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Types of Staff development

Outline
ObjectivesIntroduction Staff development activities Induction, Orientation, Socialization In- Service education and Continuing education

:Objectives
:At the end of this lecture, the student will be able to Identify the staff development activities -1 Explain the orientation process -2 .Compare between in- service and continuing education -3
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:Introduction
Every individual is unique and therefore employees will vary in their education, skills and ability. Educational preparation will vary and some people will not have developed all of the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their jobs at the expected level. New nursing .practice and technology call fore ongoing staff development In most organizations, staff development consists of three :separate but interrelated activities

:I- A- Induction
The first phase of staff development is induction and takes place after the employee has been selected but prior to performing the job role. The induction process includes all activities that educate the new employee about the organization as well as employment and personnel policies and procedures it includes a history of the organization, the vision, purpose, structure, working hours, holiday time, vacation, sick time, performance standards and evaluation, parking facilities, eating facilities, heath services and .education opportunities The employee handbook is an important instrument of induction. Handbook is usually written by the personnel department but managers should be aware of what they .contain and have some input into their composition

:B-Orientation
A process by which staff development personnel and mangers ease a new employee into the organization by providing relevant information. Orientation is one of the
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most critical activities implemented by a staff development .department Orientation is defined by the American Nurses Association(ANA) as (( the means by which new staff members are introduced to the philosophy, goals, policies, procedures, role expectations, physical facilities and special .((services in a specific work setting The goal of high- quality orientation programs is to provide a transition to practice in anew organization by enhancing the competencies of new employees in an efficient and cost .effective manner Orientation reduces the anxiety that new employees feel when beginning the job. Orientation is a joint responsibility of both the organizations' staff development personnel and the nursing manger. The development staff should provide information involving matters are relevant to all new employees such as benefits, mission, general policies and In addition, common equipment. Procedures, safety, quality improvement, infection control New employees often have unrealistically high expectations about the amount of challenge and responsibility they will find in their first job. If they are assigned undemanding they feel discouraged, the result is job dissatisfaction, turnover and low productivity. So one function of orientation is to .correct any unrealistic expectations

:Types of orientation
.Centralized and decentralized content of orientation -1 Educators need to determine which learning experiences should take place in the staff development departments' classrooms and which on the clinical units. The cognitive, psychomotor, and affective content needed by every
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nursing services employee. Some common topics :include


.Philosophy and mission of the organization -1 .Philosophy and mission of nursing service development -2 .Job description and performance expectations-3 Patient served- a description of the organizational -4 .structure .Patients' rights a tour of the facilities -5 .Services provided for patients -6 .Infection control program -7 .Organizational policies and procedures -8

:Organizational orientation -2
Organizational orientation can be completed with all new employees in a large group. The major theme of organizational orientation is an understanding of the .mission, vision, and values of the organization Other elements include organizational systems and processes (e.g. quality processes and communication mechanisms), human resources issues (e.g. benefits and promotion) and general safety information (e.g. infection control, hazardous .waste disposal

:Departmental orientation -3
Departmental orientation involves sharing information regarding the environment and facilities, departmentspecific standards, scheduling policy. In addition, work .team

:Position orientation -3
New employees are oriented to their position and specific job .description in the organization

Orientation Models
:Internships and Rotation -1
Internships in the 1970 were primarily designed fore newly graduated nurses and provided a time of transition to the work setting. Internships lasted from 3 to 6 months and sometimes 1 year. In addition, involved rotations to different clinical units. Internships and rotations were extended orientation programs designed to gradually introduce new .employees into a specific area of clinical practice

Competency - Based orientation-2


Competency based orientation programs developed for use in documenting new employee's ability to perform required task. CBO includes the skills, knowledge, and behaviors necessary for minimal safe levels of independent practice in a clinical area. The new employee is evaluated on his ability to perform the tasks required by agency policy and .procedure : The purposes of CBO are to

Delineate the skills, knowledge, and behaviors expected in -1 .the new position Provide a means of tracking the skills acquired and -2 demonstration during orientation .Serve as an orientation checklist -3

