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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction in staff/managers of hotels and restaurants should be of great

concern to any organization. Hotel and Restaurant staff and management personnel hold the majority of positions in most hospitality-industry settings, and replacement of a licensed personnel is costly and time consuming. Many registered and/or accredited personnel in hotels and restaurant sectors had limited time but ample exposure to varying degrees of job satisfaction. What makes some so happy with their chosen profession, and others so unhappy? Aside from a change of career, is there a solution? With the current employees shortage, and the anticipation of worsening conditions, the researcher of this study set out to investigate the sources of dissatisfaction in the hotel and restaurant settings. Most medium-sized enterprises realize that their effectiveness depend on the utilization of their human resources. Employees levels of burnout, job satisfaction and job performance give an indication of the effectiveness of an enterprise. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a dispositional variable (sense of coherence), burnout, job satisfaction and job performance. A once-off cross-sectional survey design was used.. The Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Minnesota Job

Satisfaction Questionnaire and Performance Appraisal Questionnaire were used as measuring instruments. Sense of coherence was related to the three subscales of burnout. Job satisfaction was found to be negatively related to burnout. The results showed that one component of burnout, namely low personal accomplishment correlates with lower creativity. Most employers realize that the effectiveness of their organizations depends on the utilization of their human resources and management (Boshoff & Arnolds, 1995). Employees levels of burnout, job performance and job satisfaction are some of the indicators of the effectiveness of an organization (Kreitner & Kinicki, 1998). BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Human behaviors nonetheless, have always been global. We are all Gods handiwork, our bodies are composed of blood and bones and a network of nerves and glands and myriads cells which spring into action called human behavior. Imbalances and dysfunctions of the association between the different systems in the human body shall be experience when unassociated factor(s) and environmental conditions have influenced human responses with respect to himself and to his environment. Such interactions and responses of the human body to the conditions brought about by his environment, as well as, to his desires and goals in life, shall characterized his behaviors, his perceptions, and

his total personality, which in turn shall control his emotions and daily activities of living with other components of the society an individual is living-in. In the course of life, behaviors and personality of an individual should be placed to a test/action upon experiencing or perceiving: environmental/societal changes, change in life styles and human desired/aspirations, as well as sociocultural changes; by which all changes experienced or perceived by an individual shall initiate the formation and filing-up of stress and may lead to various problems. This problem touches every aspect of an individual personality physical, mental, emotional and social; especially those problems that concern with all of an individuals attitudes and behavioral problems. Problems that have been encountered by each person in this world may be attributed to this ever-changing society a world being contoured and recontoured at a pace no one seems to catch up nor fully grasp or comprehend. Various changes in ones life are bedrocks of stress more especially if these changes are unexpected, sudden and inescapable. Economic depression in many countries, not to mention the rapid lowering of the level and quality of education given to the graduates; has thrown a large number of people jobless. The concomitant anxiety and stress, fears and insecurities inflict more and more people and are disorders that upset the equilibrium and peace of minds not only of these concerned but also of the families and the people around them.

People of all ages are being afflicted with stress, anxiety and depression. Problems with schoolwork, with the home and even in the workplace often lead to depression, drug abuse and sometimes suicide. As a result, countless persons seem to feel that happiness and peace of mind seem so elusive. As a result, gripping anxiety and fear; and finally, depression and mental breakdown occur. In due to these changes and problems people are experiencing in this modern society; it is a must that a vast amount of knowledge and understanding in the nature of change or problems that may be encountered must be properly acquired by such concerned individuals. It is a fact that guidance must be appropriated to each individual in order to provide directions and essential help in coordinating and integrating of all his activities, using his basic potentials and environmental opportunities. There are many factors that contribute to dissatisfaction in the work place. Many variables within each factor make achieving satisfaction for every individual a very difficult task. Recognition of frustrations, such as turnover, lack of internal empowerment, burnout, and, elimination of external sources of stress can decrease dissatisfaction in the health care setting. Issues concerning job satisfaction, potential for burnout, as well as effect of burnout on clients, expanded knowledge and better understanding of productivity, and, sources of empowerment for Hotel and restaurant personnel in the health care setting should continue to be investigated. Improved job

satisfaction results in less turnover, better quality patient care, less physical and mental injuries to health care staff, and betterment of entire organization. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This study is conceptualized from the fact that a person who works well is satisfied with his work and his ways of living. It is therefore considered important to consider the HOWs and the WHATs of having being satisfied with an individuals work and necessities of better living and working conditions. These are the stressors from our family, occupations, and environment and event from us. Undue stress occurs when we try to live up to an ideal image of ourselves. When unrealistic expectations clash with reality it always leads to disappointment and frustrations. This will lead to lot of reactions and

manifestations. To better put out minds in a proper perspective, theres a need in familiarizing ourselves with stressors. Having knowledge on the reasons why we are stressed will pave for better management of stress, thus allowing people to work productivity and efficiently. Since the Hotel and restaurant personnel and the hotel and restaurant industry administrators are expected, to have been using the stress management because of the high expectations from others they are the best persons to evaluate its effectiveness; they are the primary sources of the data of this study. Areas to be assessed are: different satisfactory working conditions and ways of human living, the different stressors that tend to block the means of having job-satisfaction, manifestations of not being satisfied to someones job,

the hotel and restaurant industry management approaches in order to attain jobsatisfaction, and the level of job-satisfaction of those health-workers employed in hotel and restaurant businesses. This study shall be conducted in selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales with 100 employees, including both hotel and restaurant personnel and hotel and restaurant administratorrespondents. Data shall be gathered using a structured survey-questionnaire and through the use of unstructured interviews and observations to those different respondents. Data shall be consolidated and will be statistically treated with the use of different techniques of both descriptive and inferential statistical procedures which are essential in the structuring of various findings as well as the proposal for conclusions and recommendations in revisions and in the improvement of this research

PARADIGM OF THE STUDY


INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

hotel and restaurant personnel Respondents Profile: age sex civil status educational attainment, and length of service hotel and restaurant Administrators Profile: age sex civil status educational attainment, and length of service Perceptions of Respondents for Job Satisfaction Perceptions of Respondents for the Managerial and Leadership Styles in their Establishments Perceptions of Respondents for the Effect of various factors towards the marketability of the Hotel and Restaurant Establishments to which they are currently working

Survey Questionnaire Unstructured Interviews Indirect Observation Statistical Procedures for Data Gathering and Interpretation

Improvement of hotel and restaurant industries Employees Welfare Unparallel Employees Career Development Better hotel and restaurant Services provided to the Public/Community

Figure 1: The Research Paradigm

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study aims to perform an evaluation with regards to job satisfaction, as assessment of the managerial and leadership styles and their relationship with the marketability of hotel and restaurant personnel and hotel and restaurant industry administrators that are employed in selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following question: 1. What is the profile of the hotel and restaurant personnel-respondents in terms of: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 age sex civil status educational attainment, and length of service

2. What is the profile of the hotel and restaurant industry administratorrespondents in terms of: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 age sex civil status educational attainment, and length of service

3. Which of the

different conditions that satisfies hotel and restaurant

personnel and hotel and restaurant industry administrators working in selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales? 4. Which of the factor that concerns job satisfaction is the most effective? 5. What is the prevalent managerial/leadership styles shown by hotel and restaurant managers? 6. What are some of the factors as related to job satisfaction and the managerial and leadership styles that promote effective marketability of selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales? 7. Is there any significant difference between the satisfaction level of the hotel and restaurant and the hotel and restaurant industry administrators? RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (Null Hypothesis) As a basis in order to determine the difference and the relationship of the degree of job-satisfaction between those hotel and restaurant personnelrespondents and hotel and restaurant industry administrator-respondents, the research of this study will conceptualized and will structure the framework of the research process as based on the following hypothesis indicated below: There is no significant difference between the level of job-satisfaction as perceived by the hotel and restaurant personnel-respondents and the hotel and restaurant industry administrator-respondents.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION The study has for its focus the different conditions and the level of job satisfaction among the hotel and restaurant personnel and hotel and restaurant industry administrators of the selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales. The respondents will be limited only to fulltime or regular hotel and restaurant personnel and hotel and restaurant industry administrators who are working in the said industry as stated above. This study will be limited to

calendar year 2007-2008 and shall concern 100 employees or respondents.

DEFINITION OF TERMS With regards to the used of different terms in this study, the researcher have enumerated and described the following for the clarification and understanding for the readers and critics of this research study: Administrators or Hotel and Restaurant Administrators. As used in this study, this refers to the managers or overseers who supervise and handle group of employees in any organization, specifically those who are working in hotel and restaurant industries and hotel and restaurant service workers. This somebody has the job to administer the affairs of a business or organization. Hotel and Restaurant Personnel. This refers to the fulltime and regular hotel and restaurant personnel who are employed in the selected hotel and restaurant establishments in Zambales. 10

Job-Satisfaction. This refers to the different conditions that favorably satisfies and increases the quality and level of performance of employees, especially of the hotel and restaurant personnel. Stress. refers to the state of the body resulting to changes in both mind and body. It defines as events or situations that cause them to feel tension, pressure, or negative emotions such as anxiety and anger. Others view stress as the response to these situations. Stress Variables. As used in this study, this refers to the stressors brought about by certain conditions emanating from work itself. Management. This is the process of handling ones situation by application of different styles, approaches, and techniques. Salary. As used by the researcher of this study, this refers to the monthly income and net take home pay of the respondents used in this study. Career Growth. As used in this study, this refers to the increase in ones opportunity and chances of attaining better living conditions. Work/Life Balance. As used in this study, this term refers to the capability of a person in either having more time off or a flexible work schedule as being necessary to improve satisfaction in their current position. Hotel and Restaurant Establishments. This refers to place where the study will be conducted the selected hotel and restaurant establishments which are located at various places in Zambales.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The organization could contribute to the development of employees sense of coherence by presenting information in a constant, structured, orderly way that is completely understood by the employees. To ensure that employees feel that work demands are under own or others control; the organization can provide the necessary knowledge, skills, material, instruments, support and other resources. Furthermore, by being allowed a degree of independence and freedom of choice to execute the task at hand in their won way, employees will feel that their jobs are meaningful. If employees sense of coherence can be enhanced within the organization, the organization could contribute to the enhancement of the job satisfaction of employees. The levels of burnout of their employees will also be lower. Regarding burnout, the organization should attend to the levels of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment levels of hotel and restaurant managers and personnel alike. The nature of such mentioned individuals are emotionally exhausting, and emotional support by management might lower their emotional exhaustion. Methods to let employees know that they meet their clients need may help to heighten the feeling of personal accomplishments of their employees. Low levels of burnout will lead to job satisfaction and sense of coherence. A training and self-development program that focuses on the psychological strengths and burnout of the employees could be implemented.

