0
lAc
'-.I
..
129 day!!
B 2915 C9 12B 266 52 25.7 14.8
ill 3646-9-3-1 20i4 99 1:5 260 55 24.1 16.7
?"'lJ 2()3:; 2649 98 123 281 57 22.9 8.6
!e'.diun duration
137
-
1l() dals
Ro;lYl 3919 139 137 194 82 31. 7 20.4
Pchyb /· .. lelNl-1-3-B-2 3783 146 140 204 71 33.7 14.0
Rcbhy 4-W.R-I-I-B-1 3722 138 139 179 79 32.2 11.1
Long au-ation
160
-
179 Cays
t>-W.:.R-6-2-B-2 3254 161 183 90 29.3 12.5
l1.'.R 4+--5-5-2 3214 155 176 227 118 21.7 13.8
39-17-2-2 3187 148 189 198 104 22.5 8.2
1:xJ
..
200 dill!
Jawa (Guard) 3248 168 183 324 74 24.4 12.6
t1a1.nl; Nyo B24-92 3156 152 188 204 120 19.9 19.1
!<uatik 2916 152 169 IS1 91 25.5 8.4
- 37 -
ti1ltilocational Farrrer Field Trials
Three sets of six varieties were tested in rcultilocational
trials tmder farrrer field conditions in Sierra Leone and Guinea. Seedlings
were planted at randan in I.mreplicated 2m x 5m plots without fertilizer
and weeding. The varieties which perforrred better than those gravn
by farrrers are presented in Table 11. The yields were generally lower
in Sierra Leone than in Guinea because of lower soil fertility and early
incursiOn of salt water causing severe spikelet sterility. For the
rrediun duration varieties, Rohyb 15-WAR-3-3-B-2 had sturdier culm, shorter
stature and .duration than RCl< 5, giving this variety an advantage on
fertile sites ¥.here lodging can be severe and also in areas near the
sea where salt incursion t ~ r d s the end of the season can cause considera-
ble reduction in yield.
Breeding
The breeding programre focused on developing varieties
with salt and iron toxicity tolerance, disease resistance and .ratooning
ability. Using RCK 5 as a check, 13 WARrn-bred advanced lines showed
better salt tolerance. The finst selections of salt tolerant varieties
would be available for regional testing in 1985.
In iron toxicity evaluation trials, 13 WAlID\-bred advanced
lines perforrred better than Suakoko 8, the check variety. .1he first
selection of iran-toxicity tolerance varieties would be available for
regional testing in 1986.
One htmdred and fifty variedes were tested for stable
resistance to various diseases. · Several varieties including 10 WARDA-
bred advanced lines shO\<Ved rcultiple resistance to seedling blast, bravn
spot, leaf scald and leaf srrut. Fourteen other varieties were identified
as having resistance to rice yellow m::>ttle virus. These are being used
as donors in the breeding programme for resistance to tl1e diseases.
Table 11 Summary of means of the varieties which out-yielded
those of farmers in the farmers field trials
Variety
Sierra Leone Guinea
Yield '7. of best Yield '7. of best
(kg/ha) farmer's (kg/ha) farmer's
variety variety
Medium duration
Rohyb 15-\vAR-3-3-B-2
2370 119 3000 124
ROK 5 2099 105 2750 114
WAR 44-21-5-2 2001 100 2500 103
Long duration
Rohyb 6-WAR-2-B-2 2122 106 3000 120
WAR 44-72-4-1 2100 105 2000 80
Very long duration
Padi Mentul 3786 122 6000 120
CP 4 3764 121 5250 110
Maung Nyo 624-92 3415 110 5750 115
ROK 10 3347 107 5500 110
- 39--
In the ratooning ability trials with PaFoday Yoreh . 260
as check, 28 WARn\-bred advanced lines exhibited greater ratooning ability,
and eight iines only out-yielded the check. The trials will continue
in 1985 before selections are made for national prograrrroos.
OOIL AND CROP MANAl::'»fNI'
The soil and crop managerrent research erJFhasiZed the
develcpnent of appropriate teclmiques for Azolla-rice cultures' in the
lowland ecologies and rrethods for inproving efficiency of fertilizer
use. The efforts are geared towards promoting self-sufficiency for
resoorce-poor fanrers in the face of .. current scarcities and escalating
prices of agricultural inputs, particularly, fertilizers.
Azalia as an alternative source of nitrggen
Trials conducted in the past 4 years ShCM that Azolla
can substitute effectively for . cl:eniq!.l nitrogenous fertilizers for
rice cultivation in the non-tidal mangrove associated swarrps.
The 1984 trials showed that in situ cultivation and utiliza-
tion of Azolla can effectively control lr.Ieeds. Although Azolla can ef-
fectively substitute for chemical nitrogenous fertilizers · in lowland
rice production, the successful utilization of Azolla is to a large
extent, dependent on adequate water control and phosphate fertilization.
It was found that the nonnal level of phosphate applied to rice may
be adequate in a IOOl1OCrop Azolla-rice culture, but under dual-cropping
or intercropping, supplerrentary arrounts of phosphorus may be required.
Future trials will attenpt to detennine phosphorus requirerrents for
dual-cropping Azolla-rice cultures.
-40 -
Fertilizer response
lhe grain yield of six rice varieties to nitrogen were
evaluated at The yield response of all the varieties was signifi-
cantly affected by the levels of nitrogenawlied. The yield response
was. still positive at the highest quantity of nitrogen applied (Figure
3). In previous trials, grain yield response tended to level-off at
80 kg N/ha. The contrast may be attributed to low and erratic rainfall
in 1984.
Mathod of. nitrogen fertilizer application
In previous trials, urea injection produced significantly
heavier grain yield than the broadcast nethod. . The 1984 urea injection
trials also gave .heavier grain yield than basal incorporation or post-
transplant top-dressing of urea. ·· . urea super granules produced
similar grain yields as the injection rrethod. The granIles awroach
to haVe an advantage over application. The approach also requires
. .
relatively less labour than the injection teclmique. It therefore offers
a suitable alternative to the injection teclmique . of applying urea in
rmngrove swarrps.
Response to phosphate
Studies on the rrangrove swarrp catena at showed
response to phosphorus to be low and inconsistent. Soluble fonns of
phosphorus are quickly. fixed as ir90 and aluninitrn bolmd-phosphates
and rendered unavailable to the crop. In the green house and the field,
four types of phosphorus fertilizers (Single Superphosphate (ssp), Jorda-
M:>roccan and Togo rock phosphates) carbined with rice husk were
evaluated for agroncmic effectiveness.. Without hU!ik, grain yield response
to the phosphorus fertilizers varied; llirocco rock phosphate was nore
effective than SSP in increasing grain yield in tidal mangrove swarrps
but in the associated swarrps, SSP produced higher yield than both the
untreated check and the rock phosphate materials.
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In the tidal mangrove swmp, the grain yield response to different phos-
phorus fertilizers was evaluated under graded levels of incorporated rice husk. On
the average, the application of husk increased grain yield but did not significantly
influeoce grain yield response to phosphorus except in the case of Togo rock phosphate.
The residual and long-tenn application effects of husk will be evaluated in future
trials.
Pest nenagatent research activities continued to atphasize pest surveil-
lance and nonitoring, crcp loss asseSSirent and research to evolve suitable integrated
pest rnanagarent at the farrrer level.
Weed survey
Weed surveys conducted in G..tinea to find out the type of
and extent of their occurrence. The najor identified in the tidal SWCIIps
Paspalun vaginatun, Alternanthera sessilis, zeylanica, Cyperus articulatus
and Of these, f,. Vaginatun followed by A. sessilis the roost
irrportant with respect to density and extent of occurrence. In the associated swoops,
the rmjor Sesbania 2., FUirena strica, Ischaenun rugosun, Nynphea 2"
and The waeds identified in both rmngrove and associated swarps in
G..tinea are similar to those found in similar, places in Sierra Leone.
Weed control research
Chemical and cultural rrethods of , controlling evaluated in
Sierra Leone. A field experirrent that has going on since 1982 to investigate
the effect of roo.nual and rrechanical cultivation rrethods on the sedge, c. articulatus
in tidal mangrove swarrps at Rokupr was continued in 1984. The 1982 results shcMed
that rrechanical plooghing '. and puddling significantly suppressed the carpared to
rmnual land preparation. However, there no significant differences in grain yields
bebem the treat:rrents. By the third season (1984), the WL'ed had been virtually eradi-
cated fran the research plots. This shcMs that with good cultivational nethods, the
\oleed can be effectively controlled or eradicated over a period of three seasoos.
<hemical ~ d control
The herbicides, Starn F 34T and Herbamix IM 410 ~ r e evaluated to find
out the rates and the best tines for their application to be rrost effective. Both
Herbamix and Starn F 34T follCMed by one hand ~ d i n g at 40 days after transplanting
significantly reduced weed groWth.
Diseases and their control
In Sierra Leone and GJinea, seedling blast is a major nursery problem.
BrCMn spot is less conspicuous except on older seedlings and at infertile spots.
A survey showed that the prevalent fungal diseases in Sierra Leooe,
Guinea and GJinea Bissau are brCMn spot, leaf scald and leaf snut. Grain discoloration
or dirty panicle disease was found sporadically in G.linea only. The neck blast disease
was fo.md in the saline affected areas in all the three countries but less prevalent
in G.linea Bissau. Other diseases recorded were prest.rrptive s}'llptans of rice stem nata-
toc\e ''Ufra'' (Dityleochus angpstus) in Sierra Leone and G.linea Bissau and rice yellow
rrott1evirus in all three countries.
Crop loss assessrrent studies
Studies were conducted in Sierra Leone to assess grain yield losses
caused by brown spot, neck blast and rice yellow rrottle virus diseases. The grain
loss due to the brown spot disease was estiImted at 15%. The loss caused by rice yellow
rrottle virus ranged fran about 20 to 96% and, in the case of the neck blast, the yield
loss ranged fran about 16 to 31%.
Control of diseases
The strategy to control rice diseases is to use resistant varieties
augrented by appropriate cultural practices and crop husbandry, and the use of chemical
pesticides particularly in seed treatment.
-44-
Cultural control
A trial was conducted to study the seasonality of incidence of the preva-
lent fungal diseases in rice crop transplanted fran July to NoITatber under two nitrogen
(urea) levels. There were significant differences in brown spot incidence with respect
to date of transplanting, the incidence being higher in Novarber transplants (65.8"1.)
than in July transplants (31.3"/.). S:i.mi.larly, leaf scald and leaf sm.tt also sha.led
rmrked seasonality in incidence; leaf scald was not recorded in the Novarber transplanted
crq>, while leaf sm.tt was observed to decrease in the crq> transplanted after August.
nv= application of 40 kg N/ha suppressed brown spot significantly but
leaf scald severity was increased. Leaf SllUt was not significantly affected by nitrogen
application. These trials which began in 1983 W)Uld be carpleted in 1985.