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Preceptor
One method of orientation is the preceptor model, which can be used to assist new employees and to reward experienced staff nurses. The preceptor model provides a means for orienting and socializing the new nurse. staff nurses who serve as preceptors are selected based on their clinical competence, organizational skills, ability to guide and direct others. The primary goal is for preceptors to assist new nurses to acquire the necessary knowledge and .skills so that they can function effectively on the job The new nurse works closely with the preceptor for approximately 3 weeks, the duration of the preceptor ship may vary according to the nurses' individual learning needs .or the organization's' policies The primary function of the preceptor is to orient the new nurse to the unit. This includes proper socialization of the new nurse within the group, as well as familiarizing her with unit functions. The preceptor teaches any unfamiliar procedures and helps the new nurse develop any necessary .skills. The preceptor also serves as a staff nurse role model The new nurse not only learns actual work related tasks but also observes the preceptor to learn how to set priorities, solve problems and make decisions, manage time, delegate tasks. In addition the preceptor evaluates the new nurses'

performance and provides both verbal and written feedback .to encourage development

:Mentors -4
Mentors take a greater role than preceptors in developing staff. Mentor a more experienced person who guides supports a less experienced person. Mentors tell you what you need to know and show you how to get it. Mentors give their time, energy, and material support to teach, guide, .assist, counsel a younger nurse : Phases of the mentoring process :Invitational phases -1 Mentor uses time and energy to a younger professional who is goal directed willing to learn and respectfully trusting of the mentor. The younger professionals have a vision of what .they want to become :Questioning phase -2 There is a period of questioning and fears of being unable to meet the goals, mentors share information about power and politics, tell how they became successful and provide .guidance :Transitional phase -3 Mentors help students became aware of their own strengths and personalize learning. Younger nurses are then prepared .to be mentors

:Traditional lecture -5
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The traditional orientation model consists of routine lectures given in the classroom. Basic procedures as medication and .supplies are reviewed

: The qualities of a successful orientation are


.Integrated adult learning principles in all aspects -1 .Considers learners' need -2 .Considers staffs' learning styles -3 .Assists employees to enhance their strengths -4 .Prepares new employees to function safely -5 .Covers essential content efficiently and cost effectively -6 .Minimizes the anxiety of new employees -7

:C-socialization
Fore new nurses, orientation alone does not socialize people to the organization. Socialization is the sharing of attitudes and values through role modeling it is less structured than orientation. Socialization providing fore learning the culture .and create a relationship with staff and interact with people . The socialization process: one is referred to as an interactional process and involves both groups and significant others in a social context. The other is referred to as a learning process and includes role-playing and observation. Brim (1966) states that resocialization would be more effective if efforts were made to determine why the individual was having difficulty with it. He maintains that :there are usually three areas of difficulty, which include

Ignorance of the particular role prescriptions and -1 .expectations .Inability to meet role demands -2 .Deficiencies in motivation -3 :In service education In- service education includes all on-the- job instruction that is undertaken to enhance the workers' performance in her present job, to update knowledge in general nursing practice. It often involves assigning new employees to experienced nurses, preceptors or the nurse manger. Also inservice education includes cross- training, which focuses on helping staff feel confident in another area than the usual .area of assignment. Example urology and general medicine In-service education provides learning experiences in the work setting for refining and developing new skills and knowledge related to job performance. These learning experiences are usually narrow in scope and brief because they are aimed at only one competency or knowledge area. Example, a learning experience might be developed to introduce nursing staff in cardiac care to a new, more sophisticated monitor. In-service education is given inside the organization. It is given during work hours and in short period. It is not a systematic form and not leads to a .certificate or degree Continuing education Continuing education includes all planned learning activities beyond the basic nursing education program that are designed to provide knowledge, skills, and attitudes fore enhancement of nursing practice. Thus, continuing education would include exposure to new concepts, refined procedures, and training for a higher level of technical expertise. Continuing education is given inside or outside agency and is given in a school, not giving during the
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working hours. It is a systematic form and given in a long .time and lead to a certificate or degree

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