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Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry

1

Trigonometry
Trigonometric Ratios
Exact Values & Triangles
Trigonometric Identities
ASTC Rule
Trigonometric Graphs
Sine & Cosine Rules
Area of a Triangle
Trigonometric Equations
Sums and Differences of angles
Double Angles
Triple Angles
Half Angles
T formula
Subsidiary Angle formula
General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations
Radians
Arcs, Sectors, Segments
Trigonometric Limits
Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions
Integration of Trigonometric Functions
Integration of sin
2
x and cos
2
x
INVERSE TRIGNOMETRY
Inverse Sin Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
Inverse Cos Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
Inverse Tan Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Integration of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
2

Trigonometric Ratios












Sine sin
=
hypotenuse
opposite


Cosine cos
=
hypotenuse
adjacent


Tangent tan
=
adjacent
opposite


Cosecant cosec
=
sin
1

=
opposite
hypotenuse


Secant sec
=
cos
1

=
adjacent
hypotenuse


Cotangent cot
=
tan
1

=
opposite
adjacent



sin = ) 90 cos
cos = ) 90 sin
tan = ) 90 cot
cosec = ) 90 sec
sec = ) 90 cosec
cot = ) 90 tan

60 seconds = 1 minute 60 = 1
60 minutes = 1 degree 60 = 1

cos
sin
tan =

sin
cos
cot =


hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
a
d
j
a
c
e
n
t

adjacent
o
p
p
o
s
i
t
e

Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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Exact Values & Triangles













0 30 60 45 90 180
sin 0
2
1

2
3

2
1

1 0
cos 1
2
3

2
1

2
1

0 1
tan 0
3
1

3 1 0
cos ec 2
3
2

2 1
sec 1
3
2

2 2 1
cot 3
3
1

1 0


Trigonometric Identities

2 2
cos sin + = 1

2
cos =
2
sin 1

2
sin =
2
cos 1

2
cot 1+ = cosec
2

2
cot = cosec
2
1
1 = cosec
2

2
cot

1 tan
2
+ =
2
sec

2
tan = 1 sec
2

1 =
2 2
tan sec

1
1
2
45
3
1
2
30
60
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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ASTC Rule













First Quadrant: All positive
sin sin +
cos cos +
tan tan +

Second Quadrant: Sine positive
) 180 sin
sin +
) 180 cos
cos
) 180 tan
tan

Third Quadrant: Tangent positive
) + 180 sin
sin
) + 180 cos
cos
) + 180 tan
tan +

Fourth Quadrant: Cosine positive
) 360 sin
sin
) 360 cos
cos +
) 360 tan
tan

360
0

90
180
270
S A


T C
1
st
Quadrant
4
th
Quadrant
2
nd
Quadrant
3
rd
Quadrant
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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Trigonometric Graphs

Sine & Cosine Rules
Sine Rule:
C
c
B
b
A
a
sin sin sin
= = OR
c
C
b
B
a
A sin sin sin
= =












Cosine Rule:
A bc c b a cos 2
2 2 2
+ =




A
B
C
a
b
c
A
a
b
c
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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Area of a Triangle
C ab A sin
2
1
=
C is the angle
a & b are the two adjacent sides











C
b
a
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
7

Trigonometric Equations
Check the domain eg. 360 0
Check degrees ( 360 0 ) or radians ( x 2 0 )
If double angle, go 2 revolutions
If triple angle, go 3 revolutions, etc
If half angles, go half or one revolution (safe side)

Example 1
Solve sin =
2
1
for 360 0
sin =
2
1

= 30, 150

Example 2
Solve cos 2 =
2
1
for 360 0
2 cos =
2
1

2 = 60, 300, 420, 660
= 30, 150, 210, 330

Example 3
Solve tan
2

= 1 for 360 0
tan
2


= 1
2


= 45, 225
= 90

Example 4
0 cos 2 sin = +
cos cos sin 2 + = 0
) 1 sin 2 cos +
= 0

cos = 0
sin
=
2
1

= 90,
270
= 210,
330


Example 5
2 2 cos sin 3 =
)
2
sin 2 1 sin 3
= 2
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
8