A trial was also carried out to assess the arreliorative effect of various
caroinations of N,P,K, Mn and Zn, and rice straw on the incidence of brown spot. In
all caroinations, fC\oler brown leaf' spots resulted than the tmtreated control. This
experirrent, started in 1983, will be concluded in 1985.
Chemical control
Trials were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of types of fungicides
against seedling blast in upland nursery. Kitazin and Beam (Tricyclazole) were the
IIDSt pranising f o l l ~ by protector, Kocide, Tq> Cop, Benlate (Bencmyl) and Dicloran.
The trials will be repeated with the pranj.sing fungicides next season.
Other trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of types
of fungicides against brown spot and other foliar diseases. . Kocide, Beam, Cuprosan
311 sq>er D, Prochloraz, and a. mixture of Benlate and Kocide were the most effective.
The trials will be repeated in 1985, focusing on rates and frequency of alP lication.
Chemical control in fanrers' fields
A mixture of Benlate and Kocide was applied to control rice diseases
in fanrers' fields and to assess the econanics of the method. The mixture effectively
controlled brown leaf spot and leaf scald, particularly in plots receiving three spray-
... 45,..
ings, and after maxinun tillering but before flowering/milk stages. Econanic returns
\mder the present level of fanrers' technology were very low. The trial started
in 1983 and will be. concluded in 985.
Entcm:>logy and other pests
The research activities ' in this area' contirrued to focus on crop loss
assessrrent in fanrers' fields, insect pest population dynamics, varietal tolerance
to crabs, and management of insect and crab pests.
The rmjor sterrborer identified is separatella \oi}ich starts with a
gradual infestation build-:q> in early <xtober and reaches a peak in
In field surveys in Guinea Bissau, the prevalent sterrborers identified in the soft-
dough stage were Diopsis !EE. and Orseola oryzivora.
The grain yield losses were estirmted at Roktpr. The losses due to
insect pests ranged fran 4 to 2<110 (Table 12). Sterrborer infestation on Rchyb 6-WAR-
6-2-B-2, Segon Mega, Kuatik Putih and Kuatik Bene were high but corresponding per cent
grain yield losses were lower in Segon 11=ga and Kuatik Putih. These two varieties
therefore appear to be more tolerant to stemborer attacks that the other varieties.
In field trials in Sierra Leone, a yield loss of 16.5% due to insect
pests estirmted and the major pest identified was the starborer, separatella.
In GJinea, grain yield lossesobtalned fran irrproved variety RCK 10 and local variety
Konyan were 8.2 and 1.9'/0 respectively, indicating that the local variety was more resistant.
The stemborer infestation was also evaluated in relation to seedling
age, tine of transplanting, insecticidal protection and fertilization. Seedlings trans-
planted in Septerrber had higher infestation that those transplanted in August. Higher
incideoce also occurred in younger seedlings than older ones, indicating that younger
seedlings are preferred for oviposition. Stemborer infestation also significantly
higher on fertilized but tmprotected plots than on protected but \mfertilized plots.
Similar observations were made last year.
Crab dan:ige study
Up to 4C1'1. crab dam:tge to RCK 10 did not cause significant differences
in grain yields transplanted at wider spacing; however, the yield lower at
-46-
Table 12 Average grain yield and percent stemborer infestation at
harvest of five Breeder's elected varieties with and
without insecticide protection on mangrove swarp levee
bank, Rokupr, Sierra leone, 1984
Percent Stemborer Average grain yield
Variety
Infestation (kg/ha) Yield
Insecti- No. Insect i- . Insecti- No. Insecti- Loss
cide cide cide cide (%)
*
Rohyb 1>-wAR-3-3-B-2 O.Sa 12.2c 4181.4'1 3710.6a 11.3
Rohyb 6-WAR-6-2-B-2 0.6a 17.2b 4375.9a 3644.6a 16.7
0.5a 15.5b 3536.1a 3396.3a 4.0
Kuatik Puteh O.la 22.4a 3795.2a 3380.9a 10.9
Kuatik Bene 0.4a 20.3a 3908.2a 3118.00 20.2
*
Means followed by the same letter in the column are not
different at the 5% level Il£f.
- 41-
closer spacing. Closer spacing is less suitable for the crop's CCl1JlCnsatory efforts.
It was also observed that higher seedling rate yielded significantly better, and plots
transplanted with vigoroUs seedlings yielded 'significantly better in spite of dam:1ge.
Adaptive fanrer-field trials of inproved technology packages continued
in Sierra Leone, Qlineaan:l 'The GanDia.Inall three cOlD'ltries, low and poor distribution
of rainfall adversely affected the trials.
In Sierra Leone, the inproved variety Kuatik Kundur which is being evalua-
ted to replace Ra<. 5 in the rrediun season areas failed to perfoIm better. Reduction
in yield was caused by blast at the seedling stage and also high salinity levels in
the flood water at maturity. In the 'event of continuing low and poorly distributed
rainfall, the replacing of R(l( 5 with Kuatik l<undur because of bird scaring problems
associated with the fonrer will have to be given a second thought.
Daronstrations of inproved technology packages in Sierra LeCtle was done
in collaboration with the North Western Integrated Agriculture Develqxrent Project
(NWIAIP) in the north and the M::>yarrba Integrated Rural Develqxrent Project (MIRDP)
in the south. The inproved teclmology packages included two recOOmended inproved va-
rieties (RCl< 10 and Ra< 5 for long and short season areas, respectively), nitrogen
application by the injection \'lEthod and ploughing using single axle ~ r tiller.
The packages were deronstrated on 24 fanrers' fields in 4 villages in the north and
on six fanrers' fields in 2 villages in the south. In the short and long season areas,
the yield increase of the inproved packages over the fanrers' practices averaged 143"1.
and 9(11. respectively.
CXlUAImATICN WIlli INSITnJITCNS
The station collaborated in its work with the following institutions:
International
- International rice Research Institute (IRRI); on IRfP progranmc.
- International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE); partici-
pation in a workshop.
Sierra leone
Ganbia
-
Senegal
QJinea Bissau
QJinea
-48-
- Trq>ical Developmmt Research Institute pherarone of fanale
Maliarpha seperatella identification and synthesis.
. : .
- Njala University College
- Fourah Bay College
- North West Integrated Agricultural Develq:m;mt Project(NY.IAIP)
- Moyooba Integrated Rural Project (MIRIlP)
- Bo-Pujehtm Project: (BPRIF)
- National Rice Research . Center (NRRC)
- Seed Hultiplication Project
- Adaptive Crq> Research and Extension (ArnE)
- Minist,:-y Agriculture and Natural Resources (MANR)
- Freedom From Hunger Agriculture
- Crop Research Institute
- Ministry of Agriculture (DEPA Division)
- CNAIER/Ministry of Agriculture
-49 -
III. THE REGIONAL IRRIGATED RICE RESEARCH STATION,
SAINT LOUIS, SENEGAL
The Regional Irrigated Rice Research Station which was
based at (Senegal) since its establishment was transferred
to Saint-Louis (Senegal) in 1984 for reasonS of convenience.
As a result of the reorientation of UARDA's research
and development programme in 1984, priorities were set for the station
as follows:
1. Varietal improvement, plant protection, soil fertility;
2. Techno logy assessment and transfer, water management;
3. Training.
VARIETAL IMPlU.1FMENl'
The objective of varietal inprovemmt is to identify high-yielding rice
varieties that are adaptable to the eco-climatic conditions of the West African region.
, . '
The activities undertaken in 1984 included initial evaluation tests, varietal yield
trials, and verification trials.
Initial Evaluation Tests (IEI')
These trials conducted using local West African varieties, varieties
of Atrerican origin and varieties fran the International Rice Research Institute ORRI).
One hundred and fifty-one West African varieties tested to detennine
their photoperiodism in order to identify those varieties that could be selected for
the station's hybridization programre. The check varieties used were lR 8 and Epima.
lXIring the dry season trials, 15 varieties genninated, ,with 13 of them
being photoperiod-sensitive and maturing aroond 180 days. The variety,
matured early in 160 days. In the wet Se..'1SOl1 tri<=lls, 57 varieties genninated and natured
.... 50 .....
fran 132 to 140 days. The only varieties that scored well in tenns of phenotypic accepta-
bility were t-Q-TI-79-468 , and One hundred and thirty-five
out of 986 short duration (110 days) varieties received fran IRRI were tested. The
local check, IKP, had a longer duration as catpared with 100 of the test varieties.
Seventeen varieties were further tested in 1984 were prCnlising in tenns of their ·
agronanic <haracteristics. Eight varieties recei.ved fran Arrerica were tested in 1984
and only 4 germinated, arrong than are La Belle and New Rex are pranising as early-
maturing varieties. The check variety was IKP.
Yield Trials
'I\.Jo yield trials were conducted. The first trial was intended to identify
high-yielding, short duration varieties with well-protected panicles, while the second
was to assess the yield potential of the varieties selected franIRRI varieties in
the eco-clirnatic conditions of the region.
In the dry season, the follcui.ng varieties shaved potential:
RP maturing in 140 days gave the best yield of 9665 kg/ha while RP
maturing in 1.50 days gave a yield of 9580 kg/ha. Varieties with the
shortest dunition were IR 9782-144-33-3 (109 days) with a yield of 5300 kg/ha and Yone....
shiro (105 days) with a yield of 4637 kg/ha.
In the wet season, the highest-yielding varieties . 84-312 (7777
kg/ha) followed by lEI' 236 (7187 kg/ha). T he shortest duration varieties were 32 x
(120 d8ys) andMRC 603 (121 days) with yields of 5718 and 57.50 kg/ha
respectively.
hrong the varieties, 17 varieties had a shorter duration
than the local check, Tatsuni M:x::hi. The only variety that gaVe yields significantly
higher than this check variety (5324 kg/ha) was UPR 231-28-1-2 with a yield of 7018
None of the short duration varieties outperfonred the locai check, IKP. On
the whole, all the varieties tested were pranising with the exception of IR 9782-111-
2-1-2 and'1NAIJ (AD) 103 which gave a lower yield (4620 kg/ha) • . . 'Of the rrediun duration
varieties, ITA 212 showed excellent yield potential (11510 kg/ha).
- 51 -
Verification Trials
Verification trials were condu!:ted to test, under ' fanrer conditions,
the best varieties selected fran trials at the station. !lmJng the varieties tested
in Senegal N1an8a) and in Mauritania, the follCMi.ng gave the best yields: KH
998 (7461 kg/ha), R 35-2674, lET 7161 (7831 kg/ha) and (7953 kg/ha).
Crq> protection activities errphasized weed, insect and disease control.
\veed Control
Surveys conducted in the irrigated plots of the SAID have confinred
that lNeeds a limiting factor to rice production. In the 'Senegal River Valley
the ITPSt irrportant lNeed species are in order of, irrportance: barthii, 2. longista-
minata, Scirpus maritinus, Ischaenun n;gosun (Sa lib) , Cyperus diffonnis, prostrata,
Echirochloa colona.