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Work/life issues are mixed and benefits are the least important among considerations. Salary: Respondents most frequently identified salary as an item

they evaluate regarding satisfaction level with their current position. It also tops their list as the factor most likely to be used to evaluate whether or not they will accept a future position. Forty percent of respondents believed they were not paid market value; this is the same percentage that indicated an increase in compensation would increase their job satisfaction. Career Growth: Respondents most frequently cited career growth

as the reason they left their last position. Just over half indicated they were offered career growth in their current position. Fifty-four percent indicated future career growth opportunities would improve their satisfaction with their current position. This is also a top consideration when making a decision to accept a new position. Work/life balance: Almost half of the respondents indicated the

ability to balance their career and family obligations was important in evaluating their job satisfaction and it was an important consideration for accepting a new position. Few respondents identified either more time off or a flexible work

schedule as being necessary to improve satisfaction in their current position. Benefits: Benefits and perks do not seem to be as important as

career growth, salary, and involvement in decision making when individuals are evaluating satisfaction in their current position or evaluating a new position.

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Insurance and financial benefits make up two of the three bottom factors used to evaluate current job satisfaction.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies from both foreign and local researchers, which provide insights, background information and reference for the present study. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE FOREIGN RELATED LITERATURE The estimated gender earnings gap indicates women are paid less, but women in both countries appear more satisfied with their jobs than men1 (Clark and Oswald, 1996; Clark, 1997; Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza, 2000). The literature provides two explanations. First, satisfaction is a function of expectations, and if women have lower expectations about labour market outcomes, their expectations are more easily fulfilled (Clark, 1997). Second, the bundle of characteristics associated with womens jobs may appeal to them sufficiently to overcome the satisfaction lost from their lower earnings. These same two explanations have been used in exploring the role of occupational segregation. Thus, the argument that womens jobs appeal to them sufficiently to overcome lower earnings clearly requires that women

disproportionately choose a particular set of jobs, yet, much of the literature assumes that women are crowded into a particular set of jobs. Thus, one might

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anticipate that the job satisfaction of women should be lower in the female dominated jobs into which they are crowded. Sloane and Williams (2000) take this as evidence that women largely choose the jobs they dominate arguing that policy designed to decrease segregation would reduce the job satisfaction of female workers. Hamermesh (2001) makes clear why economists should study the determinants of job satisfaction: Only one measure, the satisfaction that workers derive from their jobs, might be viewed as reflecting how they react to the entire panoply of job characteristics. Indeed, a potentially useful view is that job satisfaction is the resultant of the workers weighting in his/her own mind of all the jobs aspects. It can be viewed as a single metric that allows the worker to compare the current job to other labour-market opportunities. Hence, job satisfaction is a more global measure allowing economists to get closer to the fundamental concept of the aggregate well-being generated from a job, a concept that may be poorly proxied by earnings. While such self-reported measures of satisfaction have been criticized as subjective, Blanchflower and Oswald (1999) explain that such measures have been successfully used for years by social psychologists and that they do correlate in expected fashions with many objective outcomes. For example, workers with lower self-reported job satisfaction have higher absenteeism and are more likely to quit (Clark et al., 1998). Further, higher job satisfaction within a firm correlates positively with its performance (Ostroff, 1992) and, within the service industries, job satisfaction correlates positively with customer satisfaction.

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The renewed interest by economists in job satisfaction has yielded a series of reasonably consistent and robust findings. Job satisfaction is higher for the youngest and oldest workers (Clark et al., 1998), for non-union workers (Clark, 1997; Bender and Sloane, 1998; Heywood et al., 2002), and for the less educated (Clark and Oswald, 1996) yet, the issue attracting the most attention has been the role of gender as a determinant of job satisfaction. The issue has been examined in dozens of countries including not only those in Europe and North America cited earlier but also in Kenya (Mulinge and Mueller, 1998), China (Loscocco and Bose, 1998), and Kuwait (Metle, 2001). The so-called paradox arises because the apparent job satisfaction of women seems at odds with their lower adjusted earnings, lower chances for employer provided training (at least in the USsee Lynch, 1992), and lower adjusted probabilities of receiving pensions and health insurance (Heywood, 1989). Yet, the job characteristics valued by women and men have repeatedly been shown to differ. Job Satisfaction and Gender Segregation. As an alternative, the extent of segregation may itself be considered a job attribute over which workers have preferences. Given incomplete information on the full set of job attributes, most evidence necessarily conflates the role of segregation per se and its role as a proxy for job characteristics. Nonetheless, Tsui et al. (1992) find that the job satisfaction of male workers decreases with the proportion of females in their work group, and Sloane and Williams (2000) find that the job satisfaction of UK women is significantly lower in male dominated workplaces. Clark (1997)

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presents very similar evidence also for the UK, finding that the gender satisfaction gap increases with the extent of females in the workplace, a result that flows from the greater satisfaction of women in more female dominated workplaces. While there exists evidence that workers job satisfaction is greater in work groups largely of the same gender, we recognize that the factors influencing the gender composition of a work group may be complex. Theoretical work in economics has addressed the issue of the optimal size of a minority within a workgroup. The optimization typically recognizes a productivity interaction between groups, such as communication within homogenous groups is superior, or a preference interaction, where one or more groups receive disutility from working with a minority (Rapoport and Weiss, 2001). Firms themselves may desire a particular gender (or racial) composition in order to appeal to potential customers. Thus, banks may wish the composition of employees in the lobby to roughly match those of their customers (Kim and Squires, 1996). Social psychologists have also measured the influence of work group gender composition on the commitment and on the effectiveness (productivity) of the group.7 In what follows we present new evidence on the relationship between gender composition and job satisfaction. More importantly we identify the critical work and family flexibility variables that drive that relationship. This identification

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fits with the findings that a major reason women choose self-employment is for family flexibility (Lombard, 2001) and that women take careers that allow such flexibility and that this flexibility explains, at least in part, their lower earnings (Hundley, 2001). We conclude from our evidence that gender composition does not influence job satisfaction after accounting for flexibility. Flexibility, Working Conditions, and Job Satisfaction. Deardorff and Stafford (1976) examine a team production environment where workers give up flexibility and must cooperate in terms of work times, effort, and conditions. They demonstrate that compensation will necessarily be higher in this environment than in one in which workers retain flexibility. Empirical researchers have taken the view of team production as foregone flexibility showing that workers engaged in team production earn more, other things equal (Idson, 1995). Moreover, Heywood and Jirjahn (2002) show that women sort away from team production in order to retain flexibility between home and work. Thus, the estimated relationship between job satisfaction and gender composition might merely reflect women sorting into jobs that provide flexibility. The flexibility provides satisfaction for women, not the share of women in the job. The explanation for higher female job satisfaction by Clark (1997) and others is that women have lower expectations about labour market outcomes and so are more easily satisfied with their actual experience. Yet, this argument suggests that the expectations of women do not adapt to actual experience. They supposedly retain lowered expectations despite an average of roughly seven years of tenure in the NSCW. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that job

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satisfaction of women is highest in the traditionally female dominated work places, the very places in which women as a whole have the most experience and should have the most accurate expectations. It may be that the literatures notion of expectations is that of social norms. Under such an interpretation women may be socialized not to anticipate much satisfaction from work and are thus surprised by the actual experience. This still leaves open why the social norms are so persistent given the reality. In addition, Clark (1997, p.342) argues lower expectations of women likely result from the poorer position in the labour market that women have held in the past. As the difference between mens and womens jobs is eroded so will the gender difference in expectations and job satisfaction. Thus, Clark, who emphasizes the importance of expectations, sees them as rooted in dated and inaccurate information. Similarly, providing women with additional earnings but forcing them to choose between home and work reduces their job satisfaction (as an additional dollar of earnings adds far less to female job satisfaction). While not as extreme as these illustrations, public policy has become increasingly focused on mandating family friendly workplaces. In the US, the Take Care Network is a coalition supporting increased family leave for care giving and increased opportunities for flexible scheduling and job sharing (see www. takecarenet.org). In the UK, a government Commission (Bain, 2001) recommended giving working parents with children the right to require their employer to provide a flexible working pattern. This recommendation was accepted by the government which believes it will create a transformation in culture of the workplace (DTI, 2001,

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p.3). To the extent that this legislates increased flexibility, our results suggest it may be more valuable to women and may reduce the extent of segregation created by women seeking more flexible employment. Note, however, that men who avoided flexibility to seek higher earnings, may well be worse off as the flexibility between work and home responsibilities is less valuable to them and may come at a cost of reduced earnings. These reduced earnings would follow if the provision of flexible arrangements is costly to firms that did not previously offer them (see Heywood et al., 2001). Thus, policies to promote flexibility may have the consequence of a economic transfer between genders. Job Performance in Relation to Job Satisfaction. In the field of Industrial/Organizational psychology, one of the most researched areas is the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001). Landy (1989) described this relationship as the Holy Grail of Industrial psychology. Research linking job performance with satisfaction and other attitudes has been studied since at least 1939, with the Hawthorne studies (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939). In Judge et al. (2001), it was found by Brayfield and Crockett (1955) that there is only a minimal relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. However, since 1955, Judge et al. (2001) cited that there are other studies by Locke (1970), Schwab & Cummings (1970), and Vroom (1964) that have shown that there is at least some relationship between those variables. Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) did an extensive analysis on the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. Across their many studies, they found a mean correlation of .17 (Iaffaldano &

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Muchinsky, 1985). There are also stronger relationships depending on specific circumstances such as mood and employee level within the company (Morrison, 1997). Organ (1988) also found that the job performance and job satisfaction relationship follows the social exchange theory; employees performance is giving back to the organization from which they get their satisfaction. Judge et al. (2001) argued that there are seven different models that can be used to describe the job satisfaction and job performance relationship. Some of these models view the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance to be unidirectional, that either job satisfaction causes job performance or vice versa. Another model states that the relationship is a reciprocal one; this has been supported by the research of Wanous (1974). The underlying theory of this reciprocal model is that if the satisfaction is extrinsic, then satisfaction leads to performance, but if the satisfaction is intrinsic, then the performance leads to satisfaction. Other models suggest there is either an outside factor that causes a seemingly relationship between the factors or that there is no relationship at all, however, neither of these models have much research. The final model is Alternative Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction and/or Job Performance. This model discusses how positive attitudes toward ones job can predict a high degree of job performance. George and Brief (1996) and Isen and Baron (1991) both found that employees attitudes are reflected in their job performance. If this is the case, then we can argue that there is a relationship between employees job satisfaction and job performance, as

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satisfaction is an attitude about their job. Industrial psychologists do not justify any relationship between job satisfaction and job performance; although it has been found that a positive mood is related to higher levels of job performance and job satisfaction. Job Performance and Job Satisfaction in Relation to Personality Type. One construct that has been used to predict job performance is personality. This is one area that is criticized by many people as something that may not be valid to use (Rothstein & Goffin, 2000). Despite these criticisms, most researchers feel that studying the relationship between personality and job performance is extremely useful (Goffin, Rothstein, & Johnston, 2000). Scheider and Dachler (1978) found that, over time, satisfaction with a job remains unusually stable, which made them believe that it was peoples personality that was due to the satisfaction with their job, rather than other variables. Most studies dealing with job satisfaction in relation to personality are conducted in large organizations; however, very few have been done to view the impact on smaller organizations (Morrison, 1997). There are many different personality factors that have been correlated to job satisfaction, but overall, there seem to be two traits that have significant correlations: locus of control and negative affectivity (Spector, 1997). Locus of control refers to peoples beliefs about how much control they have over their job, life, or various other factors (Rotter, 1966). Locus of control has been correlated with job performance as well as job satisfaction (Spector, 1997).