1 sin 3 sin 2
2
+ + = 0
) ) 1 sin 1 sin 2 + +
= 0

sin =
2
1

sin = 1
= 210,
330
= 270

Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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Sums and Differences of angles
) + sin = sin cos cos sin +
) sin = sin cos cos sin
) + cos = sin sin cos cos
) cos = sin sin cos cos +
) + tan
=


tan tan 1
tan tan

+

) tan
=


tan tan 1
tan tan
+




Double Angles
2 sin

= cos sin 2
2 cos



=
2 2
sin cos
=
2
sin 2 1
= 1 cos 2
2

2 tan


=

2
tan 2 1
tan 2

2
sin = ) 2 cos 1
2
1

2
cos = ) 2 cos 1
2
1
+


Triple Angles
3 sin =
3
sin 4 sin 3
3 cos = cos 3 cos 4
3

3 tan
=


2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3




Half Angles
sin

=
2 2
cos sin 2


cos

=
2
2
2
2
sin cos


=
2
2
sin 2 1


Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
10



= 1 cos 2
2
2


tan


=
2
2
2
tan 2 1
tan 2



Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
11

Deriving the Triple Angles
3 sin








= ) + 2 sin
= sin 2 cos cos 2 sin +
= ) sin sin 2 1 cos cos sin 2
2
+
=
3 2
sin 2 sin cos sin 2 +
= )
3 2
sin 2 sin sin 1 sin 2 +
=
3 3
sin 2 sin sin 2 sin 2 +
=
3
sin 4 sin 3
_
Normal double angle_
Expand double angle_
Multiply_
Change
1 cos sin
2 2
= + _
Simplify_
3 cos








= ) + 2 cos
= sin 2 sin cos 2 cos
= ) sin cos sin 2 cos 1 cos 2
2

= cos sin 2 cos cos 2
2 3

= ) cos cos 1 2 cos cos 2
2 3

=
3 2
cos 2 cos 2 cos cos 2 +
= cos 3 cos 4
3


3 tan = ) + 2 tan
=


tan 2 tan 1
tan 2 tan

+

=

2
2
tan 1
tan tan 2
tan 1
tan 2
1
tan

+

=


2
2 2
2
3
tan 1
tan 2 tan 1
tan 1
tan tan tan 2

+

=


2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3




Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
12

T Formulae
Let t = tan
2


sin
=
2
1
2
t
t
+

cos
=
2
2
1
1
t
t
+


tan
=
2
1
2
t
t



sin =
2 2
cos sin 2


=
2
2
2
2
2 2
sin cos
cos sin 2


+


=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
cos
sin cos
cos
cos sin 2


+


=
2
2
2
tan 1
tan 2

+

=
2
1
2
t
t
+

Using half angles
_
Divide by 1
1 cos sin
2 2
= +



Divide top and bottom by

2
cos




cos cancel;
cos
sin
becomes tan

cos =
2
2
2
2
sin cos


=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
sin cos
sin cos


+



=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
cos
sin cos
cos
sin cos



=
2
2
2
2
tan 1
tan 1


=
2
2
1
1
t
t
+


tan
=

cos
sin


=
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
t
t
t
t
+

+


=
2
1
2
t
t



Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
13

Subsidiary Angle Formula
x b x a cos sin + = ) sin cos cos (sin x x x x R +
= x x R x x R sin cos cos sin +

a = x Rcos
2
a @ = x R
2 2
cos
b = x Rsin
2
b @ = x R
2 2
sin
1 cos sin
2 2
= + x x
=
2
2 2
R
b a +

2 2
b a R + =

a
b
= tan

x b x a cos sin + = C
) sin( + x R
x b x a cos sin = C
) sin( x R
x b x a sin cos + = C
) cos( + x R
x b x a sin cos = C
) cos( x R

Example 1
Find x. 1 cos sin 3 = x x

R
=
2
2
1 3 + tan
=
3
1


= 4
= 2
= 30

) 30 sin( 2 x
) 30 sin( x
30 x
x
= 1
=
2
1

= 30, 150
= 60, 180
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
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General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations
sin sin =