Chemical . tVeed Control
The aim of the trials, conducted at Fanaye, . was to assess the effect
of herbicides on lNeeds and to select the .nPst effective ones that could easily be applied
by the fanner.
The trials that the dry weight of the weeds was significantly
reduced as a result of using Butachlor-based products. The mixture Molinate/Sirretryn/l£PB
was very effective against but was toxic to the rice plant.
For other types of trials, Rilof-H was the nPst effective herbicide,
and succeeded in controlling 86.5% of the weeds. However, it was also found to be
toxic to rice plant.
The highest yields were obtained fran plots treated with Butachlor and
Tamariz. weed control increased yields fran 0.5 to 1.5 tortnes per hectare.
- 52-
Cultural Practices in Weed Control
Studies of the effect of -weeds and the numer of hand weedings on yield
were carried out on IR 3941 transplanted and sa.m directly. A carparison of the check
without weeding and the check with weeding showed that a decrease in yield by rrore
than 100'1. in direct sowing and 54% in transplanted rice can be attributed to weeds.
Three mmual wcedings gave good results, especially with transplanted rice, and seared
to be econcmically profitable • .
Evaluation of San:! Weed Control tI..ethods
The objective was to carpare the effect of hand weeding with weeding
using the rotary hoe and herbicides.
The results .shcM that hand weeding is still an efficient ~ d control
rrethod in irrigated rice. These results also confinn that tw) hand weedings are abso-
lutely necessary if rice yields are to increase significantly. The use of the rotary
hoe can reduce ~ r k titre by 8 days per hectare. Jb.lever, use of the hoe 3 weeks after
transplanting disturbs the root system of the rice plant and causes a drop in yield.
On-Fann Herbicide Trials
Trials were conducted on the effect of hand weeding and the use of Basagran
PU, 2.4-D, Spiglan anc Rilof-H. There 'NaS n< significant difference although Basagran
PU and 2 hand weedings were rrost effective and produced 800 kg rrore than the yield
obtained by a fanrer Thho was not involved in the trial but used STAH F34 and one hand
weeding.
RICE PESTS
Insects and Other Pests
; The principal rice pests of econanic inportance identified in the Senegal
River Valley were the following:
Insects: ~ zacconius, HieroglYphus daganensis, Mythirma loreyi and
Aleurocybotus indicus
lUtes: Olygonichus sp.
- 53 -
Yield losses attributable to these pest.s have been estitmted at bebleen
5 and 44% for Olygonichus sp., 30 to 7CJ'1. indicus, and 15-7CJ'I. for £. zacconius.
Bird Pests
At. the Station, birds are a problan for the dry season crop (De-
ceTber to Jure). Losses can be as high as 90'1. in spite of bird scaring.
Screening for Resistance to Mites
. The objective of this trial w:lS to screen selected cultivars for their
resistance to mites. Two varieties, . RKN-2 and Yoneshiro, suffered the IroSt seriCXJS
grain losses as ccnpared with the other · varieties which showed sore varietal tolerance
to mites. Certain pranising cultivars will be tested again, for exanple, B 733-C-KN-
67-10-3-1-8, Orub, CN 297 and RPK N-2.
of Miticides
Three miticides, Azodrin, Hostathion, and MJr6cicle were tested to determine
their effectiveness. . The degree of attack w:lS small, xmking it difficult to accUrately
determine the effectiveness of the miticides.
Population pynamdcs of Insect Pests in Farmers' Fields
The sterborer population was rrede up .of O1ilo(55 to 91%) and of Maliarpha
(9 to 4SIa). The infestation rate for 100 hills may reach 390 for Chilo and 200 for
Maliarpha.
Hieroglyphus dagenensis is a major species in terms of population and
the leaf damage caused. This species appears in UNo forms: the large winged (3.04%)
winged
and small (96.94%).
Light Trap Catches
The objective was to study the seasonal population and distribution
of insect .pests as well as their natural enemies. V Jr the IlDSt frequent species, the
weekly catches were: Mythinna loreyi, Diacrisia scortilla, 4389; Creatonotus lencanoides
,78; saccharina, 240; Sesamia calamistis, 19; and O1ilo zacconius, 64.
- 54 --
RIa: DISEA$ES
Research in plant pathology involved drawing up a list - of irrigated
rice diseases and designing control rrethOOs.
The following varieties ¥Jere used in the trial: Jaya, KSS, I Kong Pao
and Sri Malaysia. There was no disease attack in Jt.tne and July. lA1ring the rainy
season (August to early Novatber), s}'lTptcms of bacterial leaf blight (Xantharooas oryzae)
¥Jere observed on II<P and!<SS. Blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) was only observed
on Jaya. No disease s}'lTptans were observed on the IRCN lines tested. Trials to detennine
bacterial leaf blight (Internatiorial Nursery) revealed that 32 lines showed syrtptans
of the ''Kresek'', bacterial leaf blight and seedlings blast.
Cultural Practices and Iocidence of Bacterial Leaf Blight
The a:im of this trial was to cletennine the effects of agronanic practices,
in particular, the use of mineral nitrogen, on bacterial leaf blight. Different nitrogen
rates with or without burnt straw incorporation were tested. TIle iocidence of bacterial
leaf blight gave values ranging fran 1 (very low) to 3 (low) on IRRI scale of rice
disease assessmant.
F\.mgicide to Control Bacterial Leaf Blight
Kirtazan was tested on rice variety KSS in three applications, at the
begiming of tillering, at maxinun tillering and at the booting stage. The results
~ that in order for Kirtazan to be effective against bacterial leaf blight, it
Ill.lSt be applied in tv.o to three doses.
SOIL FERI'ILI1Y
The soil fertility programoo in 1984 concentrated on an evaluation of
mineral fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphates) and the use of Azolla to generate nitrogen
for rice plant 'growth.
- 55-
Inorganic Fertilizers
Carparative Study of Urea and Supergranules Urea (SQJ)
Using Three ScM:i.ng in Irrigated Rice Olltivation
The results obtained at the station and on fanners' fields show that
supergranules urea (SQJ) is 5CTI. less efficient than urea under transplanted conditions.
In direct and line SOOng, urea was again IlPre efficient; in direct broadcast
soong, the tYlO nitrogen sources gave the results irrespective of the dosage.
Grain yields obtained in relation to the dosage and nature of nitrogen are shown .in
Figure 4. Straw yields shcM similar pattern as grain yields. However, with supergranules
urea, transplanted rice matures, on the average, .15 days later than directly sown rice.
EffectiVeness of Phosphorus from Different Sources
Seven fonns of phosphate fertilizer (from Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan,
Togo, Taiba, Thies and triple superphosphate) were tested. The results showed no sig-
nificant differeoces with respect to yield the sources of phosphate or
dosages.
Long-Tem NPK Effect on Vertisol and Hydrcm::>rphic
Soil in the Senegal River Valley
This trial began in 1979. It is in its 10th season on vertisol and
5th on hydrcrrorphic soil. The aim is to assess the effect of rice cultivation
on the . level of soil fertility in order to detennine the m..rrber of seasons necessary
to bring about a decrease in yield. . The results (Table 13) confinned those obtained
earlier, I'ICIrely, that the use of nitrogen and phosphorus has a great effect as a result
of a clrqJ in fertility after sore t:iIre in ' continuous cultivation fran the third season
OIM:Irds.
Organic Fertilization
Evaluation of Sesbania rostrata As a Source of Nit en
in Irrigated Rice Rainy Season)
The study focused on the influen::e of Sef:bania rostrata on the response
of irrigated rice to the application of mineral nitrogen as well as the detennination
of the q>tirnal period for s\.Wlerentary mineral nitrogen application after ploughing
in Sesbania rostrata. Preliminary results showed that ploughing in Sesbania rostrata
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- 57-
Table 13 Influence of intensive rice cultivation on grain
and straw yields in irrigated rice on vertisol
(1984 hot dry season: 10th season)
Treatment (kg/ha) Yield (kg/ha)
N P
2
6
5
K
2
0 Grain Straw
0 0 0 2525 2475
0 60 0 .3175 3650
0 0 60 2725 2750
0 60 60 3500 3425
130 0 0 4225 4575
130 60 0 5775 6050
130 0 60 4950 5150
130 60 60 5575 6075
Test F
- Nitrogen 178.1657* 127.3650*
- Phosphorus 11. 2199* 25.2244*
- Potassium 2.6558n.s. 0.5900n.s.
- N X P 1. 3550n. s 0.4224n.s.
- N X X n.s. 0.4224n.s.
- P X K 1.5417n.s. 1.5396n.s.
- N X P X K 2.6558n.s. 0.0034n.s.
SE 455.58
cv (%) 11.23
*
:
Significant at 1':10
n.s.: Not significant
-58-
increased grain and straw yields by 2-3 tomes ccnpared with the check. Figure 5 shows
the yields obtained at the different nitrogen dosage levels.
The preliminary results are encouraging. It can be concluded that plough-
ing in Sesbania and awlying 45 kg N was equivalent to the recanrended 120 kg N per
ha dose. The study also that the effectiveness of the supplarentary urea can
be increased if the entire dose is applied at the flowering stage or applied in split
application as basal application and at panicle initiation, and as as basal
application at the tillering and panicle initiatiOn stages) •.
Azolla Research
Azolla trials were carried out to detennine whether the encouraging
results obtained at the statiOn could be obtained ' in farmers' fields.
variety.
The Effect of One or Several Azolla pirmata Crops .
Ploughed in or not on Irrigated Rice Yields at
Different Levels of ' Mineral IX>sage :
The Azella strain, 1'.zo11a AIlJL 7., was tested on the Sri rice
The results showed that ploughing in one or tVJO Azella crops before
transplanting increased yields by 48 to 100'10. The highest . yields were obtained by
carbining tVJO Azolla crops ploughed in with tVJO applications of 30 kg N/ha. This yield
was 17(J'/o higher than that of the nitrogen check and 12'% higher than that obtained with
120 kg N/m.
Ccnparative Study to IRtennine the Equivalent of the
Quantities of the Urea and Azella Used to Obtain a
Quantity of Rice Yield
The satre rice variety and Azolla strain were used as in the previous
trial. In confonnity with the previous results, ' equivalent yields were obtained with
the application of 120 kg NIh? or with a carbination of tVJO Azolla crops ploughed in
and 60 kg N/ha (Fig. 6).
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- S9 -
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120 180 240
NITROGEN DOSES kg./ha
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WITHOUT
SES8ANIA
i"lGURE 5: EFFECTS OF SESBAN lA ROSTMTA ON THE N lTROGEN ANU YIEl.D REl.AT lONSHl P
(1963 RAINY SEASON)
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- 61 -
Study of the Effect of Azolla on the Effectiveness
of Phosphate Fertilizer in Rice
The results obtained show that there is no response to phosphorus irrespec-
tive of the fomulation used (natural Or chaniCal).