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Negative affectivity is peoples tendency to have negative emotions, independent of the situation (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). This is correlated to job dissatisfaction because if people feel negative overall, they will be negative about their job as well (Spector, 1997). According to Buss (1992), the Big Five factors (which for this study are Cattells five Global factors of: extraversion, anxiety, tough-mindedness, independence, and self-control) have some influence on job performance. The original big five personality factors are emotional stability, extraversion, intellect/openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Acton, 2002). Acton (2002) compared the big five to Cattells global factors. He found that extraversion is the same in both, tough-mindedness was the big five version of agreeableness, anxiety was the version of emotional stability; independence was the version of openness to experience, and self-control the version of conscientiousness. It seems to be a common assumption that employees, who are happy with their job, should also be more productive at work (Spector, 1997). It has been hypothesized that if above average performance is rewarded on the job, then the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance would be higher (Jacobs & Solomon, 1977). There has been recent research that has shown relationships between personality and job performance in firefighters (Liao, Arvey, & Butler, 2001). Specifically, the study by Liao et al. (2001), found that the MMPI trait of social introversion was significantly negatively correlated to injury frequency (r =-.08).

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The reason stated for underlying this finding is that introverts tend to be less social and because firefighters need to work as a team, introverts may be less likely to ask for help when needed. This, in turn, also creates more hazards on the job, and subsequently, more job-related injuries. The addition of the personality variables to job satisfaction may also help to account for some of the variance in job performance. As found in previous research, there are relationships between these different areas. This research will add to the existing literature by finding relationships between personality, job satisfaction, and job performance. Cattells 16 Personality Factors (16PF). Russell and Karols (2002) manual on Cattells 16 Personality Factors was the basis for the data that follows. The 16PF is a personality assessment that measures a persons complete personality on the basis of 16 different factors. The factors measure everything from how people think about things, to how they view rules and laws to how people are in social situations and how open they are to disclosing information about themselves, to how emotional they are to others and to how they make decisions and their confidence with those decisions. There are 16 primary factors and five global factors. The primary factors are warmth (A), reasoning (B), emotional stability (C), dominance (E), liveliness (F), rule-consciousness (G), social boldness (H), sensitivity (I), vigilance (L), abstractedness (M), Privateness (N), apprehension (O), openness to change (Q1), self-reliance (Q2),

perfectionism (Q3), and tension (Q4). Each of the primary factors is given two levels to each factor: low or high. The global factors are derived from the original

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16 primary factors and represent a more broad of a definition of personality than the primary factors. The global factors are extraversion (EX), anxiety (AX), toughmindedness (TM), independence (IN), and self-control (SC). Each global factor is divided into subsections; a low and high score for each factor. A description of each factor follows. Warmth (A) This factor refers to how people are involved with others and their interactions with others: the amount of warmth they show when being involved with someone. This is the first of three factors that are significantly different between the sexes. Women on this factor tend to score slightly higher than men. Reasoning (B) This factor measures peoples ability to derive answers and use logic and reasoning to find an answer. Emotional Stability (C) The emotional stability factor deals with how people live with daily challenges and adaptability. Dominance (E) This factor measures how inclined one is to have control over others versus letting others have their way. This does not measure assertiveness because the dominance factor looks at how one wants to have power over others rather than just protect their own beliefs. Liveliness (F)

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This factor measures how spontaneous and restrained a person acts seen in various situations. It measures the self-expression levels. Rule-Consciousness (G) The rule-consciousness factor measures how inclined a person is to follow the cultural norms and what is considered right and wrong. Social Boldness (H) This factor measures people act in social groups and situations: whether they like to be exhibitionists or stay to themselves.

Sensitivity (I) This is the second factor that has a gender difference: women tend to score slightly higher than men. This factor measures how people make decisions and how they make judgments. Vigilance (L) This factor measures peoples tendency to believe in and trust others. It looks at how much people look at others motivations for actions. Abstractedness (M) The abstractedness factor looks at the way that people give their attention to various things. This factor measures the thought process that one goes through when paying attention to things. Privateness (N)

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This factor measures how willing or not people are to discuss themselves and things that are personal to them. Apprehension (O) This is the third factor that has differences between men and women. On this factor, women tend to score higher than men. This factor measures how much people tend to worry about things in their life. It also measures how they feel about the decision once it has been made.

Openness to Change (Q1) This factor measures how willing people are to change what is familiar to them: whether they like experimenting and change or like things to stay the same. Self-Reliance (Q2) The self-reliance factor measures how much people like to have close relationships with others. It looks at if one needs to feel part of a group or if they like to be on their own. Perfectionism (Q3) This factor measures how much people like to have things go their way and do things right. It looks at how inclined people are to keep things organized and also how much they like planning things. Tension (Q4)

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The tension factor looks at how nervous a person acts: whether they have a lot of energy and are fidgety or are relaxed. It also looks at how irritable a person can be when made to wait or when things are not going right. Extraversion (EX) This factor has been studied in almost every personality assessment. It measures how much people like social interactions overall. This global factor takes into account the primary factors of warmth, liveliness, social boldness, privateness, and self-reliance.

Anxiety (AX) This is another factor that is usually assessed in other personality assessments. It is the factor that can be described by how people respond to the world around them. This factor is made from the primary factors of emotional stability, vigilance, apprehension, and tension. Tough-Mindedness (TM) Tough-mindedness is the factor that looks at how people deal with their problems at the cognitive level. This factor is made of the primary factors of warmth, sensitivity, abstractedness, and openness to change. Independence (IN) This factor measures how people think and act: whether they push their ideas on others or give in to people. The independence factor is made of the primary factors of dominance, social boldness, vigilance, and openness to change.

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Self-Control (SC) This factor deals with how likely people are to control their urges: whether they are able to inhibit their actions or they have to act out. This factor is made of the primary factors of liveliness, rule-consciousness, abstractedness, and perfectionism. Job Descriptive Index (JDI) Balzer et al.s (1997) manual for the Job Descriptive Index provided the information that follows. Smith, Kendall, and Hulin developed the JDI in 1969. Smith et al. argue that that job satisfaction is composed of five different areas: work on present job, present pay, opportunities for promotion, supervision, and people on your present job. Validity and reliability of each of the scales is discussed in the literature review of the Job Descriptive Index. Work on Present Job This scale is designed to measure how people feel about the job they are currently doing. It measures how satisfied an employee is with the work. The questions related to this area are designed to measure the different facets of a job including: opportunities for creativity and task variety, allowing an individual to increase his or her knowledge, and changes in responsibility, amount of work, autonomy, job enrichment and job complexity. Present Pay This scale measures how a people feel with their pay and the difference between what a people are actually getting and what they believe they should be

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getting. This area is influenced by various factors: the pay of employees doing the same job, the financial situation of the employee, the pay the employee received on previous jobs, and the economy. Opportunities for Promotion This scale measures how the employees feel about the procedures that the administration follows in accordance with giving promotions. The different factors that create satisfaction with promotions are frequency of promotions, the importance of promotions, and the desirability of promotions. Supervision This scale of the JDI measures how satisfied people are with their supervisors. Typically, if supervisors are employee-centered, meaning that they take interest in their employees and listen to them, than the employees are more satisfied with their supervisors. Employees also find more satisfaction with supervisors if the supervisors are deemed competent with their job. People on Your Present Job (Co-workers) This scale looks at the relationship and satisfaction that the employees have with their co-workers. This area of satisfaction is measured by how well employees get along with each other and how well they look up to their fellow employees. Job in General (JIG) The Job in General scale is a measure that is included with the Job Descriptive Index. The scale was developed to assess the overall satisfaction of people with their jobs. The JDI measures the different areas for satisfaction, but

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when the areas are added together, they do not give an accurate representation of peoples overall job satisfaction, whereas this scale is designed to measure job satisfaction overall.

Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding is a measure that looks at the tendency of people to respond in the most socially acceptable way when answering self-report measures (Paulhus, 1998). It is a measure that is divided into two subcategories: Self-Deceptive Enhancement and Impression

Management. Self-Deception, as defined by Paulhus (1998), is the tendency to give honest, but inflated self-descriptions. The Impression Management aspect is defined as the tendency to give inflated self-descriptions because of contextual factors (Paulhus, 1998). This assessment was used to avoid faking good on the other assessments and to see if there was any relationship between how a person answered the other assessments in relation with how they answered the BIDR. Positive and Negative Affectivity Scale (PANAS) The PANAS was developed by Watson and Clark (1988) and is comprised of 20 adjectives that are described as words that elicit either positive or negative feelings (Witt, 1994). The scale yields two scores: Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA).

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This measure was used to see if there was a relationship between the positive or negative mood of the person and the responses given. Job satisfaction is rarely measured by the size of the paycheck; although above average remuneration can make less than stellar working conditions a little more bearable. Highway construction site flag men and swampers on garbage trucks perform important duties that some of us would not want to do for more than a summer job. They find their jobs fulfilling and rewarding because they recognize that they play important roles in society. In an office environment, opportunities for advancement and recognition of each individual's contributions and talents are big influences on whether a job is fulfilling. The less stress there is, the better, but most men will accept a certain amount of pressure if they feel recognized and respected. How well an employee relates to the company's leadership style and corporate values are also key factors in job satisfaction. Fair rewards in terms of salary and benefits, good working conditions and appropriate employee empowerment are all strong motivators that promote job satisfaction. Here are some questions to ask to measure if your job fulfills you: Do you enjoy going to work? When it's a real struggle getting up every day, it could be an indicator that you're stressed, burnt out or unfulfilled. If you're dragging yourself out of bed in the morning and it's not because you stayed up too late or partied too hard, your body and brain may be trying to tell you

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something. Good working conditions, the camaraderie of a team environment and duties you enjoy will make it more fun to go to work. Feeling inspired and energized by your boss and the company's leadership is even better. Are your expectations reasonable? You cannot have executive privileges in an entry-level position. Jumping ship because you don't have as much time off as you'd like would be irresponsible and immature. Even though you have education, enthusiasm and energy on your side, you still need to work your way up the corporate ladder by earning respect and privileges, and proving yourself. Examine your job and your attitude objectively before deciding to pull the pin because you don't feel fulfilled. Stop being negative. And quit hanging around the copier with the whiners or you'll get sucked into their spiral of negativity. Decades of research by psychologists and organizational behaviorists suggest that self-reported job satisfaction reflects two main factors: the feelings workers experience while actually on the job and a judgment about their employment situation, which reflects, in part, their expectations and aspirations. While job satisfaction can change if work circumstances change, a large component of reported job satisfaction also appears to be tied to workers' personality traits. Job satisfaction is typically gauged by a general question that asks people how satisfied they are with their work on the whole. Feelings at work are