Then x
n
n ) 1 ( + =
cos cos =

Then x = n 2
tan tan =

Then x + = n


Radians
c
x = 180
1
=
180
c
x



Arcs, Sectors, Segments
Arc Length
l = r









Area of Sector
A =
2
2
1
r








l

r

r
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
15


Area of Segment
A = ) sin
2
2
1
r










r
Segment
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
16

Trigonometric Limits
x
x
x
sin
lim
0 p
=
x
x
x
tan
lim
0 p

= x
x
cos lim
0 p

= 1


Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions
) x
dx
d
sin

= x cos
? A ) ( sin x f
dx
d


= ) ( cos ) ( ' x f x f
) ) sin( b ax
dx
d
+

= ) cos( b ax a +
) x
dx
d
cos

= x sin
? A ) ( cos x f
dx
d


= ) ( sin ) ( ' x f x f
) ) cos( b ax
dx
d
+

= ) sin( b ax a +
) x
dx
d
tan

= x
2
sec
? A ) ( tan x f
dx
d


= ) ( sec ) ( '
2
x f x f
) ) tan( b ax
dx
d
+

= ) ( sec
2
b ax a +
x
dx
d
sec

= x x tan . sec
ecx
dx
d
cos

= ecx x cos . cot
x
dx
d
cot
= x ec
2
cos
Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
17




Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
18

Integration of Trigonometric Functions

ax cos dx

= c ax
a
+ sin
1

ax sin dx

= c ax
a
+ cos
1

ax
2
sec dx

= c ax
a
+ tan
1

2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
sin

2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
cos __OR__ c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
sin

+
2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
a
+
'
+

'

1
tan
1

ax ec
2
cos dx

= c ax
a
+ cot
1

ax ax tan . sec dx

= c ax
a
+ sec
1

ax ecax cot . cos dx



= c ecax
a
+ cos
1



Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
19

Integration of sin
2
x and cos
2
x
x 2 cos
1 2 cos + x
) 1 2 cos
2
1
+ x
= 1 cos 2
2
x
= x
2
cos 2
= x
2
cos

x
2
cos dx = )

+1 2 cos
2
1
x dx
= ) C x x + + 2 sin
2
1
2
1

= C x x + +
2
1
4
1
2 sin

x
2
cos dx = C x x + +
2
1
4
1
2 sin

x 2 cos
x
2
sin 2
x
2
sin
= x
2
sin 1
= x 2 cos 1
= ) x 2 cos 1
2
1

x
2
sin dx = )

x 2 cos 1
2
1
dx
= ) C x x + 2 sin
2
1
2
1

= C x x + 2 sin
4
1
2
1

x
2
sin dx = C x x + 2 sin
4
1
2
1



Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
20

INVERSE TRIGNOMETRY
Inverse Sin Graph, Domain, Range, Properties












1 1 x
2 2
x x
y
x x
1 1
sin ) ( sin

=


Inverse Cos Graph, Domain, Range, Properties












1 1 x
x y 0
x x
1 1
cos ) ( cos

= x


Inverse Tan Graph, Domain, Range, Properties

All real x
2
x

2
x

x
2
x

1 -1
x
y
0
2 -2
x
y
2
-2
x
y
2
x

2
x

Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
21











2 2
x x
y
x x
1 1
tan ) ( tan

=

Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
22

Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
) x
dx
d
1
sin

=
2
1
1
x


)
a
x
dx
d
1
sin

=
2 2
1
x a


) ) ( sin
1
x f
dx
d

=
2
)] ( [ 1
) ( '
x f
x f



) x
dx
d
1
cos

=
2
1
1
x


)
a
x
dx
d
1
cos

=
2 2
1
x a


) ) ( cos
1
x f
dx
d

=
2
)] ( [ 1
) ( '
x f
x f



) x
dx
d
1
tan

=
2
1
1
x +


)
a
x
dx
d
1
tan

=
2 2
x a
a
+


) ) ( tan
1
x f
dx
d

=
2
)] ( [
) ( '
x f a
x f
+




Maths Extension 1 Trigonometry
23

Integration of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
sin

2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
cos __OR__ c
a
x
+
'
+

'

1
sin

+
2 2
1
x a
dx

= c
a
x
a
+
'
+

'

1
tan
1