Effect of Azolla on Weeds
The results in Table 14 show arrong other things, that there is 13-15%
better \>leed control With one hand weeding . ~ weeks after transplanting + Azolla than
with 2 hand weedings 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting without Azolla. If this result
is confinred in fat'lrers' field tt'ials to be carried out in 1985, it would have far-
reaching socio-econcmic effects.
INSFFER Trials with Azolla
These \>lere new INSFFER trials. proposed by IRRI. The objective of the
trial was to ccnpare the effects of Azolla and. chemical fertilizers when used individual-
ly, and when these ' fertilizers (N and IIzolla) are used in catbination in plots where
Azolla is gra.m alone before rice transplanting or the Azolla is ' intercropped with
rice and later ploughed in.
The results obtained showed that the t:w:> fonns of nitrogen (mineral
and Azolla) act in a cooplerrentary manner and make it possible for the rice plant
to i.rnnadiately obtain the nitrogen it needs for its cJevelqmmt at the beginning of
the cycle. Also, ploughing in of AzoUa results in a better utilization of nitrogen
during panicle formation.
The Effects of Ploughing in of Azolla Garnpared to the
Effects of the Reccrrm:!nded Dosages of Mineral Fertilizers
on the Yield of BG 90-2 OJltivated at Contuboel in QJinea Bissau
The aim of this trial was to introduce scientists fran Guinea Bissau
to the use of Azolla in paddy fields. The AzoUa variety used was !aoUa pirmata,
harvested in the Geba River and ITllltiplied in situ for the first crop.
The results of the treattrents T,oRre significant ccnpared with the check.
Ploughing in 2 Azolla crops, and camining 2 crops of ploughed-in AzoUa + 43.5 kg
- 62 -
Table 14: Effects of sore weeding methods and use of Azolla crop
on weed develoJXrent and yield of the Sri Mali:lysia rice
variety (Fanaye Station, 1983 wet season and 1984 dry
season).
1983 Wet Season 1984 Dry Season
Treatment
W4!6d Weight Yield Weed Weight Yield
(gm-2)
45
(kg/hal)
(gm2)
45 (kg/ha
l
)
Il\T Il\T
* Untreated check
213!7 4194 .c 145.6 4521 d
Hand weeding, 3 WAR
1
0.5 6971 ab 77.6 6062 ab
Hand weedirig, 3 and 6 WAT 3.9 6590 ab 76.0 5f:IJ7 be
Basagrart PL 81/ha 15 D A ~ 2.9 6877 ab 52.0 5175 cd
Treatment 1
+
Azolla 40.3 5923 b 128.0 5818 ab
Treatment 2
+
Azolla 2.6 74PIJ a 68.0 6427 a
Treat:r'!)ant 3
+
Azolla 0.1 7201 ab' 76.8 6317 ab
Treatment 4
+ Azolla 0.3 6850 ab 43.2 6117 ab
*Figures follONed by the same letter are not significantly different
at 5% level.
WAT = Weeks after transplanting
Il\T = Days after transplanting.
- 63-
N/ha increased yields by 58 and respectively. These promising results can be ' improved
upon by applying the nitrogen fertilizer in split application cc:r.binations.
TEommY ASSESS-:IENI' AND 'IRANSFER (TAT)
The first pl¥tse of the programre was launched on the left bank of the
Senegal River Valley during the 1983-1984 season. This initial phase focused on surveys
of envirarrental conditions, production systems and socio-econanic conditions of fanrers
as well as identification of constraints.
In the Senegal River Valley, a distinction is usually made between the
Delta, the Valley and the Upper Valley. The surveys were conducted in the first
t'-U zones atrong 160 <::CI!pOtmds, 55 in the Delta and 105 in the Middle Valley.
traditional The preliminary results indicate that there are two fanning systems:
the (upland and water subsidence) and rice-based irrigated cropping system
(large plots and small village plots). Cultural practices as far as irrigated rice
is coocemed (rotation, soil preparation, soong rrethod) vary according to the fanning
system.
The major constraints to irrigated rice cultivation identified are:
Irrigation problems, weed infestation, the price level of inputs, pests (birds, insects,
mites) the small size of village plots, emigration, adjustrrent of the cropping calendars
and difficulties in the management of fanrer associations.
Special Water Managarrent Studies
Studies in the area of water managcmmt carried out between 1982 and
1984 have resulted in the identification of constraints and problens in the use of
irrigation water in the small irrigated village plots in the Senegal River Valley in
the middle and upper valley areas. Studies conducted in SITk.'lll village plots in Halpular,
Maures and Soninke have shewn that the problems are as in the foHewing accol.mt.
Problems linked to the quality of irrigation net'-Urks can be attributed
to poor design, and construction and maintenance of these facilities.
In the r:nc\Halpulars plots, water requirarents are rret at between
- 64-
65 and 90"/ •• The water consurption efficiency is high, ranging fran 80 to 90"10. In the
Scninke plots, as a result of the highly penreable nature of the soil (fonde soils),
water consmption is high and the distribution of water is very irregular on the plots.
In all the plots, water distribution is carried out in rotation, with
plots and sectors being provided with water in an orderly fashion. The interval between
bIO periods when water is sq>plied is to the crop needs.
In the Maures and Halpulars, each famer irrigates his plot himself.
In the Soninke, irrigation water is supplied by successive groups of fatm:!rs. The
only paid staff is the pump attendaQt w.ho is paid by the famer association.
Haintenanc:e and repairs of the network arc undertflken irregular ly, as
and when necessary. Preventive mainteriance is c,arried out collectively.
hroog the t1aures and Halpulars, rainfed and water subsiclerce creps play
a very minor part in the cereals produced . for household constrrption.
is true of the Soninke.
The opposite
Im:lng the Halpulars, funds for . gr<M.ing . irrigated crops are obtained
during migration, while arrong the Maures, iocare is earred fran handicrafts and ' the
sale of The soninke, .on the other hand, obtain their funds fran the sale
of crops.
Existing village institutions have, for the rrost part, proven to be
an effective base for the organisational structure of the irrigatiennetwork.
Training programmes were organized for scientists from various institutions
in the region (SCNAIER, t1auritania, CILSS and ISM). A seninar on Azolla was organized,
with the participation of 12 WAROO. n:arber states.
- 65-
roI.LAlDOO'Irn WI'nl 01HER INsnnmrns
The station collaborated with the follCMing institutions in
its activities in 1984:
a) NatiOMl Institutions
Sierra Leone: The seed nultiplication fanns at Magbolontor, Menge and
"Mile 58".
GUinea Bissau: The experinental station at Contuboel.
Burkina Faso: CERCI.
Bali: The Soil Scieoce Depart:Irent of SRCVO (Bamako).
b) International Institutions
- The Catholic University of Louvain, Belgiun.
- The Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
- FAD, Rome, Italy.
- IRRI, Phillipines.
- 66 .....
IV. RF.G!CNAL DEEEWA1ER RICE RESEARCH STATICN ,
MJFTT" t ll\LI
In 1984, the programnes of this station -were reviewed and priorities
reset with fff1!Jhasis on technology generation. The new research and developrent programne
p r i o r i ~ i e s are:
i) varietal inprovarent;
ii) technology assessment and transfer;
iii) soil fertility and crop management;
iv) pest rnanagarent; and
. . '
v) training of farmers, field assistants and agricultural students from
national institutions.
The 1984 activity results -were adversely affected like in the previous
years by the intensifying drought in the area since 1982. The najor results are high-
lighted belCM.
VARIETAL IMPRI'JVEl1ENr
The varietal irrprovement programne is ained at developing and identifying
from within and outside the region, high-yielding varieties to replace the existing
traditional and inproved lCM-yie1ding varieties grown in West Africa. The varietal
irrprovement programne covers gemp1asm collection and utilisation, initial evaluation
tests, observational and advanced yield trials and seed multiplication.
Gerrrplasm Collection
Due to poor storage facilities, old collections of gemplasm are replaced
periodically. In 1984, sore ~ glaberrirna varieties were sent to Vienna for irradia-
tion, with the objective of irrproving their shattering charactersistics.
Initial Evaluation Tests
Four najor tests were conducted under this programne. These are: (i)
the International Rice Testing Programne (IRrP), (ii) WARTh-". Initial Evaluation Testing
- 67 ....
(IET), (iii) Introduction of IRRI lines, and (iv) Drought Resistance Testing.
International Rice Testing Progrmrre (IRl'P)
The three sets of trials conducted tmder the IRIP are: (i) flood tolerance
rice screening set (nm.rn I), (H) the roodiun deepwater rice screening set (IRIHN
II), and (Hi) rice screening set (IRlRN III). In 1984, the IRIln1 II and
IRIllN III sets were substituted for the InteI'Qational Floating Rice Observation Nursery
(IFKN). Selection of entries for all the IRI'P materials is based on the following
(i) elongation ability, (H) early naturity, (Hi) resistance to sten'borers, and (iv)
phenotypical acceptability.
Results of tests conducted tmder IRI:KN I indicated that lOOSt varieties
were capable of perfonning well in both. water levels and the rest only in one level
- shallCM or roodiun. Unlike the IRVtDl I, the IFRCN trials were conducted in the
rrediun and deep zones. Trials in the deep zone failed du-e to early inundation.
tVAIm\ Initial Evaluation Test (IET)
Forty-three were tested with the aim of identifying those varieties
'-lhich have a broad spectrun of adaptation to environrental stress such as drought and
flood tolerance, insect and disease resistaoce. 1\velve varieties found to be adaptable
to the environrental conditions in the area were tested in an observational yield
trial. The highest grain yield of 1920 kg/ha was obtained with variety \olAR 44-17-32
by WAR 73-1-1 with a yield of 1684 kglha.
Introduction of IRRI Lines
Sixty-five lines frem single, double and back crosses were tested at
M:pti with the objective of identifying lines adaptable to the envirormmtal stresses
in deefMater rice areas. Most of the lines tested perfonned very well. Sare varieties
short plant life cyoles (98-100 days to 5CrIo and have high phenotypical
acceptability. Such varieties coold be suitable for flash flood areas with favourable
rainfall. The best varieties identified are:
m 45546
m 46520
m 46587
m 46591
IR 46534
IR46540
IR 46554
Drought Resistance Test
-68-
IR 46592
IR 46597
IR 47405
Forty-three lines received fran a dry season screening set in Thailand
. .
vtlich sha.Rd drought resistance and good recovcry values were tested. The best varieties
were 8PR and IR 42 (the check variety). Sare pranising varieties which
could withstand a drought situation of 14 to 21 days and still recover after watering
were III and 8PR '76 Can 2-9-1. The trial will be repeated in the dry season using
the variety IR 20 as a check.