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assessed by asking workers while they are on the job about their mood at that specific moment or by asking them to record their feelings in a diary. Factors like job security, pay and benefits contribute more strongly to reported job satisfaction than to the feelings experienced at work, while day-today features of the work environment, like the closeness of supervision, pressures to work quickly and social isolation, have a more depressing effect on feelings than on reported job satisfaction. In his new book, "Demanding Work: The Paradox of Job Quality in the Affluent Economy" (Princeton University Press), Francis Green, an economist at the University of Kent in Canterbury, England, documents trends in job satisfaction around the world and tries to make sense of them. Professor Green points to a decline in discretion on the job as the main explanation for the drop in job satisfaction in Britain, although he suspects that other factors, like an increase in work intensity, also contributed. Job satisfaction was evaluated on several levels: Profits, Job

performance, Intrinsic work values, and, care issues. Profits referred not to personal financial gain, but to the organizations profits. Many nurses responded feeling "devalued in their job" (Fletcher, 2001), and resentful of "the perceived placing of profits over patients" (Fletcher, 2001). Job Performance was not only applied to themselves, but attitudes and performance of coworkers on a horizontal and vertical plane were also considered. Many held expectations of

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fellow employees to a high standard and "were frequently disappointed" (Fletcher, 2001). Extrinsic work values such as, job security, salary, fringe benefits, and work schedules, are also considered to be important in job satisfaction. Restrictions in scheduling and limited availability of time off promote frustration and dissatisfaction. Productivity. In the article written by D. K. McNeese-Smith, issues of productivity and nonproductivity were investigated. The purpose of this study was to consider "staff nurse views of their productivity and nonproductivity, and factors that increase or decrease their productivity" (McNeese-Smith, 2001). McNeese-Smith used semi-structured interviews to gather data about, and factors influencing productivity. Recruited from six different nursing units, 30 staff nurses were used, in an attempt to accurately represent nurses as a whole. The researchers found that productivity was based on two categories; quantity, and quality of their work. A third category considered, was personal factors that "influence their quantity and quality of work" (McNeese-Smith, 2001). The quantity of work accomplished was a key factor in having felt productive in their days work. Common themes of respondents were "finishing all tasks", "being efficient", "staying late", and "doing extra around the

unit"( McNeese-Smith, 2001), done without monetary compensation.

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The quality of work was found to be based on several aspects of nursing care. Respondents felt that outcomes of teaching and caring for individuals proved to be rewarding and contributed to productivity of work. Many felt that an offering of suggestions to improve the nursing unit contributed to work quality, as well as the day-to-day process of nursing care (McNeese, 2001). Nonproductivity was discussed in "relation to two major categories: organizational factors and personal factors" (McNeese-Smith, 2001).

Organization was dependent on feelings of "being overloaded", reaction to "difficult patients" and "lack of teamwork" (McNeese-Smith, 2001). Most nurses felt lack of organization, usually based on the above, contributed significantly to feeling of nonproductivity. Personal factors such as personal problems, and lack of physical or mental readiness to work also contributed to nonproductivity. According to most respondents, personal factors made just as much, if not more of an influence on coworkers productivity levels. Staff nurses consumed with personal inabilities are seen as a distraction to others (McNeese, 2001). The findings of this research suggest that nurses understand the factors pertinent to productivity and lack thereof. And given the appropriate settings, including quality and quantity of patient care, can improve productivity in the nursing field.

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Turnover. In the article written by K. E. Shrader, et al, research was conducted with the purpose of examining the relationship between work satisfaction, stress, age, cohesion, work schedule and anticipated turnover. The study used a cross-sectional design in which 241 staff nurses and five nurses managers from 12 nursing units completed a questionnaire. Burnout. Burnout is defined as "A syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that occurs frequently among individuals who do "people work" of some kind" (Toscano, 1998). The research conducted by P. Toscano and M. Ponterdolph attempted to investigate any correlations that might exist between the personality trait of hardiness and the syndrome of burnout. The researchers used a questionnaire of 100 nurses. Though "this study did not indicate a correlation between personality hardiness and burnout", (Toscano, 1998), it helped to identify factors that do exist. The authors made several suggestions regarding prevention of burnout, such as: improved environment, additional personal time, compensation for certification requirements, age analysis (does burnout affect ages differently?), and stress management (Toscano, 1998) Burnout is a significant contributor to job satisfaction, and needs to be decreased in order to improve job satisfaction. Empowerment. In the article written by H. K. Spence Laschinger and D. Sullivan Havens, the authors discuss testing of the Kanters theory of organizational power. (Kanter, 1993). Based on Kanters work, empowerment is defined as conditions [that] are created that enhance persons ability and

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motivation to develop and make the most constructive use of their talents and experience (Spence Laschinger, 1997). The authors used 150 nurses and the questionnaire method of investigation, and the variables studies were: opportunity, information, support, resources, overall empowerment, formal power, informal power, job tension, work effectiveness, and achievement orientation. Opportunity for growth and movement as well as access challenge and an increase in knowledge and skill was found to be key in motivation towards empowerment (Spence Laschinger, 1997). Lack of opportunity in any form, contributes to negative occupational stress, and limits improvement from within. Emotional exhaustion describes a reduction in the emotional resources of an individual. Individuals usually feel drained or used up and physically fatigued. Depersonalization is characterized by an increase in negative, cynical and insensitive attitudes towards client/patients, as well as colleagues. Low personal accomplishment refers to a feeling of being unable to meet client needs and to satisfy essential elements of job performance. Job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response toward various facets of a persons job, and stems from the incumbent's comparison of actual outcomes with the required outcomes (Cranny, Smith & Stone, 1992). In defining job satisfaction, it is important to distinguish between an overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with components of a job. It is better to measure specific

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components and to determine the sum of the general job satisfaction in a specific job, than just to measure general job satisfaction (Coster, 1992). Cranny et al. (1992) defined job satisfaction as an affective or emotional response toward various facets/actions of a persons job, which derives from the individuals (employees) comparison of actual outcomes with the required outcomes. According to Bassett (1994), worker satisfaction results from external factors in the work situation. However, internal forces, which are entirely unrelated to the work environment, may also play a role in the satisfactory state of the individual. Some people seem to be satisfied in almost every situation while others are the exact opposite. Satisfaction may thus be related to the personality of a person (Staw, Bell & Clausen, 1986). Job performance indicates how well employees perform their tasks. Job performance is a multi-dimensional construct which indicates how well a specific employee is performing his/her job, the initiative they take, the resourcefulness they show in solving problems, the extent to which they complete tasks, the way they utilize their available resource as well as the time and energy they spent on their tasks (Boshoff & Arnolds, 1995; Schepers, 1994). Thus, job performance is a set of behavioral patterns and functions (knowledge, technical competencies, management competencies, conscientiousness and conceptual abilities) relevant to the organizational goal (Murphy & Shiarella, 1997). From the definitions of the constructs burnout, job satisfaction and job performance, it could be deduced that employees who suffers from burnout could be more dissatisfied with their work and perform poor. According to Makin,

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Cooper and Cox (1996), employees satisfaction with aspects of their jobs may influence their motivation, which in turn could affect their performance. However, Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) found an estimated correlation of only 0,17 between job satisfaction and job performance. In line with the opinion expressed by Bassett (1994), it is not assumed here that a more satisfied employee will be a more productive employee, nor is it assumed that job satisfaction is the result of high job performance. A relationship between burnout and satisfaction as well as burnout and job performance could be expected First, it is important to know that there are different kinds of job satisfaction. The surveys just described investigated overall job satisfaction. This is when a person considers the whole job and everything about it. Overall job satisfaction is actually a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction:

Intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only the kind of

work they do, the tasks that make up the job.

Extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider the conditions of

work, such as their pay, coworkers, and supervisor. LOCAL RELATED LITERATURE To learn about the job satisfaction of recent financial planning graduates of a large university in the Philippines, the authors developed a survey on job satisfaction and work experience. The survey was designed to serve three purposes: First, it was assumed that information on job satisfaction of recent

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financial planning graduates would benefit the financial services industry. Second, the information from a university with an established program could serve as a benchmark for other educational programs in financial planning. Third, the information could be used to improve the curriculum at the university. Two social theories compete to explain what determines job satisfaction: the "bottom-up theory" and the "top-down" theory. The bottom-up theory basically states that individuals have needs and that they will be happy if their needs are satisfied. The sum of positive and negative effects is used to determine happiness. If the positive effects are greater than the negative effects, individuals will judge their life as happy. In contrast, top-down theory states that there is "a global propensity to experience things in a positive way." In other words, all individuals have a desire to be happy and this attitude will be the major influence on their lives. Thus, feelings about job satisfaction are generated in one of two ways: from the bottom up by adding positive effects and subtracting negative ones, or from the top down by the diffusion of ones desire to be happy.1 Abraham H. Maslows hierarchical model of human needs can be used to identify the factors affecting job satisfaction. The model states that individuals experience a hierarchy of needs, from lower level to higher level psychological needs.2 Maslows model can be used by individuals to develop a sense of satisfaction in their jobs if they utilize a bottom-up perspective on job satisfaction. Safety is an example of a lower level need; it helps explain the effects of job security and pay on job satisfaction.

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Moving up the hierarchy, it can be observed that individuals also have social needs--for affection, belonging, and acceptance. These needs affect the way that individuals interact with their coworkers and management. The highest need in Maslows hierarchical model is self-actualization. Self-actualization and self-esteem are related to the sense of inner reward that some individuals experience when doing their work. In addition, self-actualization is believed to be one of the principal factors motivating people toward self-employment. Some empirical evidence exists for the bottom-up theory. A study by Alfonso and Andres Sousa-Poza, for example, suggests that job satisfaction is determined by finding a balance between work-role inputs and outputs.3 Examples of work-role inputs include the workers level of education, the number of hours worked, and the type of occupation for which the worker was trained. Examples of work-role outputs are the amount of total compensation received, the level of perceived job security, the opportunities for advancement, the extent to which the job and work are interesting, the amount of independence and selfdirection in the work, the benefits of the work to people and society, and the quality of the relations workers have with their colleagues and management. The Sousa-Poza study found that "having an interesting job" and "having good relations with management" explained the largest proportion of variance in job satisfaction. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES FOREIGN RELATED STUDIES

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Job satisfaction was once a hot topic in academia. From the 1960s through till the late 1980s, management theorists looked at the question from every angle they could think of, trying to find ways to create a contented labour force: one less concerned with money rewards and less inclined to unionize. Researchers expected to find a strong correlation between job satisfaction and productivity. But when this proved elusive, research funding dried up. Unions have never let the question drop. One of the central concerns of PSIs Quality Public Services campaign is the improvement of jobs. As Wendy Caird, coordinator of the campaign, puts it: You wont get quality public services in an environment where workers are stressed out, underpaid, and forced to compete for bonuses and fringe benefits. These quality of working life questions are becoming a defining issue of our campaign. In 1999 the most extensive workplace survey in the USA since the 1970s - What Do Workers Want? reported that:

Most employees want a voice in how their workplace operates; Most employees support the formation of labor-management

committees, to which they elect representatives to run the organization and settle conflicts. It also showed that giving workers the opportunity to express their opinions would raise job satisfaction and increase productivity and profitability. The book provided a particular boost for unions as well, showing that:

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Nearly 90 percent want some sort of independent employee

organization at their workplace.