Observational Yield Trials
Lines in the Observational Yield Tdals carprisc lines selected fran
the 1981 IIDm I and IRIliN II nurseries, the 1983 J:RI:Xrn I, IPJRN II, lET and crosses
fran the station's Rapid These lines were tested in and
out of station on the basis of plant height, duration and resistance to diseases and
insects.
(i) Thirty-bolO lines 'selected fran the 1983 preliminary screening sets
perfonred faily well in both mediun and deepwater zones, particularly
IR 19061-57-4E-Pl and HAR milc four varieties IR 13260-135-
1E-P1, IR HAM 2-15-79 and WPM 2"';16-79 perfonred well only
in the deepwater zone.
(ii) Crosses fran materials developed fran the rapid generation advance
method at IRRI using pedigree method of breeding are still under observation.
(iii) In the off-station observational yield trials conducted at Dire
in Mali, 18 out of 48 varieties tested had satisfactory phenotypical
awearance at harvest (Table 15). 8tarborer attack was observed bud
did not affect the perfonnance of IlPSt varieties.
-69 -
Table 15 Promising lines selected from the .Observational
Yield Trials in Dire (Mali) - 1984.
Days to Days to
50% flo- Maturity
Varieties wering
(DAS)
1. Nam Sangui
97 127
2. IR 43
93 123
3. IR 13 20-13 5-1 E-Pl 100 130
4. Leb Mue Nahng III 103 133
5. IR 13260-60-100-1E-P3 115 145
6. DweT 37-2-B-B 108 138
7. DM 16
112 142
8. WAR 44-17-2-3-2 118 148
9. SPR 7292-151-21-B-B 117 147
10. KAU 2039
103 133
11. BKN 76109-1-2-1 103 133
12. IR 134-27-20-4E-P1
92 127
13. IR 134-29-109-2-2-1
91 121
14. IR 19061-57-4E-Pl
106 136
15. BKN FR 76035-112-1
91 121
16. WAR 35.,.8-2-2
118 148
17. IR 112-88-BB-118-1
108 138
18. BKN 6987-161-1-3
116 146
Date of transplanting seedlings: 26-06-84
DAS = Days After Sowing (transplanting).
Stem- Pheno-
borer typical
attack accepta-
0-9) ~ i ! ~ 5 Y
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
3 3
3 1
3 1
3 1
3 1
3 1
1 3
1 1
1 1
1 1
3 1
3 1
1 1
- 70 -
Advanced Yield Trials
The .Advanced Yield Trials cooprise WARllt. Coordinated Trials and
Yield Potential were conducted on and off station.
WARn\ Coordinated Trials
In the WARDA Coordinated Trials, 15 varieties iocluding the local check,
!<hao Gaew were tested in the Irediun zone polder at the station. The yields were quite
lCM due to poor rainfall and the absence of floods. Varieties
better were BI<N 6987-161-1-3 with a yield of 2.2 t/ha, by BI<N 6986-38-1-1
and Wakaiyo with yields of 1.95 and 1.91 t/ha respectively. No major disease attack
was recorded.
Yield Potential Trials
Station Trials
Thirteen varieties selected from the Observational Yield Trials in previous
years were grown in the Irediun and deep zones. In the deep zone, varieties such as
FRRS 43-3, Sentral and 111 16 yielc'lCd 4.1 t, 3.75 t and 3.7S t/ha respectively
the check variety !<hao Gaew yielded 3 t/ha. Three new floating rice varieties
BI<N FR 76050-10-1, SPR 7410-0-147 and SPR 7410-0-256-R1 gave promising grain yields
of 3.3 t, 3.4 t and 3.9 t/ha respectively with alrrost the sane life cycle (169-170
days) as the check variety. Their resistaoce to stemborer attack was high.
In the Irediun zone I trials, there was little or no signifiCant differeoce
between the tested varieties and the check, !<hao Gaew, in the Irediun zone II
trials, the highest yield was obtained from the new variety IJ.O' 156-1-2-0 (3.9 t/ha).
The check, !<hao Gaew yielded 2.9 t/ha. Other varieties perfonred better than
the check were CR 1030 0.6 t/ha), BH 2 (3.4 t/ha), BR 118-3B-17 (3.3 t/ha) and Baligrodak
and Sentral (3 t/ha each).
Off-stationTrials
a) Segou (Mali)
... 71 · ....
In the deep zone trial, 8 out of the 12 varieties selected gave pranising
yields. Varieties BI<N 6323, Bakutu and AIM' 301 were subrerged due their inability
to cope in gra-Jth with the rapid rise of flood W"lter. IM 16 and IM 17 did fairly well
but were destroyed by birds due to their earliness in maturity. The best grain yield
of 3.S t, 3.1 t and 3 t/ha were obtained fran varieties Nang Kieu, Mali Sawn and Indoc:hine
blanc respectively.
In the roodiun zone trial, Khao Gaew gave the highest . yield of 3.1 tlba
followed by NangKieu (2.9 t/ha) , BI<N 6986-81-S (2 tlba) and Cula (1.8 t/ha). IM 16
and IM 17 were again destroyed by birds due to their earliness in maturity.
In the shallow zone trial, the following varieties gave the highest
yields: BI<N 7022--6-4 (2.3 tlba), BH 2 (2.2 and BI<N 7022-10-1-4 (2.1 tlba).
No disease problems were observed during all the trials.
b) Banfora (furkina Faso)
Sixteen varieties were tested for the roodiun and shallow water levels.
In the roodiun zone trials, with the exception of BI<N ·6323 and <lila, all the other va-
rieties gave yields of over 3 t/ha. TctJ yielders were Nang Kieu (S.3 t/ha), Khao Gaew
(4.9 t/ba), IM 17 (4.S t/ba), DA. 29 and FRRS 43-3 (4 t/ba each). In the sballow zone
trial, all the varieties perforrood well, including the check ' variety BR 51-319-9 which
yielded 4.3 t/ba. SL 22-617, BI.<N and BKN 6986-105P gave high yields of over
S t/ha.
c) Mane (Sierra leone)
varieties were tested in the roodiun and deep zones in the Waanje
River basin. In the roodiun zone trial, Cula Nang Kieu, . Khao Gaew and BKN 6986-81-5
varieties survived the high · floods due to their ability to elongate with · the floods
and their long life cycles. The highest yield of 3 t/ba W"lS obtained with Nang Kieu
followed by Khao Gaew (2.4 t/ba) and Cula (2 t/ha). In the deep zone trial, tw:) out of
-72-
the varieties tested gave pranising yield results: Indochine blanc (2.6 t/ha)
and Mali Sawn (2.4 t/ha). These are varieties with long duration and good elongation
ability.
Seed Multiplication
The station has a 14 hectare seed !Tllltiplication fann where founda-
tion seeds are produced for national seed !Tllltiplication projects of MenDer States.
Only the Malian Goverrmmt has regularly requested . seeds. The c1anand for varieties
such as Khao Gaew, Mali Sawn and Cula which before received greater attention has noo
shifted to 1M 16, FRRS 43.3 and Il<N varieties, which can fit into the changing weather
patterns. In 1984, part of the area was used to produce 12 tons of seed of different
varieties, 6 tons less than the 1983 production figure.
1Eamux.Y AND 'l'RANSFER (TAT)
Constraints Identification
Under the TAT prograrrrre, constraints identification studies were carried
out in Segou and Sikasso areas. in Mali, Banfora in Burkina Faso and Baro in Guinea.
constraints identified were:
i) unreliable
ii) lack of improved cultural practices,
iii} 100 yield potential of varieties,
iv)disease, insect and other pest attack,
v) soil toxicity, particularly in the Banfora area.
Farmer-Field Trials
Three teclmological packages were tested in 36 adaptive trials in the
mediun and deep zones in the M:pti area. The carplete package carprised land prepara-
tion, inproved varieties, line sowing, fertilizer awlication and weeding. The inter-
mediate package was the same as the carplete package, but ·without line soong. The
mininun package had only improved variety.
- 73 -
In the carplete package, yield of the variety H<N. 6323 was 180'10 higher
than the check Khao Gaew.
Socio-econcmics
Data collected on household characteristics and resoorces of rice fanrers
involved in the adaptive Fanrer-Field Trials indicated that the average age of fanrers
ranged fran 46 to 58 years (Table 16). Females are slightly I1Pre than males in each
household. The average fann size of the surveyed villages (Djibitaga,
MadiarM, Severy, Tenenkou, Tongorongo) was nearly 10.5 ha. The. nt.nber of oxen awned
per household averaged 3.7; and ploughts and harrCMS awned averaged 2.3. Area cultivated
under upland CI'q)S was negligible in all the villages except in Madiana which was relati-
under
vely higher (6.7 ha) than the area cultivated rice (5.8 ha). Paddy output was
very low due to drought, the average grain yield being kg/ha.
crop AND SOIL F'ERl'lLI'IY MANAGEMENT
Cultural Practices
A trial was conducted at . Segou (Mali) to detennine the optimal sowing
date. In the zone, the best sowing dates were July 15 and 25 (Table 17).
No Significant yield difference was found in row spacing of 2Ocm, 3Q:rn
and 40crn even though significant yield differences were found arrong the various varieties
(BH 2, LM 16, Khao Gaew, BKN 6986-167 and Mali Sawn) tested in different water levels.
Use of Fertilizers
Xl the Segou area
A trial conducted / t)n fertilizer dosage and tUre of applica-
tion indicated that the recoorrended fertilizer dosage (100 kg/ha of amroniun applied
at sowing tUre and 50 kg/ha of urea applied 7-10 days before floods) increased yield
by 108% while the application of 100 kg/ha of phosphate at tillering and 50 kg/ha of
urea applied 7-10 days before floods set in increased yield by 119'1..
Trials conducted at sites at the station to detennine the contri-
bution to rice yields of amroniun phosphate and urea used at various rates indicated
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- 75-
Table 17 Effect of sowing dates on deepwater rice at 8egou (Mali), 1984
2 1
Tillers (Nbr/m ) Mean Yield {Kg/ha)l
ScMi.ng Dates Site 1 Site 2 Site 1
. Site 2
25/6
169 a+
188 be 19l1O a 2713 b
05/7 137 be 156 c 1492 ab 2550 b
15/7 195 a 244 ab 1695 ab 3281 .ab
25/7 156 ab 232 a 1236 ab 3358 a
04/8 105 c 200 ab 1055 be 2619 b
14/8 107c 1CX> be 423c 2281 b
F. test
** * ** *
c.v. (%) 25 12 22 15
* Significant at 5% level
** Significant at 1;0
+ Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different
at S'I. level.
- 76 -
that there was no significant interaction of amroniun phosphate and urea, but when
applied in isolation. siRTlificant contributions to yield lolere obtained (Tables 1&
and 18b).
were
The organic fertilization trials which started in 1984 at M:pti to
assess the possibility of substituting expensive inorganic , fertilizer with organic
fertilizer. 'Utere -were no significant differeoc.es arrong treatJrents.
a 3.0 t/ha manure (sheep/goat) the yield loleI'lt as high as ,3.5 t/ha. Another trial set
up to detennire the effect of natural phosphate carplemented with locally available
cow marrure shcMed a yield iocrease of 8470.