Many non-union workers favor the creation of unions, and virtually

all union members support their union. Research three years before had also shown that: job satisfaction depends not on absolute pay, but on pay relative to others of the same education and job qualification. In Los Angeles, social workers were found to be comparable to probation officers in skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions. Even so, social workers were paid an average $20,000 less. In the state of Illinois, job analysis showed that registered nurses had jobs which scored much higher in skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions than electricians, but were paid $12,000 less per year. There is not a single country in the world where pay equity is the norm. Traditionally, economists have argued that it is self interest which drives the demand for higher pay. In fact there is evidence that this is true for those at the highest-paid end of the scale: as far as directors are concerned, money appears to be a motivating factor, while job satisfaction is not But for most people satisfaction depends not on objective income, but on the relative amount, compared to others in the organization, and to others in the same occupation. Job satisfaction is related to perceptions of fair pay, rather than high pay. Workers want equal pay for work of equal value. This difference of attitudes towards pay explains why those on higher scales (eg CEOs) seem to

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believe that performance-based pay systems will lead to higher productivity. In their case, it may well be true. But such a belief runs counter to the evidence for most workers. In 2003 an OECD paper found massive problems with performance pay in public services: One conclusion from the experience of OECD countries is that the technique is functioning well in none of these countries' public services. In addition, it has created side effects that are difficult to deal with. A parallel study in Australia showed that performance pay could lead to:

demotivation of staff workplace divisiveness and erosion of co-operation an undermining of teamwork reduction in open feedback within the workplace increased administrative burdens and costs

And in an update to this research, it was further shown that performance levels had been damaged, rather than improved, by the introduction of performance pay. Professor Richard Layard, director of the Centre for Economic

Performance at the London School of Economics, complains about the narrow, economic view of human nature which finds its expression in individual incentives and targets, competitive rankings and comprehensive performance systems. Competition for money and status is a zero-sum game; and the more

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opportunities there are for making comparisons, the greater that dissatisfaction will be. Workers want co-operation, not competition. But should managers care about job satisfaction? Didnt all those years of study fail to establish a clear link between happy workers and productive ones? New evidence is leading to a radical rethink of what job satisfaction consists of. And yes, it is very definitely linked to production levels. In fact, in the right circumstances, job satisfaction and high productivity can reinforce each other. In 2001 a survey of 2,500 Canadian employees concluded that good employment relationships are the key ingredient of a good job The study also showed a strong synergy between job satisfaction and productivity growth. This echoed a finding from two years previously, which has been called the first evidence of a comprehensive link between good people management and business success. Professor Michael West and Malcolm Patterson from the UK Institute of Work Psychology published an eight-year study showing that the organizations which performed best were those which:

avoided aggressive management styles made sure their staff were never bored allowed them to feel they had a stake in the companys

performance.

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Added Patterson, who led the research: It appears that a happy workforce is a more productive workforce. It is a simple message to bosses, but is backed up with hard evidence. For one thing, researchers recognized certain errors in the early reviews, and also realized that seemingly small correlations (ie between job satisfaction and productivity) could amount to huge productivity differences when applied to organizations and to nations. In addition, scientists noticed that certain types of behaviors are consistently related to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is reliably related to organizational citizenship (helping others and the organization not specifically related to ones assigned tasks) and to the absence of bad citizenship (eg stealing from the employer).... more satisfied employees are more practical, helpful, and friendly satisfied workers have lower turnover and absenteeism, and are more punctual, cooperative, and helpful to other workers. The significance of this change in perspective cannot be overstated. Workplace culture the relationships between workers; and between workers and management; and between the organization and society looks set to become the dominant industrial relations issue of the next few years. As competition for markets and resources becomes more intense, improving social dynamics in the workplace will make or break an organization. Workers both want and need an independent, collective voice in this dialogue.

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Management experts David Sirota, Louis Mischkind and Michael Meltzer have surveyed over four million workers in 89 countries over the past 30 years. Their new book, The Enthusiastic Employee - How Companies Profit by Giving Workers What They Want, reports that 90% percent of employees become indifferent to their workplace over time. The top 10% of companies today are those which meet three goals which the vast majority of employees desire: equity, achievement and camaraderie. These goals apply to all workers, whether they are baby boomers, Gen X, Gen Y, or Gen D (digital). With an enthusiastic workforce, the authors report, employee turnover can be reduced by as much as 80% and performance can be increased by 25%. It is a good moment to remember the words of management theorist Frederick Herzberg, who in many ways launched this field of enquiry in the late 1950s: If you want someone to do a good job, give them a good job to do. In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the psychological processes that might underlie dispositional causes of job satisfaction. In this research, the dispositional causes of burnout, job satisfaction and job performance are studied from a salutogenic paradigm (which focuses on the origins of health) (Antonovsky, 1987; Strmpfer, 1990) or fortigenic paradigm (which focuses on the origins of strengths) (Strmpfer, 1995). Sense of coherence is defined as a feeling of confidence that ones internal and external environments are predictable and that things will work out as planned. (Antonovsky, 1987). The definition of sense of coherence includes three

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dimensions that represent the concept, viz. comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness (Antonovsky, 1987). Strmpfer, Danana, Gouws and Viviers (1998) found a moderate correlation (r = 0,47) between sense of coherence and job satisfaction. Coetzee and Rothmann (1999) found a moderate relationship between job satisfaction and sense of coherence. In contrast to this were the findings of Naud and Rothmann (2000) who have found no practical significance between job satisfaction and sense of coherence. However, Rothmann (2000) found a practically significant correlation of large effect between sense of coherence and job satisfaction in eight organizations. Levert et al. (2000) reported significant correlation coefficients between two components of burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and sense of coherence. Strydom (2000) found no significant relationship between sense of coherence and job performance. A study by Dolan (1987) showed that burnout is related to job dissatisfaction. In general, work-related factors are more strongly associated with burnout than individual factors (Shaufeli & Janczur, 1994). Role conflict and role ambiguity, that indirectly influences burnout (Levert et al., 2000), was found to influence job satisfaction (Bhana & Haffejee, 1996; Harrison, 1980). It has been found that low individual productivity is related to burned-out individuals (Golembiewski & Munzenrider, 1988). However, the efficiency of intensive-care units has been found to be better when the average level of burnout was higher among nurses (Schaufeli, Keijsters & Reis Mirand, 1995).

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Another important component of job satisfaction is the workers attitude toward the job. The intrinsic rewards of a job--such as a sense of control over ones work and a feeling of accomplishment--are important determinants of job satisfaction. More complex jobs generally are more mentally challenging, and when workers have various autonomous tasks in their jobs, they tend to have more of a sense of control. Previous studies have shown that job satisfaction is negatively related to the performance of routine tasks, and also that job satisfaction is positively related to the performance of more complex and autonomous tasks. Several studies take a social approach to job satisfaction, examining the influence of supervision, management, and coworker social support. An individuals level of job satisfaction might be a function of personal characteristics and the characteristics of the groups to which she or he belongs. The social context of work is likely to have a significant impact on a workers attitude and behavior. Relationships with both coworkers and supervisors are important. Some studies have shown that the better the relationship, the greater the level of job satisfaction. Studies in the field of consumer satisfaction have shown that consumers experience more satisfaction with a product or service if their expectations are congruent with the experience itself. Applying this concept to the work experience suggests that job satisfaction will be determined by a comparison of ones prior expectations about the job to ones actual experience on the job.

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LOCAL RELATED STUDIES Often times, teachers are affected by stress and problems at home or in meeting deadlines and requirements of the educational institutions by which they are teaching. Due to this, most of the time stressed teachers are showing unprofessional and improper teaching behaviors. Pareja (1989) believed that in the Philippines all teachers in regardless by the level they teach, are expected to possess above everything else, these qualities are: approachability, intelligence and open-mindedness and serve as models of good behavior and to have concern to the learners. If the teachers as well as the parents will always put to mind their responsibilities, failure will be lessened. Bustos (1985) cited that teachers should have adequate knowledge of the subject matter, formulate workable instructional objectives, understand the nature of the learner, have wide interest and love for the young and resourceful in meeting problems in the classroom. A pleasing personality, a neat and well groomed appearance, a good sense of humor, happy disposition and enthusiasm are significant contributory factors to enhance better performance among students. SIGNIFICANCE AND RELATIONSHIP OF PREVIOUS STUDIES TO THE STUDY AT PRESENT In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the psychological processes that might underlie dispositional causes of job satisfaction, other researches that are related to job-satisfactions are those researches that

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concerns those different factors that stresses the workers rendering them to perform at a lower level of performance. In this research, the researchers have considered the different conditions that are satisfying as perceived by the respondents eventually leading to the discovery of different facts that will be considered as problems related to hotel and restaurant administration and management in the implementation and proposal for plans for the development, growth and welfare of health providers. Sense of coherence is defined as a feeling of confidence that ones internal and external environments are predictable and that things will work out as planned. (Antonovsky, 1987). The definition of sense of coherence includes three dimensions that represent the concept, viz. comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness (Antonovsky, 1987).

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter will presents the research design of the study, the respondents, data gathering procedure, instruments, the administration and collection of the statement data. RESEARCH DESIGN The research will use the descriptive method of research using the survey questionnaire and document analysis as the main instrument. All the data to be gathered from the respondents will be treated with appropriate statistical computations for a scientific analysis and interpretation as well as the informal interview in order the data to be gathered. A survey design was used to reach the research objectives. The specific design is the cross-sectional design, whereby a sample is drawn from a population at a particular point in time (Shaughnessy & Zechmeister, 1997). Many authors have described this method as fact-finding that provides adequate interpretation of information, more than just a data gathering technique. As described by Sevilla (1990), Descriptive type of research is a direct source of

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new knowledge and it involves collection of data in order to test hypothesis and to answer problems of the study. Descriptive research describes and interprets the what of any sort (Sanchez, 1997). It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs and processes that are going on, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. According to Aquino (1998), data collected and logically classified a reported in the point of view of objectives and the basic assumption of the study, then discussion of those data is carried up into the level of adequate interpretation in terms of ordered reasoning. Researchers use this method when they depict current status and identify relationships that exist among phenomena or trends that appear to be developing. It involves an element of interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described, and the description is often combined with comparison and contrast involving measurement, classification, interpretations and evaluations. Furthermore, this method as viewed by Best (1989) is concerned with hypothesis formulation and testing, the analysis of relationship between nonmanipulative variables and the development of generalization.

THE LOCALE OF THE STUDY This study was conducted in the selected hotel and restaurant establishments for the calendar year 2007-2008 located in the various municipalities of Zambales. Each of these hotel and restaurant establishment

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caters hospitality services and other hotel and restaurant related services to people of the Zambales community and tourists alike.

Figure 2: Map of the Province of Zambales

THE RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY The sample includes employees of the selected hotel and restaurant establishments that include both hotel and restaurant personnel and hotel and restaurant industry administrators. The total population of health workers that shall be considered as respondents of this study shall be included in the empirical study. THE SURVEY INSTRUMENT For the research instrument that was considered for this study, the researchers have consolidated data and essential information as based from the 56

following questionnaires and survey materials that were recently used by the both foreign and local researchers in the business industry, these are enumerated as follows: The Orientation to Life Questionnaire (OLQ) was used to measure participants sense of coherence. The OLQ consists of 29 items. Antonovsky (1993) reported alpha coefficients of the OLQ in 29 research studies varying between 0,85 and 0,91. Test-retest reliability studies found coefficients between 0,41 and 0,97 (Antonovsky, 1993). Rothmann (2000) reported an alpha coefficient 0,89 for the OLQ, which may be regarded as acceptable (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Regarding the construct validity of the OLQ, it was found that there is a negative relationship between the OLQ and experienced stress and that the OLQ correlates negatively with the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait" and the "Beck Depression Inventory" (Frenz, Carey & Jorgensen, 1993). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to determine participants' level of burnout. The MBI consists of three sub-scales, namely Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). The three sub-scales of the MBI were dealt with separately in this study, based on considerable factor-analytic support for their separation (Maslach & Jackson, 1986; Schaufeli & Janczur, 1994). Maslach and Jackson (1986) and Lahoz and Mason (1989) reported Cronbach alpha coefficients varying from 0,71 to 0,90 for the three sub-scales of the MBI. Test-retest reliability varied from 0,60 to 0,82 and 0,54 to 0,60 (applied after one year). External validation of the MBI comes from analyses of its convergence with peer

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ratings, job dimensions associated with burnout, and stress outcomes (Maslach & Jackson, 1984). The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1967) was used to measure employees' job satisfaction. Test-retest reliabilities of 0,70 and 0,80 were found over a span of a week and a year respectively (Cook, Hepworth, Wall & Warr, 1981). In this study a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0,96 was found for total job satisfaction. The mean inter-item correlation is 0,22, which is acceptable for broad higher order constructs (Clark & Watson, 1995). The Performance Appraisal Questionnaire (PAQ) (Schepers, 1994) was used to measure job performance. The PAQ has three scales, namely Performance, Creativity and Management skills. Acceptable Cronbach alpha coefficients were found for the questionnaire. Managers appraise the performance of each employee. All managers will undergo a half-day intensive rater-training course to ensure that they were aware of and able to avoid common pitfalls. CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF THE SURVEY INSTRUMENT STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The statistical analysis is carried out by using the SAS program (SAS Institute, 2000). Cronbach alpha coefficients and inter-item correlation

coefficients to assess the reliability and validity of the measuring instruments (Clark & Watson, 1995). Descriptive statistics (e.g. means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis) will be used to analyze the data. To determine the

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proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is predicted by the independent variables, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted. The effect size (which indicates practical significance) in the case of multiple regression is given by following formula (Steyn, 1999):

TREATMENT OF THE DATA The following statistical treatment of data was employed to analyze and interpret the data: 1. Percentage (%). It was used to describe the percent distribution of the profile of the respondents in terms of sex, age, parents educational attainment and family monthly income. Formula Where : : % = (f / N) x 100 % - Percentage F - Frequency N Total No. of Respondents 2. Weighted Mean (WX). This was employed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of the respondents with respect to their degree of job-satisfaction and desired managerial styles. Formula Where : : WX = wx / N WX weighted mean W Weight of score X Score N Total number of respondents

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3. t-Test was employed to test the significant difference between responses of several groups of respondents based on the attitudes and behaviors of the respondents with respect to their degree of job-satisfaction and desired managerial styles. Formula : t = d / Sd d=d/n Sd = ( d2 nd2) / (n-1) Sd = Sd / n Where : t = t value d = difference between two paired observation n = number of paired observation INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA A Likert Scale type of instrument, as illustrated below, as employed for the qualitative description of data that includes: interpretation of findings of the study based on the responses of both the Hotel and Restaurant supervisor-andpersonnel respondents on their perceptions toward each indicator of employees job-satisfaction level and its probable effect on the marketability of their establishments which were considered significant and therefore adopted in this research study; and in the process of testing hypotheses as stated in Chapter 1. This Likert Scale type of instrument is shown below: Numerical Value 5 4 3 2 1 Point Scale 4.20 5.00 3.40 4.19 2.60 3.39 1.80 2.59 1.00 1.79 Descriptive Equivalent Very Competent Competent Moderately Competent Fairly Competent Not Competent at All Symbol VC CO MC FC NCA

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Figure 3: Likert Scale used for Interpretation of Data and Results of the Study

CHAPTER 4 PRRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The results are presented, analyzed and interpreted in accordance to the objectives of the study. The first section includes the profile of the supervisors and their subordinates. The second part deals with the leadership style of supervisors as perceived by their subordinates. The third part deals with the job satisfaction of subordinates. The fourth section deals with the relation ship

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between the independent and dependent variables. The last part deals with the relationship between the leadership style of supervisors and their profile and relationship between job satisfaction of subordinates and their personal profile. Profile of Supervisors Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 reflect the profile of the supervisors that include: agerange, gender, years in service, civil status, educational attainment, occupation of spouse, monthly family income, and number of in-service training they have attended. Age Range The age range of the respondent-supervisors is presented in Table 2. Of the eleven supervisors, five (5) belong to the age rage 46-50 years old. The rest of the respondents, that is, five (5) belong to age range 51-55; there were two (2) supervisor-respondents that fall under the 45-below age range; and one (1) of these respondents falls under the age range: 56-60 years old. The data imply that there are more supervisors who are considered relatively young (falling under the age range of 50 years old and below) as compared to those respondents who were categorized to fall above 51 years of age and were classified as older respondents. All of them, however, are in the middle adulthood stage indicating that these supervisors possess maturity to be able to lead their subordinates with patience and understanding. Gender Almost all the respondents (10) are male except one (1) whop heads the administrative as shown in Table 2. This information discloses that the Hotel and

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Restaurant Allied Agencies is supervised more by male supervisors than female supervisors. In a patriarchal society like the Philippines, this is a normal situation since the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies whose main function, is culturally considered as a mans domain. TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE RANGE, GENDER AND YEARS IN SERVICE VARIABLES AGE RANGE 56 60 51 55 46 50 45 - below GENDER Male Female YEARS IN SERVICE 12 34 56 Gender Almost all the respondents (10) are male except one (1) who heads the administrative as shown in Table 2. This information discloses that the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies is supervised more by male supervisors than female supervisors. In a patriarchal society like the Philippines, this is a normal situation since the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies whose main function, is culturally considered as a mans domain. Years in Service FREQUENCY 1 3 5 2 10 1 2 0 9 PERCENT 9.19 27.27 45.45 18.18 90.91 9.09 18.18 0 81.82

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As reflected in Table 2, nine (9) respondents are in between 5-6 years as supervisors, the remaining two (2) respondents are in between 1-2 years. The data chow that more super visors have longer supervisory experience, however, the difference between the old and the young supervisors is not so great. In fact, if one considers their age, all the respondents can be considered young in terms of their number years as supervisors.

TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY CIVIL STATUS AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT VARIABLES CIVIL STATUS Married Widowed HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Bachelor Masters (with academic requirements Completed) Civil Status FREQUENCY 10 1 8 3 PERCENT 90.91 9.09 72.73 27.27

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As shown in Table 3, almost all (10) respondents are married except one (1) who is a widow. The respondents-supervisors are all breadwinners as shown by their status. Highest Educational Attainment On the educational attainment of respondents, eight (8) are bachelors degree holders. Only three (3) respondents have completed their academic requirements in the masters program. The data disclose that the academic qualification of the supervisors is still low, considering their position in their organization. This suggests the need for them to upgrade themselves educationally. The Administration of the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies of Zambales requires those who have supervisory positions to obtain a masters degree to qualify for their present position or to be given the opportunity for promotion to higher rank. In addition, supervisors who possess maturity in supervisory functions and management this shall enable them to lead their subordinates with patience and understanding. TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATION OF SPOUSE AND MONTHLY FAMILY INCOME VARIABLES OCCUPATION OF SPOUSE Unemployed Non-skilled Skilled Professional MONTHLY FAMILY INCOME 11,000.00 20,000.00 21,000.00 30,000.00 31,000.00 40,000.00 FREQUENCY 5 1 4 1 9 1 1 PERCENT 45.45 9.09 36.36 9.09 81.82 9.10 9.10

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Occupation of Spouse As to the occupation of the spouses of the respondents as reflected in Table 4, five (5) spouses are unemployed while four (4) are skilled workers. There is one (1) spouse who is non-skilled and another one (1) is a professional. Ion a way, five (5) or 50 percent of the supervisor-respondents have spouses who helped them financially although as the data show, it is not so significant considering the occupations they are engaged in. Monthly Family Income Table 4 shows the monthly family income of respondents. Nine (9) of them have income ranging between P11,000.00 P20,000.00. One (1) respondent has income ranging between P21,000.00 P30,000.00 and another one (1) respondent has an income ranging between P31,000.00 P40,000.00. As the distribution shows, majority of the respondents have low family income. TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING ATTENDED SINCE DESIGNATED AS SUPERVISOR TRAININGS ATTENDED Management-Related Training 02 35 68 9 - 11 12 14 15 - Above Non-Management-Related Training 02 35 68 9 - 11 12 14 FREQUENCY 2 6 1 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 PERCENT 18.18 54.55 9.09 9.09 0 9.09 18.18 18.18 9.09 18.18 9.09

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15 17 18 21 22 - Above

0 2 1

0 18.18 9.09

Number of Trainings Attended Since Designated as Supervisor Trainings attended by the respondents since they were designated as supervisors are categorized into two as reflected in Table 5: management-related training and non-management-related training. On management-related training, six (6) have attended between 0-2 trainings. One (1) respondent has attended between 6-8 trainings, one has attended between 9-11 trainings and another one (1) has attended between 12-14 trainings. In terms of attendance to management-related training, majority of the supervisors have few trainings. On non-management related trainings, seven (7) respondents have attended between 0-11 trainings while four (4) have attended 12 and above number of trainings. Similarly, more respondents have lesser attendance to nonmanagement related training. In general, the supervisors have more attendance in non-management related trainings that may not be useful for their supervisory position as leaders. Profile of Subordinates Tables 6 and 7 present the gender, age range, civil status, educational attainment and years in service of the respondents-subordinates Gender Of the sixty-one (61) respondents, fifty-six (56) or 91.80 percent are male while only five (5) are female (Table 6). In terms of gender, the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies is a male-dominated department. In fact, female