Rice Straw Study
An investigation was initiated in 1984 to evaluate the, effectiveness
of rice straw and other plant rraterials on soil rroisture conservation andloleed sq:>pres-
sion. All the treatmmts that received Il1llch arerged better with taller plants and
rrore bianass'- 'Ute"besttreatmmt -was with ' a rate '6f 13.3 tlha straw (Fig. 7). With
increasing water regirre, 10-30 L/rrl2, rice arergeoce, height and bianass of rice iocreased.
However, with the Il1llch at 20 t/ha, iocreasing water regirre at 30 1/rrl2 further did
not iocrease rice arergence when carpared With 20 1/rrl2. It was also noticed that a
loleek after watering, plots that did not receive straw had lost 4(f1o of their hunidity
as against 3-9% of plots that received straw. Four loleeks later, plots without Il1llch
had lost 7Erlo of their hunidity.
Intercropping of Rice with Other Crops
A trial was set up at the station to assess the best way to intercr'l'
rice with other upland c ~ s in the area with the objective of assuring famers of
at least sore crop harvest in case of inadequate floods. Rice varieties such as 1M
16 (in IOOdiun and deep zones), BH 2 (in shallow zones) were g r ~ in association with
millet (3/4 NI<K) am sorghun (1571-73). Only millet survived the drought and yielded
betloleen 235 and 473 kg/ha.
- 77 -
Table 18: Contribution of amroniun phosphate and urea to deepwater
rice yield, Mopti Station 1984
a) Rice yield (Kg/ha) at site 1.
Dosages of
Dosages of A.P. (Kg/ha) Mean Yield
Urea
(kg/ha) 0 50 100 150
0 1907 2350 2820 3456 2633
25 2330 3360 3730 3283 3148
50 2780 3367 3497 3627 3318
75 2923 3577 4033 3480 3503
100 2990 3977 4363 3943 3818
Mean yield 2586 3324 3689 3538
Urea F. test** CV = 12% LSD
5% =
692 kg/ha
A.P. F. test** CV = 11':10 LSD 5':10= 306 kg/ha
Urea X A.P. : F. test NS
b) Rice yield (kg/ha) at site 2.
Dosages of
Dasages of A.P. (kg/ha)
Mean Yield
Urea
(kg/ha) 0 50 100 150
0 1720 1750 2440 2337 2062
25 2183 2493 2600 2733 2502
50 2303 2807 3000 3233 2836
75 2413 2607 2723 2913 2664
100 2777
3170 · 3487 3177 3153
Mean yield 2279 2565 2850 2879
Urea F. test * cv = 24% LSD
5% =
600 kg/ha
A.P. F. test * cv = 8% LSD
5% = 149 kg/ha
Urea X A.P. : F. test NS
A.P.
=
Ammonium phosphate
* significant at 5% ** significant at 1%
NS
=
Not Significant.
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Weed Control
-79 -
Trials carried oUt to assess the influence of and sowing mathod
on the eontrol of the armual rice, Oryza barthii failed c.\ie . t.O severe drought.
However, . the 1983 results showed that ' Hne drilling and especially line at
30 and an could reduce the quantity of seed required, weeding titre and irrprove the
efficiency of ' hand weeding.
Trials conducted on sites with pure stands of armual wild rice o. barthii
and sites with mixtures of weed species to study the critical period of hanGleeding
deepwater . rice indicated that the best period of han<koleeding under both situations
was 4-? weeks after rice errergeoce. The daninant weed species at the sites were
corchorifolia, Panicun anabaptistun, Bracharia sp, Eleocharia Plantaginea and O.
staminata.
Herbicide Evaluation
Trials in 1984 shoNed that zer<>-tillage · weed control using Glyphosate
at the rate of 2.88 kg/ha a.i. was as good as aninal ploughing, mile Paraquat at 2.0
kg/ha a. i. was less effective. <l>setvation on tmreplicated test plots for bIO consecutive
years showed that as high as 3-5 tomes per ha of pacXly could be obtained fran light
clay soils with zero tillage.
Entcrrology l1 "f I>r;' . --" '- ..
, I
'The entcrrology programre . covered insect · pq:rulation dynamics, varietal
screening for resistance to stemborers and insecticide screening.
The study on insect population dynamics indicate,G that the drought
ced insect proliferation. The overall clc:Jmge by larvae on stans was lower at the begitr-
ning of the rainy season but darmge caused by zacconius larvae was the roost fre-
quent. Maximrn st€m infestations were observed tQV.lards the maturity stage of the rice
plant with Maliarpha separatella being the roost abundant species. Mali Sam and FRRS
43-3 were the roost susceptible to stemborers.
-80-
D.Je to the lOW' insect population during the season, no significant dif-
ferences were observed among the twenty-nine lines received fran IRRI and tested at
to verify their resistance to African stercborer species (Scirpophaga incertulas
and supessalis).
In the inseCticide screening trials conducted at and in the fanrers I
fields to detennine the effectiveness of three insecticides Cllolofevinphos (Birlane
10 G), Carbofuran (Furadan 3G) and a binary chemical Deeis and Diazionon (12.5 g +
300 g), there were no significant differences found among the treatments.
Pathology
A Case study to find out the causes of the "Gao Disease", i.e. the drying
of leaf tips and c1.ecay of stans was .conc1ucted using fifteen varieties of 2.
£. glaberrirra and annual wild-rice 2. barthii at the c1.eepest .zone of the tank at the
M:pti station, water c1.epth excee(l.!S 200 on. Sate 2. £. glaberrirra and
o. barthii varieties good ability of withstanding this Varieties
such as Bl<N 6323, MNf 301, Bakutu and Hali Sawn carpletely succurbed to the ''Gao
Disease".
The station collaborated in its work with the.follOW'ing institutions:
International
- International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
- United States Agercy for International Develcpn2Tlt (UOOD)
- International Atomic Agency in Vienna
National
Mali:
- Riz (CD1)
- Riz Segou (OOS)
- Action Riz Sorgho Gao (ARSG)
... 81 -
- Ccrtpagnie Malienne pour le lRvelopparent des Textiles (CMIJI')
- Division d I Experimmtation du materiel agricole (1H1A) , Bamako
Sierra Leone:
.;.. Otristian Extension Service (CES)
- Torma-Bun Rice Developnent Authority (TBRDA)
- Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (ArnE) Project
- Seed Multiplication Project
Guinea:
- National P-esearch Station, Baro
Burkina Faso:
- Centre d'ExperUnentation du Riz et des Cultures irriguees (CERCI)
The
- Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resoorces (WINR)
Niger:
- National AgrormIic Research Institute (INRAN), Kola
Nigeria:
- National Cereals Research Institute, Ibadan
- Kano State Rural Developnent Authority (KNSRDA.)
- 82-
REGICWiL SEED I:I\lmA'IOOY
The · packaging and distributiOn of WARDt\ main season trial materials
are the roost inportant fuoctions of the Regional Seed A total of 350 entries
varieties l'epresenting 91% of the total received were ' packed . . and distributed to .58
trial locations in all the 16 rrenber countries in 1984. . The entries consisted of 3
Initial Evaluation Trials (IEI's) and 8. Coordinated Variety Trials (M's), naking up
a total of 130 trials.
The entries were received fran (i) the WARDI\ Research Stations
at St. Louis, Senegal (70), and Bouake, Ivory Coast (28); (ii) IITA (77); anc' (iii)
Nursery Faun at Suakoko, Liberia (259).
The Regional Seed Laboratory is the sole inporter and distributor of
all exotic rice varieties caning into the WARDA region,· except Nigeria. WARLVI. therefore
handles all the !RIP materials fran IRRI. Twenty nurseries were handled and 10 COlD'ltries
serviced in 1984.
Begiming in 1985, the Seed Laboratory will no longer package and distri-
bute trial materials, its primary activities will be ·· shifted to the collection of .50-
100 kg of all rice varieties reccmrended in the region and cataloguing and exchanging
gemplasm materials within and out.side the region.
WAlID\' S ACITVlTIES CN JNImJATICWiL RICE 1ES'I'n1;
(!RIP) AND GElM'I.MM
IRl'P nurseries were planted at many sites in the region. The top entries
in the IRYN-VE conducted at Fanaye, Senegal, were UPR 231-28, IR 2592.5-84-3-2, UPR
254-35-3-2, n<H 9 and IR 2.5898-57-2-3. ITA 212 was the best yielder followed by :oc;
379-2, 74229, BP etc.
M:>st of the pranising varieties fran the IlUiI, IURCN conducted at Suakoko
were entered into the 1984 l>1AlID\ irrigated and upland Initial Evaluation Trials. In
the acid lowland screening set conducted by WAlID\ at Suakoko, IR 5741-73-2-3, IR 56,
IR 4683-54-2-2-3, IR 3941-25-1 and IR 3839-1 were arong the entries that possessed
some levels of tolerance.
-83-
Three 1984 IRIP nurseries planted by WARIl\ at Suakoko. These were
IURCN, IRCN and acid lcMland screening set. Several prartising entries identified will
be further tested in the caning year and sore will be used for hybridization.
\VARIWnTA/Q\RI m::N TOXICI'IY RESEARCH PIDJECl'
Tho screening trethoclologies were developed and used for the various
trials. Ore is pot screening and the other is field screening. The features of the
rrethodologies are the possibilities of identifying the preseoce or non-preseoce of
acceptable toxicity level in any given pot or field plot. This is possible because
in the pot screening, both the resistant and susceptible checks are in the serre pot
with the test varieties. For the field screening, susceptible and resistant checks
are planted across the plots.
Several tolerant cultivars identified. Sore of these are TCIX 960-
31-1, rox 960-9-2, CIAT 16404, CIAT 21528, TG1 2-38, 1tM 2-66, rox 711-17-4, AD 9246,
1NAU 7893, IR 13240-82-2-3-2, BR 161-2-3-58, 'lUX 903-2-1 and IR
Toxicity synptans were found to iocrease significantly up to eight
after transplanting. There highly Significant differeoces cultivars re-
actions under toxic and non-toxicconditions.
In the genetic studies, all the F1 plants were found to be tolerant
to iron toxicity.
as
In the 1984 IRIP acid lowland screening set, sore entries socW BW 100,
BW29>-5, CR 261-7039-236 and IR 13149-43-2 found tolerant.
'I'ECmIC'AL ASSISTANCE
a) Post Harvest Activities
'The post harvest activities neinly in the area of providing services
to the member countries.
A survey was conducted at the of the goveI"rJOOnt of Burkina Faso
in January 1984 to excrnine post-production technologies, nainly rice milling in the
country. The report with recc:mrenc1.ations . has been suttJp.tted to the Burkinabe
goverrarent for consideration and inplem.mtation.