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members are assigned in the office rather than in the field, as observed by the researcher. This distribution is similar to that of the gender profile of supervisors. Age Range Table 6 reflects the age range of the respondents. Thirty nine (39) respondents belong to the age range between 22 27 years old. The rest of the respondents (22) belong to the age range between 38 and above. Majority of the respondents-subordinates, as the distribution suggests, belong to the younger group. Since they are younger, they need the guidance that their supervisors can provide to them. Civil Status In terms of civil status, majority (42) are married while sixteen (16) are single. Three (3) are widowed. Just like their supervisors, the subordinates are their families breadwinners. TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY GENDER, AGE RANGE AND CIVIL STATUS VARIABLES GENDER Male Female AGE RANGE 22 25 26 29 30 33 34 37 38 41 42 45 46 49 50 53 54 - Above CIVIL STATUS Single FREQUENCY 56 5 6 11 11 11 7 4 5 5 1 16 PERCENT 91.80 8.20 9.83 18.03 18.03 18.03 11.48 6.56 8.20 8.20 1.64 26.23

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Married Widowed Profile of Subordinates

42 3

68.52 4.92

Tables 6 and 7 present the gender, age range, civil status, educational attainment and years in service of the respondents-subordinates Gender Of the sixty-one (61) respondents, fifty-six (56) or 91.80 percent are male while only five (5) are female (Table 6). In terms of gender, the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies is a male-dominated department. In fact, female members are assigned in the office rather than in the field, as observed by the researcher. This distribution is similar to that of the gender profile of supervisors. Age Range Table 6 reflects the age range of the respondents. Thirty nine (39) respondents belong to the age range between 22 27 years old. The rest of the respondents (22) belong to the age range between 38 and above. Majority of the respondents-subordinates, as the distribution suggests, belong to the younger group. Since they are younger, they need the guidance that their supervisors can provide to them. Civil Status In terms of civil status, majority (42) are married while sixteen (16) are single. Three (3) are widowed. Just like their supervisors, the subordinates are their families breadwinners. Educational Attainment

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Table 7 reflects the educational attainment of respondents. Of the 61 respondents, only twenty-four (24) are college graduate. Majority of them (37) do not have a college degree. These respondents are college undergraduate (17), high school graduate (12) or vocational graduate (8). In terms of educational attainment, the distribution shows that the subordinates have low educational attainment. But considering their positions in the plantilla, being Security Guards, the minimum educational qualification is a high school diploma. In case they aim for a promotion, then, they have to go back to school and get a college diploma and civil service eligibility. Years in Service As can be observed in Table 7, twenty six (26) of the respondents have between 1 3 years in service. There are sixteen (16) who have between 10 -12 years in the service while ten (10) have between 7 9 years in the service. The remaining nine (9) have between 4 7 years in the service. Majority (35) of the respondents belong to the younger group in the service (1-6) compared to the older group of twenty-six (26) respondents. In terms of years in service, majority of them are still new. In such case, subordinates need the patience and understanding or matured supervisors who are always on hand to provide guidance towards the attainment of organizations goal. TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, YEARS IN SERVICE VARIABLES HIGHEST EDUCATONAL ATTAINMENT High Scholl Graduate FREQUENCY 12 PERCENT 19.67

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Vocational Graduate College Undergraduate College Graduate Masters Level YEARS IN SERVICE 13 46 79 10 12

8 17 24 0 26 9 10 16

13.11 27.87 39.34 0 42.62 14.75 16.39 26.23

Leadership Style of Supervisors The mean of the four dimensions of leadership style and the standard deviation of each are shown in Table 8. The highest mean among the four leadership styles is obtained by contingent reward with a mean of 3.93; following closely is charismatic leadership with a mean of 3.90. Management by exemption obtained a mean of 3.77 while individualized consideration was rated the lowest with a mean of 3.71. The results obtained indicate that supervisors of the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies as perceived by their subordinates possess more of the characteristics of contingent reward style of leadership. It implies that the supervisors provide various kinds of rewards in exchange for mutually agreed upon goal accomplishment. As indicated by a mean of 3.90, which is a .03difference with that of contingent reward, supervisors, supervisors also possess charismatic characteristics of leadership style. It means that the supervisors also provide vision and a sense of mission and they instill pride, respect and trust among their followers.

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It should be observed that all the leadership styles obtained a high mean indicating that the supervisors, in one way or another, possess some characteristics of management by exemption and individualized consideration.

TABLE 8 MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SUPERVISORS LEADERSHIP STYLE Charismatic Leadership Individualized Consideration Contingent Reward Management by Exemption MEAN 3.90 (High) 3.71 (High) 3.93 (High) 3.77 (High) SD .70 .67 .66 .72

Job Satisfaction It is indicated in Table 9 that the mean of the job satisfaction of the subordinate respondents is 4.26 indicating satisfaction in their job. The finding reveals that the subordinates are satisfied with the tasks that they are performing, the pay they receive, the promotional opportunities for their advancement, the technical and managerial abilities of their supervisors and the attitude of their co-workers. TABLE 9

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MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF JOB SATISFACTION OF SUBORDINATES VARIABLE Job Satisfaction MEAN 4.26 - Satisfied SD 0.67

Leadership Style of Supervisors The mean of the four dimensions of leadership style and the standard deviation of each are shown in Table 8. The highest mean among the four leadership styles is obtained by contingent reward with a mean of 3.93; following closely is charismatic leadership with a mean of 3.90. Management by exemption obtained a mean of 3.77 while individualized consideration was rated the lowest with a mean of 3.71. The results obtained indicate that supervisors of the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies as perceived by their subordinates possess more of the characteristics of contingent reward style of leadership. It implies that the supervisors provide various kinds of rewards in exchange for mutually agreed upon goal accomplishment. As indicated by a mean of 3.90, which is a .03difference with that of contingent reward, supervisors, supervisors also possess charismatic characteristics of leadership style. It means that the supervisors also provide vision and a sense of mission and they instill pride, respect and trust among their followers.

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It should be observed that all the leadership styles obtained a high mean indicating that the supervisors, in one way or another, possess some characteristics of management by exemption and individualized consideration.

Correlation of Leadership/Managerial Style of Supervisors with the JobSatisfaction of their Sub-ordinates The relationship of the four dimensions of leadership style, namely: the charismatic-type leadership, the individualized-consideration type of leadership, the contingent-reward type of leadership, and the management by exemption type of leadership style, as associated to the job satisfaction and performance of their personnel, such of which were shown in Table 10. The result reveals that charismatic type of leadership has low positive correlation to the workers job satisfaction (r = 0.3117), and was found to be significant in its relationship, p = 0.014, when analyzed and interpreted at 0.05 level of significance. This findings implies that the more supervisors and managers of hotel and restaurant establishments practices the charismatic type of leadership the satisfied their subordinates with respect to their job and to their performance. The Individualized-Consideration type of leadership was found positively correlated to job-satisfaction (r = 0.2207) but was also found to be NOT significant at 0.05 level of significance, as based from the value of p = 0.087. This therefore implies that if managers of hotel and/or restaurant establishments will

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have to make use of the individualized consideration type, this shall render no effect on their workers degree of satisfaction to their job. The contingent reward was found positively correlated to job satisfaction (r = 0.3573) and was found significant using 0.05 level of significance (p = 0.005). The result means that contingent reward is significantly correlated to job satisfaction. It indicates that the more the supervisors show the contingent reward of leadership style, the higher the job satisfaction of job satisfaction of their subordinates. It implies the need for subordinates to be rewards so that the agreed goals will be achieved. Management by exemption was found positively correlated to job satisfaction (r 0.3007) and found significant at .05 level of significance (p - . 019). It means that management by exemption is significantly correlated to job satisfaction indicating that the more supervisors show management by exemption style of leadership, the higher the job satisfaction of their subordinates. The finding reveals that supervisors have to make definite the tasks to be undertaken by their subordinates. Job satisfaction of subordinates comes from the technical and managerial abilities of their supervisors. The findings are contrary to the findings of Roda-Gayta (1989) in her study that the leadership styles of principals do not significantly affect job satisfaction. However, the findings of this study validated that of Shieh, Mills and Waltz (2001).

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TABLE 10 CORRELATION OF LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SUPERVISORS WITH JOB SATISFACTION OF SUBORDINATES LEADERSHIP STYLE Charismatic Leadership Individualized Consideration Contingent Reward Management by Exemption CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 0.3117 0.2207 0.3573 0.3007 P .014 .087 .005 .019

Correlation of Supervisors Profile on their Leadership Style It was assumed that there are aspects of supervisors profile that tend to affect certain factors of their leadership style. These factors include age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, occupation of spouse, family income, management-related training, non-management related training and years in service. Table 11 reflects the results of the correlation between the supervisors profile on their leadership style. On charismatic leadership style, no supervisors personal; characteristics was found to be significantly correlated at .05 level of significance. On individualized consideration, the result show that occupation of spouse is negatively correlated (r = -.552) and significantly (0.018) at .05 level of significance. The relationship implies that a better occupation of spouses does

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not in any way affect the style of leadership of supervisors in terms of individualized consideration. On contingent reward, the result shows that there were no personal characteristics of supervisors found to be significantly correlated at .05 level of significance. Management by exemption was found negatively correlated (r = -0.541) to occupation of spouse and significant (p 0.020) at .05 level of significance. It indicates that a higher level of occupation of spouse does not improve the leadership style of supervisors in terms of management by exemption. TABLE 11 CORRELATION OF SUPERVISORS PROFILE ON THEIR LEADFERSHIP STYLE
VARIABLES AGE GENDER CIVIL STATUS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OCCUPATION OF SPOUSE FAMILY INCOME MGT-RELATED TRAINING NON-MGT RELATED TRAINING YEARS IN SERVICE CL r:p 0.1489 : 0.524 -0.043 : 0.854 0.258 : 0.269 -0.333 : 0.153 -0.348 : 0.136 -0.353 : 0.131 0.214 : 0.359 -0.057 : 0.360 0:1 IC r:p 0.065 : 0.782 0.043 : 0.852 0.261 : 0.264 -0.336 : 0.149 -0.552 : 0.018 -0.291 : 0.212 0.432 : 0.064 0.152 : 0.514 -0.065 : 0.782 CR r:p 0.190 : 0.417 -0.85 : 0.715 0.341 : 0.144 -0.275 : 0.239 -0.394 : 0.092 -0.381 : 0.102 0.250 : 0.284 -0.075 : 0.749 0:1 ME r:p -0.063 : 0.787 -0.171 : 0.465 0.341 : 0.144 -0.385 : 0.098 -0.541 : 0.020 -0.445 : 0.057 0.289 : 0.216 0.246 : 0.291 0:1

Correlation of Subordinates Personal Profile on Their Job Satisfaction It was assumed that there are certain aspects of subordinates job satisfaction that significantly affect their job satisfaction. These include gender, age, civil status, educational attainment and years in service. The results of the correlational analysis are found in Table 12. The correlation shows that gender and years in service are positively correlated (r = 0.069; r = 0.030) to job satisfaction but not significantly at .05 level

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of significance. On the other hand, age, civil status, and educational attainment are negatively correlated (r = -0.020; r = -0.054; r = -0.139) but not significant at . 05 level of significance. The findings indicate job satisfaction of subordinates is not affected by their personal characteristics. TABLE 12 CORRELATION OF SUBORDIANTES PERSONAL PROFILE ON THEIR JOB SATISFACTION VARIABLES GENDER AGE CIVIL STATUS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEARS IN SERVICE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 0.069 -0.020 -0.054 -0.139 0.030 p 0.429 0.817 0.540 0.112 0.728

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Presented in this chapter is the summary of findings, conclusions formulated and recommendations given in relation to the problem investigated.

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Summary of Findings The study was conducted to determine what leadership styles of supervisors significantly affect job satisfaction of subordinates. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the leadership style of the supervisors of the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies of the Tourism Sector of Zambales as perceived by their subordinates? 2. What is the level of job satisfaction of the subordinates of the supervisors of the Law Enforcement Department? 3. Which leadership style of supervisors significantly affects the level of job satisfaction of their subordinates? 4. Is the leadership style of supervisors significantly affected by their personal profile? 5. Is the job satisfaction of the subordinates significantly affected by their personal profile? The study was a descriptive researching the survey method, with a set of questionnaire. A total of eleven supervisors and sixty-one (61) subordinates of the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies was the participant of the study. 6. The economic status of supervisors is low as indicated by the occupation of their spouse and the monthly family income. 7. Supervisors have more attendance to non-0management related trainings than management-related trainings that may not be useful for their supervisory position.

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8. Supervisors possess more of the characteristics of contingent reward style of leadership and charismatic leadership than management by exemption and individualized consideration. Supervisors provide various kinds of rewards in exchange for mutually agreed upon goal accomplishment. AT the same time, they provide vision, a sense of mission and instill pride, respect and trust among their subordinates. 9. Subordinates are satisfied with their jobs as indicated by a mean of 4.26 10. Charismatic leadership, contingent reward and management by exemption are significantly correlated with job satisfaction. The hypothesis that leadership style of supervisors significantly affects the level of job satisfaction of subordinates is therefore partly accepted. 11. The hypothesis that leadership style of supervisors is significantly affected by their personal profile is partly accepted since occupation of spouse was found top significantly affect individualized consideration and management by exemption. 12. The hypothesis that job satisfaction of subordinates is significantly affected by their personal profile is rejected since no profile variable was found to significantly affect subordinates job satisfaction.

The important findings of the study are summarized in seven parts: the profile of supervisors; the profile of subordinates; the leadership style of supervisors; the job satisfaction of subordinates; the relationship style on job satisfaction; the relationship of personal profile of supervisors on their leadership

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style; and, the relationship of personal profile of subordinates on their job satisfaction. Personal Profile of Supervisors 1. Seven (7) supervisors belong to age range 50 years old and below while four (4) belong to age range 51 years old and above. 2. Almost all the supervisors are male except one (1) who heads the administrative division of Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies. 3. In terms of years of service nine (9) supervisors experience ranging between 5 6 years while two (2) supervisors have only between 1 2 years in the service. 4. Almost all the supervisors are married except one who is a widow. 5. On the educational attainment of the supervisors, eight (8) supervisors are bachelors degree holder while three (3) have completed their academic requirements in the masters program. 6. Five (5) of the spouses of the supervisors are unemployed while the remaining six (6) are employed, four (4) of these are skilled workers, one (1) is unskilled worker and another one (1) is a professional. 7. Nine supervisors have monthly family income ranging between

P11,000.00 P20,000.00. The remaining two have income ranging between P21,000.00 P30,000.00 and between P31,000.00

P40,000.00, respectively. 8. Nine (9) supervisors attended between 0-8 management-related trainings while the remaining three (3) supervisors attended more than eight

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management-related training. On management-related trainings, seven (7) supervisors have attended between 0-11 trainings while four (4) attended 12 and above trainings. Profile of Subordinates 9. Fifty-six (56) subordinates are male while only five (5) are female who are assigned in the office rather than in the field. 10. Thirty-nine (39) subordinates belong to age range between 22-37 years old. The rest of the respondents (22) are above 37 years old. 11. Majority of them (42) are married while nineteen (19) are single. 12. Majority of the subordinates (37) do not have a college degree who are either college undergraduate (17), high school graduate (12) or vocational graduate (8) while twenty-four (24) of them are degree holders. 13. Thirty-five (35) subordinates have 1-6 years in the service and twenty six (26) have been in the service between 7-12 years. Leadership Style of Supervisors 14. Subordinates perceived that their supervisors possess more the characteristics of contingent reward style of leadership with the highest mean of 3.93, followed closely by charismatic leadership (Mean = 3.90), management by exemption (M = 3.77) and ;last, the individualized consideration (M = 3.71). Job Satisfaction of Subordinates

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15. The mean of the job satisfaction of subordinates is. 4.26 indicating satisfactory satisfaction in their job. Correlation of Supervisors Leadership Styles with Job Satisfaction of Subordinates 16. Charismatic leadership has low positive correlation to job satisfaction (r = 0.3117) and significant at .05 level of significance (p = .014). 17. Contingent reward has a positive correlation to job satisfaction (r = .3573) and significant at .05 level of significance (p = .005) 18. Management by exemption has positive correlation to job satisfaction (r = 0.3007) and significant at .05 level of significance (p = .019). Correlation of Supervisors Profile on Their Leadership Style 19. Occupation of spouse is both negatively correlated to individualized consideration (r = -0.552) and management by exemption (r = -0.541) and significant at .05 level of significance (p = 0.018) and (p = 0.020) respectively.

Correlation of Subordinates Profile on their Job Satisfaction 20. Gender and years in service are positively correlated but not significant at .05 level of significance. Correlation of Job Satisfaction and Marketability 83

To ensure this flawless execution of every hotel and restaurant management located in Zambales, there needs to be a skilled business supervisors and analyst communicating business needs and effective human relationships and friendly environment as perceived by the personnel/workers of hotel and restaurant establishments. Through hands-on experience and focused work-related experiences and conditions; good management, managerial styles, and trainings of supervisors will give each and every hotel and restaurant establishments answers and working solutions to the need to succeed in hospitality-businesses today. In addition, it was inferred from the study how hotel and restaurant businesses may be structured and managed considering the behaviors and attitudes of their workers/personnel, among these findings are enumerated as follows:

Better satisfaction of workers with regards to their job conditions

ensures increase in the workers job efficiency;

Improvement of job efficiency renders an increase in the workers

job performance;

Increase in the establishments performance will do better public

acceptability as well as the marketability of the services and products of the different hotel and restaurant businesses;

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Other ways to improve the marketability of hotels and restaurant establishments as related to job satisfaction, management and leadership styles, are listed as follows:

increase hotel and restaurant's bottom line by cutting development

costs for new business applications

establishments should save valuable time by knowing how to

effectively streamline the introduction of new products and services

the management must react quickly to ever-changing regulations

and improve quality assurance Recommendations From the findings identified and the conclusions formulated, the following recommendations are given: 1. Since it was found that the Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies is male-dominated, the need for gender-sensitivity training is

recommended to be attended to by all personnel of the department. Such basic orientation on gender issues will serve as an eye opener for Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies leadership to consider the idea of designating more women supervisors to work in the field rather than being concentrated in the office. Among the rank and file, a need to increase the strength of women in male-dominated department must also be considered.

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2. There is also a need to look into the salary of supervisors because a low economic status may affect ones performance. The Administration must conduct a thorough study on how to improve the salary of supervisors or provide them incentives. 3. The educational qualification of the supervisors must be improved. The Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies leadership must encourage their people to go back to school and take further studies in the graduate program. An employee development program aimed primarily to provide scholarship grants for supervisors and subordinates can be proposed to Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies administrators. 4. Since it was found out that supervisors have more attendance to nonmanagement-related trainings, it is recommended that a study on the possibility of sending them to management-related training as well as leadership training must be done. Their attendance to these would be an avenue for exposure to other leadership styles like transformational leadership styles which were found to have significantly improved satisfaction of employees. 5. The management must devise a section process, the purpose of which is to be able to identify potential supervisors who will later replace the older supervisors. Those selected can be sent to trainings on leadership. 6. The subordinates were found to be satisfied with their jobs. The Hotel and Restaurant Allied Agencies management must see to it that

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subordinates must maintain their satisfaction with their jobs by providing increases in salary or additional incentives, improving working conditions, or providing opportunity for advancement. 7. For further research, this study can be replicated to all the department of Hotel and Restaurant establishments in Zambales utilizing supervisors and their subordinates. A study of the leadership styles in relation to performance is also recommended with Department Managers as respondents.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Anker, R. (1997) Theories of occupational segregation by sex: an overview, International Labour Review, 136, 31549.

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APPENDIX A

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December 2007 The Chairman Department of Tourism Zambales SIR: Please be informed that the researchers, whose names are enumerated below, are graduating students of Ramon Magsaysay Technological University at Iba, Zambales, taking up Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. We are currently working on our undergraduates research study regarding leadership style, marketability and job satisfaction. The purpose of this research is to determine what leadership style significantly affects job performance of employees. Data needed for the study will be gathered at the selected municipalities of Zambales. In this connection, we are requesting that may we please be allowed to distribute questionnaires to the supervisors and employees of the selected Hotel and Restaurant establishments. We hope for your kind consideration. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, EMMANUEL E. BIAGAN WADE L. MAGSOY MEDRIAN CHRISTOPHER JOHN V. ALBANIEL (Researchers)

APPENDIX B

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LETTER TO THE RESPONDENTS December 2007 Dear Respondents, We are currently working on our undergraduates research project regarding the effect of leadership style on job satisfaction with their corresponding influence on the marketability of the products and services of hotel and restaurant establishments. The study requires two groups of respondents, Supervisors and their subordinates who will rate the leadership style of their supervisor. In this connection, we would like to request your accurate and honest answers to the attach questionnaire. Please be assured that your answers will be held confidential. Thank you for your cooperation. Respectfully yours, EMMANUEL E. BIAGAN WADE L. MAGSOY MEDRIAN CHRISTOPHER JOHN V. ALBANIEL (Researchers)

LIST OF HOTEL AND RESTAURANT ESTABLISHMENTS IN ZAMBALES

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