In July 1984, assistance was given to the goveI"rJOOnt of QJinea-Bissau
to instal new parts on the Iseki rice mills.
In late Novarber 1984, two rice processing engineers and a naintenance
teclmician were assigned to assist the Liberia Produce t1arketing Corporation (11M:;)
to instal three new Satake rice mills to erect storage facilities · at Voinjarm,
Gbarnga and Ganta.
At the of the ARCr, a set of guidelines for inspecting and grading
parboiled rice was prepared to· be used in cormection with ''Rice P arboiler ftardware
Developrent Project in Africa."
Negotiations were carpleted with SESFiat of Italy to set up producer-
gas technology project in San;! WARDt'\ rrarber countries. It is envisaged that the inple-
IlE1ltation of the project will begin about the end of 1986.
b) Policy Studies
As part of the World Bank's Niena-Dionkele Rice Project in Burkina
Faso, a study was conducted in 1984 to assess the Urpact of goveI"rJOOnt policies on
narketing and pricing of paddy and milled rice in the country. of the conclusions
drawn are as
1. &M>I1XM, a public institution designed to purchase paddy fran fanners,
particularly those in the special goveI"rJOOnt supported rice projects
as well as organized fanners such as cooperatives, was purchasing less
than 10'10 of the national output that enters the local narket annually.
- 85-
2. The institution was having sam disputes with fanners over grading
standards, delay in payrrent for paddy puchased and the aroount of ''pay-
back" fee. Consequently, fanners fran the projects who usually sell
the bulk of their paddy to the agency were selling increasing quantities
of their produce to private traders.
3. Rice is irrported into the country by private traders who find it
both profitable and convenient to handle irrported rice instead of local
rice. This is due largely to govel"ml2nt pricing policies which take
into account all costs and add 8 to 10% profit margin for irrported rice.
4. The guaranteed producer price for paddy as carpared with other creps
has changed less frequently in the last two decades. The changes did
not make any significant inpact on rice production as increases tended
to be still less attractive carpared to those of other creps cctrpeting
with rice for the use of scarce resources (Fig. 8).
5. On weight basis, rice is the rrost expensive cereal; ~ v e r , the
faster rate of increase · of official consUTEr prices of other cereals
has caused rice to becam relatively cheaper and cheaper (Table 19).
c) Seed Progran:re in Liberia
A collaborative research project involving WAm\, CtJU and SRSP was
initiated in Septatber 1984 to investigate the possibility of introducing high-yielding
varieties, particularly for the upland, to replace the existing ones being cultivated
in Liberia.
WAIID\ staff also continued to serve on two· national carmittees related
to seed in Liberia: (i) the National Seed Cannittee and (11) National Seed Project
Implementation Commdttee.
FIGURE 8:
5Q

2
-86-
Of' PRICES Ofo' Ct;flEA""S \lUHKINA rASO
(
r - - -r.:;-::-::-::,
,
,
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,
,
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----__ --J
Millet
I

I
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I . Muize
.1/
'/ .
/
.... __
1970-71 J 975-76 1980-81
YEAR
Table 19
YEAR
1977/78
1983/84
'Yo Increase
- 87 -
Proportional increases in officia'l consumer prices
of cereals in Burki.na Faso (CFA F/kg).
MILLET
45
90
SORGHUM
nVHITE)
45
88
95.6%
MAIZE RICE
4S 110
88 155
95.6'Yo 40.9%
d) Seed t-fultiplication Report Review - Togo
In 19841 the Goverrrrent of Togo requested a review of a study HARDA
t e .
conducted in 1982 on Iseed trllltiplication prograI'!lTe of the cmmtry. The objective of
the review was to enable the Togolese goverrrrent to inplarent sam of the earlier recan-
rrendations.
- 89.-
TRAINING DEl'AlID1ENI' ACITVITIES
In 1984, the Training Departmmt organized and conclucted six courses
which were attended by 126 participants. The courses were offered at the P.egiornl
Training Centre at Fenc1all, Liberia; in Ivory Coast; and in Guinen Bissau (Table 20).
i) Training at the Regional Training Centre
a) Research Assistants Course for staff frcm the stations with the equi-
valent of a bachelor's degree - midway between the scientists and field
nssistants.
b) Post-..9arvest TeclUlology Course for middle and higher-level tecl:micians
invdved in rice milling, storage and processing, ,..nth the equivalent
of the ''baccalaureat'' (12th grade or GCE 'A' level).
c) Rice ProCuction Specialists Course for staff with a minirrun level
of senior teclmician/bachelor's degree; it covers extension, production,
research and training.
Sore of the trainees l.mo undertook applied research trials in groups
of 7 to 10 organized a field day on 31st October, 1984 to present their trials and
results. llimdreds of people (fanrers, students, researchers and others) attended the
field day.
Other trainees who took an intensive ccmrunication, extension and teaching
course, organized and conducted a ~ e k workshop for 25 Libericn extension workers
frcm various projects in the country.
-90-
ii) Training Conducted in NeTher Cotmtries
(d) Seminar on Extension and Audio-Visual Techniques (Bouake, Ivory
Coast): This course was conducted for extension workers to
acquaint than with nethods of camunication and extension and the usc
of various audio-visual techniques so that they can better transfer
technologies to the farmers.
(e) Bird Control Course (Suakoko, Liberia): A bird control course was
organized for persormel fran countries who had not
attended a similar course held in Senegal in 1983. This course was
held fran 1 to 10 October, 1984.
(f) Course on Seed laboratory Teclmiques (C.ontuboel, Guinea-Bissau):
..
This course was organized for 12 persons fran Guinea-Bissau in 1984.
iii) Other Activities
The IRpartrrent took part in the rreetings, discussions and collection
of data for the study on training in the (X;IAR systC?m.
-
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O
U
R
S
E

S
T
A
R
T
E
C

6
5

1
7
9

2
8
4

2
4

2
6

6
3

6
4
1

- ~ -
FINANCES
Summary of Financial Support to WARDA Administration, Core
and Special Projects for 1984 is shown below
Source
Adninis-
tration
Member States
CGIAR
Germany
Sweden
Netherlands
Canada (CIDA)
France
Belgium
IBRD
IFAD
OPEC
Japan
Rockefeller Foundation
SUB-TOTAL
Special Project Donors
USAID
France
Japan
EEC
Netherlands
UNDP/FAO
lITA
Switzerland
World Bank
Belgium
SUB-TOTAL
G RAN D TOT A L
1,127
Core
Unrestric-
ted
D3
375
56
J75
44
32
713
1,728
Restric-
ted
200
27
400
35
662
2,927
200
125
464
32
287
21
210
102
231
4,599
Special
Projects
Total
1,127
2,390
4,599
8,116
============================================================
- 93 -
MEMBERSHIP OF WARDA GOVERNING COUNCIL AND
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COM}1ITTEE
1. Governing Council (GC)
Minister
Ministry of Rural Development and Cooperatives
B.P. 03/2900
Cotonou
PeOple's Repu6lic of Benin
Minister
Ministry of Rural Development
Ouagadougou
Burkina Faso
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
N'Djamena
Republic of Chad
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture
Central Bank Building
Banjul
Republic of The Gambia
Secretary of Agriculture
Ministry of Agriculture
P.O. Box 37
Accra
Republic of Ghana
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture
B.P. 576
Republic of Guinea
- 94-
Minister''1'(
Hinistry of Rural Develqxrent and Fisheries
CoP. 71
Bissau
Republic of Guinea Bissau
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry
Abidjan
Republic of Ivory Coast
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture
M:mrovia
Republic of Liberia
Minister
Hinistry of Agriculture
Barrako
Republic of ~ . . a l i
Hinister
Ministry of Rural Develqxrent
Nouakchott
Islamic Republic of M:mritania
Minister
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Ni.arrey
Republic of Niger
Minister
Federal Ministry of Agriculture
34/36 Ikoyi Road
P .M.B. 12613
Lagos
Federal Republic of Nigeria
*Olairrran of the Couocil for 1984.
Minister
Hinistry of Rural Develqxrent
fukar
Republic of Senegal
Minister
l1inistry of Agriculture and Forestry
F r e e t ~
Republic of Sierra leone
Minister
Ministry of Rural Develcprent
B.P. 341
I..c.Im
Republic of Togo
- 95-
- 96-
2. Scientific and Technical Committee (STC)
Mr. Kolli Goli
charge de recherche
IDESSA - Centre Vivriers
01 B.P. 635
Bouake
Republique de Cote d'ivoire
Mr. Michel Jacquot
Chef du Programme Riz de l'IRAT
lRAT/GERDAT
B.P. 5035 - 39032
Montpellier Cedex
France
Dr. V.T. John (up to une 1984)
Pathologist
IlTA
P.M.B. 5320
Ibadan
Nigeria
Dr. Kaung Zan (up to 1984)
IRRI Liaison Scientist
IlTA
P.M.B. 5320
Ibadan
Nigeria
Mr. Moctar Toure (Chairman)
ISRA
B.P. 3120
Dakar
Republique du Senegal
. •. Quansah
P.O. Box 3672
Kumasi
Ghana
- 97-
Mr. B.v!. Obura (up to June 1984)
ADS
Abidjan
Ivory Coast
Dr. t-bhared Sayed Balal
Director
Rice Research Section
Agricultural Research Centre
Giza
Egypt
Dr. Almiro Blurenschein
CNPAF-Ehbrapa
Caixa Postal 179
Q)iana-Goias
CEP 74aX)
Brazil
Mr. iliy Vallaeys (up to June 1984)
Directeur General Adjoint
IRAT
110 rue de l'Universite
75flJ7 Paris
France
Dr. Robert Kerr Cumingham
35, Clarence Road
l\arpenden, Herts A15 4AN
England
Dr. C.O. Obasola
Director
NCR!
P.M.B. 5042
Ibadan
Nigeria
Dr. Francis J. Lebeau
225 W. Georgetown St.
Crystal Spring, MS 39059
USA
- 98-
Mr. Ibrahim Nebie (up to June 1984)
Directeur ORO des Hauts Bass ins
B.P. 577
Bobo-Dioulasso
Burkina Faso
Dr. Frans Rudolf t-bonmnn
Professor
Institute of Earth Scieoces
University of Utrecht
Budapestland 4
P.O. Box 80.021
3508 TA Utrecht
The Nether lands
Dr. Rarrasy lamy Seetharaman
Project Director (Rice)
Hajendranagar
Hyderabad 500 030
Andhra Pradesh State
India
Hr. M.S. Scrcpo-Ceesay
Assistant Director in Charge of Research
Departnent of Agriculture
Cape St. lliry
The GcnDia
Mr. Marradou Fatogara Traore (up to June 1984' and fonrer STC Chainnan)
Director General
Institut d'Econorrde Rurale
Ministere de l'Agriculture
B.P. 258
Bamko
}tali
-99-
SECTIOn FIVE
PERSONNEL
Office of the Executive Secretary
H. Leroux+ D:x:. d'Etat
A.M.B. Jagne, B.A.
B. Ly++
A. Niang
Executive Secretary
Deputy Executive Secretary
FAO Technical Advisor
Internal Auditor
Administration and Finance Department
G. Coleridge-Taylor (1 Director
J.N. Quaye, M.A. Chief of Administration
R. Becker, L. es 1. Personnel Officer
G. Olaopa, M.Sc. Finance Officer
S.J. Merchant Liaison Officer
V. Cooper (Hr}. ),M.B.A. Budget Officer
T.S. Traore(2 Procurement Officer
Communications Division
L. Faye, Bcctorat Chief of Communications
T. M.A. jD.E.A. Trans lator /Interpreter
D. Gaye, a B.A.(hons) Translator
C. Soufllet (Mrs.),M.A. Translator
A. Akotoye, M.Sc. Scientific Editor (English)
M. Diallo, M.L.S. (b) Documentation Officer
A. Fahnbulleh (Mrs}), B.A. :Jnr. Translator .
F. Gaudin Documentalist/Translator
E. Neblett Technical Photographer
A. Mbarquie* Technical Photographer
+ Dismissed from office in December 1984
++ Left WARDA in August 1984
(1) Appointment terminated in January 1984
(2) Resigned in April 1984
(a) On study leave from mid-August 1984
(b) Returned from study leave in July 1984
(c) Resigned in May 1984
* Died in May 1984
Sub-Regional Coordination
R.B. Kagbo, Ph.D!-
N. t\,oniIre 1++
s. Diatta+++
S. Bangura+
S. Assegninou++++
M.
J.
D. Pankani+
O. Koffi-Tessio+
A. Kourouna++
Daffe++++
- 100-
Coordinator, Zone I, Banjul, Ganbia
Coordinator, Zone I, Banjul, Ganbia
Coordinator, Zone II, Conakry, QJinea
Asst. Coordinator, Zone II ,Conakry, QJinea
Coordinator, Zone III, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
.Asst. Coordinator, Burkina Faso
Coordinator, Zone N, lv::.cra, (}}ana
Asst. Coordinator, lv::.cra, Chma
Coordinator, Zone V, Niarrey, Niger
Coordinator, Zone V, Ni.:m:y, Niger
Asst. Coordinator, .Zone V, Ni.arrey, Niger
Scientific Staff of Research and Develq:m:nt Depart:rrent;, Headquarters
J .E. Johnston, Ph.D+++++
D.S.C. Spencer, Ph.D(a)
D. Sanni, M.Sc.
V.K. Nyanteng, Ph.D
S.A. Botchey, Ph.D
G.A. Paku, Ph.D
t1. Amat, M. Sc.
J. Varango, B.Sc.+
A.O. Abifarin, Ph. D
M. Briat, M.Sc.+++(1)
J.P. Faucher, M.Sc.+++(2)
Director
Director
Rural
Senior Economist
Agronanist
Agro-Statistician
Econanist
Architect
Senior Bree0er -- lITA Liaison Scientist
Mechanization Expert
Agronanist
+Awointmmt tenninated in July 1984.
++Awointed in August and tenninated in Decarber, 1984.
+++Reassigned to other places.
++++Appointment tcnninated in Decarber 1984 as a result of closing down the sub-regional
offices.
+++++Assl.ITed office in August 1984.
(a) Resigned, March 1984.
+++(1) and +++(2) Assigned to Bouake and Mopti stations respectively but could not
leave till January, 1985.
- 101 -
Fendall Training Centre, Liberia
A.O. Adewusi, M.Sc.
A. Miyaishi, B.Sc.
L. Kandakai, M.Sc.
*
A.M. Larinde, M.Sc.
Processing Engineer, Post Harvest
Technology Laboratory.
Processing Engineer, Post Harvest
Technology Laboratory.
Seed Technologist, Seed Laboratory
Seed Technologist
Regional Upland Rice Research Station, Bouake, Ivory Coast
K. Miezan, Ph.D
M.A. Choudhury, Ph.D
D.K. Das Gupta, Ph.D
V.A. Awoderu, Ph.D
E.A. Akinsola, Ph.D
P.T. Fotzo, Ph.D
B.K. Sarfo, M.Sc.
R. Dia1lo, M.Sc.
M.A. Diallo, M.Sc.
J. Dallard, m.Sc.
P. Letourury
,,:
On study leave
Geneticist/Station Director
Senior Breeder
Senior Agronomist
Senior Plant Pathologist
Senior Entomologist
Agricultural Economist
Agricultural Economist
Extension Agronomist
Soil Scientist
Breeder
Agro-Statistician
- 102 -
Regional Mangrove Rice Research Station, Rokupr, Sierra Leone
M. Agyen-Sampong, Ph.D
K. Prakah-Asante, Ph.D
A.S. Sandhu, Ph.D
M.P. Jones, Ph.D+
S.N. Fomba, M.Sc.+
C.A. Dizon, M.Sc.+
+
H.M. Bernard, B.Sc.
W.A.E. Cole, M.Sc.+
S.J. Fannah, M.Sc.+
+
J.M. Adam, M.Sc.
Entomologist/Station Director
Extension Economist
Extension Specialist
Breeder
Pathologist
Soil Scientist
Weed Scientist
Extension Agronomist
Entomologist
Agricultural Economist
Regional Irrigated Rice Research Station, St. Louis, Senegal
A. Coly, Ph.D
W. Godderis, M.Sc.
T. Diop, M.Sc.
N. Bangura, M.Sc.
H. Van Brandt, M.Sc.
H.F. Diara, M.Sc.+
+
• Camara, M.Sc.
+
B. Gaye, M.Sc.
A.M. Diop, M.Sc.+
+
A. Kouroma, M.Sc.
T.P. Sessou, Ing.T.E.R.
J. Moreira, M.Sc.
Physiologist/Station Director
Breeder
Associate Entomologist
Pathologist
Agronomist
Associate Biologist
Associate Soil Scientist
Agricultural Economist
Associate Weed Scientist
Associate Extension Agronomist
Rural Engineer
Processing Engineer (Based in
The Gambia)
+Seconded from National Programmes.
- 103-
Regional Deepwater/Floating Rice Research Station, Mopti, Mali
* M.K. Moolani, Ph.D'
++
G.C. Nyoka, Ph.D
F.J. Bangura, Ph.D
1.5. Ouedraogo, Ph.D
D. Guindo, B.Sc.+
A. Coulibaly, B.Sc.+
+
A. Traore, B.Sc.
M. Goita, M.Sc.
+*"!( .
+**
A. Diarra, M.Sc.
+"(*
A. Dembele, B.Sc.
+**
A. Toure, B.Sc.
Agronomist/Station Director
Weed Scientist/Ago Station Director
Plant Breeder
Agricultural Economist
Associate Entomologist
Associate Extension Agronomist
Associate Agronomist
Breeder
Weed Science
Extension
Agronomy
Training Department, Headquarters
D.K. Awute, Ing. T.A.
**
K. Conteh, M.Sc.
T. Co le, M.&:.
A. Maiga, Ph.D+++
1. Akintayo, Ph. D
J. Nketsia, Dip.
T. Seddoh,llp.
L. 2anoni++++
Director
Head, Training Centre
Trainer (Pathologist)
Trainer
Trainer
Interpreter/Translator
Interpreter/Translator
Special Assistant to the Director
+Seconded from National Programmes
++Acting Station Director after Dr. Moolani's death
+++ .
Acting Chief, Training Centre, after Mr. Conteh left in
August 1984 on study leave.
++++Left the services of WARDA in May, 1984
* Died in January 1984
** On study leave.
- 104-
SECTIO:" SI X
PUBLICATIONS AND OTHER, PAPERS
- Aspects of Rice Production, Marketing and Pricing in Upper Volta,
April 1984. (V.K. Nyanteng).
- The Role of Rice in Food Self-Sufficiency in ,West Africa,
1984. A paper for a Conference on Food Self-Sufficiency in
Africa organized by the University of Ghana, 10-13th April,
(V.K. Nyanteng).
April
'-lest
1984.
- A Review of Nigeria's Seed Rice Programmes, August 1984. (Mission
Report).
- Programme Achievement, Contribution to and Impact on Rice Deve lop-
ment in West Africa, October 1984.
- The Adopt ion, Spread and Impact of t10dern Rice Product ion Techno-
logy in West Africa. Working paper ,for the 16th Session of the Inter-
national Rice Commission of FAO. (J.O. Olufowote).
- The Strategies of the West Africa Rice Development Association
(WARDA) Towards the Attainment of Self-Sufficiency in Rice Production
in West Africa. A paper presented at the International Seminar on
Food Self-Sufficiency in West Africa organized by the University
of Ghana, Lego, 10-13th April 1984. (J.O. Olufowote).
- Inventory of Training, Research and Development Institutions in
WARDA Member States.
- The Resistance of Rice Varieties t o Crab Damage in Mangrove Swamps
of sierra Leone. A paper presented at a Symposium on Host Resistance
organized by ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya, June 1984. (M. Agyen-Sampong).
- Influence of Azolla on Rice Productivity at Rokupr, Sierra Leone.
(H.F. Diarra, C.A. Dixon and C. Van Hove).
- The Ecology of Birds and Their Damage to Rice in Liberia. (E.A.
Bashir).
- Monitoring Salt Content in the Rokupr Trial Area - Sierra Leone.
Jones and J.W.
- Preliminary Survey of Soil Related Problems, Their Incidence and
'-Ieed Flora in the Nangrove SW,amp Rice Growing Regions of Guinea.
(S.N. Fomba, W.A.E. Cole and H.M. Bernard).
- 105 -
- Importance of Rice in West Africa. (V.K. Nyanteng).
- Irrigated Rice Pests at Fanaye, Senega 1. (E .A. Akinsola and A.
Coly).
- Grain Yield of ROK 5 and Some Traditional Rice Varieties in Mangrove
Swamps of Sierra Leone. (Stenhouse, J.W. and M.P. JOnes).
- The Importance of Rice Awns in the Reduction of Bird Damage. (A.O.
Abifarin) •
- Performance of Some Deepwater and Floating Rice Varieties at Hopti,
UalL (Bangura, F.J. and M. Dione).
- Recommended Mangrove Swamp Rice Varieties in Sierra Leone. (Stenhouse,
J ~ W . and M.P. Jones).
- Variability in Salinity tolerance by Rice in 11angrove Swamps of
Sierra Leone. (M.P. Jones).
- Occurrence of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Rice
tries: Senegal, Mali, Niger and Upper Volta.
John).
in Four
(Awoderu,
Sahe 1 ian Coun-
V.A. and V.T.

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